# Lecture 26 – Metric

Metric units are used everywhere in the world EXCEPT the USA. It is based on scientific measurements, not the length of a king’s foot or the weight of a chicken.

Metric Conversion Factors
Length Multiply: inches inches feet feet yards in2 ft2 ft2 yd2 in3 ft3 ft3 gallons gallons pounds pounds kips
pounds per foot (PLF)

Area

Volume

Weight Force

Moment

Unit weight Stress (pressure)

Lb-In Lb-Ft Kip-Ft Kip-Ft Kip-In Lb per ft3 (PCF) Lb per in2 (PSI) Lb per in2 (PSI) Lb per in2 (PSI) Kips per in2 (KSI) Kips per in2 (KSI) Lb per ft2 (PSF) Lb per ft2 (PSF) Kips per ft2 (KSF) Kips per ft2 (KSF)

By: 25.4 0.0254 304.8 0.3048 0.9144 645.2 92,909 0.0929 0.836 16,387 28,317,000 0.0283 0.003785 3.785 0.454 4.448 4448 14.594 0.11299 1.3559 1355.9 1.3559 112.99 0.1571 6895 6.895 0.0006895 6895 6.895 47.88 0.04788 47.88 0.04788

To Obtain: millimeters (mm) meters (m) millimeters (mm) meters (m) meters (m) mm2 mm2 m2 m2 mm3 mm3 m3 m3 = 1000 liters liters kilograms (kg) Newtons (N) Newtons (N) Newtons per meter (N/m) N-m N-m N-m kN-m N-m kN/m3 Pascals = Pa = N/m2
kPa = kilopascals = 1000 Pa mPa = megapascals = N/mm2

kPa mPa Pa kPa kPa mPa

Lecture 26 – Page 1 of 11

Example 1 GIVEN: All road construction projects in New York State have drawings with metric measurements. All metric drawings always use units of mm for everything. (Reminder: 1 m = 1000 mm) REQUIRED: Convert 1500 mm as shown on the drawings into feet/inch/sixteenths. Use the conversion 1 inch = 25.4 mm Number of inches = 1500mm 25.4mm _ per _ inch

= 59.055118 inches = 48” + 11.055118” = 4’ + 11.055118” = 4’ + 11” + (0.055118 x 16th) = 4’ + 11” +

0.88 16ths

1500 mm = 4’-11

1 " 16

Example 2 GIVEN: The x-sectional area of a W30x211 steel beam = 62.0 in2. REQUIRED: Determine the area of the beam in units of mm2. Use the conversion 1 inch = 25.4 mm 1 inch x 1 inch = 25.4 mm x 25.4 mm 1 in2 = 645.2 mm2 Number of mm2 = 62.0 in2 x 645.2 mm2 per in2 Area = 40,002 mm2

Lecture 26 – Page 2 of 11

Example 3 GIVEN: The tank below. REQUIRED: How many liters are in the tank?

7’-0”

Dia. = 18’-0” Vol. =

π
4

(18' ) 2 (7' )

= 1781 ft3 = 1781 ft3(7.48 gals per ft3) Vol. = 13324 gal. Use the conversion 1 ft3 = 0.0283 m3 Volume = 1781 ft3(0.0283 m3 per ft3) = 50.4 m3 Volume = 50.4 m3(1000 liters per m3) Volume = 50,400 liters

Lecture 26 – Page 3 of 11

Example 4 GIVEN: An ASTM A325 steel bolt is capable of resisting an allowable shear stress of 30 kips per square inch (KSI) REQUIRED: What is the allowable shear stress for the bolt in units of KPa? Use the conversions of 1 inch = 25.4 mm 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 1 kPa = 1000 Pa 1 lb = 4.448 N 30 KSI =

30000lb 1in 2 (30000lb)(4.448 N _ per _ lb) (0.0254m)(0.0254m)
(133440 N ) (0.00064516mm 2 )

30 KSI =

30 KSI =

30 KSI = 206,832,414 N/m2 30 KSI = 206,832,414 Pa 30 KSI = 206,832 kPa

Lecture 26 – Page 4 of 11

All metric loads, forces and derivatives of those are in units of Newtons. Below is a sampling of typical minimum design live loads for buildings:

Minimum Uniformly Distributed Live Loads per ASCE 7-02
Occupancy: Assembly area – fixed seats Assembly area – movable seats Balconies - residential Bowling alleys, poolrooms, rec. areas Dining rooms and restaurants Gymnasium Hospital – operating rooms, labs Hospital – private rooms Library – reading room Library – stack rooms Office Residential Schools - classrooms Stadium - bleachers Stores – 1st floor retail Pounds per ft2 60 100 60 75 100 100 60 40 60 150 50 40 40 100 100
kN/m2 (soft metric)

2.87 4.79 2.87 3.59 4.79 4.79 2.87 1.92 2.87 7.18 2.40 1.92 1.92 4.79 4.79

Material Properties
Material: Steel – A36 Steel – A992 Aluminum
Concrete (4000 psi)

Wood - SYP
Earth – sandy

Water

Unit Weight: Lb/ft3 kN/m3 490 77.2 490 77.2 170 26.7 150 23.6 37 5.8 100 15.7 62.4 9.8

Modulus Of Elasticity (E):

Kips/in2 29,000 29,000 10,000 3,600 1,600 -

kN/mm2 205 205 70 25.4 11.3 -

Yield Stress (fy): Kips/in2 N/mm2 36 248 50 345 28 190 6 42 -

Lecture 26 – Page 5 of 11

Metric Dimensions
All metric dimensions are in units of millimeters. Below are a few examples of architectural drawings in metric dimensions:

Lecture 26 – Page 6 of 11

Lecture 26 – Page 7 of 11

Example 5 – LRFD Steel Beam Analysis GIVEN: A simply-supported ASTM A992 steel W18x35 beam is loaded as shown (all loads are factored and includes beam weight). Assume the beam is continuously laterally braced. REQUIRED: 1) Determine the maximum factored moment in units of kN-m. 2) Determine the plastic section modulus, Zx of the beam in units of mm3. 3) Determine the LRFD design moment of the beam φMn in units of kN-m. 4) Determine if the beam is adequate in moment. w = 3 kN/m

11 m

Step 1 - Determine the maximum factored moment in units of kN-m:

Mmax =

wu L2 8 (3kN / m)(11m) 2 8

=

Mmax = 45.4 kN-m
Step 2 - Determine the plastic section modulus of the beam in units of mm3:

From LRFD properties W18x35 → Zx = 66.5 in3

⎛ 25.4mm 25.4mm 25.4mm ⎞ x x Zx = 66.5 in3 x ⎜ ⎟ in in ⎠ ⎝ in Zx = 1,089,742 mm3

Lecture 26 – Page 8 of 11

Step 3 - Determine the LRFD design moment of the beam φMn in units of kN-m:

From LRFD: See table above

φMn = 0.9FyZx
where: Fy = 345 N/mm2 Zx = 1,089,742 mm3

φMn = 0.9(345 N/mm2)(1,089,742 mm3)
= 338,360,000 N-mm

m ⎞ ⎛ kN x = 338,360,000 N-mm x ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1000 N 1000mm ⎠ φMn = 338.4 kN-m
Step 4 - Determine if the beam is adequate in moment:
Since φMn = 338.4 kN-m > Mmax = 45.4 kN-m → beam is OK

Lecture 26 – Page 9 of 11

Example 6 – ACI Concrete Beam Analysis GIVEN: The rectangular concrete beam shown below. All loads are factored and includes beam weight. Use f’c = 25 mPa and 3 – 20 mm diameter bars having fy = 400 mPa. REQUIRED: 1) Determine the ACI 318 factored moment capacity, Mu of the beam in units of kN-m. 2) Determine the ACI 318 factored moment capacity of the beam in units of Kip-Feet. 250

350

Step 1 – Det. moment capacity Mu in units of kN-m:

⎡ ⎛ ρ act f y Mu = 0.9Asfyd(1 - ⎢0.59⎜ ⎜ f' ⎢ c ⎝ ⎣

⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ) ⎟ ⎠⎥ ⎦
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

⎛ π (20mm) 2 where: As = 3 bars ⎜ ⎜ 4 ⎝ 2 = 942.5 mm

ρact =

As bd

=

942.5mm 2 (250mm)(350mm)

= 0.0108

Lecture 26 – Page 10 of 11

⎡ ⎛ ρ act f y Mu = 0.9Asfyd(1 - ⎢0.59⎜ ⎜ f' ⎢ c ⎝ ⎣

⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ) ⎟ ⎠⎥ ⎦

⎡ ⎛ (0.0108)(400 N / mm 2 = 0.9(942.5 mm2)(400 N/mm2)(350 mm)(1 - ⎢0.59⎜ ⎜ 25 N / mm 2 ⎝ ⎣
= 106,640,000 N-mm

⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ) ⎟ ⎠⎦

m ⎞ ⎛ kN x = 106,640,000 N-mm x ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1000 N 1000mm ⎠
Mu = 106.6 kN-m Step 2 – Det. moment capacity Mu in units of Kip-Feet:

⎛ Kip − Feet ⎞ Mu = 106.6 kN-m x ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1.3559kN − m ⎠
Mu = 78.6 Kip-Feet

See conversion table above

Lecture 26 – Page 11 of 11