QUASI-REXONANTZVSPWM l " 3 R - F E D DGDC CONVERTEX FOR MICROWAVE OVEN AND ITS INPUT HARMONIC CURRENT EVALUATIONS

E. Miyata, S W w ,K. Matsumoto, M. Naka& . h a
The Graduate School of Scienceand Fhgheering, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan

D. Basyo, K. Y s i I. Hirota and H. Ommi au, Home AppIiance & Housing Electronics Gnnpany, Matsushita Electric Industrial Ca,Ud, Osaka, Japan

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A. Iaverter Circuit Description
Figure 1 shows a schematic of high-frequency linked DC-DC converter incorporating a new ZVSPWM inverter using IGBTs for magnetron drive. This power supply developed for microwave oven is mainly composed of a single-phase full-bridge diode rectifier with a non-smoothing LC filter, a voltage-fed type high-frequency single-ended ZVS-PWM inverter with an active voltage clamped capacitor, a three-winding high-frequency transformer with loose couplings, a voltage doubler type diode rectifier, and a magnetron as a load. In this inverter circuit, two reverse conducting power switches; IGBTs, main switch Q1 (SW1 and D1) and subsidiary switch Qs (SWs and Os), capacitor C1 for quasi-resonance, capacitor C s for clamping the excessive peak voltage applied to Q1 are incorporated, respectively.

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flow through the resonant capacitor C1 and moves to Mode 2. (b)Mode2(r,St<t2) When the voltage of primary leakage transformer

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B. Circuit Operation

Figure 2 shows the typical voltage and current waveforms of the main active power switch QI and the subsidiary active power switch Us. Figure 3 illustrates the equivalent circuit of the inverter in each mode. The steady-state operating principle of a new prototype of active voltage clamped high-frequency inverter type DC-DC converter is described for onecycle operation mode corresponding to Mode 1 to Mode 5. Its relevant operating waveforms are illustrated in Fig.2. (a)hlode 1 ( t O S t < f l ) During the time interval in Mode 1, when the active power switch SW1 is turned on, the current flows through primary leakage transformer and it

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becomes a value more than the voltage across capacitor Cs, the diode of the subsidiary switching block conducts. In this case, this circuit moves to Mode3. (c) Mode 3 ( f , S f <tJ When the diode of the subsidiary active switch conducts, the current also begins to flow through the capacitor Cs. Because capacitance Cs of the capacitor has 25 times as large as of capacitance of the capacitor C1, most of the Current flows through the capacitor Cs, and rises with slow gradient with voltage Vswl. (d) Mode 4 ( f 3 1 t < f4) The current starts to flow through Mode 4 from primary leakage transformer to the capacitor Cs with the resonance operation. During the time interval during Mode 4, a subsidiary active power switch turns on. When the subsidiary active power switch is turned off behind the optional time, it moves to Mode 5. (e) Mode 5 ( f 4 1 1 < r,) During Mode 5, the current flows from primary leakage transformer to the capacitor C1. Since the capacitance of the capacitor C1 is small, the voltage across the active power switch Ql decreases to zero and the circuit operation in Mode 1 is repeated cyclically. Because of a main active power switch turns on after the voltage across the active power switch Q 1 becomes zero in Mode 1, zero voltage switching can be achieved completely. During the time interval in Mode 3 and Mode 4, the voltage across the active power switch Q1 is clamped and kept to a voltage lower than the voltage across the active power switch of the conventional single-ended soft-switching inverter circuit.

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Fig.4 Input Power and Operating Frequency in PWM Control
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Fig.5 Peak Value of Magnetron Heater Current in PWM Control IV. Simulation Waveforms i UWity AC Power Side o Magnetron v-i characteristic curve of the magnetron has an extremely stiff non-linear characteristic with a piece wise linear resistance, as shown in Fig.6. Figure 7 shows simulation waveforms in the input side of this quasi-resonant PWM inverter-fed DC-DC converter system shown in Fig.l. As shown in Fig.7 (c), it is divided into a magnetron oscillating area, which is around the peak value in a period of the utility voltage power, and magnetron non-oscillating area which is out of the peak value of utility voltage. Whether magnetron oscillation or non-oscillation occurs whether anoded.

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The simulation results of the input power and inverter operating frequency are shown in Fig.4 as a function of the duty factor D,,. The peak value of the current through the heater of the magnetron are shown Fig.5 as a function of the duty factor Dsw,. According to these simulation results, the input power becomes larger when D,, increases. In addition, the peak current value of the heater of magnetron becomes larger and larger in accordance with the increase of duty factor D , but the rate of change is suppressed, being low relatively. Even if it makes control input power in the wide range, the rate of change with the peak current variation of magnetron heater is able to small. Since the peak s value variation of heater current i within a small

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Fig.6 I-V Characteristic Curve of Magnetron

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Fig.7 Simulation Waveforms of the Inverter System cathode voltage of magnetron crossed 3.6[kV] or not. As a result, the input current becomes distorted waveform which is shown in Fig.7 (b). As the reason, in the period when the AC power voltage is lower than the voltage across capacitor Cd, the current from the side of the AC power supply doesnl flow, and is supplied to the load from the voltage across Capacitor Cd. And then, the current begins to flow through the load and capacitor Cd from the side of the AC power supply when the AC power supply voltage becomes large gradually and becomes equal to the voltage across capacitor Cd. And more, when the AC power supply voltage becomes smaller than the voltage across the capacitor Cd, the current does not flow out from the utility AC side. In the way, when the input current becomes distorted, the harmonic currents occur. Since the current flows only in the peak phase of the AC power supply, the harmonic components increase at that time. For a moment, the regulation of this.gettiqg into harmonic current becomes a significant problem. Also, there is an agreement that the anode current of magnetron must not exceed 1.2[A] with respect to the lifetime of magnetron. Therefore, this paper proposes a new modulation pattern selection method of the inverter operating frequency, and its duty factor to improve harmonic current regulation of tho input current under a condition of the peak value limitation of the anode current of magnetron.

V. Partial Modulation Approach and Evaluations
A. Control Strategy ?he quasi-resonant inverter type DC-DC converter system proposed in this paper has the characteristics that the input power becomes small when it increases as the operating frequency of the inverter. Also, it has the characteristic that the inpu!.power becomes

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large when the duty factor is increased as shown in Fig.4. Figure K (b) indicates the modulation pattern of the operating frequency of the inverter, and Fig.8 (c) indicates the duty factor, which have been applied in this paper. This modulation pattern is obtained by

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Table 1 Harmonic Regulation (Class-A) Maximum Allowable Harmon:order HarmonicCurreot

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controlling the operating frequency of the inverter so as to be sinusoidal around the peak values in a period of the utility AC voltage. And the duty factor controlled to be reduced around the peak values in a period of the utility AC voltage in order to maintain the high efficiency and to save the lifetime of the magnetron. The regulation value of harmonic curreut is shown in Table 1. This regulation value of the harmonic components is values, which is based on class-A of IEC1000-3-2.
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Fig.10 FF"I Spectrum of input Current in Utility Power Source Side

B. Simulation Results and Evaluations
It is evaluated under the condition of the input power 1.2[kW] in this paper. Figure 9 shows the simulation waveforms of the converler in partial modulation control. Figure 10 indicates the FFT spedrum of the input current of the inverter type

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converter. According to the simulation waveforms in Fig.9, the current flowing through anode of magnetron by controlling the operating frequency of the inverter becomes sinusoidal around the peak values in a period of the utility AC power supply, and similarly controlling the duty factor, the current flowing through anode of magnetron is suppressed within the allowable current value 1.2[A]. And, it finds that harmonic components of each degree of the input current are suppressed within the limit values of each harmonic degree.

VI. Conclusions
In this paper, an active voltage clamped quasiresonant PWM inverter-fed DC-DC converter with three winding coupled transformer link has been presented for magnetron drive. And its steady-state operation is analyzed OD the basis of simulation analysis and it was clarified that the voltage applied to the power semiconductor device could be sufficiently reduced. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the current flowing through anode terminal of magnetron by conlrolling the operating frequency of the inverter becomes sinusoidal around the peak value in a period of the AC power supply and the current flowing through anode of magnetron can be kept within the allowable current value 1.2[A] in accordance with controlling the duty factor of this soft-switching PWM inverter. As the harmonics current of this converter in the utility AC side, when using this control scheme, it confirmed that it was con suppressed within the regulation value of each harmonic order. The proposed AC-DC converter switching power supply system for magnetron drive had excellent characteristics, which it was able to be put into practice.
References
[lj S. Yamaguchi, S . Matsubayashi, H. KHko, R. Narita, '"Compact Inverter Power Supply for Microwave oven by New Switching device IGBT", Proceedings of PCIM Europe, pp.267-278, June 1990 [2] D. Bessyo, Y. Nakabayasi, K. Yasui, N. Maehara, M. Nakaoka, "Feasible Developments of SoftSwitched High-Frequency Inverter-Fed Power Supply System For Microwave Oven", Proceedings of the 45th Annual International Appliance Technical Conference, pp.529-540, May 1994

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