This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Study of Globalization of Education
Mobility, internationalization of the business environment, economic growth, and increasing integration of economies has sparked a dramatic increase in international education during the past 40 years. Parents around the world increasingly seek an education that gives their children the ability to study at universities outside of their home countries and to earn degrees that are recognized by multi-national corporations. International secondary education is critical for young people who hope to compete in the global economy. Secondary schools across the globe are responding by offering internationally-recognized diplomas. These diplomas are predominately English-language based and strive to deliver a high level of academic rigor in a standardized manner that allows performance to be normed across populations and schools. International schools were first established across Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America during the second half of the 19th century. Schools were established and funded by nations or organizations with large expatriate communities abroad. The aim was to educate their children in their native language, to inculcate values and knowledge that corresponded to that of children in their countries of origin, and to prepare them academically to attend universities at home. (http://jyotirmay.org/international-school.html) These were typically boarding schools where children of foreign workers completed the curriculum of their respective home countries. Many of the international schools in the world were started by missions to educate the children of their missionaries and most still exist today, though they serve a different population. Children of host country elites were often allowed to attend, and many of these went on to attend
Swiss. The Cambridge Assessment was founded in 1858 to provide a common curriculum and testing for British schools and was used in British schools around the globe. For example. those run on the British system took the same examinations as students in Britain did. and other schools offering their home curricula. assessments. textbooks and teachers to ensure that they were coherent. German. Catholic schools tended to use the local curriculum or the Cambridge Assessment. increasing numbers of families from NGO’s.tr/) These international schools. did not require students to learn the language of their domicile country. In particular.universities abroad. International Educational Standards In the 1960’s. The first American international school was Roberts College in Turkey. with over 9000 schools in over 160 countries. and government agencies were having difficulty moving between international schools in different countries. though they had diverse student bodies. Two curricula dominated the international school scene through the 1960’s. For example. established in 1863. The American international schools used American. (http://portal. Graduates generally attended university in their home country where their high school diplomas were recognized and in their native language.robcol. American schools were accredited by American agencies and were staffed by American teachers as much as possible.k12. There were also French. They generally aimed to instill the ‘home country’ culture and academic content. moving between a British-based school and an American school was often difficult because the curricula were so different. Today. nor did they have an international perspective. non-British Seto 2 . they are the largest provider of international education programs and qualifications. international corporations.
Europeans could not easily matriculate into the universities of their home country from a British or American school. To this end the organization works with schools. The first seven schools to set the exams in 1968 were private international schools and included: the United World College of the Atlantic (Wales). Switzerland. Copenhagen International School. The IB mission statement demonstrates this commitment: “The International Baccalaureate aims to develop inquiring. Testing was standardized and moderated across the globe and in French. the United Nations International School in New York. Based on the educational philosophy of Kurt Hahn. The International Baccalaureate (IB) was developed to provide a single college preparatory program for internationally mobile students based on a common curriculum and set of external examinations.org/history/timeline/) The IB marked a turning point in international education because its curriculum was more international in scope and required that students gain a global perspective and appreciation of other cultures. and the United World College movement. it emphasized an experiential pedagogy that sought to promote peace and understanding between nations. the International College in Beirut. Responding to this need. knowledgeable and caring young people who help to create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect. English and Spanish. in 1968. the International Schools of Geneva. (Cambridge. founder of Gordonston School. governments and international organizations to develop challenging programmes of international education and rigorous assessment. (http://www. Iranzamin International School in Tehran and North Manchester High School for Girls in the UK. These programmes encourage students across the world to become active. Seto 3 .ibo. Outward Bound. the International Baccalaureate (IB) was founded in Geneva. 2002) Students were required to master a second language and the curriculum integrated international understanding into every subject.
compassionate and lifelong learners who understand that other people. the IB now has 3500 schools in 143 countries teaching one or more of its programs. it launched its Primary Years (PYP) and Middle Years (MYP) programs to expand into elementary and middle schools.K. From only a handful of schools in the 1970’s. (33%). with their differences. and Canada. Europe and the Middle East. In the late 1970s. In 1994. it is accepted at universities in 115 countries. China. including Lord Mountbatten. Seto 4 .S. Mexico and Spain have also adopted the IB in large numbers. Over the 44 years since it began. (http://ibo. it opened another in Buenos Aires and Singapore (based out of the United World College there). The table below shows where IB schools are concentrated. However. the IB has gained popularity around the world. French and Spanish and students can complete the diploma in any of these three languages.org/history/global/) Over 1000 of these only offer the programs for ages 3 to 16 rather than the diploma program. Out of the 2380 schools offering the diploma program. can also be right. it is also popular in other English-speaking countries (the U. at a rapid rate as schools aim to internationalize their curricula. it is being adopted by U. Today. and in London. IB World Schools have adopted the IB brand and are able to use the IB logo. Schools in India. John Goormaghtigh (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace) and Alec Peterson (Oxford University). serving the U. It was recognized early on as a rigorous academic program that prepared students to succeed in higher education. to serve Africa. Interestingly.S.org The IB quickly gained recognition by universities in the Europe because it was promoted by prominent European and American statesmen. it opened regional offices in New York. Its website is in English.” International Baccalaureate Organization ibo.S. In 1982. Canada and Australia). 781are in the U.
Country Total schools: total number of countries: Region IB World Schools 3.463 143 1.380 141 781 198 148 85 62 60 59 58 50 50 48 35 32 32 28 27 25 25 23 23 23 20 19 16 16 16 16 15 15 15 14 13 12 12 11 11 10 UNITED STATES UNITED KINGDOM CANADA INDIA AUSTRALIA SPAIN MEXICO CHINA GERMANY ECUADOR ARGENTINA SWITZERLAND SWEDEN POLAND COLOMBIA TURKEY HONG KONG PERU NORWAY CHILE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES INDONESIA SINGAPORE ITALY JAPAN NETHERLANDS THAILAND BRAZIL FINLAND DENMARK GREECE RUSSIAN FEDERATION PHILIPPINES MALAYSIA NEW ZEALAND FRANCE EGYPT NA AEM NA AP AP AEM LA AP AEM LA LA AEM AEM AEM LA AEM AP LA AEM LA AEM AP AP AEM AP AEM AP LA AEM AEM AEM AEM AP AP AP AEM AEM Seto 5 .367 204 321 96 146 61 93 69 54 51 49 41 40 35 29 35 45 27 30 27 24 37 27 25 24 18 18 19 18 15 14 18 14 12 19 11 11 PYP 949 97 322 13 60 40 79 7 46 24 20 6 7 15 10 3 9 11 25 8 7 8 9 26 17 13 14 3 6 8 3 1 2 5 3 3 12 2 4 MYP 973 89 461 11 151 11 43 9 26 21 8 8 2 11 9 6 8 6 8 7 8 5 4 11 6 5 7 11 4 2 5 1 1 8 2 2 1 1 2 DP 2.
org/facts/schoolstats/progsbycountry.uk/aboutcie/facts) Interestingly.S. available to schools outside of Britain. traditionally a British-centric curriculum. and the European Union. Private school numbers are 500 this year. Some British schools have moved away from the state-mandated GCSE towards the IGCSE. are recognized by universities around the world. In the UK.html) The Cambridge International Examinations (CIE) offers elementary through secondary programs and works with schools to develop bilingual programming through which students can study subjects in their first language.co. It therefore has more flexibility than the IB in terms of languages that it can be offered in. The IGCSE. The IGCSE is taken by 14 to 16 year olds in 2900 schools in 144 countries. which is considered more flexible because it is based on an exit exam rather than ongoing assessment.cie. the U.. sought to remove cultural bias and to broaden curricular scope to meet the growing demands for a highquality English language curriculum in schools globally. up from 200 in 2011 and 97 in 2010. up from 350 in 2011 and 302 in 2010.org.dailymail. including the U. the IGCSE has been gaining popularity within Britain itself. This international curriculum.Location of International Baccalaureate Schools 2011 –countries with 10 or more DP schools http://ibo. Its focus is on educational excellence and testing validation on a global scale rather than on developing global citizens. (http://www. 400 state schools now teach IGCSEs.cfm International Baccalaureate Schools 2011 The Cambridge International Examinations (CIE). Canada. responded to the increasing demand for international education by establishing the IGCSE in 1985.uk/news/article-2182937/Rise-IGCSE-Hundreds-state-schoolsGoves-tough-new-exam. along with the A and O level examinations. Its mission is: Seto 6 . (http://www.K.
including two different languages (English. German. (http://www. We are committed to extending access to the benefits of high-quality education around the globe. Chinese or Japanese) and a course with global content (Geography.collegeboard.” http://www.uk/aboutcie In the race to set the standard for international education. etc). Cambridge Examinations. To earn an APID. The AP exams are already recognized by universities in over 60 countries. To gain a share of the international education market beyond American schools serving expats. a student must earn a grade of 3 or higher in five subjects. and AP provide schools with a recognized brand to schools that generally operated in a local market. Our programmes and qualifications develop successful learners and support the economic performance of countries where we work at national level. The target markets for the APID are students studying abroad and American students who wish to attend a foreign university. the College Board.cie. agency that administers the Advanced Placement (AP) exams. French. Comp. The AP exams and the APID are recognized by the universities in over 60 countries. but the APID is an attempt to compete with the IB diploma by requiring a second language and some proof of proficiency in a course with an international perspective. Spanish. Branding of International Education The IB. Pol & Gov’t. Serving both children of mobile expatriates and Seto 7 . takes a distant third.html) The APID is only offered in English and the mission of the organization is focused on the excellence of College Board testing. World History.S. but they have yet to gain recognition as a secondary diploma standard similar to the IB or Cambridge exams.com/student/testing/ap/intad. the U.org.“Our mission is to deliver world-class international education through the provision of curricula. it has introduced the Advanced Placement International Diploma (APID). Italian. assessment and services.
Controlling the efficiency. which costs between $900 and $1200 per subject per teacher.org/become/fees/) In addition. the students themselves who are shaped by the philosophical underpinnings of the curricula. Annual authorization costs $10. Each diploma candidate pays a registration fee of $145 and $96 per examination (a diploma requires a minimum of six examinations). To become an IB school costs about $23. including an IB Coordinator and CAS Coordinator. 2002). This trend is sometimes referred to as ‘McDonaldization’ because schools operate as franchises. they mirror the way that businesses compete in the globalized market economy.000 in fees and accreditation visits. Schools use the IB or CIE brand to position themselves against national educational systems and the more traditional international school model (Cambridge. these curricula can be thought of as global because they are also available in schools around the world. IB programs require administration at the school level. teachers and governments who have a stake in education. predictability. and the universities. It also involves teachers in curriculum development. Textbooks Seto 8 . 2002) The High Price of the IB brand Purchasing the international education brand comes at a premium price. and quality control through standardized testing. The IB brand is gaining popularity against the Cambridge Examinations because of its focus on ‘internationalism growing out of one’s culture (and language) [that] is absent from the UCLES products’. something that the other two curricula do not do. (http://ibo. all teachers must receive IB training in their subject. (Cambridge. Additionally. however. There are multiple target markets for these educational brands: parents who seek a quality education for their children. delivering a predictable product while adapting to local conditions.000 per year for just one of its programs.local students.
and support materials must be purchased.html) For many schools around the globe. 43% of Asian IB students take the IB diploma abroad and then proceed to universities abroad. and a good IB teacher can command higher salaries. In addition. Canada or Singapore. assuming that it continues to manage its growth and market mix well. Seto 9 . UK. Australia. (http://truthaboutib. On the other hand. whether public or private schools. the IB has developed an internationallyrecognized brand that. will continue to attract schools with target markets of parents who want their children to attend university outside of their home country. 2010) Clearly. (Sharma. there is a shortage of IB teachers. In India. becoming an IB school is an expensive proposition.com/howmuchdoesibcost/ibfees. 70% of IB students leave for higher education in the US. the IB is increasingly seen as a way to prepare young people to join the global workforce.
org/international-school.d.k12. http://www.d.php?story=20100911064533640 Seto 10 .).d.). (n. (n.). (n. p. Global Product Branding and International Education.html.collegeboard.com/howmuchdoesibcost/ibfees. http://ibo.org/history/global/. http://truthaboutib.ibo.org.com/student/testing/ap/intad.html. (n.html.cie. http://www. (2010.co.). (n. J. Sept 12). Y. Journal of Research on International Education.). http://portal. (n.d. Retrieved from University World News: www.). (n. http://www.d. 227-243.d. (n.universityworldnews.uk/news/article-2182937/Rise-IGCSE-Hundreds-state-schools-Goves-toughnew-exam. http://jyotirmay.).d.).org/become/fees/. Asia" International bacc 'a global academic passport'. (2002).dailymail.html. http://www. (n.).uk/aboutcie/facts. Sharma.tr/.d. http://ibo.org/history/timeline/.com/article.robcol.BIBLIOGRAPHY Cambridge.d.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.