History

The History of Protestant Revolution
Preapared for Dr. Ashfaque Hossain Professor Course Instructor - History Prepared By: Rifat Azim – ZR 31 Rahat Khan – ZR 33 Saurav Das Deep – ZR 34 Ahnaf Zabee – ZR 35 Mrinmoy Kanti Das – ZR 36 Naimul Khalid Riaz – ZR 37 Sabbir Rashid – ZR 38 Nabila Jamal – ZR 39 Farwah Tasnim – ZR 40 BBA 18/A

Institute of Business Administration University of Dhaka
11/7/2012

................................... 5 Precursors to the Reformation ....... 9 Figure 1 Europe after Revolution ........................................................................................... 6 John Huss (1369–1415) .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7 Prominent figures in the Reformation ......................................................................................................................................................................1546) ................................................................................. 7 Martin Luther (1483 ...............................Contents Introduction . 7 Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531) ............................... 6 .............. 2 Background ............................ 8 Bibliography ............................................................... 8 Conclusion .................................................................. 6 John Wycliff(1330–84) .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3 Causes of the Protestant Reformation ................................................................................................................................................................................. His death lead to the Hussite Wars in Bohemia.......................................................................................................................... excommunicated in 1410.... and burned at the stake for heresy in 1415.. 7 A Bohemian priest.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4 Effects and Impacts of the Protestant Reformation ... 7 John Calvin (1509-64)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

many Germans started to believe that the church took advantage of them. people came to believe that they could literally buy their way into heaven with indulgences. During that period. but a German monk called Martin Luther. and nearly every country in the world. At the same time Popes bought and sold high offices – all these led to the increasing wealth of the Church. Over time. Its influence has spread from the workshops of the industrial revolution to the gleaming towers of the world. It was a project of liberating people. but the impact of it went far beyond religion. liberating them from false belief. It is a revolution which has dictated the very fabric of existence. Not a general or a philosopher. The ritual of the Church then meant very little to them. The Reformation was dominated by the figure of Martin Luther.to be Catholic or Protestant. Though this was an accidental revolution. that center around which every other aspect of his thoughts rotates. What seemed to be needed then was a general reform of the Christianity itself. Due to the fact that so many people were moving into cities. Luther was very much disenchanted by this kind of behavior of the Catholic Church officials. The common people. . and from arbitrary authority. the lavish home and palace of the church were noticed by more and more people from all walks of life. It started as an argument over theology nearly over 500 years ago-an argument that would split the Catholic Church and would witness the emergence of a new form of Christianity. Popes and other Church officials encouraged the sale of indulgences to raise money for many purposes. and a choice had to be made. the most revolutionary movement – was the Protestant Reformation. from false religion. It was the Reformation that forced people to make a choice . Popes used this power to defend and expand the church’s influence and wealth. Background The greatest event of the16th century. to who people vote for. Some Church officials held several offices at once and lived off their income. They needed some kind of guarantee that they would indeed be saved. The Roman Catholic Church was a major political power in the Western Europe. The theological and ideological core of Luther’s thinking is “the freedom of the Christian”. During that period Popes and bishops were acting more like king and princes than they were the spiritual guides of the European men and women. meanwhile. spiritual and immediate kind of religion – something that would touch them immediately in the heart. It was even possible to purchase them for the dead. It raises the concept of “freedom” or “liberty”. sought a more personal.Protestantism. This was an important choice. which they go to war with and how they see themselves as individuals and as nations.from what people do for a living. from 24/7 capitalism to current world politics. And it was all a product of an incredible revolutionary figure. The resulting Protestant Reformation changed the course of Western civilization.Introduction Protestant revolution is a revolution which has affected every person in the West.

The efforts of the self-described "reformers". They also view with great cynicism the practice of indulgences being sold. recognized mistakes in translation. (Treu. The Reformation began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church. 1991)) This along with 94 other issues were on a list Martin Luther nailed to the door of the cathedral in Wittenberg (the 95 thesis) which he proposed to debate over the a representative of the Pope. led to the creation of new national Protestant churches. Significantly. ( Medieval Life and Times. was written by Martin Luther in 1517 and is widely regarded as the initial catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. especially the sale of indulgences. such as the Black Death. Gutenberg and his associates invented a new method of copying books that didn't require the hand labor. ideas. 2012) .which eventually became the protestant reformation The Ninety-Five Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences (Latin: Disputatio pro declaratione virtutis indulgentiarum). The Black Death indirectly led to the Protestant Reformation. The furor over Luther's behavior. This led to his belief that the Pope must be able to make mistakes (which was against Roman Catholic teachings (Cameron. the Theses rejected the validity of indulgences (remissions of temporal punishment due for sins which have already been forgiven). This caused a rapid increase in publishing and spread of books at that time. and demanded more books to read. Martin Luther. The disputation protests against clerical abuses. who had learned to read the Bible in its original languages. and that Christians were being falsely told that they could find absolution through the purchase of indulgences. commonly known as The Ninety-Five Theses. 2003) The Reformation was catalyzed by earlier events within Europe. the mid 15thcentury invention of the printing press. The background to Luther's Ninety-Five Theses centers on practices within the Catholic Church regarding baptism and absolution. and the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire. more people learned to read. and simony (the selling and buying of clerical offices) — that the reformers saw as evidence of the systemic corruption of the Church's Roman hierarchy. The newly printed books led to a new interest in reading. rituals. The Black Death caused a shortage of clerics who had previously hand-copied books. it was movable type printing. and thus the penance for sin representing a financial transaction rather than genuine contrition. by priests who opposed what they perceived as false doctrines and ecclesiastic malpractice—especially the teaching and the sale of indulgences or the abuses thereof. which included the Pope. All these contributed to the creation of Protestantism. Luther's Theses argued that the sale of indulgences was a gross violation of the original intention of confession and penance.Causes of the Protestant Reformation The Protestant Reformation is believed to have been sparked by the 1517 posting of Luther's NinetyFive Theses. and objections (his protests) drew followers and powerful supporters . and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church. who objected to ("protested") the doctrines.

Protestantism gave people a new sense of coming to god without the mediation of the church and the priests. They can no longer say that because the church accepted their ideas that the rest of the community must do the same. the respective governments of different countries could no longer rely on paying off the church in order to get their way. . The Protestant Reformation and the creating of the Lutheran Church divided Christians and reshaped political and religious values in all of Europe.Effects and Impacts of the Protestant Reformation The protestant reformation had a significant impact over people’s life in all over Europe. The Lutheran religion was basically reproduction of the Catholic religion with a few key changes. After the Reformation. Europe became politically fragmented along religious lines. the thirty years’ war and the civil war in England. governments have had to address issues in a non-corrupt way. Violent religious wars occurred in France. Because of this reformation instead of changing the catholic practices a new religion was formed. The Lutherans did not accept any kind of indulgence or donation in order to become closer to God. 2012) Because of the reformation the unity of Europe as a Christian society was shattered. As a result Kings gained absolute control over their kingdoms. The churches began to draw the line on what is acceptable and what is not. people began to live a more holy life in all senses. Later on it also led to Anti-Authoritarianism resulting in contempt for the Medieval Feudal System and the power of the Feudal Lords and a preference for government by the people. Germany and Bohemia like the French wars of Religion. which includes the paying off of churches in order to make the issue they are dealing with socially acceptable. ( Medieval Life and Times. Since religion had much to do with the government and politics. Because of the vernacular translations made by the Lutheran churches people started to challenge the authority of the Catholic Churches and Popes as people had opportunity to read and interpret the scriptures for themselves. The reformation mainly attacked the beliefs and practices of the catholic churches.

Figure 1 Europe after Revolution Precursors to the Reformation John Wycliff(1330–84) He attacked what he saw as corruptions within the church. including: 1. Wycliffe also repudiated the doctrine of transubstantiation. The sale of indulgences Pilgrimages The excessive veneration of saints The low moral and intellectual standards of ordained priests. 3. held that the Bible was the sole standard of Christian doctrine. and argued that the authority of the Pope was not grounded in Scripture. . 4. 2.

2.1546) Martin Luther was a German monk and teacher of theology. Zwingli believed that: 1. 4. Diet of Worms: In 1520 Pope Leo X ordered Luther to give up his beliefs. The Mass was replaced by a simpler communion service. 3. On October 31. 1959) Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531) Swiss theologian and leader of early Reformation movements in Switzerland. rather than any ecclesiastical official. In 1518. His death lead to the Hussite Wars in Bohemia. Priests and monks were released from their vows of celibacy. The Bible was the sole source of moral authority. 2001) . he translated New Testament into German. Believed in predestination 2. is the true head of the church. Ceremonial processions and the adoration of the saints were abolished. excommunicated in 1410. Everything in the Roman Catholic system not specifically prescribed in the Scriptures should be eliminated. Argued that Christ. Prominent figures in the Reformation Martin Luther (1483 . he vigorously denounced the sale of indulgences. Luther burned the order in front of a cheering crowd and was excommunicated by Leo X. and burned at the stake for heresy in 1415. 2.John Huss (1369–1415) A Bohemian priest. 1517 he nailed his 95 theses onto the door of Castle Church at Wittenberg. (Chadwick. (Plass. Religious relics were burned. Regarded the Bible as the ultimate religious authority 3. Under Zwingli's leadership: 1. making it possible for more people to read the Bible. 1. These theses were Latin propositions opposing the manner in which indulgences (release from the temporal penalties for sin through the payment of money) were being sold in order to raise money for the building of Saint Peter's in Rome.

3. in the eyes of many historians. the Scientific Revolution. (Mcgrath. The disruption triggered wars. was the central means to discern God’s word — a view that was certain to raise eyebrows in Rome. modern democracy. All citizens were provided with at least an elementary education so that they might read and understand the Bible. A weakening of the old order was already under way in Northern Europe. In 1517. finding a new faith. the Catholic Church’s delayed but forceful response to the Protestants. In Northern and central Europe. Geneva was. but later was used to describe all groups protesting Roman Catholic orthodoxy. Its religious aspects were supplemented by ambitious political rulers who wanted to extend their power and control at the expense of the Church. . The Protestant Reformation was the 16th century European movement aimed initially at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. a German Augustinian monk. Nonconformists were persecuted and even put to death. Despite the wishes and actions of some old church governments and the Pope. as evidenced by the emergence of thriving new cities and a determined middle class. not the pope. persecutions and the CounterReformation. essentially a theocracy. Card playing. That act was common academic practice of the day and served as an invitation to debate. Luther’s propositions challenged some portions of Roman Catholic doctrine and a number of specific practices. as an entirely new layer division was added to the established order. good works and the sacraments were not necessary in order to be saved. The Reformation ended the unity imposed by medieval Christianity and. Dress and behavior were subject to minute details of regulation.John Calvin (1509-64) Calvin was a French Protestant theologian who fled religious persecution in France and settled in Geneva in 1536. Capitalism. under Calvin. and troubles. 1990) Conclusion The Protestant Reformation has been credited with a powerful influence on many aspects of modern life. posted 95 theses on the church door in the university town of Wittenberg. Luther argued that the Bible. and Dicing. The congregational singing of the Psalms as part of church worship. Martin Luther. signaled the beginning of the modern era. Forbidden activities included: Dancing. People were affected at both a personal. and spiritual level. Along with the religious consequences came deep and lasting political changes. of the Reformation remain to this day. John Calvin challenged the papal authority and questioned the Catholic Church’s ability to define Christian practice. as well as the socio-political one. 2. Luther maintained that justification (salvation) was granted by faith alone. all have been seen as having their roots in the Reformation. reformers like Martin Luther. The excommunication of egregious sinners. Less innocuous activities such as blasphemy were subjected to the most severe punishments. Protestantism established itself permanently in Europe. Further. The consequences. The enforcement of a strict moral discipline in the community by the pastors and members of the church. Insisted on reforms including: 1. The term Protestant was not initially applied to the reformers.

O. Oxford: Oxford University Press. E. A. The European Reformation. M. Retrieved from http://www. Martin Luther in Wittenberg: a biographical tour. (1991). (2003). What Luther Says: An Anthology. (2012.htm Cameron. (1959). E. Plass. (1990). (2001). November 5). M. St Louis: Concordia Publishing House. Mcgrath. The Early Reformation on the Continent. . Treu. Wittenberg: Saxon-Anhalt Luther Memorial Foundation.Bibliography Medieval Life and Times.medieval-life-andtimes.info/medieval-religion/protestant-reformation. A Life of John Calvin. Chadwick. E. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.