Examples

of the Influence

of Sanskrit Grammar

on

Indian Philosophy

by RAFFAELE TORELLA

In theWest, apart from earlier isolated intuitions (1), it only began to become clear at the beginning of this century that language was not merely the docile instru ment of thought and that a far more significant role than the already important one of the vehicle for thought should be claimed for it. The works of E. Sapir, B.L. Whorf and others have shown how great a part language plays in structuring reality (2). In

well-known works such as E. Benveniste's categories, study (1958) on Aristotle's seen as the transposition of grammatical categories of the Greek language onto an 1985:147 ff.). ontological plane (but see also Belardi Indian philosophy, too, obviously lends itself to being examined from this point of view. of Indian

order to capture the given, thought uses a net which is largely linguistic. This having and linguistic research is presented with a new direc been established, philosophical even that which tion: that of trying to discern how much in the experience of reality on the subject's linguistic structure (3). And, fur is apparently immediate depends thermore, how far reflections on reality primarily philosophy, but also the human reflect the linguistic horizon of sciences in general and even the natural sciences in this direction are the subject who has expressed and formulated them. Moving

A point of view which, furthermore, fits particularly well into the context thought, where the close link between thought and language, or even their
version I wish held Sankrit Conference, of a paper read at the VIIth World to thank Prof. A. Aklujkar for his interesting contribution statement: 'Die Sprache is das bildende Organ in Leiden 23rd-29th

*Extended August Cardona 1987. (1) Cf. W. 1976:

to the discussion. cit. G.R.

von Humboldt's 64.

des Gedankens'

(2) See in particular Sapir 1929, 1931; Whorf
unilateral a new it gave character rise of the results For Cardona field of research. to, see G.R. The

1956.

In spite of the provisional and often
the merit hypothesis see also G.R. of having opened up and of the reactions Cardona 1985.

these two authors possess obtained, an evaluation of the so-called Sapir-Whorf 1976:63 studies ff., with (1956) Thought on bibliography;

(3) See the Universe,

for instance Whorf's relation

of Habitual

Indian Model of the Hopi language: An American to Language, Science and Behaviour and Linguistic.

[1]

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is doubtless (7); sacral, the same context in which the science of ritual is developed in their procedures, in many articulations and lexis ritual and grammar seem respects like sisters, as L. Renou has shown in a famous article (1941-42; see also Staal Most of the aims of the study of grammar indicated by Patafijali in the 1982:1-38). are of a religious to salvation', 'This is the door says character; Paspasa a mysterious also speaks of 'vocal' yoga (8), who Bhartrhari (sabdapfirvayoga,

tradition is not in the possession of specialists only, but is the common, from the literary to the heritage of every educated man. The texts ones in the praises of grammar, the science of abound philosophical-religious does this privileged rank derive from? In part surely from its sciences (6). Where the science of the Holy Word, The context inwhich it is inscribed the Vedas. being grammatical fundamental

not infrequently, things become complicated. To the influence of the language as such in India one has to add that of a linguistic and grammatical speculation, whose in any other culture; furthermore, this and prestige are unequalled importance

from the Satapatha identification, has been proclaimed many times complete to Bhartrhari's classical formulations (5) and, though from a different brdhmana (4) But although this line of schools of Buddhism. angle, the logical-epistemological its validity, which is, so to speak, universal, in India, as happens research maintains

(4) VIII language (5) VP sabdena

1.2.7

that every being I 115-16 bhasate

sarvam manute vag vai matir vaca hidam in this world thinks'; cf. Renou

'Thought 1941-42:

is language, 105-6.

because

it is through

pratyavamargini is, as it were,

na so'sti pratyayo rte / anuviddham loke yah iabdanugamad iva jfianam sarvam sa hi ced utkramed issvati / na prakdsah // vdgruipata avabhodasya prakaeta in the world in which the word does not figure. All knowledge // 'There is no cognition to intertwined with the word. If this eternal and the word were identity of knowledge to be knowledge; it is this identity which makes identification poss

cease would disappear, knowledge ible' (transl. Iyer 1965:110-11). (6) Cf. Haracaritacingimani

269 sarvavidyandm XXVII 'Grammar is the most mukhyam vyakaranam ca satsv angesu vyakaranam is the most 'Grammar of all sciences'; MBh I, p. 1 pradhdnam of the Vedas'; hi vidvamso 113 (vrtti) prathame important of the six auxiliaries disciplines Dhvanydloka 'First among the sages are the grammarians, because vaiyakaranah vyakaranamllatvat sarvavidyandm I 11-12 asannam is the root of all sciences', cit. Bhattacarya fn. 3; VP brahmanas 1980:91, grammar important chandasam ahur budhah uttamam tasya tapasam aigam vyakaranam // tapah / prathamam rasah / yat tat punyatamam yo vacah paramo jyotis tasya margo 'yam afijasah // praptariipavibhagaya to that Brahman is the discipline 'The best of all the austerities, the one that is nearest called " so the sages declared. the first among sciences of the Vedas, This the auxiliary Grammar", essence is the shortest route to the attainment of that supreme has of the Word which discipline assumed differentiation, the growth 1960-61, I 14a of the holiest of all lights' (transl. Iyer 1965:16-17). context; cf. (7) Even Seidenberg (8) VP vanam liberation, again VP to a ritual of sciences, such as geometry, has been traced back on Indian sources. based See also Seidenberg 1962. mainly apavargasya; ajihva cf. also VP rajapaddhatih for all who bahudha

tad dvaram is the yad

/ iyam this I 22

sa moksamananam

1 16 idam adyam padasthanam siddhisopanapar 'This is the first step in the ladder leading desire salvation' / tad (transl. pravibhajyate Iyer vykaranam 1965:22). agamya

to

straight royal road ekam prakriybhedair

And param

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word

As D.H.H. Ingalls (1954) and J.F. Staal (1965) were the first to show, in India occupied the place held by geometry in ancient Greece as the model grammar science. The Euclid of India was Panini with his Astddhydyi which also became a model for rigorous and succint exposition and was more or less imitated later by the learning. texts which, in the most varied fields, aimed at being normative (). literature The weight that the vydkaranasastra carries in philosophical-religious on the fact, already mentioned, that it is an important part of depends primarily

as object in a civilization like the Indian one, which is eminently a civilization the word, and the standard of excellence that this discipline very soon reached are of among the reasons at the root of the prestige it enjoyed. The science of language thus of for other branches also creating a model the science par excellence, became

But the vydkaranasastra, Shastri 1980:79-85). (see Iyer 1964 and Gaurinath on it and which will always remain in the despite the character this origin confers is the science of language in the broad sense of the term, both sacred background the and ordinary language, which are like the two sides of the same coin. Having vagyoga)

and the Siksas (10). The 'secular' counterpart of this attitude is found Pratisakhyas to be valid for any darsana, its object being words, which all later in its claim systems, to the exclusion of none, cannot do without ("). Grammar philosophical

every thinker's cultural heritage, whatever school he may belong to. This, so to speak, 'universalistic' tendency, this presenting itself as over and above the factions, can already be detected at birth in this discipline, which sets out to be valid for all the four Vedas (sarvavedapdrsdda), unlike a related discipline such as the phonetics of the

// 'That which, brahma-dhigamyate is attained that supreme Brahman kdrika 'siitra' genre (9) The most probably did which not

though one, by a knowledge was arise later in the

is variously interpreted of Grammar' (transl. ambit

in the different Iyer 1965:23).

traditions,

flanked

It is, however, 1963:168). (cf. Renou in the last sitra its limit; it is embodied concision of the Astddhydyi point, finding in the unattainable a a, beyond which begins It is in the field of grammar, with the work of Katya of silence. the domain a kind of concise in the margin of the sitra critical commentary that the varttika genre yana, Srautasitras originates; peculiar consider the combination to so much suitra-vdrttika constitutes of the technical and philosophical-religious to become the starting point of the form destined literature of India (cf. Renou 1963:169-70). one

suitra which is the by that kind of versified in that of ritual, with the but of grammar saturation in grammar that it soon reaches maximum

(10) The tive character (11) Cf.

different and VP

it the outcome

status which in respect of the other veddngas leads grammar enjoys of a more merely of an original grammatical of a development veddnga, linked to a particular 1963:167). samhita (see Renou

to

illustra

I 14b and vrtti pavitram '(Grammar is) the adhividyam prakasate sarvavidyanam ata' ca adhividyam and shines in every branch of knowledge' prakdate, purifier of all the sciences ca niyatam sarvo hi prayena svasyarm vidyayamg apabhramiaprayogena vyakaranam anugacchati is that everybody in every branch of knowledge" follows the is meant "shines 'What apatrapate by use a work on his special subject and is very careful to avoid the even for composing of grammar loke tathaiva sarvdh 'abda-krtinibandhanah/ of corrupt forms'. Cf. also VP 1 15 yatha-rthajatayah as all the universal esi- vidya para-yanam of things depend upon the form of their words 'Just vidya-na-m so is this science for their communication, the basis of all sciences' (transl. Iyer 1965:21-22). science

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-

it is often (12). And we

said -

does

not deal with

things, but with words

and meanings

of

words

sometimes see grammatical speculation very freely using doctrines that sometimes to one school, sometimes to another (see Iyer 1950:90-92). That does belong a not prevent Madhava, in the Sarvadarsanasarmgraha from describing however, on the one hand, the exaltation of this discipline PAninidarsana, which represents, of the world and, on the other, the elevating it to the rank of a conception reduction Pdninidarsiana But what constitutes the core of the so-called of its claim to universality. are above all some linguistic-metaphysical implications, particularly in Bhartrhari's work.

developed The grammatical tradition, incarnated principally in the triad Panini-Katyayana runs through the whole of the Patan-jali and, some centuries later, in Bhartrhari, three different consequences. Indian philosophical-religious tradition, entailing The

first, and the most intrinsic one, is that on nearly every page of the most diverse texts of philosophical-religious literature we come across grammatical explanations, so much more plausible if we consider how much of this the presence of which is are of a The other two consequences literature takes the form of a commentary. subtler nature and are directly linked to the exemplary character which, as we have to the vydkaranasastra. There is on the one hand, the philosopher's

seen, is attributed

in logical through their reformulation grammatical speculation terms (1). I intend here briefly to consider the latter case.

frequent adoption of the grammarian's modus operandi, with its rules and artifices; and on the other, the more or less conscious appropriation of some of the contents of and ontological

some examples from the literature of so-called Kashmir Shaivism in particular from the works of that extraordinary chain of masters who, the 9th and 12th century A.D., took upon themselves the task of system between atizing the teachings contained in the huge and multiform collection of revealed texts I shall draw and of the monistic towards I shall deliberately not refer directly to their debt sector of the vyakaranasastra (present particularly 'philosophical' in Bhartrhari's which has, relatively speaking, been more work), studied, and on their relations with the more specifically grammatical specu concentrate, instead, saiva tradition. the more lation. The Spandasamdoha by Ksemarja, Abhinavagupta's illustrious disciple,

is an

(12) Cf. asmakam quoted of Renou, in Ruegg

I, p. statement (MBh 11) fabdapramanaka vayam / yac chabda Patafijali's 'We have the word as authority; what the word says, that is our authority', pramanam See Jyer 1950:90-92. and commented upon by the later authors.

dha

tad

so often

(13) The

to this line of research are not many. To the already quoted works specific contributions some interesting and Staal we can add Renou 1957 and 1961, Ruegg remarks 1958; Ingalls 1959 review by Staal 1960 -, 1978, Bhattacharya 1980, 1980-81. and, more recently, Ruegg

154

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elaborate

and

complex

commentary

on

the first stanza

in the Sivadrti) or the Power. Thus there do not really exist separations or confines of any kind, there is nothing that remains definitively excluded from this circulation which comes about precisely through this infinite of the dynamism of Consciousness, to make the leap or Thus from everything it is possible and coagulating. melting immerse oneself

in the formula sarvam sarvitmakam 'all is in all', 'all is Shaivism, may be condensed since made be said to be separate and self-contained, of all'. No reality may is pervaded by a single nature, Sivatd (as Somananda insistently repeats everything

(see some parts of the Pardtrims'ikdvivarana) and in Tantric literature in general, Ksemaraja explores all the real or presumed recesses of the sloka and in so doing pursues his aim which it to a particular eye on the expound some of the essential themes of these schools, with runs through the whole of Kashmir doctrines of the Krama. One of these themes, which

jagatah pralayodayau (yasyonmesanimesabhyar samkaram stumah /). In the grip of a real in the literature of Kashmir Shaivism few equals

only of the Spandakdlika tam Sakticakravibhavaprabhavam / interpretative delirium, which has

in the heart of the absolute, precisely because this absolute, in a cer tain sense, does not have any centre (except the I) or because its centre is everywhere. turns to grammatical In order to find confirmation of this principle, Ksemaraja speculation and quotes a passage on the theory of the dvandva (Spandasarndoha p. 10 tatha ca dvandvasamase bhasyam 'yadi nidariayitum buddhih evam nidarsayitavyam dhavau ca khadirau ca' ity-adi). He is given this opportunity by two dvandvas in the kdrika, which he dwells upon at length. The quoted passage is apparently corrupted, to Katyayana's thesis reference but does not fail to reveal an unequivocal in order to give of yugapadadhikaranavacanatd (14). Indeed, according to Katyayana, one cannot but consider

so many ca durupapddd ca (5). He believes that, without which are, besides, far removed from common sense unnecessary complications the dual or plural ending is the direct result of the grouping (samuddya) of the words, their own meaning. the grouping which, however, maintain within Patafijali's who brands it as duhkha Kaiyata that appears quotation dvandvasamase bhdsyam which, as we have seen, unknown. commentators

an account of the dual or plural ending attributed to the final member of the dvandva, each member of the compound as implicitly containing the others. Each of the words that form the dvandva must thus express both its own mean ing and that of the others. This conception, as we know, is not shared by Patafijali,

were to share the same point of view. The and Nagesa in the Spandasamdoha, therefore, though it is introduced by cannot come from the Mahdbhsya (and in fact it does not) its source remamIs is opposed to the yugapadadhikara/avacanata;

(14) Vdrtikas dvandvavacanat);

I-XV see MBh

ad

P

II

2.9

I, pp.

430-34;

vdrtt. 2 (in particular see also Roodbergen

siddham

tu yugapadadhikaranavacane ca 'In fact, this

1974:139-90.

(15)MBh I, p. 434 theory of simultaneous

ca durupapdda nama duhkha iyam yugapadadhikaranavacanata to understand to prove'. is difficult denotation and difficult

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question is taken up again by Bhartrhari in the vrttisamuddesla of the His short discussion of Ka-tyayana and Patafijali's positions concludes, Vdkyapadiya. rather unexpectedly, with the acceptance of the yugapadadhikaranavacanata, which, in spite of Pataijali's he thinks must be accepted as being the only way objections, This whole for ordinary usage; Pataijali himself, according to Bhartrhari, cannot help for practical purposes (16). Evidently he is led to take up this adopting it, tacitly, his conception of action (17), indeed, an action, such as cooking, consists position by of many segments lighting the fire, filling a pot with water, putting it on the fire etc. each of which, though having its own individuality, must necessarily contain the others (and the main action as well), if one does not want to run the to account

the whole action of cooking. risk of pulverizing and, in the end, dissolving of the yugapadadhikaranavacanatd ismost likely the consequence acceptance Ksemaraja's of its acceptance by Bhartrhari, who acts very much like the filtre through which the

p. 10 ihaiva ca svatantrasivadvayadariane te). The given of grammatical speculation,

authors pass. grammatical and linguistic doctrines found in the Kashmiri onto the This grammatical doctrine is immediately transferred by Ksemaraja How could a thing be both itself and something other than itself ontological plane. if it were (or how could a word express its own meaning and that of other words), not that all is contained in all, as it is in the saiva conception? (cf. Spandasamdoha ekaikasya arthasya anekatvam sarngaccha therefore, sets out to be a given fact which

(16) VP tabhyam

III

14.32-35

arthantarabhidhayitvam

tatharthantaravartinam ca tidrio'rtho na

/ yabhyam laukikah

caikam

anekartham

evaparam // samudayantaratvac padam na drsyate // duhkha sastrartho'pi durupapada airita

vyavaharartham tad dvyartham things also. the very ones

ca tasmad bhasye'py tu tatas tasyam prayujyate / vibhagena // samudayam upakramya padam samakhyane one thing express other denote (in dvandvas) words which ucyate // 'In the same way, are two objects by means The of which one constituent becomes (of a dvandva) polysemic

/ anvayavyatirekabhyam sa udahrta / yugapadvacita

the other constituent also becomes the group (expressed Therefore, by which polysemic. as a whole) such meaning is not known (of each constituent) by the compound being quite different, in the world nor is it seen in the sastra by the method of agreement and difference. this Therefore, to be difficult to prove simultaneous of both by each in has been declared expression (yugapadvacital to express both at it has been adopted for practical When there is a desire purposes. is used keeping in mind. in the the compound word the group Therefore, (tasyam), as expressive it is presented of both' statement, (transl. Iyer 1974:138-41). analytic I III 8.4-5a samuhah (17) VP avayavaih kramajanmanam buddhya prakalpitabhe gunabhiitair the Bhdsya but the same time of parts produced are subordinated to it. we can add in a sequence a whole and mentally is attributed conceived to each as one and identical (transl. with the parts To

dah kriyetivyapadifyate //samuhah sa tathabhutah pratibhedam samiihisu I 'What is called action is
a collection which which hi Such one of parts' Iyer 1974:8).

the lucid explanation of Helaraja II, p. 9) tathabhitasya (Prakirnakaprakasa ca sarvatra pacatiti avayave'dhyasat pratyekam adhyasas tatpratyayotpattih/ eva jfidyate / pratyavayavaparisamaptatvac ca samudayasyavayavanam pratyayasyanuvrtter tadr-padhyaropa eva. III 14.30 vyaparasamudayasya See also VP / pratyekam jativad upapadyata yathadhiirayanadisu set of activities vrttis tatha dvandvapadesv exists like the Universal in each api / 'Just as the whole samudayasya of the vessel (transl. Iyer on the fire (adhis"rayanam), so is the case with the constituents of 1974:137).

part like the placing dvandva compound'

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with

this given of grammatical elides itself by itself (cf. ibid. anyatra speculation, hi pratiniyatarupa bhavah ity eko'pi dvyarthah aparo'pi dvyarthah iti ka samgatih). Kashmir

reality has to reckon with. A conception of reality which sees objects as being strictly and here Ksemaraja delimited within their own confines (pratiniyatanipa bhdvd) and therefore incapable of agreeing has primarily the Buddhist conception inmind -,

vastu). To underline the centrality of the I in contrast with the apparent otherness and independence of the object, there is the continual recurrence in the saiva texts, from Utpaladeva such as dbhsayati, prakasayati onwards, of expressions particularly 'make shine', which refer both to the original creation (dbhasanam 'make manifest', Here we have (IPVr ad I 6.7) and the ever new process of knowledge. evotpddanam)

in general, denies the object an external Shaivism, (bdhya) reality, of consciousness. The phenomenal world is only a reflection (dbhdsa) within independent and its reality consists in appearing to the consciousness the consciousness (dbhdsa eva

is closely connected with the given to this not easy problem The most complete of the grammarians on the nature of the causative. speculations treatment of this topic is by Bhartrhari and exemplary (18),who takes up again the and integrates them by his personal observations made by Katyayana and Pataijali The solution contribuition. We have the causative precisely when one induces to action someone

one of the central problems of saiva philosophy. If the responsibility for the action of manifesting, of shining, rested entirely with the primary subject (hetu, prayojaka) of the causative dbhsayati i.e. the consciousness -, that the this would mean is totally extraneous to the reality of lightand thus really bdhya and, from object the saiva point of view, a mere nothing. The object, therefore, must be essentially light, because only that which is already in itself light can shine.

(18) See atmasadhyayam bhavaty

in particular

VP

III

7.122-27

sambhavanat

sadhananam svatantrair

prayojakah

//prayogamatre

anyaih

muktasamsayaih/

abhipraydnurodho'pi kartaiva vihitam

svarthasyaiva prasiddhaye astre hetusampjfiam prapadyate sa visayo tu yada nicah // gunakriyayam prayogas svatantryat presane sakriyasya is prompted niyamat karmasamjfiiyah svadharmenabhidhiyate // 'The agent who different chosen

kartrtvena samaritah/ kriyayam eva niiritah / avilisto svatantryad sarva eva pravartante nimittebhyo / svabhitaye tat samarthani cdcaran / kurvams // presanadhyesane tu praise prcchader lod vidiyate / dravyamatrasya / kriyasiddhau nyagbhavam karmatam by another gatah is not /

from the other independent there is no doubt because (1) he has been agents about whom as the agent for his capacity to accomplish to do the action the other accessories (2) he engages the action which another and so becomes subordinate (3) he is prompted they can accomplish, just by acts for his own benefit. of this independence. For some reason or other everybody because Following or the wish of another is also in order to fulfil one's own purpose. It is the agent who, by ordering requesting the sastra. and doing The things favourable (lot) is used imperative active object

the already agent who becomes he retains name his (karma)

the object

independence (to special cases)'

is prompted, of the act of prompting is called in regard to his own minor action (transl. Iyer 1971:219-22).

to an action, acquires the name of prompter which is taught in after roots like prcch when is prompted. the bare object When it comes within the scope of the causative affix (nic). The by his own characteristic (agent) because of the restriction of the and also because

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who is already active (VP III 7.126b sakriyasya prayogas tu yada sa visayo nicas), someone one knows is already potentially able to carry out that particular action (19). As Katyayana had already said (20), the definition of svatantrahkartd may therefore be are applied to the prayojya. The following considerations made by Abhinavagupta precisely an application
'ata eva' iti

of such argumentation:
'bhimanamatrasaram paratantryam

yato vrttau

maylyam esam niripitam,

abhasate

svatantryam tu na

esam sprstam

niladinam,

tato

svatantryam

iti dariayati

'antarnita' iti svatantrasyaiva hi pradhanakriyayam tannisthavighna
visaye'pi prasara

tiva mukhyakriyarupe, natu paramarthatah pradhanakriyayam tantryah praisadibhir abhisambadhyate (IPVV vol. II, p. 421). The

sambhpvananirasopayogipraisadikriyantaravisayamparatantryam

asambhavatsva

that form prakas'yaminesu causative says Abhinavagupta uses in the IPVr (ad IPK I 8.7) (21) is meant to underline the essential Utpaladeva heteronomy of those object realities, such as the colour blue etc., which the power of maya, on the contrary, makes us presume autonomous (i.e. independent of conscious

ness and external). But then what becomes of their (relative) autonomy, of their being in is not damaged; of shining? This the subject of the action of manifesting, to the primary can be dependent autonomous is with regard fact only he who a dependence the request etc, on the part action that consists in the command, of the prayojaka, to remove possible obstacles to the carrying out of the action. He any free agency with regard to a certain action (i.e. manifesting) the object of any pressure etc (22). Thus here, under the guidance in its delicate balance of the vydkaranasastra, the status of dbhasa is delineated, does not have could not become svatantrya and paratantrya. 1 5.12

who

between In

the Kdrika we read:

of the major

work

of the Pratyabhijniia,

the IPK

by

Utpaladeva,

tena jadat sa hi vilaksanah // atmata eva caitanyam citkriyacitikartrta-/tatparyenoditas
'Precisely for this reason the Self has been defined "consciousness",

(19) Cf. (p. 225),

of the lost Sivadrstydlocana the passage sa bhaved yasya saktata nama preryo'pi ad PI itarathd bahih 4.54 'svatantrasya

by Abhinavagupta, vidyate.

cit. in the Pardtrimsikdvivarana

(20) Vdrtt I-III 'na va svatantryad (21) may5aaktya ucyate.

kartrsamjfiarm

hy akurvaty pratyaksatvena

api karayatiti prakaiyaminesu

syat',

asvatantratvat', hetumaty upasamkhyanam cet svatantrah'. 'ndkurvatiti prakaavyatiriktesu bahirabhasa ity

bhavesu

(22)Abhinavagupta X 38-45,

dwells

upon pp.

Pardtrimikd-vivarana

form also of the nature of the causative the question 224-25 and in the lost Sivadrstydlocana (cf. fn. 19).

in Tantrdloka

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meaning by that the activity of perceiving and being the subject of such activity. It is thanks to this "consciousness" that the Self is differentiated from inert reality'. Being 'conscious' is the attribute (dharma) of the substance (dravya, dharmin) Self, which is, indeed, the dravya par excellence, because everything without exception rests as in the famous first sitra of the on him (23). To say 'The Self is consciousness' is to underline the absolute preemi here Sivasutra, which inspires Abhinavagupta nence of this quality with respect to all the others. In fact, permanence, incorporeality etc. may belong also to other entities, -whereas consciousness appertains to the only Self and it alone

In the particular case of caitanya the abstract form is laden relative to this kdrikal. with meanings which are particularly pertinent to this context; cetana, in fact, is a krdanta and as such its abstract denotes a 'relation' (sambandha) (cf. the maxim that I samdsakrttaddhitesu sambandhdbhidhdnam (26);Abhinavagupta's argumentation am referring to is implicitely based on this) and, through the relation, the two related (IPV I, elements, i.e. the subject and the action of perceiving, of being conscious 247 kartrkrdantat utpannena bhavapratyayena p. sambandhabhidhayinapi prddhanyena (27)pratitelh dravyariupasya ca darsitah; tatha hi sambandhasya sambandhivisrantasya sarnbandhinah

it (24). 'The suffixes of the abstract td is sufficient to characterize and tvam [to which the suffix syan- of caitanya is assimilable] says Katyayana in the dravya determines of the application indicated that quality whose presence a corrupted passage of IPVV II, p. 186 in the name' (25) (one guesses the quotation

avagamayatd prakrtya uktatvat citikriyaripam dharmamsambaddham so important The kdrikd in question syafia niskrsta eva amsah pratyayito bhavati). is precisely to in the economy of the Pratyabhijfia, one of whose principal objectives rest entirely confute the Vijfianavadin conception of an 'impersonal' consciousness on these grammatical premises. The gupta argument is taken up again with some interesting variations by Abhinava in IPVV II, p. 186. What is denoted by the abstract caitanya is not the

(23) Cf.

IPV

I, p. 246

dravyam

tattvabhitabhavabhuvanasambharah hiitapadarthantarasvabhavah (24) Cf. dharmatma, Sivasutravimarsini, tathapi

... sarvo bhati hi tat ucyate yadvisrantah sakalo'yam padarthavargah iti sa eva gunakarmadidharmarayab samvidi visrantah tatha bhavati tam eva mukhyadravyasvariipam iti saiva dravyam. arayate p. 2 sa ca (paramativa) yadyapi nityatvavyapakatvamiirtatvadyananta anyasambhavinah ca, caitanyam svatantryasyalva iti bhavapratyayena tadabhidhane

uddhurikarapradar'anam see Torella darsitam; (25) Vdrtt. V tvatalau. (26) This

anyatrapi nityatvadinam sambhavyamanatvat, idam / ittham dharmantarapratiksepatas 1979:37. See also IPV I, pp. 245-47. 1.119 siddham tu yasya gunasya bhavad

ad P V

dravye

"abdaniveias

so quoted by Heldraja in the Prakirnakaprakaa I, p. 55 (adVP III 1.47). (27) 1 follow here the reading of the KSTS edition (the Bhaskari reads, incorrectly,tatha hi
sambandha-Isambandhi?Ivisrantasya).

paribhdsa

is mentioned

in the Paribhasavrtti

of Siradeva;

see Kielhorn

1874:537.

It is al

191

159

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it. Every relation, according to the Pratyabhiji-a, the manifesting of the two related elements as resting on the nama pramatryisrantasambandhidvitayavabh (iha sanbandho subject knowing sasara iti) and therefore every relation is the implicit affirmation of a subject. in particular, the abstract denotes a relation with the action of being conscious, Here, of perceiving, and, therefore, in this case too, through the action the subject of this action itself but the relation with has as its essence is also denoted, as the element which is correlated to it. To which one might that all the various kdrakas are connected with the action; why then state that object here it is necessarily a question of the kartr? (nanu kriyasam-bandhah karakantaresv it is replied Because api tulyas tat katham uktam citkriyarupa citikartrteti). in and it is through their resting on the subject that the other kdrakas participate action (kartrvisrantidvarena hi karakantara-ny upallyante kriyayam). The Kashmiri authors have recourse, more or less consciously, on various other to the model furnished by grammatical speculation on the karakas. Once occasions, to give an account of the undeniable and necessary network of again Utpaladeva, resolve into the action relations which animates istance, interpreted the power of action to aggregate sentence (29). This role and power be unrelated subject, and discrete

relation is, for reality (the cause-effect phenomenal to the model of the relation kartr-karma (28)) refers to according the many various karakas in the unity of the of unifying entities which by themselves would is that which at all levels of reality is allotted to the that the action refers one

and, in fact, it is to the I, the subject agent,

(30).

(28) IPK vam karmataiva

II 4.2b ca

and

vrtti kartrkarmatattvaiva natv

karyatvam to that of subject agent essentially to the subject agent reduced respectively (29) IPK II 4.16 ata eva

eva hi karanat kartrtvam tatah karyakaranata the relation of cause and effect is reduced 'Therefore. anyat are and object Cause and effect, therefore, of the action. and the object of the action, nothing else'.

bhavasamanvayah/ is to be things between vrtti. action

/ kriyakarakabhavakhyo yukto vibhaktyarthah pramatrekasamarayah relation between 'On the basis of what has been said, the only logically admissible in the meaning of the case ending, the relationship identified which represents agents of the action karakanam and has samanvayah as its subject'; only basis the knowing kasthasthalidevadattaudananam 'The The notion IPK II 2.6a and pacatity the agents of the

and

kriyavimariavisayah bahirbhedac antahsamanvaydd action is based rice

on the reflective

caikanekavisaya kriyamatih awareness of the action

multiplicity, Devadatta, verb "he action

insofar as the various factors contribute are externally differentiated and '. For the grammarians the pre-eminent cooks" are are the object of common is the principal element called dependent gunatvam). right column, Cf. padarthah in the as

link existing between is founded on unity of "action" to the accomplishment of the action wood, pot, linked through their connection with the internally position Action (see G. says Kaiyata insofar as it is that which in order and aggregating role of the verbal Cardona must be the

in the sentence fn. 157) 1974:302, the kdrakas action (Pradipa pravrtteh purusam

consensus.

sentence

realized; verbal

insofar

II, p. 264, karakanam

they enter into activity on PI ad Mbh 4.3 kriyayah again Kaiyata, kriyayam gavadayo an in the course samucciyante

to realize

tadarthatvat meaning tha gam

sadhyatvat pradhanyam on the of the discussion samuccayai sambadhyante agent must cartho ya

of ca, yada asvam

parasparanirapeksah

tada

II, p. 469,

left column,

ityadau vakye parasparanapekson P II 2.29). ad MBh any action, presupposes

nayanakriyaya the subject

(PradTpa therefore

(30) Action,

for the Saivas,

intention:

160

[101

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Action

-

is the only karaka that cannot be absent, it is kartr, according to the grammarians, the one everything revolves around (31), the only one that is indipendent and not, a blend of dependence (32). Behind like the other karakas, and independence
consciousness and volition. 'An inert reality with ad II endowed (IPVr says Utpaladeva cannot be even the subject of the action of being "it exists, is", since it does not possess free 4.20) to be" the "wanting manifests itself through asti-bhavati dom, which ity asyam (jadasyapi api can attribute a certain action to an One akartrvam)'. svatantrybhavad sattakriyayam bubhisayogena be insentient experience on Sivadrsti discourse definition in mind that this sattd which practical sense, unless one bears in the vrtti is developed sivatakhyd. This point by Utpaladeva in IV 32b-33a, Somananda solves in the same terms the problem of the attribution where to entities of karaka of the qualification that are by (and therefore of the case endings) such as the hare's horn etc... On the other hand, one could add that even the inexistent, reality only in a metaphorical to it is in reality ascribes

gravitates fact that all the other karakas subject alone is sufficient to bring about the verbal action, and, on the contrary, even if all the other karakas are present, the absence of the subject alone makes the action ca aparakarakaparyayapaye'pi sati (IPVV III, p. 253 evam briivanais impossible asati tu aparaka-rakasa-magryam kartari kriyatattvasya darsanam iti api adarianam kartrvisrantir eva kriyeti nirtipitam bhavati). anvayavyatirekabhyamt at all levels of experience The centrality of the I, as knowing and agent in Kashmir Shaivism, is the same as that of the kartr in the sentence. The subject,

says Abhinavagupta, essentially towards

using arguments which are typically grammatical the subject and resolves into it; this is proved by the in the sentence may be absent, but the presence of the

a pot is his in and he participates in the kartrtd of the potter who makes only insofar as it is inscribed is that of Siva. for their part, generally The grammarians, exclude the authentic kartrtd, which only link between of a necessary and argue, among those who hold the agency and animation possibility The centrality of with the Naiyayikas (see G. Cardona 252-53). 1974:239, thesis, especially opposite a little further on: IPVr ad II 4.21 evam the subject is reaffirmed by Utpaladeva kartur cidripasyaikasya eva cikirsakhya karmasti karmadinam 'There is no kriy mukhya, nakartrkam kartrmukhenopacaratah a subject agent: action, to the various karakas, in fact, is attributed such object of the action without as the object etc.,

(31)VP
pravrttanam

ca darianat nivartanat apy upakaritve / arad // adrstatvat pratinidheh praviveke kartur ucyate // 'The independence of the agent is accepted for the following reasons: (1) svatantryam of the other accessories) and from some because the agent acquires his capacity before (the operation other source (2) because he keeps the others subordinate the others act according (to himself) (3) because no substitute to his direction the agent can hold back the others already engaged (4) because (5) because for him is seen (6) because of he accomplishment katham 'How action the action

III 7.101-2 prag anyatah faktilabhan nyagbhavapadanad api / tadadhinapravrttitvat

only

in a metaphorical

sense,

through

the subject

agent'.

punar jiayate to know element? that the kartr is the principal are present, the kartr sets them in motion'. II,

even when is present in the the others are not, even though he helps I p. 326 ad P I. 4.23, from a distance' MBh (transl. Iyer 1971:209). iti / yat sarvesu sadhanesu karta pravartayita bhavati karta pradhanam sannihitesu Insofar I 4.23 as, when tena Cf. / tad yathd the other accessories to the

(32) Pradipa kartrsamnjia pradhanena

tasya,

on Mbh left column, ad P p. 246, na tu paratantryasahitasvatantryayuktasya. sthall paratantra vyavaye Kdika svatantra ad PI 4.54

svatah

also MBh

svatantryam I, p. 326 rajfia

eva evam saha

yasya tarhi sama

samavaye

/ amatyadinam

vaye paratantryam vyavaye svatantryam; tat kdrakam bhavati vivaksyate kartrsamifiam

agunabhdto (see Joshi-Roodbergen

svatantryena yah kriyasiddhau fn. 185). 1975:267,

[11]

161

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the name the Kashmiri masters the svdtantryavdda 'the philosophy of freedom' one can clearly glimpse a universe of meanings which often gave to their philosophy svatantrah karta (cf.Ruegg 1959:32), famous siu-tra has its centre of irradiation in Pnini's with the relative explanations by Katyayana, Patafijali and Bhartrhari.

ABBREVIATIONS

IPK IPVr
IPV

lvarapratyabhi#idkdikd livarapratyabhijdvrtti
lvarapratyabhijdvimarin

IPVV KSTS MBh P VP

lvarapratyabhijfdvivrtivimariin1 Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies Mahdbhdsya Pinini -Astddhydyl Vdkyapadiya

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