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## Lecture 1: Introduction and Highway and Railway curves

Dr. Mohsin Siddique Asst. Prof. Dept. of Civil Engineering FAST-NU
11/09/2012

## CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING & GRAPHICS CH (1+2)

Objective: To acquire knowledge of control surveys and their use in advance branches of surveying. To apply principles of surveying in related field problems. Course Contents: Hydrographic Surveys: Objectives of hydrographic survey and electronic charting, Vertical control, Depth and Tidal measurements, Position-fixing techniques, Sounding plan, Horizontal control, Processing.

## CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING & GRAPHICS CH (1+2)

Control Surveys: Geodesy, UTM and other Map Projections, Coordinate Systems and Datum, Horizontal control techniques, Survey markers, Observations on Polaris, Computation technique for azimuth determination and Gyro-theodolite. Surveying Application: Highway and Railway Curves, Route surveys, Circular curves, Setting out circular curve by various methods, Compound curves, Reverse, Vertical, Parabolic curves, Design considerations, Spiral curves, Approximate solution for spiral problems, Super-elevation.

## CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING & GRAPHICS CH (1+2)

Books Recommended 1. Basik. N.N., Advance Engineering Surveying 2. Wolf P.R. & Ghilani C. D., Elementary Surveying An introduction to Geomatics, 11Pth P Edition, Prentice Hall, USA, 2004. 3. Thomas, M. Lillesand & Ralph W. Kiefer (2005), Remote Sensing and Images Interpretation, 5thPP edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

## Highway and Railway Curves Introduction

During the survey of the alignment of a project involving road or railways, the direction of the line may change due to some unavoidable circumstances. The angle of the change in direction is knows is known as deflection angle. For it to be possible for a vehicle to run easily along the road or railway track, the two possible straight lines (the original line and the deflected line) are connected by an arc which is know as curve of the road or track.

## Highway and Railway Curves Introduction

During the survey of the alignment of a project involving road or railways, the direction of the line may change due to some unavoidable circumstances. The angle of the change in direction is knows is known as deflection angle. For it to be possible for a vehicle to run easily along the road or railway track, the two possible straight lines (the original line and the deflected line) are connected by an arc which is know as curve of the road or track.

## Highway and Railway Curves Types

1. Horizontal Curves When the curve is provided in the horizontal plane it is called horizontal curve 2. Vertical Curves And if the curve is provided in the vertical plane it is termed as vertical curve

## Highway and Railway Curves

Definition and Explanation of Different Terms
Degree of Curve The angle a unit Chord of length 30m subtends at the centre of the circle formed by the curve is known as the degree of the curve. It is designated by D. A curve may be designated according to either Radius or Degree of the curve

When the unit chord subtends an angle of 1 degree , it is called onedegree curve and when the angle is 2 degree it is called two-degree curve

Highway and Railway Curves Relation between Radius and Degree of curve
Let AB be the unit chord of 30m, O the center, R the radius and D the degree of the curve as shown in fig.

Here OA = R AB = 30m; AC = 15m AOC = D/2 From Triangle OAC D AC 15 sin = = 2 OA R 15 R= sin(D / 2 )
When D is very small, sinD/2 D/2 (radian)

R=

15

(D / 2 )( / 180)

1719 D

## Highway and Railway Curves Superelevations

When a particle moves in a circular path, then a force know as centrifugal force acts upon it, and tends to push it away from the center. Similarly when a vehicle suddenly moves from a straight path to a curved path, the centrifugal force tends to push the vehicle away from the road. This is because there is no component force to counterbalance this centrifugal force. To counter balance the centrifugal force, the outer edge of the road or railway is raised to some height, so that the sine component of the weight (W sin) of the vehicle may counter balance the overturning force.

## Highway and Railway Curves Superelevations

The height through which the outer edge of the road or railway is raised is known as superelevations or cant. In the figure, P is the centrifugal force, W sin is the component of the weight of the vehicle and h is the super elevation given to road or railway. For Equilibrium

## WV 2 h WV 2 W sin = ; W = gR b gR h when << 1; sin = tan = b 2

h= bV gR For Roads For Railways GV 2 h= gR

b=width of the road (m) G=distance between centre of rail (gauge) (m) R=radius of curve (m) g=acceleration due to gravity (9.8m/s/s) Speed of vehicle (m/s) Superelevation (m)

## Highway and Railway Curves Centrifugal Ratio

The ratio between centrifugal force and the weight of the vehicle is know as centrifugal ratio

P WV 2 V 2 Centrifugal Ratio(CR) = = = W gRW gR 1 Allowable value for CR in roads = 4 1 Allowable value for CR in railways = 8

## Highway and Railway Curves Types of Horizontal Curves

Simple Circular Curve: When a curve consists of a single arc with a constant radius connecting two tangents, it is said to be a circular curve. Compound Curve: When a curve consists of two or more arcs with different radii, it is called a compound curve. Such a curve lies on the same side of a common tangent and the centers of different arcs lie on the same side of their respective tangents.

## Highway and Railway Curves Types of Horizontal Curves

Reverse Curve: A reverse curve consists of two arc bending in opposite directions. Their centers lie on opposite sides of the curve. Their radii may be either equal or different and they have one common tangent.

## Highway and Railway Curves Types of Horizontal Curves

Transition Curve: A curve of a variable radius is known as transition curve. It is also called a spiral curve or easement curve. It railways, such a curve is provided on both sides of a circular curve to maintain superelevations. Excessive superelevations may cause wear and tear of the rail section and discomfort to passengers.

## Highway and Railway Curves Types of Horizontal Curves

Lemniscate curve: A lemniscate curve is similar to transition curve and is generally adopted in city roads where the deflection angle is large. In figure, OPD shows the shape of such curve. The curve is designated by taking a major axis OD, minor axis PP with origin O and axes OA and OB. OP() is known as the polar ray and as the polar angle

## Notation Used with Circular Curve

AB & BC are known as the tangents to the curve B is known as the point of the intersection or vertex. The angle is know as the angle of deflection The angle I is called the angle of intersection Points T1 and T2 are known as tangent points Distance BT1 and BT2 are known as tangent lengths AB is called the rear tangent and BC is called the forward tangent

When the curve deflects to the right, it is called a right-hand curve and when it deflects to left, it is said to be a left-hand curve.

## Notation Used with Circular Curve

The straights line T1DT2 is known as long chord The curve line T1ET2 is said to be the length of curve The mid-point E of the curve T1ET2 is known as apex or summit of the curve The distance BE is known as apex distance or external distance The distance DE is called the versed sine of the curve R is the radius of the curve Angle T1OT2 is equal to the deflection angle

The point T1 is known as beginning of the curve or the point of the curve And End of the curve (T2) is known as the point of tangency

## Properties of Simple Circular Curve

If the angle of intersection is given as I, then

= 180 I
If radius is not given, then

R = 1719 / D
Where D is degree of curve Tangent length BT1 or BT= R tan ( / 2 ) Length of curve=length of arc T1ET2 R o R = 180 Again length of curve 30 = D if degree D of curve is given

## Properties of simple circular curve

Length of long chord

## 2T 1D = 2OT 1sin ( 2) = 2 R sin ( 2)

Apex distance=BE=OB-BE

R sec( 2) R = R(sec( 2 ) 1)
Versed sine of curve

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