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THE EFFECT OF TOTAL SERVICE QUALITY AND PRIVATE UNIVERSITY IMAGE TOWARDS SATISFACTION AND UNIVERSITY STUDENT LOYALTY

Feliks Anggia B.K.Pa, Hotman Panjaitan b, Sigit Sardjonoc


17 Agustus 1945 University, Surabaya, Indonesia, felikscp23@gmail.com, hotman_pp@yahoo.com, c sardjonosigit@yahoo.co.id Public Reform for Good Government GovernanceA4-PFM Conference. Surabaya, Indonesia, November 13th-14th 2012
a b

Abstract
At a very high competitive conditions, companies are oriented on customer satisfaction alone is no longer reliable as a competitive advantage because the company has another party to do the same. Therefore, management must emphasize commitment to achieve the goal that gave a positive value on the image / corporate image and grow customer loyalty. Company needs to to measure the level of consumer satisfaction, in order to quickly find out what things of the products or services that make the consumer is not satisfied, and then find a solution so that consumers still have a sense of loyalty to the company. A research on "why customers run" found that most customers are running due to "nonchalance of manufacturers' This research uses multilevel analysis with structural equation models that describe causal relationships between total quality service (TQS) toward university image, university students satisfaction, and private university students loyalty in east java By using proportional random sampling techniques, analysis structural equation modeling analysis and the support from software AMOS 20, on sample of 250 students from 10 private universities in East Java. The analysis shows that there is no contradiction between the data that has been processed with a model that has been used, and the research model is a model that appropriately describes the loyalty of private university students. Empirical studies indicate that: TQS significant and positive effect on the image of the University. TQS significant and positive effect on University Students satisfaction at Private University. The image of university significant and positive effect on university students satisfaction at Private University. The image of the university significant and positive effect on university students loyalty at Private University. University students satisfaction is a significant and positive influence on university students loyalty at Private University. Cases in this research showed that customer loyalty will be obtained by satisfying customers, which can be done by implementing a total quality service, innovative and sustainable.
Key words: total quality service, university image, satisfaction, loyalty.

1. Introduction
The competitiveness of a nation is now less rely more on natural resources and cheap labor force, but increasingly depends on the knowledge possessed and mastered by a nation Today the world is facing a tough challenge that the convergence of the various impacts of globalization, this means that the growing importance of knowledge as a key driver for a nation. Quality assurance in higher education today has become a global issue, conducted through two pathways, internal and external (Nadjadji, 2006). Internally pursued through competence of graduates determination, the curriculum, the final, faculty, facilities and infrastructure, administrative services, laboratories, libraries, in synergy. External quality assurance gather input by experts, stakeholders, user comments and media attention, involving the community in the works, and assesses university products In conditions of high competition, university (campus) oriented to the satisfaction alone can no longer be relied upon as a competitive advantage because the other campuses have done the same. Therefore, the management should emphasize commitment towards achieving the goal that gives a positive value to the corporate image and fostering customer loyalty. Campus needs to perform the measurement of consumer satisfaction, to immediately know 1

Feliks Anggia, Hotman Panjaitan, Sigit Sardjono / The Effect Of Total Service Quality And Private University Image Towards Satisfaction And University Student Loyalty

what things of the product or service that makes consumers are not satisfied and then find a solution that consumers continues to have a feeling of loyalty to the company. A research on "why customers fled" found that the majority of consumers fled because of "regardless attitude of manufacturers (Kotler, 2000). At present, the company changed its focus from product orientation to marketing orientation (Engel et al., 1994). As admitted by some marketing experts, the marketing trend will shift to the relational approach by focusing on meeting the needs, satisfaction and customer delight. This means that after the transaction is completed, then the consumer is not left alone, but how companies can create a good relationship with the customer (customer relationship) continuous (sustainable), to understand exactly what the customer wants. Similarly, university, since accepted as a student and then follow the teaching and learning process and eventually graduated with a degree, a good relationship between the almamater alumni are expected to remain well maintained, so that the name will remain awake fragrant almamater The increase demands of customers for quality service, forcing the company to make efforts in particular through management approach in order to have a competitive advantage. One management approach that can encourage a culture of quality service is the approach of total quality service. Service quality will be realized through the commitment of management, product improvement, process improvement, human resources, responses to customer and economic advantages. Based on what has been presented, the research problem can be defined as follows: a. Is total quality service affects the image of Private Universities in East Java? b. Is total quality service affects student satisfaction of Private Universities in East Java? c. Is the image of Private Universities affects student satisfaction of Private Universities in East Java? d. Is the image of Private Universities affects student satisfaction of Private Universities in East Java? e. Is student satisfaction affects student loyalty of Private Universities in East Java?. Based on the research question the purpose of this research was to analyze and prove: a. Total quality service affects the image of Private Universities in East Java b. Total quality service affects student satisfaction of Private Universities in East Java c. The image of Private Universities affects student satisfaction of Private Universities in East Java d. The image of Private Universities affects student satisfaction of Private Universities in East Java e. Student Satisfaction affects student loyalty of Private Universities in East Java

2. Method
Total quality service is a strategic and integrated management system that involves all managers and employees, as well as using the methods of qualitative and quantitative for continuously improving organizational processes, in order to meet or exceed the needs, wants and expectations of customers (Stamatis, 1996). The image is an impression, a feeling or a concept that is in the public about an object, person or agency. The image can not be printed, but the impression that image is obtained in accordance with one's knowledge and understanding about something. The image is made up of how the company conducts its operations, which have a major cornerstone in terms of services. A good image is a powerful device that is not only to attract consumers to choose the product or service, but also can improve the attitudes and customer satisfaction with the company (Engel, 1995). Customer satisfaction is a post-purchase evaluation in which the perception of the performance of alternative products or services that are selected to meet or exceed expectations. Customer satisfaction has become a central concept in the theory and practice of marketing and is one of the essential purpose for the business activity. Contribute to a number of crucial aspects, such as the creation of loyalty, enhanced reputation of the company, reduced price elasticity, reduced transaction costs, and increased efficiency and employee productivity. According Schnaars (1998), There are four types of possible relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, namely: Failures, forced loyalty, defector, and success.

Feliks Anggia, Hotman Panjaitan, Sigit Sardjono / The Effect Of Total Service Quality And Private University Image Towards Satisfaction And University Student Loyalty

Based on the theoretical research and opinion, the research proposed a conceptual model that serves as a guide to make it easier to understand the logic. Conceptual model of the proposed research is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Conceptual Model Research. Research hypothesis Based on the research question, research objectives, and concept models that have been presented previously, the research hypothesis is structured as follows a. Total quality services have significant positive effect on image of Private Universities institutions in East Java b. Total quality services have a significant positive effect on student satisfaction of Private Universities in East Java. c. The image of university have a significant positive effect on student satisfaction of Private Universities in East Java. d. The image of university have a significant positive effect on student loyalty of Private Universities in East Java e. Student satisfaction have a significant positive effect on student loyalty of Private Universities in East Java. Research Design This research is an explanatory research, which will be explored causal relationships between variables through hypothesis testing predetermined. Explanatory Research set of circumstances in which a phenomenon could be detected and explained but it is necessary to research more in depth why a phenomenon occurs and how a phenomenon occurs. The main method of research is the survey, which was conducted by taking a sample of the population using the questionnaire as the main data collection tool Population and Sample The research population was all students of Private Universities (PU) in East Java. Based on the population of the predetermined number of samples taken was 250 respondents from 10 (PU) Superior. Estimate used is the Generalized Least Square Estimation (GLS) were determined by using a reference (Hair et al., 1998). Operational Definition of Variables 1. Total quality service is a strategic and integrated management system that involves all managers and employees. To measure this variable used indicators: Response Commitment from management, Product Improvement, Process Improvement, Human Resource Excellent, Customer Orientation Response and Economics Advantage (Stamatis, 1996; Gaspersz, 2002) 2. The image is meant The Corporate Image that is formed based on impressions, knowledge experienced by the students of the private universitys in East Java. To measure the image used indicator variables: Academic reputation, university appearance, and future career (Engel et al., 1995). 3. Satisfaction is meant the degree of feelings after comparing performance against the expectation that he felt he had accomplished. To measure these variables are used:

Feliks Anggia, Hotman Panjaitan, Sigit Sardjono / The Effect Of Total Service Quality And Private University Image Towards Satisfaction And University Student Loyalty

disconfirmation, satisfaction information, and overall satisfaction (Anderson, 1994: Fornell, 1996). 4. Loyalty wan meant the Student Loyalty, a loyal behavior and sense of complacency arising from the products or services of university, the barriers to the transfer, and good handling of the complaint given by the students of the university. To measure this variable used indicators: Cognitive, affective, and conative (Dick, 1994; Swastha, 1999). Research Instrument The research instrument is a questionnaire, which the questionnaire was composed of two parts: (1). Data on personal identity of respondents. (2). Data related to all the variables of this research. Measurements for each variable in the form of scoring according to a Likert scale, where the number 1 indicates the lowest value (strongly disagree), and a score of 5 indicates the highest value (strongly agree).

3. Discussion
Validity and Reliability Test A measuring instrument can be said to have high validity when the device measurement results relevant to the purpose of the measurement. Validity of the test results in this research obtain product moment correlation coefficients greater than 0.3 in all the item in question, this means that each item queries in instruments have accuracy and neatness in its Survey function (valid). Results of reliability testing produced Cronbach alpha coefficients get better results than 0.7 in all dimensions of the variables measured, the instrument proved to have acceptable reliability, are presented in Table 1 (Hair et al., 1998). Table 1. Instrument Reliability Test Results Variables Total Quality Service Aspects / dimensions Commitment Response Product Improvement Process mprovement Customer Orientation Response Human Resource Excelent Economics Advantage Academic Reputation university Appearance Future career Disconfirmation Satisfaction Information Overall Satisfaction Cognitive Affective Conative Coefficient lpha 0.851 0.895 0.891 0.911 0.913 0.912 0.857 0.869 0.882 0.829 0.869 0.770 0.862 0.868 0.911 Expl. Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable

Image

Satisfaction

Loyalty

Research Model Structure Research model is created, analyzed by structural equation model, using the software AMOS 20. Based on theoretical considerations in this research, the modification indices for the model with a modification index continued to assert that it will not change the outcome of causality (parameters) significantly.

Feliks Anggia, Hotman Panjaitan, Sigit Sardjono / The Effect Of Total Service Quality And Private University Image Towards Satisfaction And University Student Loyalty

Figure 2. Research Model Structure Suitability Model Test This test is conducted to see whether the developed model suiteable (fit) with the available data. The results of data processing by using the sample of 250 indicates the level of significance to test the above hypotheses is 107.480 differences with probability 0.083. This indicates that there is no difference between the sample covariance matrix and the population covariance matrix, so that the null hypothesis is accepted. Meanwhile, the value of GFI, AGFI, TLI, CFI, RMSEA and Cmin / DF respectively 0.932, 0.894, 0.975, 0.952, 0.145 and 1.320 all of which are in the range of expected values so that the model can be accepted Table 2. Table 2. Goodness of Fit Index Test Results Goodness of Fit Cut-off Test Expl. Index Value Model Result 107.480 Good 2 / Chi-Square Probability 0.083 Good 0.05 GFI 0.932 Good 0.90 AGFI 0.894 Good 0.90 TLI 0.975 Good 0.95 CFI 0.952 Good 0.95 1.320 Good Relative 2 2.00 Testing parameters To determine the causal relationship between each of the variables, test conducted the null hypothesis that says that the regression coefficient is equal to zero interrelationships through t tests in regression models. Table 3. Final Estimation Parameter Model
Regression Weights IMAGE SATISFACTION SATISFACTION LOYALTY LOYALTY TOT. QUA. SERVICE TOT. QUA. SERVICE IMAGE IMAGE SATISFACTION Standardized Estimate .377 .391 .230 .283 .344 Estimate .386 .390 .225 .288 .359 C.R. 4.553 4.434 2.983 3.801 3.971 Prob 0.00 0.00 .003 0.00 0.00

Feliks Anggia, Hotman Panjaitan, Sigit Sardjono / The Effect Of Total Service Quality And Private University Image Towards Satisfaction And University Student Loyalty

By considering the parameter estimation results in Table 3, it is known that the critical ratio (CR) which is identical to the t test in the regression analysis shows that all the regression coefficients are significantly different from zero. Thus the null hypothesis that the regression coefficient is equal to zero can be rejected or accepted alternative hypotheses. Causality in the model is acceptable. Hypothesis testing There is a direct effect of service quality on the image of university total of 0.377. This means total quality service that has been implemented private university in East Java, will improve the image of university directly at 37.7%. This means that hypothesis 1 is accepted. There is a direct effect of total quality service to the satisfaction of 0.391 students. This means total quality service that has been implemented private university in East Java, will directly increase student satisfaction at 39.1%. This means that hypothesis 2 accepted There is a direct effect of image university for student satisfaction by 0.230. That is a good image of the private universities in East Java, can directly increase student satisfaction at 23.0%. This means that hypothesis 3 is accepted. There is a direct effect of image university of the private university student loyalty of 0.283. That is image the private university campus in East Java, can improve student loyalty directly at 28.3%. This means that hypothesis 4 is accepted. There is a direct effect of satisfaction on loyalty student private university students at 0.344. This means that private university student satisfaction in East Java, to increase the loyalty of students directly by 34.4%. This means that hypothesis 5 is accepted. Effect of Total Quality Services to the The image of Private Universities The results of this research showed a direct correlation between the total quality service with image service of universities, the findings from the field indicate that the individual approach taken the university as an interpersonal service efforts undertaken (customer focus), including a good relationship and cooperation between the university, business and industry, as well as the suitability of the curriculum with the level of expertise required of business and industry, proven to improve imaging for university. The results of this research are supported by the results of a research of Panjaitan (2005), which states that the form factor is image the university academic reputation, career and future university appearance, where the dominant factor in shaping the corporate image is career of the future. This reinforces the notion that academic reputation owned universities will impact positively on the future of students. Affect the image quality of service total university, which suggests that if the university has a focus on customer service quality is high, then the image university going up. Effect of Total Quality Services Towards Consumer Satisfaction of Private Universities The results of this research showed a direct relationship between total quality service towards student satisfaction, and therefore as an alternative effort to increase student satisfaction, can be done by improving the quality of total quality service focused on the customer, including the ability of of Private Universities to provide the promised services immediately, accurate and satisfactory. Focus on willingness to help students and give proper attention immediately. Focus on employees in aspects of the knowledge, competence, courtesy, and properties that can be trusted so that students be sure to register and attend classes. Actively focus their efforts on the university to make it easy to build relationships, attention to diverse individuals, university students understand the condition, and able to meet the diverse needs of students. The research also found a direct relationship is not sufficient between the variables of service quality with variable total loyalty through student satisfaction variables and variable image university (0.271). This suggests that consumer loyalty as university students will increase with the total quality of service is good, and the good image of private universitys. This research in line with the research Parves Masud (2005); Parasuraman et al., (1997) which states that the focus on the customer is a critical factor in determining customer satisfaction. Effect of The University Image Towards Consumer Satisfaction of Private Universities The results showed that, the success of Private Universities in East Java in University image building contributes directly to increased customer satisfaction private universitys. This

Feliks Anggia, Hotman Panjaitan, Sigit Sardjono / The Effect Of Total Service Quality And Private University Image Towards Satisfaction And University Student Loyalty

probably happened because it was the maximum the university implement total quality service, therefore the universities in order to encourage more serious conduct and improve total quality service to consumers, so that image universities that have a direct ascend to customer satisfaction. With the rising image in the eyes of university students will cause a rise in university student satisfaction. The results of this research in line with the results of research Utari (2004), which states that the company's image affects customer satisfaction. Effect of The University Image Towards Student Loyalty The results showed that University Image have positive and significantly effect on student loyalty. Thus, image enhancement universitys will provide a positive affect on increasing the value of student loyalty. On the other hand image the university is strongly influenced by the quality of the service total. college Therefore, it is necessary to make efforts in improving the quality of services in total, by continuously improving the performance of the service, to suit the expectations of students, due to the high total quality service, will raise the university image as a springboard to increase customer loyalty. The field survey shows image of private universities have achieved the good, the average seen from the level of public recognition of the quality of graduates through curriculum suitability and skills needed World of Business and Industry is to know when students are doing practical work or job training, as well as the increasing number of graduates can be absorbed in the world of business and industry. The results of this research support results and in line with the research of Nha Nguyen and Gaston Le Blance (1998), Utari (2004), which states that corporate The image has a significant effect on loyalty. Effects Students Satisfaction Towards Student loyalty of Private Universities Students satisfaction gave a significant positive influence on student loyalty. The existence of this influence explained that, increasing student satisfaction give effect to the increasing the value of student loyalty. This is presumably related to the value of customer satisfaction due to total quality service that has been implemented college, perceived the value and magnitude of consumer expectations for private university in East Java is very good. Therefore, to improve and maintain the value of customer loyalty to remain high, the university or have to consistently maintain the value of this satisfaction by implementing total quality service, and make improvements and innovations to the presence of total quality care as exogenous, which pushes up the value of satisfaction, which further encourage increased student loyalty. Because customer loyalty is an endogenous variable, then the improvement must start from the total quality of service. The results of this research support results and in line with the research of Feliks and Panjaitan, Hotman (2012), which states that satisfaction has a significant effect on loyalty.

4. Conclusions
Based on the analysis and research hypotheses test that have been conducted previously it can be concluded as follows: a. Total quality service significantly and positively affect towards image of Private Universities in East Java, this shows that by implementing good total quality service, thus will encourage the increase of University Image. b. Total quality service significantly and positively affect towards Private Universities Students Satisfaction in East Java, this shows that by implementing good total quality service, thus will encourage the increase university customer satisfaction. c. University Image significantly and positively effect towards Private University Students Satisfaction in East Java. d. University Image significantly and positively effect towards Private University Students Loyalty in East Java, , this shows that by the increase of Image University, thus will encourage the increase of University Customer Satisfaction. e. Students Satisfaction significantly and positively effect towards Private University Students Loyalty in East Java as University Customer, thus will encourage the increase on University Loyal Customer.

Feliks Anggia, Hotman Panjaitan, Sigit Sardjono / The Effect Of Total Service Quality And Private University Image Towards Satisfaction And University Student Loyalty

5. References
Anderson, E.W., C. Fornell and R.R. Lehmann. (1994). Customer Satisfaction, Market Share, and Profitability: Findings from Sweden, Journal of Marketing , Vol. 58, No. 1 (January), pp. 53-66. Cronin Jr., J. Joseph , and G.T.M. Hult. (2000). Assessing the Effect of Quality, Value, and Customer Satisfaction on Consumer Behavioral Intentions in Service Environments, Journal of Retailing, Vol.76, N0. 2, pp. 193-218. Dick, Alan S and Kunal Basu. (1994). Customer Loyalty: Toward an Integrated Conceptual Framework, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 22, No. 2, p. 99-113. Engel, James, Roger D Blackwell & Paul W. Miniard. (1995). Consumer Behaviour, Eight Edition, The Dryden Press, Forth Worth. Fornell. C. (1996). The American Customer Satisfaction Index (ASCI) Model: Nature, Purpose and Finding, Journal Of Marketing, Vol. 60, October, pp. 7-18. Gaspersz, Vincent. (2002). Total Quality Management, Cetakan kedua, PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta. Hair Jr., Joseph F., Rolph E. Anderson, Ronald L. Tatham and William C. Black. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis with Readings, Third ed., Macmillan Publishing Company, New York. Kotler, Philip. (2000). Marketing Management, Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control, Nine Edition, Prentice Hall International, Inc., New Jersey. Nadjadji, Anwar. (2006). PTS Jatim Mengarungi Perubahan, Cetakan Pertama, Penerbit Koordinator Perguruan Tinggi Swasta Wilayah VII Jawa Timur, Surabaya. Nguyen, Nha and Guston Leblanc. (2000). Contact Personal, Physical Environment and The Perceived Corporate Image of Intangible Services by New Clients, International Journal of Services Management, Vol.13, No.3, MCB UP Limited. Panjaitan, Hotman. (2005). Effect of Information Technology System towards Corporate Image Service and Customer Responses on Private University in East Java, Dissertation, Postgraduate Program 17 Agustus 1945 University Surabaya Parasuraman A., Berry, Leonard L. (1997). Listening to The Customer: The Concept of a Service Quality Information System Sloan Management Review, Spring, pp.65-76. Parves, Masud. (2005). Kualitas Layanan, Kepercayaan dan Biaya Berpindah Layanan Terhadap Kepuasan dan Loyalitas Pelanggan. Stamatis, D.H. (1996). Total Quality Service: Principles, Practices & Implementation. Singapore: SSMB Publishing Division. Utari, Woro. (2004). Pengaruh Kualitas Layanan, Perbaikan Layanan, Harga, dan Image Perusahaan terhadap Kepuasan Pelanggan dan Loyalitas Pelanggan pada jasa Penerbangan Route Surabaya-Jakarta, Disertasi Zeithaml, Valarie A. (1998). Consumer Perceptions of Price, Quality and Value: A Means-End Model and Synthesis of Evidence, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 2-22. Feliks and Panjaitan, Hotman. (2012). The Effects Of Customer Relationship Management And Service Quality Towards Customer Loyalty Through Customer Satisfaction, Proceeding, International Conference on Sustainable development (ICSD), Bali, Indonesia, March, 6 2012. pp. 159-175.

Feliks Anggia, Hotman Panjaitan, Sigit Sardjono / The Effect Of Total Service Quality And Private University Image Towards Satisfaction And University Student Loyalty

THE EFFECT OF TOTAL SERVICE QUALITY AND PRIVATE UNIVERSITY IMAGE TOWARDS SATISFACTION AND UNIVERSITY STUDENT LOYALTY
Feliks Anggia B.K.Pa, Hotman Panjaitan b, Sigit Sardjonoc
a

Universitas 17 Agustus 1945 Surabaya, felikscp23@gmail.com, hotman_pp@yahoo.com, sardjonosigit@yahoo.co.id Public Reform for Good Government GovernanceA4-PFM Conference. Surabaya, Indonesia, November 13th-14th 2012

Abstract
At a very high competitive conditions, companies are oriented on customer satisfaction alone is no longer reliable as a competitive advantage because the company has another party to do the same. Therefore, management must emphasize commitment to achieve the goal that gave a positive value on the image / corporate image and grow customer loyalty. Company needs to to measure the level of consumer satisfaction, in order to quickly find out what things of the products or services that make the consumer is not satisfied, and then find a solution so that consumers still have a sense of loyalty to the company. A research on "why customers run" found that most customers are running due to "nonchalance of manufacturers' This study uses multilevel analysis with structural equation models that describe causal relationships between total quality service (TQS) toward university image, university students satisfaction, and private university students loyalty in east java By using proportional random sampling techniques, analysis structural equation modeling analysis and the support from software AMOS 20, on sample of 250 students from 10 private universities in East Java. The analysis shows that there is no contradiction between the data that has been processed with a model that has been used, and the research model is a model that appropriately describes the loyalty of private college students. Empirical studies indicate that: TQS significant and positive effect on the image of the University. TQS significant and positive effect on University Students satisfaction at Private University. The image of university significant and positive effect on university students satisfaction at Private University. The image of the university significant and positive effect on university students loyalty at Private University. University students satisfaction is a significant and positive influence on university students loyalty at Private University. Cases in this study showed that customer loyalty will be obtained by satisfying customers, which can be done by implementing a total quality service, innovative and sustainable.
Key words: total quality service, university image, satisfaction, loyalty.

1. Introduction
Dewasa ini dunia sedang menghadapi tantangan berat yang merupakan konvergensi dari berbagai dampak globalisasi, ini berarti semakin pentingnya pengetahuan sebagai pendorong utama bagi suatu bangsa. Daya saing suatu bangsa saat ini semakin tidak bergantung lagi pada kekayaan sumber daya alam dan tenaga kerja yang murah, akan tetapi semakin bergantung pada pengetahuan yang dimiliki dan dikuasai oleh suatu bangsa. Penjaminan mutu pendidikan tinggi saat ini sudah menjadi isu global, dilakukan lewat dua jalur, intern dan eksternal (Nadjadji, 2006). Secara intern ditempuh melalui penetapan kompetensi lulusan, kurikulum, tugas akhir, staf pengajar, sarana dan prasarana, pelayanan administrasi, laboratorium, perpustakaan, yang saling bersinergi. Penjaminan mutu secara eksternal dengan cara menghimpun masukan para pakar, stakeholders, memperhatikan komentar pengguna dan media, melibatkan masyarakat dalam berkarya, serta memberikan penilaian produk-produk perguruan tinggi. Pada kondisi persaingan yang sangat tinggi, perguruan tinggi (perguruan tinggi) yang berorientasi pada kepuasan saja tidak lagi dapat diandalkan sebagai keunggulan bersaing karena perguruan tinggi lainpun telah melakukan hal yang sama. Oleh karena itu, pihak

Feliks Anggia, Hotman Panjaitan, Sigit Sardjono / The Effect Of Total Service Quality And Private University Image Towards Satisfaction And University Student Loyalty

manajemen harus mempertegas komitmen dalam mencapai arah tujuannya sehingga memberikan nilai positip terhadap image corporate dan menumbuhkan loyalitas dari customer. Perguruan tinggi perlu melakukan pengukuran tingkat kepuasan konsumennya, agar segera mengetahui hal-hal apa dari produk atau jasanya yang membuat konsumen tidak puas dan selanjutnya menemukan solusi agar konsumen tetap mempunyai perasaan loyal terhadap perusahaan. Suatu penelitian mengenai mengapa konsumen lari menemukan kenyataan bahwa sebagian besar konsumen lari disebabkan karena sikap tidak perduli dari produsen (Kotler, 2000). Saat ini, fokus perusahaan berubah dari orientasi produk ke orientasi pemasaran (Engel et al., 1994). Seperti diakui oleh beberapa pakar pemasaran, bahwa trend pemasaran akan bergeser ke pendekatan relasional dengan berfokus pada pemenuhan kebutuhan, kepuasan dan kesenangan pelanggan. Artinya bahwa setelah transaksi selesai dilakukan, konsumen tidak lalu dibiarkan begitu saja, akan tetapi bagaimana perusahaan dapat menciptakan hubungan baik dengan pelanggan (customer relationship) yang berkesinambungan (sustainable), dengan memahami apa yang sebenarnya diinginkan oleh pelanggan. Demikian juga halnya dengan perguruan tinggi, sejak diterima sebagai mahasiswa kemudian mengikuti proses belajar mengajar dan akhirnya lulus sebagai sarjana, hubungan baik antara alumni dengan almamater diharapkan tetap terjalin dengan baik, sehingga nama harum almamater akan tetap terjaga. Meningkatnya tuntutan pelanggan terhadap pelayanan yang berkualitas, memaksa perusahaan melakukan upaya-upaya khusus melalui pendekatan manajemen agar memiliki keunggulan bersaing. Salah satu pendekatan manajemen yang dapat mendorong timbulnya budaya layanan yang bermutu adalah pendekatan total quality Service. Layanan yang bermutu akan dapat diwujudkan melalui komitmen dari manajemen, perbaikan produk, perbaikan proses, kemampuan sumber daya manusia, tanggapan kepada pelanggan dan keunggulan ekonomis. Berdasarkan hal yang telah dikemukakan, maka masalah penelitian ini dapat dirumuskan sebagai berikut: a. Apakah layanan kualitas total berpengaruh terhadap citra Perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur?. b. Apakah layanan kualitas total berpengaruh terhadap kepuasan mahasiswa Perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur?. c. Apakah citra berpengaruh terhadap kepuasan mahasiswa Perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur?. d. Apakah citra berpengaruh terhadap loyalitas mahasiswa Perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur?. e. Apakah kepuasan berpengaruh terhadap loyalitas mahasiswa Perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur?. Berdasarkan rumusan masalah maka tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis

dan membuktikan:
a. Pengaruh layanan kualitas total terhadap citra Perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur. b. Pengaruh layanan kualitas total terhadap kepuasan mahasiswa Perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur. c. Pengaruh citra terhadap kepuasan mahasiswa Perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur. d. Pengaruh citra terhadap loyalitas mahasiswa Perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur. e. Pengaruh kepuasan mahasiswa terhadap loyalitas mahasiswa Perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur.

2. Method
Total quality service adalah sistem manajemen strategik dan integratif yang melibatkan semua manajer dan karyawan, serta menggunakan metode-metode kulitatif dan kuantitatif untuk memperbaiki secara berkesinambungan proses-proses organisasi, agar dapat memenuhi bahkan melebihi kebutuhan, keinginan, dan harapan pelanggan (Stamatis, 1996). Citra adalah kesan, perasaan atau konsepsi yang ada pada publik mengenai suatu obyek, orang atau lembaga. Citra tidak dapat dicetak, akan tetapi citra adalah kesan yang diperoleh sesuai dengan pengetahuan dan pemahaman seseorang tentang sesuatu. Citra

Feliks Anggia, Hotman Panjaitan, Sigit Sardjono / The Effect Of Total Service Quality And Private University Image Towards Satisfaction And University Student Loyalty

terbentuk dari bagaimana perusahaan melaksanakan kegiatan operasionalnya, yang mempunyai landasan utama pada segi layanan. Citra yang baik merupakan perangkat yang kuat bukan hanya untuk menarik konsumen untuk memilih produk atau jasa perusahaan, melainkan juga dapat memperbaiki sikap dan kepuasan konsumen terhadap perusahaan Engel, 1995) . Kepuasan pelanggan adalah evaluasi pasca pembelian dimana persepsi terhadap kinerja dari alternatif produk atau jasa yang dipilih memenuhi atau melebihi harapan. Kepuasan pelanggan telah menjadi konsep sentral dalam teori dan praktik pemasaran dan merupakan salah satu tujuan yang esensial bagi aktivitas bisnis. Berkontribusi pada sejumlah aspek krusial, seperti terciptanya loyalitas, meningkatnya reputasi perusahaan, berkurangnya elastisitas harga, berkurangnya biaya transaksi, dan meningkatnya efisiensi dan poduktivitas karyawan. Menurut Schnaars (1998), terdapat empat macam kemungkinan hubungan antara kepuasan pelanggan dan loyalitas pelanggan yaitu: failures, forced loyalty, defector, dan success. Berdasarkan penelitian dan pendapat teoritis tersebut, maka diajukan suatu model konseptual penelitian yang berfungsi sebagai penuntun untuk memudahkan memahami alur berpikir. Model konseptual penelitian yang diajukan ditunjukkan pada Gambar 1.

Gambar 1. Model Konseptual Penelitian. Hipotesis Penelitian Berdasarkan rumusan masalah, tujuan penelitian, dan model konsep yang telah dikemukakan sebelumnya, maka hipotesis penelitian disusun sebagai berikut: a. Pelayanan mutu total berpengaruh signifikan positif terhadap citra lembaga Perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur. b. Pelayanan mutu total berpengaruh signifikan positif terhadap kepuasan mahasiswa Perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur. c. Citra perguruan tinggi berpengaruh signifikan positif terhadap kepuasan mahasiswa Perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur. d. Citra perguruan tinggi berpengaruh signifikan positif terhadap loyalitas mahasiswa Perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur. e. Kepuasan berpengaruh signifikan positif terhadap loyalitas mahasiswa Perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur. Rancangan Penelitian Jenis penelitian ini adalah explanatory research, di mana akan ditelaah hubungan kausal antar variabel-variabel melalui pengujian hipotesis yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya. Explanatory Research berangkat dari keadaan dimana suatu fenomena dapat diketahui dan dijelaskan akan tetapi perlu dilakukan kajian lebih mendalam mengapa suatu fenomena terjadi dan bagaimana suatu fenomena terjadi. Metode utama penelitian adalah penelitian hasil survey, yang dilakukan dengan mengambil sample dari populasi menggunakan kuesioner sebagai alat pengumpul data pokok. Populasi dan Sampel Populasi penelitian adalah seluruh mahasiswa Perguruan Tinggi Swasta (PTS) di Jawa Timur. Berdasarkan populasi yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya maka sampel yang diambil adalah sejumlah 250 responden dari 10 PTS Unggulan. Estimasi yang digunakan adalah Generalized Least Square Estimation (GLS) yang ditentukan dengan menggunakan acuan (Hair et al., 1998).

Feliks Anggia, Hotman Panjaitan, Sigit Sardjono / The Effect Of Total Service Quality And Private University Image Towards Satisfaction And University Student Loyalty

Definisi Operasional Variabel 1. Total quality service adalah sistem manajemen strategik dan integratif yang melibatkan semua manajer dan karyawan. Untuk mengukur variabel ini digunakan indikator: Commitment Response dari manajemen, Product Improvement, Process Improvement, Human Resource Excellent, Customer Orientation Response, dan Economics Advantage (Stamatis, 1996; Gaspersz, 2002) 2. Citra yang dimaksud adalah Corporate Image yang terbentuk berdasarkan impresi, pengetahuan yang dialami oleh para mahasiswa terhadap perguruan tinggi swasta yang ada di Jawa Timur. Untuk mengukur variabel citra digunakan indikator: Reputasi Akademik, Penampilan perguruan tinggi, dan Karir masa depan (Engel et al., 1995). 3. Kepuasan yang dimaksud adalah tingkat perasaan seseorang setelah membandingkan performance yang dirasakannya terhadap expectation yang telah dicapainya. Untuk mengukur variabel ini digunakan: disconfirmasi, kepuasan informasi, dan overall satisfaction (Anderson, 1994: Fornell, 1996) 4. Loyalitas yang dimaksud adalah loyalitas para mahasiswa, merupakan perilaku setia dan perasaan memiliki yang timbul karena perasaan puas terhadap produk atau jasa perguruan tinggi, adanya rintangan pengalihan, dan penanganan yang baik terhadap keluhan mahasiswa yang diberikan oleh pihak perguruan tinggi. Untuk mengukur variabel ini digunakan indikator: Kognitif, Afektif, dan Konatif (Dick, 1994; Swastha, 1999). Instrumen Penelitian Instrumen penelitian adalah kuesioner, dimana kuesioner tersebut terdiri dari dua bagian yaitu: (1). Data tentang identitas pribadi responden. (2). Data yang berkaitan dengan seluruh variabel penelitian ini. Pengukuran untuk masing-masing variabel dilakukan dalam bentuk skoring menurut skala Likert, dimana angka 1 menunjukkan nilai terendah (sangat tidak setuju), dan nilai 5 menunjukkan nilai tertinggi (sangat setuju).

3. Discussion
Uji Validitas dan Reliabilitas Suatu instrumen pengukur dapat dikatakan mempunyai validitas tinggi apabila alat tersebut memberikan hasil pengukuran yang sesuai dengan tujuan pengukuran tersebut. Hasil pengujian validitas pada penelitian ini mendapatkan koefsien korelasi product moment lebih dari 0.3 pada semua item pertanyaan, ini berarti tiap butir pertanyaan dalam instrumen memiliki ketepatan dan kecermatan dalam fungsi ukurnya (valid). Hasil pengujian reliabilitas menghasilkan koefsien Alpha Cronbach mendapatkan hasil lebih dari 0,7 pada semua dimensi dalam variabel yang diukur, berarti instrumen terbukti memiliki keandalan yang dapat diterima, disajikan pada Tabel 1 (Hair et al., 1998). Tabel 1. Hasil Uji Reliabilitas Instrumen Variabel Total Quality Service Aspek / Dimensi Commitment Response Product Improvement Process mprovement Customer Orientation Response Human Resource Excelent Economics Advantage Reputasi Akademik Penampilan perguruan tinggi Karier masa depan Diskonfirmasi Kepuasan Informasi Overall Satisfaction Kognitif Afektif Konatif Koefisien lpha 0,851 0,895 0,891 0,911 0,913 0,912 0,857 0,869 0,882 0,829 0,869 0,770 0,862 0,868 0,911 Ket. Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel

Image

Satisfaction

Loyalty

Feliks Anggia, Hotman Panjaitan, Sigit Sardjono / The Effect Of Total Service Quality And Private University Image Towards Satisfaction And University Student Loyalty

Struktur Model Penelitian Model penelitian yang dibuat, dianalisis dengan structural equation model, software AMOS 20. Berdasarkan pertimbangan teoritis pada penelitian ini, dilakukan modifikasi indeks terhadap model dengan tetap berpedoman bahwa modifikasi indeks ini tidak akan mengubah hasil kausalitas (parameter) secara signifikan.

Gambar 2. Struktural Model Penelitian Uji Kesesuaian Model Pengujian ini dilakukan untuk melihat apakah model yang dikembangkan sesuai (fit) dengan data yang tersedia. Hasil pengolahan data dengan menggunakan sampel sebesar 250 menunjukkan tingkat signifikansi untuk uji hipotesis perbedaan diatas adalah 107,480 dengan probabilitas 0,083. Hal ini menunjukkankan bahwa tidak terdapat perbedaan antara matrik kovarian sampel dan matrik kovarian populasi, sehingga hipotesis nol diterima. Sementara itu nilai dari GFI, AGFI, TLI, CFI, RMSEA dan CMIN/DF masing-masing sebesar 0.932, 0.894, 0.975, 0.952, 0.145 dan 1.320 semuanya berada pada rentang nilai yang diharapkan sehingga model dapat diterima Tabel 2. Tabel 2. Hasil Uji Goodness of Fit Index Goodness of Fit Cut-off Hasil Uji Index Value Model 107,480 2 / Chi-Square Probability 0,083 0,05 GFI 0,932 0,90 AGFI 0,894 0,90 TLI 0,975 0,95 CFI 0,952 0,95 1,320 Relative 2 2,00

Ket. Baik Baik Baik Baik Baik Baik Baik

Pengujian Parameter Untuk mengetahui hubungan kausalitas antar masing-masing variabel, dilakukan uji terhadap hipotesis nol yang mengatakan bahwa koefisien regresi antar hubungan sama dengan nol melalui uji t dalam model regresinya. Dengan memperhatikan hasil estimasi parameter dalam Tabel 3, diketahui bahwa nilai critical ratio (CR) yang identik dengan uji t dalam analisis regresi terlihat bahwa semua koefisien regresinya secara signifikan tidak sama dengan nol. Dengan demikian hipotesis nol yang menyatakan bahwa koefisien regresi sama dengan nol dapat ditolak atau hipotesis alternatif dapat diterima. Hubungan kausalitas dalam model dapat diterima.

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Tabel 3. Estimasi Parameter Final Model


Regression Weights CITRA KEPUASAN KEPUASAN LOYALITAS LOYALITAS TOT. QUA. SERVICE TOT. QUA. SERVICE CITRA CITRA KEPUASAN Standardized Estimate .377 .391 .230 .283 .344 Estimate .386 .390 .225 .288 .359 C.R. 4.553 4.434 2.983 3.801 3.971 Prob 0.00 0.00 .003 0.00 0.00

Pengujian Hipotesis Terdapat pengaruh langsung dari Pelayanan mutu total terhadap citra perguruan tinggi sebesar 0,377. Artinya Pelayanan mutu total yang sudah dilaksanakan perguruan tinggi swasta di Jawa Timur, akan meningkatkan citra perguruan tinggi secara langsung sebesar 37,7%. Hal ini berarti hipotesis 1 diterima. Terdapat pengaruh langsung dari Pelayanan mutu total terhadap kepuasan mahasiswa sebesar 0,391. Artinya Pelayanan mutu total yang sudah dilaksanakan perguruan tinggi swasta di Jawa Timur, akan meningkatkan kepuasan mahasiswa secara langsung sebesar 39,1%. Hal ini berarti hipotesis 2 diterima Terdapat pengaruh langsung dari citra perguruan tinggi terhadap kepuasan mahasiswa sebesar 0,230. Artinya citra baik perguruan tinggi swasta di Jawa Timur, dapat meningkatkan kepuasan mahasiswa secara langsung sebesar 23,0%. Hal ini berarti hipotesis 3 diterima. Terdapat pengaruh langsung dari citra perguruan tinggi terhadap loyalitas mahasiswa perguruan tinggi swasta sebesar 0,283. Artinya citra perguruan tinggi perguruan tinggi swasta di Jawa Timur, dapat meningkatkan loyalitas mahasiswa secara langsung sebesar 28,3%. Hal ini berarti hipotesis 4 diterima. Terdapat pengaruh langsung dari kepuasan mahasiswa terhadap loyalitas mahasiswa perguruan tinggi swasta sebesar 0,344. Artinya kepuasan mahasiswa perguruan tinggi swasta di Jawa Timur, dapat meningkatkan loyalitas mahasiswa secara langsung sebesar 34,4%. Hal ini berarti hipotesis 5 diterima. Pengaruh Pelayanan Mutu Total terhadap Citra Perguruan Tinggi Swasta Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan adanya hubungan searah pelayanan mutu total dengan citra perguruan tinggi, temuan dari lapangan menunjukkan bahwa pendekatan individu yang dilakukan pihak perguruan tinggi sebagai upaya pelayanan interpersonal yang dilakukan (fokus pada pelanggan), termasuk hubungan yang baik dan kerja sama antara pihak perguruan tinggi, dunia usaha dan industri, juga kesesuaian kurikulum dengan tingkat keahlian yang dibutuhkan dunia usaha dan industri, terbukti dapat meningkatkan pencitraan bagi perguruan tinggi. Hasil penelitian ini didukung oleh hasil studi dari Panjaitan (2005), yang menyatakan bahwa faktor pembentuk citra perguruan tinggi adalah reputasi akademik, karier masa depan dan penampilan perguruan tinggi, dimana faktor dominan dalam membentuk corporate image adalah karier masa depan. Hal ini memperkuat dugaan bahwa reputasi akademik yang dimiliki perguruan tinggi akan berdampak positip terhadap masa depan mahasiswa. Pelayanan mutu total mempengaruhi citra perguruan tinggi, yang menunjukkan bahwa jika perguruan tinggi memiliki kualitas pelayanan fokus pada pelanggan yang tinggi, maka citra perguruan tinggi akan naik. Pengaruh Pelayanan Mutu Total terhadap Kepuasan Konsumen Perguruan Tinggi Swasta Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan adanya hubungan searah pelayanan mutu total terhadap kepuasan mahasiswa, oleh karenanya sebagai alternatif upaya meningkatkan kepuasan mahasiswa, dapat dilakukan melalui peningkatan kualitas pelayanan mutu total yang berfokus pada pelanggan, diantaranya pada kemampuan Perguruan Tinggi Swasta untuk memberikan layanan yang dijanjikan dengan segera, akurat dan memuaskan. Fokus pada kemauan membantu mahasiswa dan memberikan perhatian yang tepat dengan segera. Fokus pada karyawan dalam aspek pengetahun, kompetensi, kesopanan, dan sifat yang dapat dipercaya sehingga mahasiswa menjadi yakin untuk mendaftar dan mengikuti kelas. Fokus pada upaya secara aktif pihak perguruan tinggi untuk membuat kemudahan dalam menjalin relasi, perhatian kepada tiap individu yang beragam, memahami kondisi mahasiswa, dan mampu memenuhi kebutuhan mahasiswa yang beragam.

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Penelitian ini juga menemukan adanya hubungan tidak langsung yang cukub besar antara variabel pelayanan mutu total dengan variabel loyalitas melalui variabel kepuasan mahasiswa dan variabel citra perguruan tinggi (0,271). Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa loyalitas mahasiswa sebagai konsumen perguruan tinggi akan meningkat dengan adanya pelayanan mutu total yang baik, dan adanya citra yang baik dari perguruan tinggi swasta. Penelitian ini searah dengan penelitian Parves Masud (2005); Parasuraman et al., (1997) yang menyatakan bahwa fokus pada pelanggan merupakan faktor penting dalam menentukan kepuasan konsumen. Pengaruh Citra Terhadap Kepuasan Konsumen Perguruan Tinggi Swasta Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, keberhasilan Perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur dalam membangun citra perguruan tinggi memberikan kontribusi secara langsung terhadap peningkatan kepuasan konsumen perguruan tinggi swasta. Hal ini mungkin terjadi karena sudah maksimalnya pihak perguruan tinggi melaksanakan pelayanan mutu total, oleh karenanya pihak perguruan tinggi di anjurkan supaya lebih serius melaksanakan dan meningkatkan kualitas pelayanan mutu total terhadap konsumen, sehingga citra perguruan tinggi naik yang berakibat langsung terhadap kepuasan konsumen. Dengan naiknya citra perguruan tinggi di mata mahasiswa akan menyebabkan naiknya kepuasan mahasiswa perguruan tinggi. Hasil penelitian ini searah dengan hasil penelitian Utari (2004), yang menyatakan bahwa image perusahaan mempengaruhi kepuasan pelanggan. Pengaruh Citra Perguruan Tinggi Swasta terhadap Loyalitas mahasiswa Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa citra Perguruan Tinggi berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap loyalitas mahasiswa. Dengan demikian peningkatan citra perguruan tinggi akan memberikan dampak positif terhadap peningkatan nilai loyalitas mahasiswa. Disisi lain citra perguruan tinggi sangat dipengaruhi oleh kualitas layanan total . Oleh karenanya perguruan tinggi, perlu melakukan upaya-upaya peningkatan kualitas layanan total, yaitu dengan terus menerus memperbaiki kinerja layanan, supaya sesuai dengan harapan mahasiswa, karena dengan pelayanan mutu total yang tinggi, akan menaikkan citra perguruan tinggi sebagai batu loncatan untuk menaikkan loyalitas konsumen. Survei lapangan menunjukkan citra perguruan tinggi swasta telah mendapatkan predikat baik, rata-rata dilihat dari tingkat penghargaan masyarakat terhadap kualitas lulusan melalui kesesuaian kurikulum dan keterampilan yang dibutuhkan Dunia Usaha dan Industri yang dapat diketahui ketika mahasiswa sedang melakukan kerja praktek atau magang kerja, serta meningkatnya jumlah lulusan yang dapat terserap di dunia usaha dan industri. Hasil penelitian ini searah dan mendukung hasil penelitian Nha Nguyen dan Gaston Le Blance (1998), Utari (2004), yang menyatakan bahwa Citra korporat mempunyai pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap loyalitas Pengaruh Kepuasan mahasiswa Terhadap Loyalitas mahasiswa Perguruan Tinggi Swasta Kepuasan mahasiswa memberikan pengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap Loyalitas mahasiswa. Keberadaan pengaruh ini menjelaskan bahwa, peningkatan kepuasan mahasiswa memberikan dampak terhadap peningkatan nilai loyalitas mahasiswa. Hal ini diduga berkaitan dengan besarnya nilai kepuasan konsumen akibat pelayanan mutu total yang sudah dilaksanakan perguruan tinggi, besarnya nilai yang dipersepsikan dan juga besarnya harapan konsumen terhadap perguruan tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur sangat baik. Oleh karenanya untuk meningkatkan dan menjaga nilai loyalitas konsumen supaya tetap tinggi, maka perguruan tingi harus konsisten menjaga nilai kepuasan ini, dengan melaksanakan pelayanan mutu total, dan melakukan perbaikan dan inovasi terhadap keberadaan pelayanan mutu total sebagai variabel eksogen, yang mendorong naiknya nilai kepuasan, yang selanjutnya mendorong naiknya loyalitas mahasiswa. Karena loyalitas konsumen adalah variabel endogen, maka perbaikannya harus dimulai dari pelayanan mutu total. Hasil penelitian ini searah dan mendukung hasil penelitian Feliks and panjaitan, hotman (2012) yang menyatakan bahwa kepuasan mempunyai pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap loyalitas.

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4. Conclusions
Berdasarkan hasil analisis dan uji hipotesis penelitian yang telah dilakukan sebelumnya maka dapat ditarik kesimpulan sebagai berikut: a. Pelayanan mutu total signifikan dan positif berpengaruh terhadap citra perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur, hal ini menunjukkan bahwa dengan melaksanakan pelayanan mutu total yang baik, akan mendorong naiknya citra perguruan tinggi. b. Pelayanan mutu total signifikan dan positif berpengaruh terhadap kepuasan mahasiswa Perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur, hal ini menunjukkan bahwa dengan melaksanakan pelayanan mutu total yang baik, akan mendorong naiknya kepuasan konsumen perguruan tinggi. c. Citra perguruan tinggi signifikan dan positif berpengaruh terhadap kepuasan mahasiswa Perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur. d. Citra perguruan tinggi signifikan dan positif berpengaruh terhadap loyalitas mahasiswa Perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur, hal ini menunjukkan bahwa dengan naiknya citra perguruan tinggi, akan mendorong naiknya loyalitas mahasiswa. e. Kepuasan mahasiswa signifikan dan positif berpengaruh terhadap loyalitas mahasiswa Perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Jawa Timur, hal ini menunjukkan bahwa dengan naiknya nilai kepuasan mahasiswa sebagai konsumen perguruan tinggi, akan mendorong naiknya loyalitas mahasiswa.

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Utari,