First published, June, 1922 Second printing, July, 1922



called the Amorites. It has been generally held that these stories are of Babylonian origin. when henotheism prevailed. and Marduk or Bel was transformed into Christ. but owing to a faulty copy of the text originally presented. "God" is the foremost deity. which is not referred to in the Old Testament. that a long famine preceded the deluge. that an ancient (Eebrew)deluge tradition written in cuneiform is here presented. In Germany where these views developed. This involves many scholarly works written in recent decades upon the early history of Israel. This story of the deluge which had found its way into Babylonia. that Canaan was a domain of Babylonian culture in the time of Moses . but also many of the chief characters are said to have descended from Babylonian mythology. In America a more moderate position has generally been accepted. that the famine had been sent because men had multiplied. is that it will require that the prevailing view be abandoned that the Hebrew traditions were borrowed from Babylonia. We learn from this tradition. It is not a recent discovery. and also from its redaction written centuries later. reminding us of the causes given for the deluge in the Old where it was made to fully betrays its origin . The great importance of this inscription. and also because of their clamor. Not only is the Israelitish cult held religion.FOREWORD The * title of this little monograph tells its own story. some scholars have gone to great extremes only a change of names had taken place. which was copied about the time of Abraham from an older tablet. conform largely to the Akkadian dialect. together with other facts here presented. Testament. ' * ' ' to be dependent upon the Babylonian. it came from the same source whence the Hebrew traditions came. As was the case in pre-Mosaic days. and to a large extent in early Israel. ov\\ . its importance has never been understood. namely. in which . and that Israel had assimilated this foreign culture as well as its feathers and all. nor is it the first time that it has appeared in print. It was first published a number of years ago. namely from the people who lived in Amurru (Syria and Mesopotamia).

holding that the traditions of the Hebrews were indigenous in the land of the Amorites . . and reversed their positions. it is generally held that these traditions of had been brought from Babylonia in the time . and the Pan-Babylonian theory made more palatable. but upon an indigenous people. this land was not dependent for who migrated from Arabia a its population upon Arabs before and after the time of Abraham.6 YALE OEIENTAL SEEIES EESEAECHES V-3 the extreme views were toned down. that the Arabian origin of the Semites living in ancient Syria and Babylonia. instead of being the creations of fiction writers. of the Amorites. instead of facing those the real issue in their reviews. . or at the time of the exile and that many of the characters had their origin in myth. The writer's thesis in brief is. zation . and brought with them their mainly He has also consistently maintained that such familiar culture. While the new point of view was accepted by many scholars. were historical personages. and that contrary little to the prevailing view. Abraham. In the judgment of the writer the material presented in this little monograph. the antiquity of whose culture is as high as that known in Egypt or Babylonia and also . will require a very extensive readjustment of . as well as in his recently published Empire Hebrews. Twelve years ago the writer took issue with this general position. dwelt upon and held up as proof of the writer's thesis some extraneous suggestions which had been intended for consideration in filling in the background of the two that the Semites who moved into the lower who had or more millenniums of Amorite history prior to Abraham. Euphrates valley came from this quarter. only a few of written upon the subject acknowledged the gains that had been made. Biblical characters as the patriarchs and others. is baseless . or in the Amarna Period. including the is but that the antiquity of the Amorite civiliand also the assertion that the culture and very great religion of Israel were borrowed from Babylonia is without any foundation for they were indigenous and that the Semites who migrated to Babylonia with their culture were mainly from Amurru. and the tremendous flow of Pan-Babylonian literature was suddenly and very materially reduced in volume. Even some scholars in their efforts to nullify the advances. Nevertheless.

and later by the Arabic which now prevails. it also has bearings of a far-reaching character on many other Old Testament problems.C. are a. ALBERT T. was followed by the Aramaic. and what script was employed in the early period. as far as is known. notably Babylonia and Egypt. Professor Charles Cutler Torrey. is we know that the Babylonians. CONN. suggestions as well as several identifications of roots which are indicated in the foot notes. By reason of its products and its position this land had been attractive to other peoples ever since one strove to obtain what the other possessed.. 1922. Persians. To what extent the Akkadian dialect was used in certain parts. called "the land of the Amorites. In these pages we have evidence that one of its rulers conquered Babylonia as early as 4000 B. It should be added that this country in turn also prevailed at times over other lands. Within the historical period Amurru. being the oldest of which we have knowledge. Excavations at one or two well selected sites will throw light on this and many other questions. Arabs. This country has always represented ethnologically a great mixture. Moreover. Assyrians. CLAY. Linguistically. who not only has watched sympathetically these investigations but also in reading the manuscript has made a number of advance. May ." it might be added. NEW HAVEN. 19.s yet undetermined. Turks.FOREWORD 7 many views bearing upon the subject. a Semitic language has always prevailed in this great stretch of territory. and furnish us with the material whereby we will be able to reconstruct many chapters of its early history. It gives the writer great pleasure to inscribe this little contribution to his colleague and friend. Hittites. Romans. resulting in almost innumerable invasions and conflicts taking place in this land. Greeks. The Amorite or Hebrew language. Egyptians. as well as the abandonment of many others. and other peoples controlled this territory. a geographical term which was used in ancient times for the great stretch of territory between Babylonia and the Mediterranean.


VII .CONTENTS Page I II An Ancient Hebrew Deluge Story An Ancient Fragment of the Etana Legend 11 33 III A Fragment Babylonia of the Adapa Legend 39 IV An Early Chapter in the History of Amurm and 42 APPENDIX Transliterations and Translations of the Deluge Stories A An Early Version of the Atra-hasis Epic B A Late Redaction of the Atra-hasis Epic C 58 61 An Assyrian Fragment of the Atra-hasis Epic 68 69 72 81 D A Deluge Story in Sumerian E The Deluge Story in the Gilgamesh Epic F A Fragment of a Deluge Story in Babylonian G Berossus' Version of the Atra-hasis Epic Dynastic Lists of Early Babylonia Autographed Texts Heliotype Reproductions 82 84 Plates I-IV " V.


I AN ANCIENT HEBREW DELUGE STORY This fragment of a large tablet was published in text. 1 . in the meantime many other translations have appeared. is Scheil Becueil de Travaux 20 (1898) 55 ff . the latter. while it was apparent that the present text did refer to the deluge. as will be seen from what follows. 277 ff Jensen VI 1 274 ff . -ancient or Amorite Deluge Story. known as the Ea and Atra-hasis legend. . 1 Moreover. CT 15. Hebrew Ea and The later version or redaction was put into a magical setting for incantation purposes. due somewhat to its not having been thoroughly cleaned. and the late redaction as B. Rogers Cuneiform Parallel* 113 ff and others. While it was understood that it had the same general application as a legend preserved in the British Museum. could not be said to refer to the deluge. reveals the fact that this is a mistake that it is a part of an old version of what should properly be called the Atra-hasis Epic. 44. In the Appendix will be found the transliteration and translation of all the versions of this deluge story or The ancient dated text stories. transliteraand translation nearly twenty-five years ago. designated as A. 49. etc. 1 p. Ungnad Altorientalische Texte vnd Bilder I. ff Ibidem 128 Ser. and that the so-called Atra-hasis Legend of the Assyrian period. which is a very tion * ' ." study. ' ' Hilprecht BE . before it had come into the possession of the Pierpont Morgan Library Collection of Babylonian Inscriptions. Translated by Zimmern ZA 14. and belonging to a later period. . V KB . it was considered even by one who examined the tablet that it contained little more than a few 2 Further phrases and words. its importance has only been slightly appreciated. D.3 is a late redaction of it. without any coherent connection. however. both cuneiform and Greek. which has also been translated by a number of scholars. owing to its fragmentary condition. Dhonne Ungnad ATB I 61 ff . 57 f Rogers Cuneiform Parallels 104 ff. Jensen KB VI 1 288 ff Dhonne Choix de Textes Eeligieux Assyro-Babyloniens 120 ff. owing to the form in which the tablet had been presented. Moreover.

1. that is between 2300 and 1300 B." to which the element suddu (requ) "to be distant" has been added. ostensibly from a version of the Atra-hasis Epic. The reference also to "the wall. which is composed of title three elements. which contains two of the three elements of the Sumerian name. is Atra-hasis. beginning with the creation. it seems to have been used for incantation purposes. C. etc. KB and Historical Texts 14 ff. written in Sumerian. some time between the middle of the First Dynasty of Baby5 lon and the second Nisin era. 4 This is designated ago there was published a brief epitomized history of the world." and u (urn] "day. V: 3. The hero late period 4 8 of the other and well known deluge story. i A few years vv\ t ^ Like the other legend written in the late period." when the hero was apprised of the impending deluge. followed by an account of the building of cities and the story of the This tablet was found during the excavations at Nippur deluge. tempest overwhelms the land. is is in both. should be loaded. written after the Sumerian language had ceased to be spoken in its purity. is an abbreviated form of the original (see below). Zi (napishtim) "life. Zi-u-suddu. when the seventh day arrives. It is not impossible that Um-napishtim.12 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES RESEARCHES V-3 small fragment in the British Museum. furnishes us with the conversation between the A god Ea and Atra-hasis concerning the construction it of the ship. and 66 . This version is designated as D. 128-130). the replaced in the Sumerian by of the hero. It is evidently based upon the same story as that from which the Gilgamesh Epic story has descended. Further. 101. The tablet was conducted by the University of Pennsylvania. which was also written in the late period. Delitzsch Assyr. which in the had been woven into the Gilgamesh Epic. 4) is paralleled in the Semitic by six days and nights the wind drives the deluge* ' . See Poebel Historical and Grammatical Texts No. the tempest subsides in the onslaught" (E. Um-napishtim. and with what in the Appendix as C. Les* p. VI 1 254 ff. ff. for it mentions the hero 's name. The phrase in the Sumerian version "when for seven days and nights the flood overwhelms the land" (D. as is apparent from several expressions found in it.

). probably written two thousand years earlier (see below). is designated as F. in the llth year of Ammi-zaduga (1966 B. belonged. The only dated version written in cuneiform is the one in the Pierpont Morgan Collection. 7 This This with the story. given in the Appendix. See Haupt Nimrod-Epos 134 ff Delitzsch Ass.C. Dhorme Rogers Cuneiform V 1 p. T D If the text came from Sippar. . but there are reasons for believing it is a very ancient legend. The original from which the scribe copied had already been injured in the 12th line. now in the British Museum. 1 228 ff . on the 28th day of Shebet. 48.I AN ANCIENT HEBREW DELUGE STORY is 13 is but his title. This fragment.. easily recognized. or Uta-napishtim. Several small pieces have been from the surface of it. which is indicated the word hibis " broken. in which the hero is Xisuthros (2rovfy>os). belongs to the Cassite period. The deluge story handed down by Berossus. written probably in the Cassite period (about 1400 B. is still another version of the epic. to which the late redaction of it. It was copied from a still earlier inscription by a junior scribe named Azag-Aya. 1 See Zimmern KAT 543 f. cannot be surmised. which is more likely.). in which neither the name of a god nor that of the hero is preserved. which better known 6 in connection is Um-napishtim. Besides these versions or fragments of versions there is also known a little fragment of thirteen partially preserved lines. Textes Eeligieux Assyro-Babyloniens 100 ff Ungnad ATB I. then it is possible that it was written at a somewhat earlier time. Unfortunately. 8 This is designated as G. which about 1300 years earlier than the time of the Library of Ashurbanipal (668-626 B. designated as E. Les* 99 ff . which name represents a transposition of the elements of Atra-hasis.C. In the copy of the inscription. and are indicated by small ink dots.). i. Hasis-atra. This conclusion is based on a palaeographical and linguistic study of texts found at Nippur belonging to the Uamniurabi and the Cassite periods. if it actually came from Nippur. e. the tablet has been injured since lost it was first published twenty-five years ago. Hilprecht BE Ser. or from some other Semitic city. . 50 Parallels 90 ff. KB VI ff.C. . these parts are based upon the original copy made twenty-five years ago." How much earlier the date is by previous text was written.

9 Deducting those of the last column. which is 439. This can be determined from the shape of the fragment. man. gives 57 or 58 for each. Inuma ilu awelum were doubtless the initial words of the first tablet of the series. This fragment of the ancient version contains the opening lines of what was the second tablet of the series. III: 39). The Biblical story makes no reference to a famine preceding the deluge nor does the Gilgamesh Epic story yet in the light of the Atra-hasis Epic this would seem to be implied in the Gilgamesh story in the message which Ea tells Um-napishtim to give to the people." after the ship is built. leaves 402 which divided into the remaining seven columns. This second tablet of the ancient version opens with a reference to the famine. i.e. the second column of which. as in the late redaction. probably seven years. It can also be determined that it had eight columns from the number of lines. The famine in the ancient Atra-hasis version came after men began to multiply. you abundance. of which it was a part. It was ordered that the fig tree be cut off. . and Ea. namely 37. and the first chapter of Genesis. and the land had become satiated "like a bull. column. not being complete. . and that it became so severe that human flesh was eaten. it may have contained an account of the creation. entrusted the great laws of heaven. ff . Enlil. the middle. In the latter we learn that the famine lasted six. the great sentence meaning gods. Enlil. which was entitled or known by the words I-nu-ma i-lu a-we-lum. "it will rain for . 10 It recalls the well known title Enuma Ann Erilil "When Anu. had eight columns. from the total number of the tablet. What the content of the first tablet was cannot be surmised. namely. does not reach the thickest part of the tablet. 8 ** This was determined when the tablet was originally published . Like the Sumerian text found at Nippur. which equals 57." etc." etc." This fact is hinted at in the late redaction where we have the line " [The people] have not become less they are more numerous than before" (B." the complete form of which is known: "When Anu. This is an incomplete "When God.. see Seheil BT 20 55 This was originally incorrectly read i-nu-ma sal-lu a-we-lum (see below). .14 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES RESEARCHES V-3 The fragment shows that the tablet. This can be verified by adding 37 to the nearly 20 preserved in the seventh .

can be determined only when other parts of his incantation are found. and glossed it. [i-na] fyu-bu-ri-si-na i-lu it-ta-afy~ da-ar 5 [ [In] their absent. Whether the redactor included in his work also the account of the deluge. and B. which he used for incantation purposes. The land like a bull had become satiated. that the rivers be restrained at their . What is preserved of the redactor's and the bearing of children. Complete translations of all the cuneiform deluge stories are given in the Appendix. the ancient and the redaction. . work makes no reference to the flood. that the fields withhold their produce and that the womb be closed. : : : 1 to 19 SELECTION FROM THE EARLY VERSION LINES 1 [li]-(1)-bi-il 1-19. 15 that Adad withhold . [iz] -za-kar a-na el(1)-li ra-bu- He said to the great gods (?) tim iq-ta-ab-ta ri-gi-im a-wi-lu-ti i-na hu-bu-ri-si-na iz-za-kar ma-siit-ta Those observing the clamor of men. after Adad had opened the heavens and sent a deluge. is perfectly clear from the transliteration and translation of the two texts. III 2 to 8 and 37 to 59 of the latter. The ancient version. In their assemblage he spoke of desolations. the following selections are here given A. The story of the famine involving the lack of fertility lent itself to such a purpose. however.I AN ANCIENT HEBREW DELUGE 8TOBY the rain . The lines of the seventh column refer to the intervention of the god Ea. assemblage God was ] is-te-me ri-gi-im-si-in heard their clamor. 1 of the former. That he modified. in connection with sickness as well as the entering into the ship. but in order to have the related parts of the two texts of the Atra-hasis Epic together for the purpose of comparison. [ri]-ig-[ma-si-i]n I will bring (?) their clamor (?) bal-ti-a(l) ma-tum ir-ta-bi-is ni-[suim]-ti-da i-sa-ab-bu [m]a-tum ki-ma li-i The land had become great. the main theme of the epic. enables us to ascertain where he obtained his account of the famine. enlarged. the people had multiplied. The promise to preserve the seed of life is also referred source to.

ina] i-sa-ba-ta ni-si-tu [He said in] their assemblage to those untouched by the desolations. Adad li-sa-aq-ti-il -a [li]-il-li-ka the sheep let Adad destroy. i- [izzakar ina] hu-bu-ri-si-na la sa-ba4a d [ni-si-tu] [He spoke in] their assemblage to those untouched [by the desolations]. let the plant become a weed ( ? ) . Let the wind blow. [li-ni-'] ir-ta Let it drive mightily. [Let a sa d Nisaba change come over] bosom of Nisaba. . that [Rain from the heav]ens pour not forth. he speaks to the gods his children. am ta-a-(di-ir)dir [izzakar. the SELECTIONS FROM THE REDACTION III [eli 2-8.16 YALE ORIENTAL SEEIES RESEARCHES [lip-par]-sa a-na ni-si te-i-na V-3 Let the fig tree for the people be 10 [i-na sa-da]-ti-si-na li-'-zu sa-am- mu su hi-bi-is d [cutoff]. rig (ri-gi) -me-si-na it-ta- [Concerning] their clamor he be- d[ir] came troubled. [ia is-sa-a me-li na]-aq-bi [That the flood rise not at the [li-]-il-li-ik sa-ru li-e-ir-ri so]urce. [En-lil] il-ta-kan pu-hur-su: izakkara a-na ildni meS mare mei - [Enlil] held his assembly. Let the clouds be held back. Let the field withhold its fertility. En-l]il il-ta-kan pu-hur-[su] 5 [iz-za] -ka-ra a-na ildnimeS mare mei [ [Enlil) held [his] assembly. 15 [na] -ag-bi-ra [ur] -bi-e-tum li-im-ta-an-ni-ma [zu-un-nu i-na same] (-e) ia it-tu- uk [li-su]-ur eqlu is-bi-ki-su. [In] their [fields]. AND 37-59. -su [iq]-tab-ta-ma [r]i-gi-im a-me-lute [eli Those observing the clamor of men: r]ig(ri-g[i)]-me-[si-n]a athu-[bu]-ri-si-na la [Concerning] their clamor I troubled. I will su ra na-ti me-e-ta as-ku-na-si- put them to death. [He sa]id to the gods his children. [The fountains of the deep] let not flow.

bellies. people] have not become i-ta-at-ra they are more numerous their than before.] [i-n]a kar-si-si-na li-me-su sam- [I]n their bellies let mu [e]lis d wanting. let Adad make rain qir scarce. Let calamity be placed upon the people. Let the wide field bear weeds ( ?). [l]i-sur eqlu is-pi-ki-e-su f [l]i-ni- irtu sa dNisaba : musd- fames lip-su-u ugdre meS Let the field withhold its fertility. the plant was want- e-lis Adad zu-un-na-su u-sa-qir 55 is-sa-kir sap-lis ul is-sa-a me-lu ina na-aq-bi is-sur eqlu is-pi-ki-su i-ni-' irtu Above. that bring forth no infant.ia i-'-ru sam-mu become white. that the plant come not forth. . sam-mu In their ing. Below (the fountain of the deep) was stopped. Adad zu-un-na-su lu-sa- Above.I AN ANCIENT HEBREW DELUGE STORY pa-na 17 [nise] la im-im-ta-a a-na sa [The less. Let her bosom revolt. 50 [li]s-sa-kin-ma a-na nise meS a-sa- ku [remu] sir-ra lu-ku-sur-ma ia u-se-sir Let the [womb] be closed. that the flood rose not at the source. that the sheep become not pregnant. sa dNisaba: musdti mei mei A ip-su-u ugare change came over the bosom of Nisaba. The field withheld its fertility. Adad made scarce his rain. 45 [li-is]-sa-kir sap-lis ia is-sa-a me- Below lu i-na na-aq-bi let (the fountain of the deep) be stopped that the flood rise not at the source. it ip-[par-s]u a-na ni-se-e ti-ta i-na kar-si-si-na e-me-su d The fig tree was cut [off] for the people. the fields by night became white. i~ clamor I am [izzakar ina] Jiu-bu-ri-si-na la sa-ta ni-si-tu [He said tions : in] those untouched their assemblage to by the desola- [lip-par] -sa-ma a-na ni-se-e ti-ta Let the [cut fig tree for the people be the plant be his off. seru pal-ku-u lu-li-id id-ra-nu [li]-bal-kat ki-ri-im-sa : ia u-sa-a su-u. 40 [eli] rig-me-si-na at-ta-a-dir [Concerning] troubled. Let a change come over the bosom of Nisaba by night let the fields .

4) is not found in Akkadian. " King read it as a name ummu hubur. r This old version contains absolutely nothing to suggest the idea that it had originally been written in Sumerian. fearing the word would not be understood by his Assyrian readers." 11 It is found also in the Creation Story." in which " See notes beneath the transliteration in the Appendix. most striking Amorite words in the text is huburu which also is found in the redaction. is The critical historical study of the late redactor's work com- paratively easy in this instance. in which he used the regular Assyrian word for "assembly" (puhru). see Seven Tablets of Creation. "the assembly (or association)" mother of them all" (muallidat gimrisun). and means ''assemblage. which were not in current use in Akkadian. Siinde. . 13 in Hebrew. but also certain words. and Ebeling "Die Mutter der Tiefe" Altorientalische Texte und Untersuchungen II 4. Getose. cannot be sur- mised. 17. The root of it-ta-ah-da-ar (A. . her womb revolted.18 YALE ORIENTAL SEEIES RESEARCHES seru pal-ku-u u-li-id id-ra-na: ib-bal-kat ki-ri-im-sa V-3 The wide field bore weeds ( ?) . On the contrary. because we have an original from which his work has descended. in ummu hubur ''mother of the 12 of gods. sam-mu ul u-sa-a su-u ul i'-ru The plant came not forth. This has been left all untranslated in the translations where the meaning "totalite" is is West Semitic. who was of West Semi- known to the writer except one. 7. 308 and 541. One of the (line 4). the title of Tiamat. p. Totenreich" KAT* 642 f Jensen translated "Die Mutter des Nordens" KB VI 1. the hero and the deities Amorite. as "^ecu/is. The redactor. 22. but it is tic origin. Ungnad "Mutter gubur" ATB I 9. The word unquestionably given. association. reading "[En] -HI established his assembly". Zimmern translated ftubur "Tiefe. in adar "to be absent. p. How many times the text had been re-copied during the two or three thousand years of its history prior to many . inserted a line which follows in his transcription. p. the time the present early version 'was inscribed. Gesamtheit" pp. the sheep did not become pregnant. ' to be lacking. and suggested other possibilities. Not only are it is clearly evident that it is of Amorite origin. In the thirteen hundred years copyists and redactors had doubtless taken part in transmitting the legend. 11 See Clay Amurru the Home of the Northern Semites 49 f .

The word is iq-ta-ab-ta (A. and perhaps also Herri and imassid. 12 to 16) into one line (see B." which is frequently found Old Testament. " to follow It is found in Hebrew with the meaning Akkadian. but he changed the wording. and wrote in his paraphrase "Concerning their clamor he was troubled" (ittadir) (B. but a later scribe. 9). in the . literature the word titu or tittu is little more than known. 11) is to be seen an Amorite word which had not been used in Akkadian. as in the present text.. see 2 Sam. listarriq. This probably is lisaznin. replaced the Hebrew word te-i-na with ti-ta. In Hebrew literature. II: 30 and III: 45). sheep. for he changed the sense. we do not know." In Ethiopic and Aramaic. and he also condensed the six lines of the original which follow (A. man "dwelt under" and ate "every one of his fig tree. 7) does not occur in Amorite. : * * ' ' (A. 11). 17 26. Isaiah 40 26. is another Hebrew word meaning "flock. it at the heel." is not the pronominal suffix. Apparently the redactor did not understand the word.). 36: 16. feeling that this would not be understood in his country where the fig was practically unknown. the word "fig tree" is synonymous with "prosperity. Not only do we find lisaqtil instead of lusaqtil. 8) is Hebrew." but in Syria (see Mic." This the early redactors had allowed to stand. The word ma-si-it-ta "desolations" (A." It was not in Babylonia nor in Assyria that. etc. ' ' mark. Whether the redactor understood its meaning. a peculiarity of the early Amorite language in which the legend had been written. : : III: 2). etc. 4:4.I AN ANCIENT HEBREW DELUGE STORY 19 language the verbal forms occur also in the Niphal. the word used is This also is Hebrew (see Psalm 88: 13). etc. In the redaction. translated "flock. but note also limtanm. Owing to the injury of the tablet it is not possible to say that su : . Is. see Job 30 3 Psalm 74 3. 'aqdb means " to observe. but the word su which does occur in the redactor's paraphrase. In Babylonian and Assyrian the Babylonian word for fig tree. In li-sa-aq-ti-il (A. ni-si-tu. which is the Hebrew word for "fig tree. A very striking and important proof that the original story was Amorite or Hebrew is to be seen in the use of the word te-i-na (A. etc.

T. 15) is doubtless to be found in Hebrew to throw. If we had no other data to show that Nisaba (A. Naturally the words currently used in Babylonia. interpreting it in their own legends as being synonymous with ' ' very wise. 19). but the root was not in current use in Babylonia. being in doubt as to the reading. etc. It will be noticed that in the Adapa fragment discussed below. synonymous with the idea "clever one. and Clay Empire of the Amorites p. to hold back. is Amorite. hurl. u This name is " " the generally considered to be two words meaning exceedingly wise. the word At-ra-ha-si-sa is not written grammatically as two words in the sentence. and this does not seem to have been its original meaning. and an Akkadian scribe who lived in Babylonia. but that Ea also had his origin in the West. . ' While the Babylonians used it as synonymous with these words." made an etymological play upon the name. see Chiera Lists of Personal Names p. as well as in Amurru. Atra16 The fact that the determinative hasis. see Tallqvist APN 252 and NBN 231. bears an Amorite name. are not discussed. wrote : hibis. having their own word atru. 175. but we have. also written Atra. is evidently the familiar Hebrew mana' "to withhold. On Ea as an Amorite god. The words [i]a [li]-il-li-ka " let not flow " are preserved at the end of the line." "abundant. 16). of "showers. with and without the determination. are numerous among West Semitic names. -gabri. " as is done in the Etana and Adapu Epics. -qamu. Naturally no one would question that Adad is the Amorite Hadad.20 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES RESEARCHES V-3 In line 12 the word hibis indicates that a previous tablet had been injured. nevertheless a personal name. where A-tarfya-si-sa is in apposition with ad-mu si-ih-ru. It is to be noted that the hero. -hammu. ' ' ' ." The same is true in the Etana Legend (SB VI 1 106: 39).. Atar-bi'di (-idri. "Scholars generally agree that Adad (dIM) and Nisaba are West Semitic. Amos 4: 7. stood in the ta-ma-ta original. "injured. meaning "surplus." This root was not in current use in Babylonia. 39 f. The root of li-im-ta-an-m-ma (A. Names compounded with Atar and Attar. but is looked upon as a name. Atram.)." li-e-ir-ri The root of in the common yarah " (A." used in connection with rain. it was very wise one. The Baby-s&ri.." Jer. Probably the words e-na-ta "fountains of the deep. which is in the nominative case. a land where springs are unknown. etc. cf. the goddess of fertility. 3: 3." as in Genesis 7 11. 15 These words are all found in the first nineteen lines of the text. And there can be no doubt. lonians in making use of these West Semitic legends. this passage would be sufficient. -nhri. as was done so frequently in the O.

is Amorite from the This root is not in current use : in Akkadian. especially those in confor the chief deity's name in this legend. This being ' ' ' The words a-na a word foreign to the Akkadians.. 40 : not Akkadian but Amorite. meaning "morsels. three of whom. This is the Hebrew : waw conjunctive. 21 for it man is placed before it impossible to regard especially in this early period. is pat-te (B. The word la-su (B. and as we already have seen. 1 33).I AN ANCIENT HEBREW DELUGE 8TOBY it. to treasure. makes here as being an epithet for a hero bear- ing another name. found several times in the 5. food. These facts and others which follow. and used the Hebrew word su flock. but pat-te is the Hebrew word pat in the plural. 1 43 ma-bel mdti has been left wholly unaccounted for in all the translations. prove conclusively that this was originally a Hebrew or nection with the name llu "God" Amorite Deluge Story. added a question mark to their conjectural translation of it." Old Testament. If this is an Amorite legend we would expect to find also in the work of the late redactor or glossarist. Amorite words which had not been adopted by the Semitic Babylonians and in this we are not disappointed." The ma at the beginning of B." nor the reading a-na kurmate "for food" correct. but la-su is the Amorite inseparable preposition with the . however." and the sentence reads * they prepare the child for morsels. II: 56) has been construed by all the translators as the negative particle. when The word root sapan zi-ba-ni-it ' ' to hide. how he replaced the Hebrew teina with the Babylonian titu. see Jer. ' ' "treasures" (B. I: 36) do not mean "aussitot. redactor inserted glosses or parallel phrases in connection with huburisina. will show that all the Hebrew or Amorite words had not been eliminated in the 1 1 ' ' thirteen hundred years which intervened between the dates the two tablets were written. A comparison of the two texts shows how the . etc. etc. the redactor wrote the gloss which precedes. is is The word i-ri-ha-ma (B. recognizing the difficulty. 11:50) The word 'aruhah "meal. iqtabta. The following. "They prepare the daughter for a meal.

but considering that it is from the Hebrew root asdb to grieve. In the long period which preceded it had suffered many changes when redactors had made the original Amorite text conform to the dialect in current use in Babylonia ' l ' ' . Ill: 3). 111:3). There are other Amorite words in the late text which are discussed in the foot notes of the transliteration and translation. The me which follows Atra-hasis (B. Ishme-Dagan etc. . The study of the late redaction also shows that it goes back to a Hebrew or Amorite original. etc. Even the position of the verbs in the sentence had suffered changes for while they . is Amorite. Yashme-Dagan. in 1966 B. as in Hebrew. we find that they were written Yashbi-Urra. see how this process went on in the We writing of personal names of those coming fresh from the West . it is omitted. 14 see Isaiah 54: 6." makes an insurmountable difficulty. names like Ishbi-Urra. The story of the deluge." The redactor glossed la-su with the Akkadian word it-ti-su which precedes.. 14 In the passage which is exactly parallel (B. In no other way can the Hebrew words found in its composition be explained. embraces elements of more than one tradition. all the words peculiar to the West had not been eliminated. for example. as is the case in Akkadian. are frequently found at the beginning. they are also found placed at the end. yet it See notes beneath the word in the transliteration in the Appendix. but on the arrival from the West of others bearing those names. ' fortunately. or indifferently in the sentence. as referred to above in connection with ma-si-it-ta of the ancient version. C. as contained in the Gilgamesh Epic. III: 20). had become Akkadianized. as we have seen. meaning "to him.. 14 They say Um-napishtim is the hero of the epic. The word i-sa-ba-ta (B. certain scholars maintain. translated as if Akkadian from the root sabatu "to take. 14 The fact that me is written instead of ma may probably be due to compensative lengthening as in Hebrew. 4: 10. III: 29) is not an enclitic or emphatic particle attached to that name. the difficulty disappears. The legend had been Akkadianized before the early text was written. but the Hebrew waw consecutive. The word ni-si-tu "desolation" (B.22 YALE OEIENTAL SEEIES EESEARCHES V-3 pronominal suffix.in the Hammurabi period. I Chron. etc.

This has scholars to identify him with Um-napishtim. I made Um-napishtim see a dream for at that time he had not been thus designated. Although not fully understood it is Um(oT Uta)-napishtim ruqim (rigam. also ina ruqi). as some have inferred. but Ea says "I made Atra-hasis see a dream. However. known to the Hebrew word meaning "hidden thing" from this root is known in the Old Testament (see Isaiah 48: 6. an exact statement. The word for part of the boat called la-an (E. 9). as far as was not in current use in Akkadian but the writer. After the flood he was given a title. This He who lengthened the days title has been variously translated " He who made life of days. Let us inquire whether a study of the language used in its composition will betray its original source. as has already been noted. And the use of the title instead of the name in the Sumerian paraphrase is a proof that it is borrowed from the ' * : * ' ' ' ' ' ' ' . ' ' : . "the wise one. which fact the Gilgamesh Story fully recognizes. first The is Hebrew word to be noted in the Gilgamesh Epic story nisirtu "secret. 16) Atra-hasis is a personal name. Semitic legend.I AN ANCIENT HEBREW DELUGE STORY 23 nevertheless also refers to Atra-hasis. it seems to the is prompted some others consider the name Atrathe case in as is writer that the situation entirely misunderstood. In this is no confusion of names. etc. As stated above (foot note The passage. . in this late story hasis is used as a synonym for "a very wise man." (E. which in the Sumerian paraphrase is written Zi-u-suddu. but short. which was . 60). simply on a basis of the personal names found in the Gilgamesh Epic story. The writer has previously maintained. 196) tells the gods how the hero learned that the flood would occur. while that. III 17) could hardly be translated the wise one. When Ea (in the Gilgamesh Story E. This word. In all the versions except the Sumerian the hero's name is Atra-hasis. and it doubtless shows also where the later etymol- ogists got their idea for their play upon the name. Certainly this is long not a personal name. " Atra-hasis (B.). he does not say. ' ' . that it is largely from a Hebrew or Amorite original. That was his name he had not yet earned the title." several of the epics. etc. of life. the very wise ' ' .

which probably embraces some elements indigenous to Babylonia." is Hebrew from the root lun "to lodge. 81) is found in In Isaiah all the Semitic languages except the Akkadian dialect. namely sa-a-si Amorite (see note in Appendix). because there is where the people lodged. 133) the variant text reads ta-ma-ta." and the latter "sea. some of which are tentatively offered. "loaded.24 YALE ORIENTAL SEEIES RESEARCHES V-3 the "hull" or "bottom." i." (E. 142) is not Akkadian it is from the Hebrew root nus "to escape.. . used in Akkadian. 68) was not used in Akkadian but it is found in Hebrew. . e. while others are reasonably certain. Since we know that other peoples of the early period had deluge In pi-hi-i (E. used for the outside wall of the ship (E. The word used for "the roof" of the boat. certainly it becomes necessary to explain how these foreign Hebrew words. "governor. or even in Akkadian. It is the writer 's opinion that no other conclusion can be arrived at but that this deluge story." doubtless. but this is Amorite it is not found in Akkadian. enclose. was mainly an Amorite legend which the Semites from Amurru brought with them from the West. further study will reveal more which were rarely. 95) is to . 70) is the common Hebrew basar "to gather. 6 9. even in this late version of the Assyrian period. gather in. The root of u-pa-az-zi-ru (E." The root of the word e-si-en-si "I loaded it" (E. but it is the common word for "wall" in Hebrew. The former word has been translated "day. 131)." The word ha-aia-al-ti has been translated "army" (E. 33: 20 we have reference to "a tent that shall not be moved. is : be seen the common Hebrew word pehah which was not in current use in Akkadian." There are other Hebrew words discussed in the notes beneath the translations. There are also glosses. 60). Doubtless. The word qiru." Certainly umu is the Hebrew yam "sea. is not Akkadian." as the context and the variant clearly show. The word sussullu "basket" (E. Where one text reads u-mu (E. 66). The word na-a-si (E. If the Um-napishtim story was originally written in Sumerian. if ever. came to be used in the Epic. see Jer.

which together with other facts show that the story is mainly Amorite. for Since it legal documents. in light of the above. which may include some features of a Sumerian tradition. had displaced the Amorite huburu. it is not at all improbable that the reference to Dilmun in the Sumerian stories. It has even taken over the Akkadian word puhru. should also it makes be found written in Sumerian. f . C. It was the legal and pur In some of the neighboring cities it was not liturgical language. and because this legend refers to Shurippak. as we have seen. until other evidence is forthcoming. Sippara. it to be identified with the region of the Persian Gulf.. which. eminently 17 * Poebel Historical Texts 66 See note under E. C. This city was preSemitic. if that name is has been shown that the Sumerian story. But with this exception there is nothing in the Gilgamesh Epic story that can be said to be distinctively Babylonian. the only conclusion at which we can arrive is that it must be regarded as a short paraphrase of the Amorite story. Even the word translated "reed hut" is very proba17 And on the other hand. The fact that Sumerian was used for official communications. in certain Babylonian cities in the latter half of the third millennium B. as well as for literature in general. Moreover. which had been brought into Babylonia from Amurru. so. . are. there bly an archaic West Semitic word. 20. which were not current in Babylonia. some time between 2300 and 1300 B. whose hero was named Zi-u-suddu. Nearly every inscription from Nipof this period is written in Sumerian. for example. a number of Hebrew words used in the Epic.I AN ANCIENT HEBREW DELUGE STORY 25 would be precarious to say that the Sumerians and the Babylonians did not have their own. possible to understand why such very ancient stories. whence probably came the ancient version of the Amorite Atra-hasis Epic.. especially as this land must have suffered even more than others. version. is connected with the Um-napishtim story and that it was probably written at a time when Sumerian as a spoken language had survived in a more or less corrupt style. is also a part of the local coloring the legend received after it was brought into Babylonia. as we have seen. 18 it seems.

versity of Pennsylvania. and to build a ship. Hebrew words brought from Babylonia to Canaan by Abraham others say that they were transmitted to the West in the Amarna period. containing in the Museum of the Uni- on the Euphrates and moved westward. but the . 8) the reading is ma-sum-sa "and its name. The word ga-be-e "high" or "height" (F.26 It has TALE OBIENTAL SERIES RESEARCHES been claimed that the little V-3 thirteen partially preserved lines. the hero silent. 7) is found in Hebrew. 5) has not as yet been found in either language but it is from the very common Hebrew root meaning "to overthrow. Arabic. to be speechless. because Semites in nearly all periods into this land Western nevertheless." this contains the Amorite waw conjunctive. to keep silence. and Aramaic but not in Akkadian. ." which root." But the few lines of this supposed Sumerian story are full of Hebrew words which were not in current use in Akkadian. annihilation" (F. Nearly all scholars who have published discussions of the Biblical deluge traditions in recent years have conceded that they are of Babylonian origin. in making the translation of these few lines into Akkadian. The word ub-bu-ku "overthrow" (F. excepting two substantives. was not in current use in Akkadian. it will be possible to continue to maintain that they were not in current use in the Akkadian dialect. the present writer prefers to read lu-pu-ut-tu hu-ru-su 1 ' verily give attention to silence. Instead of reading lu-pu-ut-tu hu-ru-su "destruction. was originally written in Sumerian. ' ' The root of the latter in Hebrew means "to be In other words. Some hold that these stories were of these of the flow of . . fully appreciates the fact that at any time cuneiform inscriptions may be found in Babylonia which will contain examples The writer other than those already known. Instead of ba-bil (F. This view can be said to have been very generally accepted by scholars. 5)." is told of the proposed flood. Babylonia. Certainly it must be admitted that it seems strange that the Akkadian translator of this supposed Sumerian story should have used so many Hebrew words which were not in current use in . and that it was brought to Canaan at the time Abraham "left his home now Semitic fragment.

but that extensive . from Arabia. showing that no other conclusion could be arrived at. which gave rise to these so-called nature myths. the Babylonian story of the deluge. These discoveries show that there is no need to find the origin of the Biblical stories in Babylonia. contained West-Semitic elements. whose positions have been based upon the supposed Arabic origin of the Semites in Amurru. 19 The arguments for these views were based almost entirely upon such literary evidence as the names of the gods. BuzurAmurru. because of the theory that the West in the early period did not have an indigenous literature. ff. who are mentioned in the story. C. The present version. The discoveries made since 1909. Two arguments are generally advanced for this position the one is. w 10 Clay On the Amurru the Home of the Northern Semites 71 name Buzur-Amurru see Clay Amurru 82. and the other argument is based on the frequency of inundations in Babylonia. forever disprove this hypothesis and require its abandonment.. it is necessary that a general readjustment be made of views advanced by Pan-Babylonists. by Arabs . . clearly show that we have reasons for believing that the civilization of the Western Semites synchronizes with the earliest that has been found in Babylonia and . the great age of Babylonian civilization. as preserved in the Gilgamesh Epic. had been felt from Amurru. as well as the name of the pilot of the ship.I AN ANCIENT HEBREW DELUGE STORY 27 great majority of scholars hold that knowledge of them was obtained in Babylonia at the time of the exile. and upon the supposedly late rise and development of civilization in that land. as being influences Amorite. and Pan-Egypto-Babylonists. on the other hand. and did not have a civilization. which involved the idea that civilization in the West had only developed a little before 2000 B. . when the present writer first contested this position. 20 In the above discussion additional proof is offered from a linguistic point of view for this thesis. In 1909 the present writer endeavored to show that the Babylonian origin of the Biblical deluge stories was without any foundation but that they were indigenous to the West and that. Moreover. and other data presented in the discussion in another chapter.

as in the Lebanon region. etc. for the foremost deity's name. 21 for there is every reason to believe that in Amurru. More recently the writer has shown also that the theory must be abandoned that the so-called Egypto-Babylonian culture brought forth the earliest civilization in the thousand years between four thousand and three thousand B. it was possible for him to control the annual floods in And further. Ilu "God" here takes the place of in the is AN early Semitic and Sumerian texts.. chronology of the Berlin School is correct. 22 Clay Journal of the American Oriental Society 41 241 ff. labor. as will be seen. p. its mines for metal. Haran. and of Ann of later texts. with its hills for grazing." in the title of the series. we now have additional discoveries that prove beyond doubt that civilization in Syria has as great an antiquity as in Babylonia. since translated many times "when a man lay down to sleep ' ' .. while all the rest of the world continued to live in stone age barbarism or savagery. makes appear more reasonable that the Biblical legends of the could be indigenous. This and and title was originally incorrectly read Inuma sallu awelum. The importance of this will be readily recognized. Aleppo. AN * Breasted Scientific Monthly 1919. was a civilization . which in ancient times. with its natural agricultural districts over wide-spread areas such as those about Hit. .28 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES RESEARCHES V-3 Egypt. but I-lu perfectly clear on the tablet. and that is the occurrence of I-lu "God. The in the early period in nearly all such connections ideogram has been generally read Ann or Ana. as at present. its quarries for stone. with its wonderfully wooded districts. with its valleys so well adapted for agriculture. there is every reason and which greatly antedated the Egyptian for. have been so attractive for other peoples. in connection with the discovery of the Hebrew or Amorite Deluge Legend in that it furnishes us with the background for the civilization to which it belonged. with its mines and natural products. C. in the legend's context in the colophon. and dwell there. and in Asia. its forests for man throve before the time wood as well as in other lands when through intelligence . as well as in the text. deluge There is another very important fact which the old version has it revealed. 577. and it also to believe that in Syria there 22 . if the Egyptian alluvial Babylonia. and also in Elam.

" This explanation of the origin of Anu or Anu(m). have the determinative. where." which was pointed out many years ago. all the gods. called their foremost deity Ana or Anna. and created or furnished the after they people with the cuneiform syllabary. we learn that the Western Semites in this early period called the Godhead I-lu. before they came to Babylonia. we erally replaced Ilu. the deity even after the ideogram the case in the * See Clay Empire of the Amorites." mankind. in the same way that En-lil "lord of the influence was so extensively felt in the 23 Morethe origin of the Erechian Anu. gives us reasons why the Erechian Anu "the creator. had conquered the land." And although the Babylonian word or name Anu "god" had its origin in the Amorite word or name Ilu. Certainly in the early syllabaries (see below). but there To the writer it seems more probable that is no proof for this. become Babylonized into A-num." for the name of the most high god of the Semites. they wrote AN. 168 f. whose It is also not improbable that the West West." the same as in the Old Testament. or El "God. this fact was fully appreciated by later generations when they used Anu and Antu with the generic sense of is storm" became Ellil. And it seems that these reasons satisfactorily account for the as is name being written without AN had "Old Babylonian Version of the Gilgamesh Epic". Semitic Anu-llu. In the text here published. the Akkadians did the same. AN represented Ilu." as well as dingir "god. and who was worshipped as the supreme ruler of the universe. "god" and "goddess. namely Ilu. and in Sumerian texts An and An-na. and the fact that Anu had the meaning "god. know for a certainty that while Anu of Erech later genover. the determinative for deity. except A-num." "the father of the gods. even the heroes. It is not impossible that the Sumerians." was never displaced as the head of the pantheon. even in Egypt. This can only mean that Anu at that time meant "god. and there can be little doubt It is well known AN but that in the early period. In time AN became Semitized into Anu.I AN ANCIENT HEBREW DELUGE STORY 29 that the god whose name was written with the was the highest of the gods. which in their language meant "heaven. . who had created sign "god. also written Annum.

his name is written 25 Anum(-num). this fully confirms the impression we get from the Old Testament. ilu is used for "the god. 42:45. "raised the towers of Babylon.30 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES RESEARCHES V-3 designated by these words or names in time became quite distinct. whereas the chief deity's name. as well as the hundreds of personal ilu. This becomes apparent especially in periods when fresh migrations from the homeland take place. It was only after the Semites had carried his worship to the southern part of the great alluvium. wells are dug. was Ba'al. not a few have followed this reading. the important contribution on the subject. that the Semites. Anu of Erech is referred to in the Code. and of the waters beneath the earth. so well known to us in the inscriptions of the West. but since Harper read Anu. Pinches. The reading Anu for in the initial line of the Hammurabi AN 24 When being very generally adopted but it is a mistake." is written Ilu(AN) 26 This clear-cut distinction must be recognized. used the word il(u) or el(u) to designate their most high god. the deities god of laws. Throughout the Code. that his cult took on the peculiar Babylonian aspect with which we are so familiar. but the second in the Amorite His name was written phonetically triad. Hehn Die BibliscJie und die Baby- lonische Gotteside 150 ." Did the codifier in the body of the laws avoid the use of Marduk or Shamash. including the Old Testament. clearly show Western Semites. See 1:1. Naturally. While Ilu was supreme. In this alluvium. but springs of the 14 Scheil originally read ilu. Ea and Adad. in the land called Amurru by the Babylonians. 1:31. ilu. and others ." because he E-a. of the rivers. "the father of the gods. He was followed by Peiser. where a temple was erected for him at Eridu on the sea. early period compounded with that the names belonging to this and other facts. 27 Ea was not a Sumerian god. Ea was the lord of the earth. the present text containing Code is . used the word ilu "God" to represent their creator and supreme ruler. his code where these were not worshipped Semitic origin of the Code? or does not the use of ilu would be acceptable in places show rather the West "See 2:46. Ilu. and 26 17 44: 51. so that . of the wells. as well as the early Akkadians. Cf. as Hammurabi says. their El Elyon. 40:64." who together with Ellil. ff . of the springs. Winckler. d and ideographically d En-Ki "lord of the land. which included Aram. Moreover.

"lord of the lands . who himself became the Ba'al. En-lil also displaced Ea. . etc. Sham. or Bel. to the soil. The ideogram d IM read Adad. belonging to the early period. the great Amorite Ba' al.I AN ANCIENT HEBREW DELUGE STORY The rivers 31 earth are unknown. this is a local and a late conception of Ea. This forcibly recalls the fact that a large name syllabary found at Nippur. also had a storm god but this cannot be proved. but of the entire historical situation prior to the time of skin was used so extensively for writing material. where also the perishable papyrus and is responsible that exists at present not only of the god for the faulty conception Ea. usually called the storm god/' At a very is Hadad of Amurru. contains several groups ** See Chiera 's important contribution on the subject. The writer feels that d En-Lil was originally Adad. It is generally conceded that he is an Amorite god. he instead of Adad is the destructive god in other words he had supplanted him after Nippur became the supreme city in the land. as is well known. Ea. Enlil was displaced by Marduk. Hammurabi. Mar such a god as Adad. storm-god. " Adad. Amurru. when he became the bel matati. the third of the early triad. His At Nippur. the triad became Ilu (AN). the god of that city. as Ramman. and in Amurru little or nothing of this kind has as yet been done. Enlil. the god of the elements. In the Gilgamesh Epic. ' ' . and even pronounced It is possible that the Sumerians. early time his worship was brought into Babylonia. took possession of this city. "the lord of the storm which in time was used as his name. . Simply because excavations have been conducted in Babylonia where the almost imperishable clay tablets have been recovered in such masses. and Ea. . and that he had been adopted as a member of the Babylonian pantheon. . the foremost deity was name was written ideographically dEn-Lil. Later." and thereafter he took the place of Ea as the second god in the triad. stands for other names of the w Mur. when Babylon became the centre of the hegemony. who at an early time Ellil. and Adad. so that instead of Ilu. and the rain alone bring fertility Ea having presided over the waters of the earth But naturally became in Eridu the god of the deep and of the rivers. Lists of Personal Names 39 f.

while the storm-god. Moreover. Ishtar and Gaga. Anu and Ea are the creators. it seems that conclusive proof of this position is to be found in the "Explanatory Lists of Gods. fights the great Tiamat. who is there called Marduk. and a consort Antu who was created by the force of analogy. prior to the time when the foremost triad became AN. Ilu (AN) is followed by Ea (and his consort). In consideration of all available data. 28 We have knowledge of certain syllabaries having been repeated for millenniums. it is reasonable to conjecture that this Amorite deluge story. and Ea. while AEnlil. . contains AN. which preserves the names of the foremost original triad. take the place of Ilu. which were also written in an early period. occurs only twice among its several hundred names. and Enlil (and his consort). Certainly we can understand why Ea. this order is maintained. E-a and dIM. C. even in the West Semitic creation myth. originally followed the foremost deity. subsequent to the time when Nippur's Enlil became " lord of the lands. In the later and fuller lists. occurring several times.32 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES RESEARCHES V-3 of Semitic names compounded with those of Amorite gods. and it is not impossible that this particular one was originally written prior to the time when Nippur's god became "the lord of lands"." that god came to take the place of Ea next to the most high god. who figures in the early myths and legends in a much higher position and role than the storm-god Adad (or Enlil). in other words. One of these groups. And we can also understand how. Yes. goes back to a time as early as 4000 B. but Anu." In the most ancient (II R 59). in whose school of scribes the tablet was written. Enlil. and the other contains dDagan.

They have said that Nimrod. matic excavations are conducted in Central Asia. not of savagery. In the Appendix will be found the reconstructed list of ruling and kings. Tammuz. are fragmentary. or are wanting. namely that of Kish. are unquestionably West Semitic. The fourth ruler. he is now restored to first The his place as a ruler. eight names of the earliest dynasty. Fortunately clay tablets. Lugal Marda. precede what we now know as the earliest and when systefifth millennium B. Excluding the two earliest dynasties. and in Syria. (Others make the date earlier. that Etana.) selves at a period about 4000 B. we find ourcities see below. The first five that are fully preserved are Semitic. scholars maintain that the same has occurred with the Semites.n ANCIENT FRAGMENT OF THE ETANA LEGEND Through the discovery of dynastic lists and other historical data the great antiquity of Babylonian civilization is now fully determined. who has been heretofore regarded as mythical. which are not so perishable as skins or papyrus. the patriarchs. Etana belongs to the first of the two dynasties which fifth precede this period. Gilgamesh and many other Babylonian rulers had also descended from the realms of mythology. and several of these. to the reigns of which fabulous numbers of years are given. C. but of civilized man. at least. understood that in certain Aryan lands gods. there is every reason to senting believe that millenniums of history. Many and many other Biblical characters were originally deities. . which ruled in the millennium B. have recently furnished us with the material whereby some of the so-called deities are restored to their places in dynastic . in Asia Minor. It is generally became men. we shall have data whereby the gap between prehistoric man of millenniums ago and man of the earliest historic period will be considerably reduced. C. C. is Etana. now have lists of rulers which carry us back to the We Instead of the earliest period known reprethe beginning of civilization.

See also Frank Studien zur Babylonischen Religion 105 ff. transliteration and translation on the basis of the same text was published by Jensen VI 1 100 ff. C. to seize and tear her to pieces.. Harper published seven other fragments. and JAOS 30. The order must be exactly reversed. Although warned not to do so by one of her offspring. which had three columns on the obverse and three on the seems to the writer that the complete tablet must have Among the fragments of the Epic written in the Assyrian period there is one which duplicates reverse. Jastrow BA III 379 ff. and in consequence. Daily Etana also pleaded with Shamash to show him the "plant of . and was advised to conceal herself in the carcass of a bull that they had slain. accompanied by a brood. Each. V-3 and whereby it is possible to assert that it cannot be proved that gods ever became mortals in the Semitic world. the god of justice.). . the sheep no longer bore young. This fragment of an old version of the Etana Legend was written about 2000 years earlier than the fragments found in the Library lists. promising eternal obedience if rescued. and 503 ff. of Ashurbanipal (668-626 B. Scheil Eecueil de Travaux 23.34 YALE OEIENTAL SERIES EESEAECHES . This was done. tablet. . While anthropomorphic ideas are attributed to the deities. It contained about 275 lines. 1 A KB George Smith Chaldean Genesis 138 ff published the first three known fragments. J. See also Jensen VI 1 100 ff. we have no instance of a Semitic god becoming a man. and productivity ceased. For a discussion of all the fragments. the Eagle pounced upon and devoured the young of the Serpent. 101 ff. E. partially some lines of the present text. 101 ff. and the Eagle was left to die in a hole in the mountain. see Jastrow JAOS 30. anarchy : and confusion prevailed. The Eagle in turn appealed to Shamash. 18 ff. The gods desiring to bring this state to an end designated Ishtar to go to the rescue and Etana was installed as king. It has also been previously 1 It contains the opening and the closing lines of a large published. About this time an Eagle and a Serpent formed an alliance to carry on the work of destruction. and when the Eagle swooped down upon it. and 581 ff. The Serpent appealed to Shamash. BA II 441 ff. * KB . published two others. went to the mountain for prey each killed an animal and then shared them with their broods. An outline of the legend 2 as now known from the different fragments follows The deity had deserted the city.

The god told him to seek the hole in the mountain into which the Eagle had been thrown. probably with the idea Etana mounted upon the back of the Eagle. "the shepherd. as seems to be indicated by the art of the seal cylinders. a precipitous descent to the earth was made. depicting the ascent. given in the Appendix. 88. and there the plant would be shown him. some of whom may have * * 4 See Ward The Seal Cylinders of Western Asia. and became the twelfth ruler of the first 4 In the omen text disdynasty of Kish. The closing lines refer to the resus- The content Eagle at the mountain hole with the assistance Unfortunately the tablet did not contain a colophon. and together they reached the heaven of Anu. . 3 of the beginning of the present text points to its being the opening part of probably the second tablet of the series which contained the legend." that fertility might be restored. there this is nothing in this ancient version to suggest that was the case." cussed below. 142 See Poebel Historical Texts p. The fact that the last column is not completely filled out. he is called is * ' ' ' king. besides the god Anu. C. In the late version many other Semitic gods are referred to. There can be little question but that many details of the legend are still wanting. which have been preserved. In this fragment of the early version. as are several of the first Kish dynasty..II ANCIENT FRAGMENT OF THE ETANA LEGEND 35 birth. Upon his arrival at the hole the Eagle appealed to Etana for help. While it is not impossible that the legend was originally written in citation of the of Etana. would indicate that it was copied from a still earlier inscription. The Eagle urged Etana to proceed to the dwelling of Ishtar. Sumerian. show that Etana. ff. either through exhaustion or the intervention of the goddess. The early dynastic lists of Babylonia. promising in return to fly with him to the dwelling of the gods. the planet Venus of obtaining immortality. The name Etana five rulers of the early West Semitic. The fragmentary character of the end of the legend leaves us in doubt whether or not it proved fatal. who "ruled all lands. but after a flight of six hours. was an usurper. only the Anunnaki and the Sibitu are mentioned." who lived in the fifth millennium B. .

It is also not improbable that the title usumgal." and that Etana found the Eagle in a hole in the mountain. of Nin-Gish-Zidda. the temple Eanna is the dwelling place of Ami alone. also refers to the Serpent. India. was added in some late redaction." the Eagle and the Serpent may represent two powers which were ravaging the lands. 137. 128 : 37 etc. Etana aided the Eagle. Jastrow-Clay An : Old Babylonian Version of the Gelgamesh Epic p. 64: 58 with VI . but in a mountainous district. T See Heuzey EA 5. the reference to Zu. who with heads of serpents protruding from his shoulders is leading Gudea. the invader. ." so frequently used in connection with titles of Tammuz. whereas in the early 5 version. China. the Gilgamesh. The symbol of an invader of the following dynasty.36 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES RESEARCHES V-3 been introduced in the later period. probably to be identified with the "Zu bird" (see below). This being true. Cf VI 1. An interesting parallel to this is the adding of Ishtar's name as one of the gods of Eanna in the late redaction of the Gilgamesh Epic. Hatti. the son . would show that the scene was not laid in Babylonia. Persia. having been urged and abetted by the Eagle. 7 clearly indicate that the serpent was the emblem of Nin-GishZidda. 104 13. The worship of the Serpent is very general in Elam. probably the West. Phoenicia. which in a later by the Eagle is * ' period was dedicated to this deified king the bas-relief depicting this demi-god. and Meyer Sumerier und Semiten in Babylonien Taf. was the Serpent. which can be translated "the great serpent. Whether in 8 KB Of. to whom the Serpent refers as a "worker of evil" in his address to the god Shamash. and other epics (see below). 6 The fact that the Serpent is told to take the road to the mountains. and upon their having difficulties between themselves. whereby he would become immortal. The well-known goblet of Gudea with the caduceus. 1. as in the case of the Lugal Marda. being an anachronism. It is not impossible that the Etana Legend has an historical background." as well as "the great one. KB . probably at a time when a famine prevailed. VII. and Greece. Egypt. received a set-back which allegorically The power represented is told in the story of his ascent to heaven. as well as the seal of this great patesi. whose name was written Nin-Gish-Zidda in Sumerian. As in the case of the so-called "Zu bird. His aspirations in connection with ruling all lands.

therefore.. period additional information will show that it cannot be surmised." No one seems to hold the view that the name Tamtu is Sumerian and the writer feels that "Tamtu SUH .II ANCIENT FRAGMENT OF THE ETANA LEGEND 37 the early period it was so universal. In this connection we must not lose sight of the Dragon Legend (CT 13 33). that asked to stir up a cloud. The Eagle probably also represented a power in the West. a storm and a tempest. or whether for the ancient was merely local. It was after "the cities sighed" for relief when d was the Serpent (siru)" was the oppressor. seem precarious to say more than that Tammuz and his father seem to have been identified with a state the emblem of which was probably the Serpent (siru). It would.. The transliteration and translation of the ancient fragment of the Etana Epic follow : Ra-bu-tum dAnunnaki (A-Nun-na) sa-i-mu si-im-tim us-bu im-li-ku mi-li-ik sa ma-a-ta-am ba-nu ki-ib-ra-tim sa-ki-nu si-ru a-na ni-si i-lu I-gi-gu 5 i-zi-nam a-na ni-si i-si-mu si-ki-it-tim sar-ra-am la is-ku-nu ka-lu ni-si e-bi-a-tim i-na lim-me-tim la ka-as-ra-at ku-ub-sum me-a-nu H 10 fya-at-tu-um uk-ni-a-am la sa-ab-ra-at la ba-nu-u is-ti-ni-is pa-ra-ak-ku si-bi-te ba-bu ud-du-lu e-lu da-ap-nim fya-at-tu-um me-a-nu-um ku-ub-sum u si-bi-ir-ru ku-ud-mi-is A-ni-im i-na sa-ma-i sa-ak-nu u-ul i-ba-as-si mi-it-lu-ku ni-si-sa [sar] -ru-tum i-na sa-ma-i ur-da-am i-si-i 45 fya-as-su is-ba-ta-am si-bi-e it . sa-am-na-am wa-ar-fya-am u-si-te-ga su-ut-ta-as-su e-ru-u ma-fyi-ir u-ku-ul-ta-am ki-ma ni-si-im na-e-ri e-mu-ga-am i-su e-ru-um pa-a-su i-pu-sa-am-ma a-na E-ta-na-ma iz-za-ga-ar-su 50 ib-ri lu-u it-ba-ra-nu a-na[-ku] u at-ta qi-bi-a-am-ma sa te-e-ir-ri-sa-an-ni lu-ud-di-ik-ma . he has already shown there can be no question but that it is West Semitic (see Amurru 51ff). and by slaying the Dragon "to deliver the broad land.

crown.-ti ka-ti-im-ti fate.' Etana opened his mouth. and staff.. truly we are friends.. They had not built together a shrine. they shut up the people in the dwellings. : . 45 Took care on the seventh On the eighth month he proceeded to his hole. The As sceptre. and when thou hast cured me. The eagle having received food. a crown And a sceptre of lapislazuli had not been possessed. The kingship has gone down from the heavens. headgear. people. Command.38 YALE ORIENTAL SEEIES RESEARCHES E-ta-na pa-a-su i-pu-sa-am-ma a-na e-ri-im-ma iz-za-ga-ar-su i V-3 mi-. in former times. 5 Determined upon enmity for the . The great Anunnaki who decide Sat down. I and thou. established not a king In that time( ?) a headgear They 10 The Sibitu locked the gates against the mighty. There no counsel for its people. and to Etana spoke to him 50 'My friend. was not bound. I will kill. Builders of the quarters. the authors of nature. like a roaring lion Became strong. and to the eagle spoke to him . The Igigi. being against the people. The eagle opened his mouth. had . . : covered . before Anu in the heavens is was placed.. took counsel concerning the land.

and Z^. For the transliteration and translation see Knudtzon Die El-Amarna Tafeln No. See Winckler and Abel Thontafelfund von El-Amarna No. 1 including the present text. the god Ea. What is known of the legend of Adapa is based upon several . he refused but excess of caution was responsible .8743.Ill A FRAGMENT OF THE ADAPA LEGEND. who stood at the portals of heaven. as it has been recovered up to the present. Becueti de Travava in Gunkel Schopfung und Chaos 420 ff. Barton Archaeology * This text. unfortunately. C.8219. 12. as offered several improved readings. a sudden squall from the south upset his boat. published by Jensen KB VI 1. two deified kings (see last chapter). and the Bible 260 . namely fishing in the Persian Gulf. who was priest of the temple of Ea. he broke the wings of the south wind so that for seven days it did not blow the cooling breezes of the sea over the land. 1 See K. of the fourteenth century B. Adapa. p. 2 and upon one that was found among the Egyptian archives of Amenophis III and IV. a semi-divine seer. and 20 (1898). Angered at this. had been granted wisdom by his father. it has not been possible as yet to determine in what period Adapa lived. in exercising one of the functions of his office. 356. 240. 3 The present text is from a fragment which contains the first part of the legend. 274 f . were originally published by Scheil. 964 ff. One day. 194. and Schroeder VS. . C. fragmentary tablets which at one time belonged to the Library of Ashurbanipal (668-626 B. The third fragment contains a portion of the well-known Adapa Legend but. Being cautioned by his father not to partake of the food and the drink that would be set before him. A brief outline of the story follows. XVII ff . 127 ff.). its translation Zimmern from a photograph. For other translations see Ungnad ATE I 34 ff . in Eridu. In consequence Adapa was summoned by the god Anu to appear before him in heaven. ff and Rogers Cuneiform Parallels 67 ff. These were utilized by Jensen KB VI 1. Thereupon his father Ea told him how to excite the sympathy of Gish-Zidda and Tammuz. 92 ff. published by Strong PSBA 16. which also had been published about twenty-five years ago. well as by others. but not eternal life.

= perhaps "Ox of the god Uru". it was through like God.. see Clay Empire of the Amorites p. namely a ruler. . and is equivalent to Alap-Uru. although it does not necessarily follow. 64. 4 Alaparos (which name they change to read Adaparos). had gained knowledge that was of divinity. Scholars have pointed out certain resemblances of the story and some even have contended that to that of Adam in Genesis . that Adam ate of the while Adapa failed to obtain eternal life owing to his obedi- ence to his father's counsel in not eating of it." A-ga-al-Marduk 98. 78. Owing to the reference to the deified Gish-Zidda and Tammuz view lived in the legend. They "food of life" as corresponding to the "tree of is regarded as an attribute disobedience. V-3 for his not receiving the food whereby eternal life would have been gained. when he will take ' ' ' < ' ' The present writer is inclined to believe that Adapa was what his place with Etana. 5. . King Schweioh Lectures 1916 144. the time Adapa been subsequent to the early Erech dynasty. and that when excavations reveal the history of that city we shall become familiar with the history of his reign. Im-me-ir-i-li "Lamb of God.. . the second of the antediluvian kings handed down by Berossus. For Alaparoe Adapa see Zimmern KAT3 522. Others have contended that Adapa and Adam are different forms of the same name while still others hold that the name Adapa is the same as . in of additions made in the later redactions. is . like the origin of the Hebrew narrative. " a man of Eridu the text informs us. a sage. Langdon Sumerian Epic p. the Adapa Legend point to the life". "Calf of Marduk" BA VI cf. Adam. Ungnad ATE I 39 note 1.40 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES RESEARCHES and water of life. . and others in the list of kings or patesis. luuz-na rapastum(-tum) u-sak-lil-su u-su-rat mdti mu-lu-mu a-na su-a-tu ni-me-qa iddin-su napistam(-tam) daritam(-tam) qi-bit-su ul iddin-su 5 ina u-me-su-ma ina sa-na-a-ti si-na-a-ti ab-kal-lum dE-a mar &lEridu ki-ma rid-di ina a-me-lu-ti ib-ni-su ab-kal-lum qi-bit-su 4 ma-am-man ul u-sam-sak The name Adapa is frequently written A -da-pad. that Adapa. may have is-tum ki-ma qi-bit ilu . Gilgamesh. etc.. a transliteration and a translation of the fragment Following now in the Pierpont Morgan Library Collection. . in order to become fruit . This is a West Semitic name. However.

clean of hands. The food and water of Eridu daily he provides. And without him. the Atra-hasis of the Anunaki. the bolting of Eridu gives attention to. anointer. With his clean hands he sets (binds) the table. u me-e sa 6lEridu u-mi-sam-ma ip-pu-us a-ka-la .ina ta]m-ti ra-pa-as-ti [ . 94 :11. of the god intelligence he perfected in him. 5 In those days. [in] 15 M elippa u-ma-fyar bd'iru-tam da-ku-tam sa e-nu-mi-su A-da-pa mar Eridu d [ma-]ru E-a ina ma-aia-li a-ina sa-da-di &l a ga-ti-su el-li-ti pa-as-su-ra i-rak-kas [in] a ba-lu-us-su pa-as-su-ra ul ip-pat-tar &l Eridu ip-pu-us u-mi sam-ma si-ga-ar [ina k]a-a-ri el-li &l Eridu is-sa-ar Kar-Sin(UD-SAR) ^saMfitum ir-kab-ma **elippi-su iq-qi-lip-pu 20 [sa-a-ru i]-zi-qan-ni-ma . the image of the land Unto him he gave wisdom eternal life he did not grant him. Wide Ea. he does the baking . . His word like the command . 10 With the bakers. A-da-pa ma-ar dEa. he does the baking. The mighty one. A sage. observer of laws. If kul is correct. The text contains the sign mu. and not kul. KB VI 1. For the restoration cf. With the oar he steered his ship. as Scheil originally published. the Erechian. is he . Daily In the pure rampart of Kar-Nannar. in those years. Then Adapa. it is a mistake of the scribe. upon the wide sea. and his ship glided along. he embarked upon the sailing ship. 3. [ina gi]-mu-si-ma t'elippi-su u-mafy-har . Li 17. . made him like a riddi among men . . the sage. the man of Eridu. the table is not cleared (loosened). With the bakers of Eridu.1 1 1 FRAGMENT OF THE ADAPA LEGEND 41 li-e-um At-ra-fya-si-sa sa d A-nun-na-ki su-ma ib-bu el-lam qa-ti pa-si-su mus-te-'-u par-si 10 it-ti it-ti nu-fya-tim-me nu-fya-tim-mu-ta ip-pu-us & > nu-fya-tim-me sa 'Eridu Ki-Min. The son of Ea. 20 The wind blew. Li. in retiring ( ?) upon the bed. whose command no one could oppose . 15 The ship he steers he does the fishing and hunting for Eridu. Blameless.

* ' : the "tablets of destiny". at 3927 B. These furnish us with material which make it possible to rewrite a fairly complete outline of the history covering the reigns of these three important kings. "a shepherd. 1 (see Dynastic List in the Appendix)." found in the Library of Ashurbanipal. There are no extant inscriptions belonging to this period that have as yet been found. of a very early period.IV AN EARLY CHAPTER IN THE HISTORY OF AMURRU AND BABYLONIA.C.C. (Historical Fragments 11). "personification of some solar deity. of course. . has been known for many years. Meissner put it at about 3900 B. (Babylonien und Assyrien ** Weidner 4148 B. that of I Ur. nor the Zu. 23) . (MVAG 1921 61) . We of the land learn that Lugal Marda. Lugal Marda. which began to rule about or prior to 4000 B." But hu was not a d bird. namely." came to the rescue by some kind of strategy." but a human being. C. The Enlil of For this act he is in time credited with the title la Kullab. 1:27. and Gilgamesh. succeeded in bringing back . 4340 B. Kawlinson. the second earliest known post-diluvian dynasty. whose name was written Im-Dugud . Tammuz. (ZDMG 1917. 46. an invader. but references to three of the rulers of this dynasty and their contemporaries are frequently made in later inscriptions. 166). It acquaints us with the fact that an enemy designated as "Zu the storm-bird" had robbed Enlil of Nippur of the "tablets of destiny. Kullab was a part of Erech." This. and is doubtless where he erected his It was to the "distant mountain Sabu" that Lugal palace." which was adopted as the name of a star. can only mean his supremacy as "lord of lands. the date of the beginning of the third known dynasty. The so-called "Legend of the Zu bird. Legrain.C. Lugal Marda. who lived in an inaccessible distant mountain. 1 Ungnad makes p. We now have considerable data for the reconstruction of a chapter in the history of Babylonia.C. and in restoring Enlil to his position. and incidentally also that of Syria.

was 'Jensen KB VI 1. geographical names. 578. or that of his ancestors. In other words. Wo lag das Parodies. which doubtless had invaded Babylonia. Kraeling. may originally have been in that land. in which case we would naturally think of the state represented by that bird in the Etana Legend (see above)." Lugal Marda is credited with having ruled longer than any other of his dynasty." gested that the original form of that name was En-Marad. 177. who apparently was the most powerful ruler of this period. the enemy Zu represented an Amorite or West Semitic power." If this "shepherd" king. that is preserved in the Old Testament. The writer has no desire to identify Zu with the power whose emblem was the eagle. should prove to be Nimrod. Nimrod is the only name of a Babylonian ruler of the early period. p. although written in Sumerian Nin-Sun. 25. Delitzsch . This would give sufficient reason why his name should have been preserved in the traditions of the West. but this identification is not improbable.IV EARLY CHAPTER IN THE HISTORY OP AMURBU 43 2 went. 8 There can be little doubt but that the so-called "Legend of the Zu bird" Marda was intended to commemorate the overthrow of this power by Lugal Marda." since we know that Gilgamesh was En Kullab as well as king. "man of Marad. 220. note 3. Sabu was in the Lebanon range. "the mighty hunter. We must. and it can be assumed that he ruled the West land. keep in mind that he was not a native of Babylonia for he was a gurum kurra "offspring of the mountains. Delitzsch Wo lag das Parodies p. for his wife's name. in pursuit of Zu. On Su ff. Zimmern KAT CT p. his own habitat. however." 5 It seems that he may have become En Marad "High-priest of Marad. A 4 city Su was identified with Mari. Moreover. 574. in Prince's article. p." may have reference to the strategy he employed in overthrowing the so-called "Zu bird. JAOS 41.. 35r 24-27." or "ensnarer. his Old Testament title. standing for Lugal-Marad "King of Marad. prior to Amraphel. The fragment of an historical text recently published shows that he conquered Halma (Aleppo) and Tidnum in the West. and probably also in the fable concerning Gilgamesh (see below). cf. 201. Years ago it was conjectured that the name Nimrod was from 4 More recently another has sugNu-Marad. 234 as an element in and Empire of the Amorites p.

r Jastrow-Clay TOE IV 3. bears the title rimtu sa supuri in the Gil- gamesh Epic. 7 This title has been translated by Since the ideogram Sun in her Sumerian name means rimtu " Beloved of the fortified 'beloved. The Saechoros. From the many inscriptions relating to the cult we learn that in the fourth month." and Rimat-Belit 1 of the queen of the great Lugal Marda some scholars ''the wild cow of the stall. Semachoros. 68 236. where he ruled. Tammuz followed Lugal Marda as king of Erech. etc. the powerful king Lugal Marda. 88. which had probably been built by her former husband. Eimat-Belit. which we learn from an omen (see below). name is written 2eiijx Ps> Saxxopos. and her father bore the Amorite name Semak-Ur (Semachoros). 6 d Nin-Sun. 84. had "ravaged the land". Here they are identified especially with the city of Erech. 8 * Poebel Historical Texts Of. It would seem that Babylonia had suffered another upheaval when NinGish-Zidda. the cult tablets also certain which was named Tammuz." be somewhat more city. From facts are ascertained which enable us to know something about his family connections. . but. The cuneiform muz was named Zertu (which name Empire of the Amorites p. Besides this fact the latter is known only as a deity. his father. Doubtless he had been king of that city." or even "the personification of some kind of wood. with his habitat at Lagash. as the new dynastic list shows. Tammuz was not originally "the personification of the son of the springtime. he was a human being. Zimmern Der Babylonische Tammus 712. namely. at the time vegetation began the women mourned his death. : inscriptions inform us that the mother of Tam9 is also written Sirdu). and the fourth king of this early Erech dynasty. p." would not rimtu sa supuri " Beloved of Belit. a name like the Old Testament Semak-Jahu (Semachiah). who became the mother of Gilgamesh (see below). Ishtar 8 In Babylonia the legends and hymns concerning Tammuz and are exceedingly numerous." as has been said. to decay.44 YALE OEIENTAL SERIES RESEARCHES V-3 Semitic." appropriate as translations for the title and name of the queen mother who dwelt in her magnificent palace.

one of which is a great temple of Astarte which Constantine destroyed. Here are to be found many ruined monuments of his worship. and on the name of his wife Zertu. as already mentioned. In fact the meaning of the ideograms speaks against the possibility of his " faithful son" would not be appropriate for being a Sumerian. meaning son". Aphrodite. namely. This suggestion is based on the connection of his son Tammuz with the West. muz is there portrayed with a spear awaiting the wild boar by which he was slain. texts. Dumu-Zi. Even in the Book of Ezekiel we learn that women sat in the temple weeping for Tammuz (8:14). but this is no proof that Tammuz was a Sumerian. at present represented by modern 'Afqa. Ashtaroth. Here tradition says the mangled body of the hunter the Tammuz was buried. who mourned for him. and also the revivifying of the earth in the spring. they are especially identified with Syria.IV EARLY CHAPTER IN THE HISTORY OF AMTTRRU 45 Certainly Zertu seems to be Semitic. Another of the memorials that have kept the legends alive is now to be seen at Ghineh. is also in a Sumerian dress but this very probably also represents a Semitic name. Ishtar. midway between Byblos and Ba 'albek. Ashtar. Venus. Traces of the cult are handed down by the Classical writers. which we learn from the omen .) and Ashirta (also called Astarte. As is well known. etc. While the legends are exceedingly widespread. where Tamreliefs of Tammuz and Ashirta are carved upon the rocks. The cult bearing especially upon the death and resurrection of Tammuz typified the decay of vegetation which was followed by the long dry summer.). The name Tammuz was reproduced by two Sumerian words or ideograms. Nin-Gish-Zidda. at the head of the wild romantic wooded gorge of the Adonis river. a fact. but rather as an epithet. " a personal name. etc. the . which reprefaithful sented the pronunciation. in the Lebanon region. He was an invader. there are many myths and legends that have been handed down concerning Tammuz (who is also called Adonis. and who. while Ashirta. His having ruled at Lagash would fully account for his name being written in Sumerian. it is also referred to by Mandaic and Syriac writers of the post Biblical period. In Syria they cluster especially about a vale near Aphaca. His father's name.

which reads born" (or " where his mother bore him"). in Babylonia was at Erech but Hallab seems to have been her home. 19: 4-7. point to the West as was his birthplace. the Ashtoreth of the Old Testament. I. col. in the cuneiform inscriptions. enter. 13 In the Gilgamesh Epic when she proposes to Gilgamesh. "Barton Babylonian Inscriptions 13:6. Gilgamesh. Present me with thy offspring be thou my husband. Not a few passages. . One of the earliest religious texts at present known tells us that this goddess had a shrine at Nippur and that she was from the land of Hallab. modern nection with Ashirta and the West would imply that he was a Semite. let me be thy wife and I will set thee in a chariot. with contemporary Ashirta. whence Tammuz came. the queen of Hallab for her husband (wails). 26:5.46 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES RESEARCHES tells us. the ancient Byblos. Into our house." This and many other couplets referring to Ishtar or to Tammuz and Ishtar show that these two cities were intimately identified with each other. who was called Ishtar in Babylonia. And when thou enterest our house [they shall . etc. and especially the passage concerning him in a lamentation at the sacred cedar. 4-5. Syria. "Scheil BA 8. ' ' : Gebail. Ha-A. in the Lebanon region. show that he was especially worship12 Certainly it would seem that his conped at Hallab (Aleppo). 11 Extant tradition identifies him especially with the The city. rather than a Sumerian. his already mentioned. the son of Cinyras of Cyprus. the chief seat of the cult of Ashirta. it can be gathered from several passages that he very probably met a premature death by drowning. under the fragrance of the cedar tree. Moreover. 83. Tradition in the West makes him etc. with her seat of government at Hallab. . 162. a distant place where he hymn. be thou my spouse. 10 Empire of the Amorites n p. . descended to the underworld to deliver him from seated near by in a sorrowful attitude. * ' : As . she says: "Come. while associating. is V-3 myth death. king of Erech. CT 15. and probably also his has not been located. . 10 but connections of Tammuz with father. She seems to have been a "Queen of Sheba" or a "Cleopatra" of this early era. or Ishtar. however. CT 15. See also Poebel HGT 26: 19-20. In one of these The queen Babylonian lamentation hymns we have this passage of Erech for her husband.

had also been a mortal. in other words. and she was worshipped in many cities in Babylonia and Assyria. but also upon the West as having been her habitat. the one city which seems to stand is out with peculiar prominence in having temple prostitutes . whereupon she told the god Anu that Gilgamesh had upbraided her on account of her evil deeds and she asked for vengeance. were worshipped as deities. its influence was not so general especially in the early period. migir telUum musaklil terUum sa Hallab "the beloved of the exalted one. the sug- Lugal Marda and his gestion that Ashirta. including Phoenicia and Canaan. Certainly there is no available evidence to disprove her name does not appear in the nomenclature prior to this period. Moreover. Tammuz. Throughout Syria. as the brick stamp of Naram-Sin shows. in Babylonia and Assyria. who put into execution the laws Since Hammurabi was an Amorite. the unspeakable abominations of her licentious cult took deep root. Erech and Hallab stand out as the two It seems to the cities with which she was peculiarly associated. since queen Nin-Sun. in refusing her advances. appealed to the sensuality of man. namely. which has its parallels now in harvest festivals. they shall kiss thy feet. and her other husbands. there is sufficient evidence to show that the Baby' ' lonians not only looked upon her as having been a mortal. Certainly. but also to the peculiarity of it which involved disgracethis . seems to the writer to be perfectly reasonable. Gilgamesh.IV EARLY CHAPTER IN THE HISTORY OF AMURRU 47 place thee upon] a throne. and Humbaba (see below). Nin-Gish-Zidda and his queen Zertu. it is not improbof Aleppo. That the worship of this deified woman and her consort should have become so widespread was doubtless due not only to the nature of the cult. While a temple at Adab was dedicated to Ishtar.'* Gilgamesh. able that the body of his Code mainly came from that city. called Ishtar in Babylonia. all the kings and queens of this period. asked her what she had done with her husband Tammuz. some of whom became very important gods. As far as we know at ful rites that present. And it is probable whom Hammurabi refers in one of the titles he is the gives himself. writer that Hallab is prominently mentioned in these cult tablets . because that city that it is she to home of her worship. the wife of Tammuz.

in consideration of all that we know of Erech 's contact with the West. he set it down very cautiously. and bore a child. and reigned over the Babylonians. an eagle brought up a baby. (Translated from the Greek by Prof. For example. Harmon. a part of Erech. perhaps the Semitic quarter of that city. Her and guards. he became an Acrisius to the girl. are led in this connection to inquire what is the why is the eagle here introduced 1 Has power represented by the eagle in the also with the Etana legend. and was thrown from fall the acropolis where his mother was imprisoned. and that in his an eagle caught him and carried him to a garden whose keeper reared him. Tammuz and his father were identified Gifford Lectures 1903. pretty child. it is not difficult to understand how her cult migrated to the great alluvium from that region. He was alarmed at this. The fable of Aelian (de Natura Animaliwm 12. without his knowledge for fate was stronger than the Babylonian the girl was made a mother by a man of low degree. 21) reads as follows: It is characteristic of animals also to love human beings. for he guarded her very strenuously.) . if I may speak somewhat jocularly. was an eagle's nursling. V-3 which prompted an Assyriologist that " Erech was essentially a Semitic city. and perhaps Zu bird in the Lugal Marda epic? As we have 14 18 seen. seeing the it to a garden. But I am told that Achaemenes. was fond of it and reared it. M. the wife of Lugal Marda. and especially as of this " Queen of Hallab" had become the consort Tammuz. But. Gilgamesh was connected. If anybody thinks this a fable. for it was there that the aforesaid girl was imprisoned. He was the son of RimatBelit. A. p.48 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES RESEARCHES . it was called Gilgamos. and of the high priest of Kullab. We significance of the legend it anything to do with the . 15 From it we gather that Gilgamos (Gilgamesh) was born in secret." 14 long ago to say In short. It is doubtless this fact earlier period than in Babylonia. that it may bear witness to my statement. from whom the Persian nobility descends. and before it was dashed upon the earth got underneath it and received it upon his back. an eagle very quickly saw the child's fall. 342. I admit that on testing it I thought lightly of its validity myself. There is a fable that has been handed down by Aelian that ought not to be lost sight of in this connection. in fear of the king. where doubtless Western Semites settled at a much Erech. threw it from the acropolis . the Chaldaeans said that the son of his daughter would take the kingdom away from the grandfather. I wish to tell the whole story. Taking The caretaker of the place. When Semachoros (Seuechoros) reigned over the Babylonians. the Persian. not with the family of Tammuz. Well. but with that of the latter 's predecessor.

1 penetrated to the distance of a double West was being planned. 62: 17. with whom Gilgamesh fought. has in the past generally been located in Elam. These conclusions have not rested upon the fact that cedar forests were known to have existed in Elam. the son of the former queen. The conclusions that Humbaba was Elamitic. Engidu said Know. when I moved about with the cattle in the mountains. Gilgamesh. We Epic has not been regarded as has been looked upon as a mythical personage who played a part in a nature myth which had been woven into the exploits of Gilgamesh. as related in the epic. when born. was secretly carried away and reared in the land which the eagle represents? When Rimat-Belit said to her son concerning Engidu. The character Humbaba He Lebanon and Amanus ranges. thou wilt see". perhaps during the reign of Tammuz. lived. Engidu is another mythical character who has been regarded as "a type of primaeval man. : measure ' ' into the heart ' * of the cedar forest where Humbaba . ." The stronghold of Humbaba. Rimat-Belit. Gilgamesh beheld thee in a dream. He knew the paths through the cedar forest" and it seems reasonable to ask whether the nation." When ' * the expedition to the my friend. are led to believe from the Epic of Gilgamesh that in the early part .IV EARLY CHAPTER IN THE HISTORY OF AMURRU 49 with the emblem of the serpent. who like thee in the field was born. Are we to understand that perhaps Gilgamesh. for all the numerous references to cedars in the inscriptions have been understood to refer to the in the historical. 10 does this imply such an order of events? What was the affinity that was responsible for Gil- gamesh and Engidu being drawn together? evite version these We read in the Nin- words: "Ere thou earnest down from the mountain. whence he came. "Some one.of his career. and that the scenes took place in Elam rested solely upon the slight resemblance of "See Jastrow-Clay TOR IV 3. and we inquire whether it can be ascertained what power had humiliated Babylonia at this time. Erech was subservient to another throne. and the mountain has reared. and it has also been generally held that his name is Elamitic. is not to be identified with the power whose emblem was the eagle.

77. this must be a word which has been read It occurs several times. 502. and was the same as Moses (Num. the correct reading of the word in the omen texts. 10:29). concernbut the name continOthers realized that the description of the cedars seemed to suggest the districts in the West. and has been generally regarded hu-pi-pi. . Humba. being and in part a nature myth. but on the basis of the reduplication of the final consonant. This word. or Hubaba. * Weidner OLZ M Chiera Lists p. Humban. and which contained the personal name Hu-pi-pi. Since the sign PI has also the value wa. nevertheless the forests were considered to be in Elam. 20 is ' ' . The identification of Humbaba with this deity was also one of the reasons why emphasis was placed upon in part astral. written exactly the same. Holma Namen der Korperteile 17. p. p. etc.50 YALE OEIENTAL SERIES RESEARCHES V-3 the name Humbaba to that of the well known Elamite god Humba. and wa and ba in this period interchange. 122. to be the name of an animal it has even been translated 'hyena. 111. of Personal Names p. ing the building of the temple at Hierapolis ued to be identified with the Elamite god. Umba. however. n9 The same word occurs as a personal name in the temple administrative archives of the early period. whose name was variously written Humman. and of is the personal name. namely Hu-PI-PI. Umman. In the omen literature there A few years ago an Amorite Name-Syllabary was published which had been excavated by Haynes at Nippur. 151. It followed from this discovery that the name that of Hobab. has also been regarded as an Elamitic loan-word. strange to say. but it was this reproduced the pronunciation of Hu-ba-ba. the father-in-law of 17 Hu-wa-wa. the G-ilgamesh Epic being based upon a foundation of myth. abandoned. 21 More recently there was discovered in the Yale tablet of the old Babylonian version of the Gilgamesh Epic. that the familiar name Humbaba. 18 In the light of what follows. note 2. comparison of the A name was made with Kombabos of the Legend . was not Hu-pi-pi. and M 19 Ungnad-Gressmann Das Gilgamesch-Epos Ungnad-Gressmann ibidem p. 17 of Lucian.

32 ff. There are two well known omens relating to Naram-Sin.6:1 f King Chronicles ." 24 It is now definitely known that this woman. Following are a few of the omens to referring to historical events "If the foetus is male and female (a monstrosity)." This is fully confirmed by the chronicles of Babylonian kings. "CT 27. 22 Furthermore.IV since it EARLY CHAPTER IN THE HISTORY OF AMURRU 51 unquestionably was Amorite or West Semitic. who did not have a rival. : overthrew the rule of Akshak. it naturally followed that the reference to the conflict between Gilgamesh of Erech and Hubaba or Humbaba of the West was an allusion to an important historical event of the 23 Additional light is now thrown upon the situation early period. and established the fourth dynasty of Kish. than eleven historical omens are known which bear upon Sargon's reign. which fully substantiates the inferences which the writer made.. " Empire of the Amorites p. it is the omen of Naram-Sin. the king's country will be seized. 20 Another omen referring to the founder of a dynasty reads: "If a sheep gives birth to an ox." 26 We now have historical data to show lands. 88. which reads: "If the tiram is like a woolen rope. etc. who may have built or rebuilt the temple. from a passage in an omen text in the Pierpont Morgan Collection (see below). It is a well established idea that the definite historical allusions which omens refer. Bau-ellit. The former is summarized in the eighteenth line in the Morgan text. I." meaning that he had subdued the neighboring less No by many discoveries. there could be little doubt but that it was the same as Kombabos of Lucian. 22: 21. is fully borne out M It is not improbable that Lucian 's tradition contains a reflection of the ancient Humbaba. it is the omen of Bau-ellit. one referring to his overthrow of Apirak. . 14 * CT 28. who ruled the land. were originally supplied by actual events that followed the appearance of the prognosticating signs which the priests had observed. and the other to his conquest of Magan. who overthrew Apirak in arms. it is the omen of Ishbi-Urra. In one of them the expression "he possessed no foe nor rival.

whose Gilgamesh Epic as dapini "terrible one." 29 In * ' . Sargon. "CT27. overthrew the third 27 dynasty of Ur. who like Bau-ellit. and IshbiUrra. and that he had doubtless subjugated Babylonia. . What the characteristic feature was which enabled the priests to associate the omen-sign with Huwawa is not clear. 913 f .." 31 in the The character of Huwawa or Humbaba ' ' is described a deluge. and became the founder of the Nisin dynasty. 91. e. 13). 30 showing that the ideogram ^Hum-Hum is to be read Humbaba or Huwawa. Religion Babyloniens II. 4: 9.. Cf. Boissier Divination p. he will destroy the land of the enemy. overthrew a dynasty." "whose roar is mouth is fire. as well as to subjugating enemies. from the city of Mari. 14: 12. These examples suffice to show that omens of this character unquestionably refer to historical events. and it has the face of Huwawa. a usurper of the land will rule the world. 63 to 68). 80 81 21:8. 4: 8. whose breath is death. K CT 27. The third interprets the other two together they clearly indicate that Humbaba or Huwawa had been a mighty conqueror." 28 The other is: "If a sheep bear a lion. These omens can only be interpreted as meaning that Humbaba was a usurper. . and was without a rival. 107. an omen text of the Pierpont Morgan Collection (BRM IV." etc. The two omens referring to Huwawa have been known for some If a woman give birth to the face of Huwawa time one reads the king and his sons will leave the city." : A fragment in the British Museum duplicates the first part of six consecutive lines of this text (i.52 YALE OKIENTAL SERIES EESEAECHES V-3 that this Amorite. also Hu-um-'ba-U-tu CT 27. the prince will not have a rival. : . the third of which reads: "If the tirani is like the face of Hum-ba-ba. and 6:4. Jastrow has shown that Huwawa in omens is contrasted with tigru "dwarf. See also CT 28. The elders Gilgamesh from attempting to over: in their effort to dissuade throw him. and notably to great conquerors who overthrew dynasties. "If the tirani is like the face the following is found in line 65 of d Hum-Hum. asked who has ever penetrated to his dwelling place 27 Empire of the Amorites p. conquered the lands. 3: 17.

1 : 8-9. and who became 'the king of hosts' in the land. . which when accomplished doubtless enabled Gilgamesh to become the 'king of hosts. however.IV EARLY CHAPTER IN THE HISTORY OF AMURBU 53 or capital in the heart of the cedar forest! Who has ever opposed his weapon? In short. Ea-tabu or Ba'al-tob. We probably originally Semitic. a deluge story. and we learn from the Gilgamesh Epic that about this the land time a personage named Engidu. appeared on the scene and became the ally of Gilgamesh. prove conclusively the writer's contentions concerning the antiquity of the Amorite civilization. and that he humiliated Babylonia at the time of Gilgamesh. They. therefore from the omen texts that one named who had usurped the throne of the West. who bears an Amorite name. " CT 27. to give a history of the world. is a historical personage. who lived prior to the time of Abraham. (and it is) the omen of Gilgamesh who ruled the land. the epic bearing the name of Gilgamesh was originally written to commemorate the overthrow of Humbaba. the building of cities. forcibly remind us of the efforts of the Biblical writer and give us the know.' The fact that Humbaba. beginning with a creation story. among which the following has been found: "If a woman give birth. that he lived in a cedar district of the West." 32 It is clear from the Gilgamesh Epic that Gilgamesh in the early part of his reign was subservient to another. (it is) the omen of Nin-GishZidda who ravaged the land. however. Possibly we may later ascertain that the power which Humbaba represented was designated by the eagle. Among the historical documents found at Nippur. Unfortunately nearly all tablets of this period have come down to us in a fragmentary condition. had conquered Humbaba. the references to the despot seem to convey the idea that he was a powerful personage. At present. about 4000 B. C. which Sumerian name was very learn . and dynastic lists extending to the time the tablets were written.. there has come to light more than one effort on the part of ancient scribes. this can only be regarded as conjectural. and that he was able to overthrow the enemy. Moreover. Gilgamesh figures also in the divination texts. and the (child) has the head of a snake.

has light upon the subject.54 YALE OEIENTAL SEEIES EESEAECHES . Moreover. And further. . If it should be found that the Amorites of Mesopotamia used clay for their writing material in the early period. belong to the Hebrew or the Aramaean branch of the Semitic race and that other lists of contemporaneous rulers among the Semites were also in existThe antediluvian list of kings handed down by Berossus ence. we find that we have historical characters to deal with. what the literary analysis of the Pentateuch had long ago determined. namely that in the Old Testament there are two creation stories and two of the flood. and more than one version of the deluge. Man . as well as these chronicles of the Babylonians. The claim that the Biblical patriarchs and the early kings of Babylonia are the creation of a fiction writer. In every instance in which archaeology has thrown to mythology. V-3 ledge that the Babylonians also had outline histories of man from the beginning. in one case Noah. and in the other Atra-hasis. All kinds of efforts have been made to show that is one of these. the knowledge that the Babylonians had several creation myths. it . there are reasons for believing that the names represent actual persons who lived. the Hebrew list is taken from this one but they have utterly failed. West Semitic or Hebrew tradition of the There would seem to be little doubt that the names of the patriarchs. nevertheless. is highly probable that in time similar lists will be found. Cer- tainly the discoveries made in Babylonia would indicate that lists of rulers and similar traditions existed in the library of every great temple. or belong no support from the discoveries made in the past decade. the discovery that the Atra-hasis Epic is of Amorite parallels origin gives us another deluge. and they may be made to represent a period which actually covered many millenniums of history. such as are found in Babylonian libraries. There may be only a few names given. as well as other duplicate traditions. which are given in the Old Testament. The second important result of these discoveries is the reali- zation of the fact that underlying the Old Testament outline of history. They have in common only one thing. there is real history. that is the tenth antediluvian in each list is a hero of the flood.

C. Western Asia and Europe received Arabs. it had been demonstrated that the Hammurabi dynasty was Amorite. these periodical outbursts or sporadic waves of hungry. that a second wave between 2400 and 2100 B. may be depicted as riding to heaven on the back of an eagle. when Nabataeans moved upon Petra. maintained that an early wave furnished Babylonia with Semites late in the fourth millennium B. fighting with believe that their names represent historical characters. tribesmen.IV EARLY CHAPTER IN THE HISTORY OF AMURRU .. furnished Syria and Mesopotamia with Amorites. Again and again have we had the experience of transferring names from what has been regarded as the realm of mythology. The discoveries of the past decades have played such an important role in this connection that it is now possible it is impossible for those scholars who relegate to the region of myth certain Biblical or Babylonian characters to substantiate their position. but nevertheless we have reasons to ing into a pillar of salt. however. turnan angel. especially kings. Those who held the view that the periodic Arab migrations accounted for the peoples in Syria. In short. C.. Prior to 1909. as already stated. . when the present writer first contested this general position. to the pages of history.. furnished Syria. and Babylonia with its inhabitants. ' ' . that Amorites were Arabs. and that in the seventh century of the Christian era. Mesopotamia. moreover. We find a process analogous to what took place in Greece and elsewhere epics and traditions were directly based upon historical personages. and Babylonia. namely Mohammedans. with the understanding. C. Another who accepted and promulgated the theory completed the thousand year " spilling over" process by inserting another wave from the fifth century B." occurring about every thousand years when Arabia became so full that this spitting out process was necessary.. or what has been regarded as the creation of an ancient fiction writer. that between 1500 and 1300 a third wave furnished Palestine and adjacent lands with Aramaeans and Hebrews. or living in a whale's belly for three days. Mesopotamia. many deities have already turned out to be deified persons. in short.. it cannot be shown from the literature of the ancients that in the Semitic to assert that world a single god ever became a mortal.

the inhabitants of Syria. while an abundance of material has been discovered during the past decade which permits of the gradual reconstruction of the history of Amurru. First. as accepted by many adherents. as would be expected. some of which were facts. the writer contested this theory. both of which imply the negation of prevailing theories.56 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES RESEARCHES In V-3 Amurru the in Home more recently The Empire of of the Northern Semites (1909). and which tends to confirm the writer's position. Arabs have in all periods filtered into these lands. Mesopotamia. namely that and religion was of Babylonian origin. while is Israel's culture Second. on the contrary. In short. . for the culture is indigenous. and Babylonia were dependent upon Arabia for their Semites and their culture. but which seemed to throw light upon the While admitting that historical background of these peoples. and the Amorites (1919). Some additional discoveries were presented in an article on the Antiquity of Babylonian Civilization published in 1921. known in the land. or upon what seemed to be implied. he knows of nothing that has come to light which supports the contested theories. on the contrary. largely on the basis of a study of the nomenclature found in the Babylonian Hundreds of data were offered in proof of the new inscriptions. excepting the interchange of cultural elements which ordinarily takes place between neighbor- ing peoples . the writer's position is summarized in the following two points. which are augmented in the present treatise. others were based upon different interpretations. that the earliest is. synchronized with Babylonia and Egypt. Arabs have always filtered into adjacent lands there no basis for the theory that within the period covered by the written history of man. upon suggestions which had no direct bearing upon the thesis. In conclusion. the Semites in Syria and Mesopotamia had an indigenous existence and civilization which synchronizes with the earliest known in Babylonia and Egypt. Mesopotamia. that the position of the Pan-Babylonists. is without foundation. and. the Semites of Babylonia came into . of the Amorites. the writer contends that this wave theory is baseless and he has presented many discoveries to show that the civilization of Syria and position.

resulted in what we call Akkadian or Semitic-Babylonian. under the influence of the Sumerians. These two points summarize the writer's position.IV EARLY CHAPTER IN THE HISTORY OP AMURRU 57 the great alluvium pre-eminently from Syria and Mesopotamia." and they brought with them their religion and culture which. . as is echoed in the tradition "and it came to pass as they journeyed eastward that they found a plain in the land of Shinar.

. except Akkadian. A. COLUMN 1 [li]-'(?)-bi-il I. seems to be from " It is found in all the Semitic languages ' ' to trace. the form i-sa-ba-ta (B. 1 TRANSLITERATION. investigate. absent." Cf. A.. 111:37) does not preserve the name intact. It is to be regretted "to be that one of the three passages (see also B. "OH "company. association. for he changed the thought in his para' ( concerning their clamor phrase. A. . to associate. which the redactor employed in his paraphrases.. 111:4). Altorientalische Texte The word fyu-bu-ri-si-na. 5. . and Bogers Cuneiform Parallels 104ff... " cf. 111:5). [ri]-ig-[ma-si-i]n bal-ti- I will bring (?) their clamor (?) ma-tum ir-ta-bi-is ni-[su im]-ti-da [m]a-tum 5 [ Jci-ma li-i i-sa-ab-bu [i-na] hu-bu-ri-si-na i-lu it-ta-ah-da-ar The land had become great. dEn-lil is probably to be restored (see note under B. 4." A. heard their clamor. and used a word similar in appearance. It is probable that a redactor did not understand the word. TRANSLATION. by all except Dhorme." The corresponding word in Babylonian was pufyru. In Hebrew it especially means "to follow at the heel." I am indebted to Professor Torrey for this identification. his children" (see B. eli rigmesina ittadir he was troubled. The only root in Hebrew or Aramaic to which it-ta-afy-da-ar could belong is *^"1^ ciate." The root of this word in Hebrew and Aramaic means "to join. 111:3). was left untrans4. The words el(?}-li ra-bu-tim are replaced in the late redaction by ana Hani mare-su "to the gods. search out. Scheil Eecuett de Travaux 20 55ff.. A.. the people had multiplied. ] is-te-me ri-gi-im-si-in [iz] -za-kar a-na el(1}-li ra-bu-Um He iq-ta-ab-ta ri-gi-im a-wi-lu-ti a said to the great gods( ?). AN EARLY VERSION OF THE ATRA-HASIS EPIC.. which was used in the redactor's paraphrase. 7. which occurs several times in the redaction. lacking.. Jensen Keilinschriftliche BiUiotheTc VI 1 288 ff. The land like a bull had become satiated.APPENDIX. A. 111:6). 6. written [iq]-tab-ta-ma in the redaction (B. Those observing the clamor of men. Ungnad und Silder I 57 f. Dhorme CJioix de Textes Eeligieux Assyro-Babyloniens 120ff.. who rendered it "totalite. " "QH "asso" lated V V T companion. the root ^p V Iq-ta-ab-ta. [In] their assemblage God was absent. .

However. cf. The root of li-e-ir-ri is to be found in the Hebrew j-py "to throw. and also the noun fitftp. The writer tentatively restores Tcarsisina as in the redaction. is the tf)$ "to is parallel in meaning to . 111:43 the same expression used. Injured.24:12. These have been construed as meaning "to forget" from the Akkadian maM. This passage is restored with the help of the late text. because he feels the redactor in writing the paraphrase did not understand the passage. "VQj "mighty. 10. 13. I). to be desolate/' a root 74. where the same verb used. Let Hebrew . B.3. li-is-sa-Tcir. . and 55. [ia is-sa-a me-li [li]-il-li-ik na] -aq-bi sa-ru li-e-ir-ri [That the flood rise not at the so] urce. etc. is the Amorite word j"f J^f! T .APPENDIX EARLY VERSION OF ATRA-HA8I8 EPIC i-na fyu-bu-ri-si-na iz-za-kar ma-si-it-ta [ftp-par] -sa a-na ni-Si te-i-na 59 In their assemblage he spoke of desolations. ' ' but masu or wasu. A. see also e-me-su B. it must be said that there is a possibility of ma&ttu being identified with masddu to press. devastate." A. A. meaning something like ' ' to become weeds. fig tree for the people be [cut 10 [i-na~sa-da]-ti-si-na su hi-bi-is d li-'-zu sa-am-mu [In] their [fields]. A. The words which appeared in the e-na-at line before the text Hebrew Qinjl rb*^0> written parallel passage B. like lisaznin. It would appear that the root is not amdsu " to be little. 9. thorns . As already stated. see Delitzsch 486a.-f^gf cf." It has been suggested by Professor Torrey that this may be the root of ur-ru-w ia idri. similar forms are found in the text. which 8. The form lisaqtil should be noted. 11. was not understood by the [i-na $a-da]-ti-$i-na (n*lt^)> instead of V T scribe of the late text (see below)." Is. In V R 31:30 maS-H-ti is parallel to ni-si-tum. wanting. in the redactor's paraphrase The root of ma-M-ft-to. 111:3). 111:53. hurl. A. Scheil originally regarded the root of li-Sa-aq-ti-U as meaning "to kill. [The fountains of the deep] let not flow. III :4) "let the wide field bear weeds ( ?) . " which the gloss probably indicates is . The context suggests that perhaps the verb was a denominative. 12. found where li-me-su used (see also Chap. Let the off]. let the plant a weed(?) become Adad li-sa-aq-ti-il -a [li]-il-li-ka the sheep let Adad destroy. 15. " cf seru pallcu lulid idranu (B. 15 [na]-ag-bi-ra A. Let the wind blow. " in the redaction the Akkadian is titu is In B. ' HWB This ' ' ' A. probably this word stood also in the original text which would give us a line parallel to Gen. which is somewhat similar in meaning. Compare m-Si-tu (B. see Delitzsch HWB p. 111:45 [na]-ag-bi-ra seems also to be Amorite from the root ")3J| . A. 8:2. fi'lNltPO Psalm as well as n*X8P "desolation. strike. it drive mightily. 111:45 has ta-ma-ti was injured were perhaps the "fountains of the deep. 130b." Since the instead of is \li\-il-li-L-ti. meaning ' ' fig tree . oppress. The root of li-'-zu is not known to the writer." this is Hebrew. 15.

sa dNisaba come over] the bosom of COLUMN li- II." etc. . *En-ki d En-ki bi-a-su [i-pu-sa-ma] i Ea Ea his mouth [opened and] to iz-za-kar a-na Spake a-na mi-nim tu-ta-am-ma390 u-ub-ba-al ga-ti a-na n[i-si Why I hast thou stretch will commanded out my hand to the pefople] a-bu-bu sa ta-ga-ab-bu A.. A. 111:46." A." A. have been offered for isbiku (see Jensen KB In Hebrew.. li-sa-az-ni-in na-as-[ba eqla ki-ma sa-ar-ra-qi li-ba-a li. The flood. Let sa d Adad i-na a-li ib-nu-u bi 75 iq-bu ma-iz-zu-u na-gi ri-ig-ma u-se-lu u-ul ip-la-hu Which Adad had created in They cried out and became They sent up a clamor They feared not the city . li-ba-as ga-az li-sa-aq-ti-il 70 i-na se-ri-im ib-ba-ra li-sa-az-[ni-in] li-is-ta-ar-ri-iq i-na Let him destroy On the morrow let him cause it to rain mu-si . that [Rain from the heavjens pour not forth. [Let a change Nisaba. 18. 70.... one's personality. I owe this identification to VI The meaning "Ertrag.. Jer. see B.. which thou hast ordered Hebrew The root of ' ' li-im-ta-an-ni-ma is evidently the familiar V^Q "to withhold 4:7. 47. mightily Let him give in the night Let him cause it to rain a tempest Let it come upon the field like a thief. the Hebrew ")^l^ "mighty. furious . Professor Torrey. This and the following two lines are restored from the late redaction.. cf. hold back . 1 278 note 8).. Amos of showers. produce.. 17. It seems as if ma is waw consecutive. A. Let the field withhold its fertility. 56 and 57. 75. used of rain.. the root besides the general meaning "to pour out" means also "to shed blood.. 16. etc. ...60 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES RESEARCHES V-3 [ur]-bi-e-tum li-im-ta-an-ni-ma [zu-un-nu i-na same] (-e) ia it-tu-uk [li-su]-ur eqlu is-bi-ki-su [li-ni-'] ir-ta Let the clouds be held back. COLUMN 385 i VII." "to pour out one's soul. Let Let . The word ib-l>a-ra apparently is Amorite.. . 3:3.

and Rogers Cuneiform PardtteU CT 104ff. Dhorme Choix 128ff. the king. 8abatu umu 28 kam 445 mu Am-mi-za-dw-ga lugal-e bad Am-mi-za-du-ga ki ka id Buranunaki-ra-ta in-ga-an-dim-ma-a B. 49. man. 'The text is published in KB VI 1 was translated by Zimmern ZA 14 277ff.. 25 [77] sa[ttu] [i-na ka-sa-di-su] [777] sattu [i-na ka-sa-di] [When] the second year [When] the third year was not it [arrives] [arrives] A." Its total is 439 (lines) dup-sar sihru qdt Azagar * u d Aya By the hand of Azag.. His god will bear. and his goddess (?) Let them go into the [ship] The ship-mast Let them go li-il-li-ku i-na elippi . The root of tarkvttu in current use in Akkadian. TRANSLATION. the junior scribe.. 274ff. ta-ar-ku-ul-li pi-ir li-il-li-ku . day 28th of the year when Ammi-zaduga. COLUMN na u ga-me-ir . Shebet. A LATE REDACTION OF THE ATRA-gASIS COLUMN I. 398.APPENDIX EARLY VERSION OF ATRA-HA8I8 EPIC ma-an-nu su-u a-na-ku a-na-ku-ma u-ul-la-da si-bi-ir-su i-ma-as-si-id . 61 Who I is he! I truly will bear 395 li-ib-te-ru su-u His work he shall suppress Let be restrained . . EPIC. 2 TRANSLITERATION. 400 li-ir- mu 435 . m[a] for the people he made Atram-hasis opened his mouth. . ra .Ammi-zaduga at the Month mouth of the Euphrates (llth year). built the city Diir..d Aya. Jensen 15. ilu-su ul-la-ad u u [ iltu . Ungnad ATB I 61ff. a-na ni-si i-pu-us m At~ra-am-ha-si-is bi-a-su i-pu-saiz-za-kar a-na be-li-su VIII.. and Spoke to his lord.. 440 37 37 (lines) duppu II kam ma i-nu-ma i-lu a-wi-lum - The second tablet (of the series) "When su-nigin-bi 439 God.

. Treasured things. the daughter looks for the entering of the . . be translated "who is mindful of his treasure. si-na is-si-qa 30 qa-da-qad . should * ' pat-te have been translated by Dhorme "aussitot..[sa] The mother opens not daughter. B. . Dhorme reads ma-&o(or so) -si-su-nu. 1:36.. B. The words a-na ?) zur Zehrung( " . B. 29b.." The word seems to be the Hebrew f]Q "morsel. Mtu il-ta-nu sanu(-u) i-[ri-ha-ma] One house [devours] another. si-na it-tak-ru IV sattu nu i-na ka. The word i-ri-fra-ma restored from 11:50. ' ' B. 1:37.. The root T \ ~: arafyu occurs in p. 1:33. as usually translated. V sattu i-na ka-sa-[di] i-da-gal e-rib ummi When mdrtu the head [bowed] the fifth year arrives. Knudtzon translates wiederkehrt bei seinem Versehwinden " (147:10).. mother. Jensen and Ungnad leave untranslated. 17 p. who is followed by Rogers reading a-na pat-te "for food(?). although the only occurrence of the root in the O. is in nil")Z< "meal. zi-ba-ni-it mdrti i-na-tal [ummu] [The mother] looks upon the treasures of the daughter. ' ' = Hebrew *tD"lD I : It is not improbable that the third sign is qad. 1:30. ..s)-? by Jensen. The first part of the line is read qa-t(d)a is(s. ' ' which was not in current use in Akkadian. first word would be qa-da-qad B. the fourth year arrives. and is explained as meaning aTcdlu "to eat." and is followed by Rogers. food" (Gesenius Heb." Not being current in Babylonia and Assyria the redactor wrote the gloss which precedes: "they prepare the daughter for a meal.." "und u i-sa-fyar i-na sa-pa-ni-su This. their position was miserable. . they prepare the [daughter] for a meal.. The people [wan]der in the streets with . 65). and translates "leurs villes(?). [her] door to the zi-ba-ni-it ummi mdrtu i-[na-tal] The daughter [looks] upon the treas- ures of the mother. .62 YALE ORIENTAL SEKIES RESEARCHES The people V-3 ni-su i-na . Delitzseh HWB . . 35 VI sattu i-na ka-sa-di il-tak-nu ana When nap-t[a-ni mdrta] a-na pat-te bu-na il-tak-nu the sixth year arrives. stores ' ' would make better sense than "scales".. [it-tal]-la-ka ni-su i-na su-qi The wide their became oppressed.. in the above passage. ' ' IT It seems to the writer that the root of the word si-ba-ni-it "scales" is the ?fi ' ' to hide. treasure up.. the writer suggests.. T. The word sapanisu occurs in the Amarna Letters. ummu a-na mdrti ul i-pa-te bdbi. child : im-la-ni For morsels they prepare the were full(?) ma- . 1:28. IV R 49. rap-sa-tu . qa-da-isu by the Dhorme. 132. in which case ' ' crown f the head.[sa-di] -su ma-za-zi-su- When ik-ru-ni in their become changed." cf. Die." by Ungnad perhaps reading Tcurmate(-te) . . and qa-da-nis by "Rogers. is Amorite.

. B. ma COLUMN II. ' ' For the latter see Hinke A New Boundary Stone of Nebuchadsaltpeter. si e-lis 28 is-sur d [ bird.. . alkali. ' ' salt. I am indebted to Dr. Muss-Arnolt for this reference. salt. Different meanings have been offered for the word idranu. 44. . This ma is left wholly unaccounted for in the translations. thorns. 11:33. ' ' Ungnad did not translate. and probably was not understood by the the surface of neglected fields turns white with white. . . [Calamity was put upon the people]. ma . [The womb was closed. . The musdti mei ip- field diminished [its fertility]. ma-bel mdti. and . The people [live] in violence. weeds. Ici-i simti: simati "au f d 'ornaments. where wrote the gloss ' ' by night the fields became . 1016a.ta-ia-a-[ru] . 40 sipra il-qu-[u] e-tar-bu-ma te-ir-ti They took a messenger They entered. the return 45 . 46 . The writer proposes that conjunctive. the sheep [did not become pregnant]. translating "the people lived with bated breath.APPENDIX LATE REDACTION ki-i 63 se-dim-me-te pa-nu-si-na [kat-mu] [napisti bal-ja- ni-su i-na su-par-ki-e at] Like ghosts their faces [they cover]. see Muss-Arnolt Die. Amorite word. zu-un-na-su u-sa-qir] 30 is-sa-kir sap-[lis ul is-sa-a me-lu i-na na-aq-bi] is-sur eqlu [is-pi-ki-e-su] d Nisaba [i-ni-' irtu sa] [ : Adad Above [Adad made scarce Be [low] his rain]. For sedimmu and idimmu "ghost" B. and Rogers followed Dhorme. and the child came not forth]. . 1:38. who living in Babylonia. Les gens vivaient d 'une vie 6teinte. W. ' ' Jensen reads lu-par-lci-e napiSti bcU-ta-at Dhorme reads &u-ut(-)lc(q)e-e-in bal-ta-at without translating. as "ashes.. 35 [is-sa-kin-ma a-na nise mei a-sa-ku] [remu ku-sur-ma ul u-se-sir sir-ra] [The wide plain] bore weeds (?)." The root pardku "to display violence" is used in Akkadian. [that the flood rose not at the source]. 248. . scribe. . [By night the fields became white]. . 1:39. was gehorig 1st." Dhorme fci-t Ungnad and Rogers leave untranslated.. 1:43. (the fountain of the deep) was stopped. . An oracle And the lord of the land . " "gemass dem. su-u ugare meS ] [seru pal-ku-u u]-li-id id-[ra-nu] [sam-mu ul u-sa]-a su-[u ul i'-ru] [A change came over the bosom of] Nisaba. . . B. nezzar p. [The plant came not] forth. simati Jensen reads lieu . It was doubtless an it is the waw B. .

another. [nisu i-na su-par-ki]-e napisti bal-ta-at [bel ta-si-im-t]i A-tar-hasis [The people] live [in violence]. [His lord Ea] speaks with him. It appears to be the Hebrew inseparable preposition with the pronominal suffix. it-tal-la-ka ni-su] i-na su-qi [The people wander] in the street [with head bowed down] . appreciated the difficulty added a question mark. [The wise] Atra-hasis. E [a his lord] his thought turns...became changed...] [When the sixth year arrives.. Ungnad and Rogers do not translate.. they prepare] the daughter for a meal. [V sattu i-na ka-sa-di mdrtu i-da-gal 45 e-rib] ummi [When the fifth year arrives] the daughter looks for [the entering] of the . . This is the Hebrew ")J3Q in the plural. Ungnad. . the door of his god.] [zi-ba-ni-it mdrti i]-na-tal ummu The mother looks upon [the treasures of [VI sattu i-na ka-sa-di il-tak-nu] a-na nap-ta-ni mdrta [a-na pat-te bu-na] il-tak-nu 50 [im-la-ni ma-su . bttu i]l-ta-nu sanu-u i-ri-ha-ma [ki-i the daughter. their pressed.. [The mother op] ens not her door [to the daughter] [The daughter] looks upon [the treas. . . [When the fourth year is position] miserable. . . as recognized by Dhorme. ures of the mother. -si-na] it-tak-ru [When [The people in their] . Me-it-ra-tu-su has been translated "rains. . [For morsels] they prepare [the child] one house devours [Full was ] .. t[um] 40 [III sattu i-na] ka-sa-di [ni-su i-na ." see Dhorme. By the river he places his bed. and Rogers while regarding it as the negative.64 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES RESEARCHES .. V-3 [77 sattu i-na ka-sa-di-su] . Jensen.. . se-dim-me-te pa-nu-si]-na kat-mu [Like ghosts their faces] they cover. Instead of la-su Jensen read Dhorme also read it as the particle.. ] became op- [qa-da-qad . na-kan- [When the second year arrives] the third year] arrives. and considers it to be the negative particle. la-a. seek his rains. which the scribe glossed with it-ti-su. arrives their [IV sattu i-na ka-sa-di-su ma-za-zi]su-nu ik-ru-ni [rap-sa-tu . . 11:59. the man. -si-na] is-si-qa [The wide .. [ummu a-na mdrti ul i-p]a-te bdbi-sa [zi-ba-ni-it ummi mdrtu] i-na-tdl mother. . amelu [ana 55 [i-ta-m]u [beli-su d beli-su dE]-a uzni-su pi-ta-at it-ti ili-su E-a] it-ti-su la-su i-ta-mu bdb ili-su [i-n]a pu-ut ndri il-ta-kan ma-a-a-al-su me-it-ra-tu-su paq-rat . [He speaks] with his god. B. To . B. 11:56... .. .

Mr. La i-sa-ba-ta " ni-&i-tit was translated by Jensen "sollen nicht erfassen. calamity. it-ti-su i-ta-mu The words here to be restored are probably MU(= izzakar) a-na (or ina). Museum Jensen has proposed that [dn]-lil be restored. headache." The root of i-sa-ba-ta does not seem to be snb&tu "to take. 111:4. amelu [ana beli]-su [i-t]a-mu d E-a uzni-su pi-ta-at The wi[se lord] Atra-hasis.. let fate make an end to their [ki-m]a me-fyi-e li-zi-qa-si-na-ti-ma [mur-s]u ti-'u su-ru-bu-u a-sa-ku . Those observing the clamor of men [Concerning] their clamor I am trou: bled." cf. 10 [sur-r]is ri-gim-si-na nam-tar [Hast]ily clamor. his thought turns. rig(ri-gi)-me-si-na it-ta-d[ir] [Concerning] their cry he became troubled... His [lord] Ea speaks with him.. [izzakar ina] fyu-bu-ri-si-na la i-sa-bata [ni-si-tu] d [ [He spoke in] their assemblage to those untouched [by the desolations]. as in lines 111:37.. B. En-l]il il-ta-kan pu-fyur-[su] 5 [iz-za]-ka-ra a-na ildni mei mare mel -su [iq]-tab-ta-ma [r]i-gi-im a-me-lu-te [eli r] ig (ri-g [i) ] -me.. etc. To Ea. Ungnad "ergreift ihn nicht. to be pained. [Sicjkness. * The word ni-H-tu which - also occasioned difficulty. by Rogers "gives by me no heed.. B. T This also is a Hebrew word. 111:5. [Hast]ily fate made an end to [Like] a storm it their cry. B. [He said in] their assemblage to those untouched by the desolations. British copied.[si-n] a at-ta-a(di-ir)dir [Enl]il held [his] assembly. let ma su-ru-bu-u li-si lib-si there be malaria. malaria. " " by Dhorme "1'oubli ne 1'atteindra pas. . [He sp]eaks with his god. Sidney Smith of the kindly informed the writer that the sign as reproduced in the text is correctly In the old version instead of a-na tidni m&ri-iu we have e-na cl(f)-li ra-&-tm. headache.APPENDIX LATE REDACTION COLUMN . ftp fi?1# Is- 54:6. Thia root was not current in Akkadian. etc. let it overwhelm them. calamity. [He sa]id to the gods his children. 111:3." but the well known Hebrew root ^y "to grieve. ma su-ru-bu-u ib-si i-si [sur]-ris(ri-is) ri-gim-si-na nam- and they had malaria. [izzakar ina] jiu-[bu]-ri-si-na la i-saba-ta ni-si-tu . his [lord]. [Sick] ness.. the man.. Dhorme has correctly compared with n*t50 Ps 88:13. 111:3. [Lijke a storm. ir-ta [eli] III. it-ti ili-su 20 [beli]-su dE-a B. tar 15 [ki-ma] me-hi-e i-zi-qa-si-na-ti-ma [mur]-su ti-'u su-ru-bu-u a-sa-ku [bel ta]-si-im-ti A-tar-hasis overwhelmed them. malaria.

" given ni-se e-ti-ta. 111:29. fig tree for the people be [cut let [i-n]a kar-si-si-na li-me-su d sam-mu [I]n their bellies ing. and speaks a-na dE-a beli-su belu ut-ta-za-ma ta-ni-se-ti To Ea. .. nu-ka-at ..niqu god.. . mankind is in misery. O lord.. 111:42. calamity ce[ase]. . tu .66 YALE OEIENTAL SERIES RESEARCHES i-qab-bi V-3 A-tar-hasis pa-su epusa(-sa) Atra-hasis opened his mouth... ra-me e ta-as-Jcu-na-si-na-ti "do nothing for them. his lord.. it me as an emphatic particle.. . ra me-e-ta as-ku-na-si-na-ti [nise] la im-ta-a a-na sa [Enlil] held his assembly. "aux gens la plante epineuse.]il-ta-kan pu-hur-su : izakkara a-na ildni meS mare meS -su . . ta]-kan(ka-an) qat-su [En-lil. ma te-ib-nu-na-si-ma thou who hast created us su-bu-ru-u Let sickness. However. headache." Me-e-ta seems to be the Hebrew j"T)Q. pray to your goddess. Your power consumes the land.. lord. lu-ku-nu-ma e-kal ma-tu 25 d [ E]-a belu ut-ta-za-ma ta-ni-se-ti mankind is in misery. B... -ka i-la par-si-su 33 . 11.. he speaks to : 30 Atar-hasis. B.su dAdad li-sa-aq-ti-il. see A.. [li-ip-par]-sa mur-sa ti-'u a-sa-ku d [ E-a pa-su epusa(-sa) i]-qab-bi a-na A-tar-hasis me-izkur-su ka-lu-sa-pu-u i-na ma-ti -a tu-sa-pa-a dlstar-ku-un [Ea opened his mouth].. 34 . . this can only be regarded as conjectural. his command... as the passage is incomplete. This has been read . and changed the sense. [E]a. ana qud-me-sa 35 . [He said in] their assemblage to those 40 rig-me-si-na at-ta-a-dir [izzakar ina] hu-bu-ri-si-na la i-sa-ba[eli] ta ni-si-tu [lip-par] -sa-ma a-na ni-se-e ti-ta untouched by the desolations. Let the off]. lated except by Dhorme. In the four transliterations the reading is See note under A. have not become less.. 111:44. the gods his children. I will he speaks to pa-na i-ta-at- ra put them to death. the plant be wanthis rain scarce. -qat ra-ba-ma 36 .. The writer regards as the consecutive. 111:38. [e]-lis Adad waw zu-un-na-su lu-sa-qir All the translations construe Above. and tells him in the land. In the old version we have ---. sa ildni mei -ma e-kal ma-tu ... [Concerning] their cry I am troubled... malaria. 9. [The anger] of the gods consumes the land. let Adad make B. [il.. they [The people] are more numerous than before.. B. Babylonian scribe did not know the Hebrew word. and is left untrans- Probably a .

Let the [womb] be closed. seru pal-ku-u [l]i-bal-kat lu-li-id id-ra-nu : ki-ri-im-sa sam-mu ia u-sa-a su-u ia i-'-ru field bear weeds (T). Let calamity be placed upon the people.APPENDIX LATE REDACTION 45 [li-is] 67 -sa-kir sap-lis ia ti-sa-a me-lu i-na Below na-aq-bi (the fountain of the deep) be stopped." of Sargon. This also is the Hebrew word fyy "one of a flock" (a ' ' ! 1 namely ^I^D* T : HWB sheep or a goat). Jensen translated iti-u ia i-'-ru "Korn nicht ____ ess! ' ' ' 'elle ne germe pas '. The fig tree was cut sam-mu In their Above. " to conceive. that the sheep become not Let the wide 50 [li]s-sa-kin-ma a-na nise mei a-sa-ku [remu] lu-ku-sur-ma ia u-se-sir sir-ra ip-[par-s]u a-na ni-se-e ti-ta i-na kar-si-si-na e-me-su e-lis d pregnant. 8:2. This is the root The verb must be t'-'-ru following HIH . here used collectively as in the O. that it bring forth no infant. As already observed. [l]i-sur eqlu is-pi-ki-e-su d [l]i-ni-* irtu sa Nisaba : Let the musdtimfl lip- su-u ugdre" *1 1 field withhold its fertility. We find the subject in Gen. bellies. translated "lambs shall not fatten. see Delitzsch 632. 111:59. It is also wanting in this text. The womb was closed.'-ru Getride nicht kommen ( T ) ". Calamity was placed upon the people. B." In Genesis the same form from the same verb is used. sam-mu ul u-sa-a su-u ul i'-ru 60 is-sa-kin-ma a-na nise mei a-sa-ku remu ku-sur-ma ul u-se-sir sir-ra The plant came not forth the sheep did not become pregnant. no baby. in the words "fountains of the deep. except that it is in the plural. irtu sa dNisaba :musdti mei ip-su-u mei : A change came over the bosom of Nisaba the fields by night became white. i. Let a change come over the bosom of Nisaba. Adad zu-un-na-su u-sa-qir Adad [off] for the people. A. by night let the fields become white. that the flood rose not at the The field withheld its fertility. the plant was wanting. that the plant come not forth. reading iu-u qu Ungnad There are two occurrences of iu in the Annals i-im-ru. 111:45. and brought forth . of the deep) was stopped." B. made scarce his rain. Rogers. 55 is-sa-kir sap-lis ul is-sa-a me-lu ina noaq-bi is-sur eqlu is-pi-ki-su i-nif Below (the fountains source. 12 had been injured when the early text was written. " Dhorme read su-u ia B. ugdre seru pal-ku-u u-li-id id-ra-na kat ki-ri-im-sa ib-bal- The wide field bore weeds ( T) . T. 111:49. and the subject of the verb was lost. Let her bosom revolt. . that the flood rise not at the let source. her womb revolted.

the creator of destiny. . i-lut istu bit d Mah e-ris-ta dMa-mi Divinity (?) from the temple of Mah. 10 [VII] u-ba-na-a sinnisdtimeS [s]d-su-ru ba-na-at si-im-tu si-na-san (sa-na) u-ka-la-la-si-na si-na-san (sa-na) u-ka-la-la mah-ru-sa u-su-ra-te sa nise meS -ma u-sa-ar dMa-mi a-li-te ha-ris-ti : Seven formed girls The mother. like the ends of heaven. ki-ma kip-pa-ti 8 . .. It was translated by Haupt KAT* 61.. .. . figures of people. midwife.. 344.. lu-u .. .. the birth-stool (?). tip-te-si [ . Male 3 ASSYRIAN FRAGMENT. sab-su-tu-um-ma ina bit ha-ris-ti li-ih- They that are angry let in the house of the du ak-ki a-li-it-tu u-la-du-ma be happy. is] [VII] u VII sd-su-ra-ti zikare meS VII u-ba-na-a She then called the wise Seven and seven mothers. 15 i-na bit VII ume me9 li-na-di libittu In the house of the bearing one the midwife.. they finished before her. and Jastrow Heb. i] -ta-di eli ti-it-ti-sa : [She sp]at upon her clay. . d [ IV. Winckler Textluch 94f.68 YALE ORIENTAL SEEIES EESEAECHES V-3 COLUMN ... .. . Jeremias ATAO 233.. and Delitzsch Assyrische The text was published by Pinches IV Ea Additions p. . seven formed boys.. ATB I 57. C. between them she placed a brick.. Offspring is a ap-pa-ri pa-ri-iq a-bu-un-na-te -si-ma ir-se-te mu-te-ti : delivered. . . Them(?). 5 [XIV gi-ir]-si taq-ri-is VII gi-ir-si ana imni tas-ku-un [VII gi]-ir-si ana sumeli tas-ku-un i-na be-ru-su-nu i-ta-di libitta . 22 . 101.. ) . ]E-a iz-za-kar Ea : said. shall let the brick for seven days lie.. it 20 [zi]-ka-ru ... [Fourteen pieces] she pinched pieces she laid on the right. Dhorme Choix 126f. TIngnad Eogers Cuneiform Parallels 104. off.. After she recited the incantation [ . KB VI 1 254f. he shall cause her to recite. si-ip-ta is-tu-ma tam- [reci]ted an incantation. Jensen Kosmologie 371f. [tam]-nu nu-u si-pa-sa . seven : [Seven] pieces she laid on the left. When the bearing one is about to give birth.. . they finished them. the wise Mami. Trad. 9 LesestuclceP p. ummi sa] sir-ri lu-har-ri-sa ra-ma-an-[niel-li Let the mother of the child conceive like into herself... Mami formed.... u-sam(sa-am}-na-si . ... and Bab. Them( The ?).

a-dan-na sa a-sap-pa-rak-[kumtir- the time I will send thee... Upon the earth draw a plan! ! How 15 [u-sur] -tu lu-mur-ma elippu its] [lu-pu- The plan ship. transliteration 1.. -gi-gi Ea in his own heart held counsel. Translations are also found in Barton Archaeology and the Bible 280f. and makkuru-[ka] [assat]-ka mdre me * ki-mat-ka sa-lat-ka u Thy The thy property. D.. which thou hast commanded. . and translation were published by Poebel Historical and Gramand Historical Texts 14ff and 66ff.. 11 uk[ 13 The 14 a- ... A DELUGE STORY COLUMN IN SUMERIAN. .* III. 10 ki. and King Legends of Babylon and Egypt 62ff.:. and Bab. Trad. close 5 . and they will guard thy door.. lnnanna-g uku-bi-su a-nir The holy Ishtar lamented d En-ki sa-ni-te-na-g& a-i-ni... as many as devfour] grass. 335ff.. 12 a-ma-ru -ne-ne in an-na? .. busu-ka u . for her people. thy family. thy possessions. . and spoke. He said to Ea. 4 The text... ina qaq-qa-ri e-sir . . .. .. thy relatives and field. . is The beginning of the column wanting. and I will build the ... and close the door of the ship..enter ma] [ana elippi] e-ru-um-ma bob elippi [ra] lib-bi-sa seat-ka .. [wife]. . Jastrow Heb. let me see.. . . ] 15 ii-bi-a d Nin-t[u dim At mu- woman azag d that time Nintu [cried aloud] like [a in travail]...APPENDIX ASSYRIAN FRAGMENT lu-da-an c-pi-fyi e-lis ) . u sa[p-lis] let it be strong above and below.. . matical Texts No. .. [ina qaq]-qa-ri e-sir u-[sur-tu] long I have not built a ship. cattle of the the beasts of the 10 [a-sap-p]a-rak-kum-ma i-na-as-as-sa-ru bdbi-[ka] [At-ra]-ha-sis pa-a-su epus-ma iqabi d [iz-zak]-kar ana E-a field. his lord: ma-ti-ma-a elippi ul e-pu-us .. I will send thee. bu-ul seri //- um-ma-ni u-ma-am seri ma-la urqiti the craftsmen. upon the sa taq-ba-a ground he drew. 11 The people 14 the 12 The flood 13 made.. place .. . be-li-[su] Atra-hasis opened his mouth..in it thy grain.

. is missing. My holy one. or about three-fourths of the text. . .. . mu An mu- The gods the of heaven and earth inv[oked] (and) Enlil. The flood ur-ur D.. in reverence . iz-zi-da i(nim)-ga-ra-ab-du-dii At 5 na-ri-ga-mu gis-TU-P [I] the wall I will speak a word to thee. name of Anu 20 u-ba Zi-u-sud-du lugal-am pasis At that time Zi-u-sudda the king.. . the [of the gods] 10 En-[lil] [n]am-lugal-bi bal-bi An d The commands of Anu (and) En[lil Its (their) .]-. . di-til-la i(nim)-pu-uh-ru-[um dingirri-e-ne-ka.. .. Daily he stands in attendance A dream.. .. As Poebel has pointed out pu-ub-ru-[um] is Akkadian.. . bi( ?). Ea and Nin-Harsag . j-na muThe rest of the column. . as had not been before. Enlil. together blew.. g[e] dingir-an-ki-ge n[i]-.gub-ba gis-mu.. . Zi-u-sud-du da. . the priest of . the All mighty windstorms raged.] dii-dii-ga To destroy the seed Is the decision. e( ?)-[n]e-su [ kingdom. of mankind word of the assembly numun-nam-lu-qal ha-lam-e-d[e] . -su dingir-ri-e-ne iz-zi-da GIS . IV: 8. . To him (them) its (their) reign .. comes forth 25 mu--an-ki-bi-ta pa-pa-de By COLUMN IV.. AN-SAG-gur-gur mu-un-dlm-dim en nam-BtJB-na KA-si-si-gi ni-te-ga u-su-us-e sag-us-gub-ba ma-mu-nu-me-a e-de KA-bal A great he made In humility he prostrates himself. . give attention ! su-me-a a-ma-ru u-dii kab-d[ii-ga] ba- By our hand( ?) a flood will be sent.70 YALE OEIENTAL SEEIES RESEARCHES d En-lil d En-ki V-3 An d Nin-har-sag-gad En-lil Anu. . a-gub-bu-mu gub-ba For the gods Zi-u-suddu standing at its side heard At the wall on my left side stand . COLUMN im-hul-im-hul-ni-gur-gur-gal du-a-bi ur-bi ni-lah-gi-es a-ma-ru u-dii kab-dii-ga ba-an-da-ab- V... the name of heaven and earth he con- jures [.

An eternal soul like (that of) a god he creates for him. a sheep he slaughters (?). The king sac rifles an ox. by the soul of earth ye shall conjure him. for seven nights overwhelmed the land. lugal-e gu im-ma-ab-gaz-e ma-ab-sar-ri .. ma-gur-gur a-gal-la im-bul-bul-bul-ata i-im-ma-ra-6 an-ki-a When d Utu u-ma-ma the storm drove out the great boat over the mighty waters. By the soul of heaven. The name of the niggilma (he named) "Presence of the seed of mankind" . COLUMN zi-an-na zi-ki-a ni-pa-de-en-zi-en za-zu-da fee-im-da-la VI. He will be with you. Prostrates himself before Shamash... An d En-lil zi-an-na zi-ki-a ni-p&-de[- Anu en]-ze-en za-da-ne-ne im-da-l& That he may be . 10 d igi- Utu-su KA-ki-su-ub-ba-tum Zi-u-suddu..si-gal .. the king. -la-da u[d]u im13 . Before Anu (and) Enlil prostrates himself tum ti dingir-dim mu-un-na-si-mu dingir-dim mu-un-na-ab-e'-de' zi-da-ri Life like (that of) a god he gives to him.. . mu-un-[n]a bi-in-si 16 14 tab-ba 17 The 15 a-[b]a rest of the column is missing... 10 u-ba Zi-u-sud-du lugal-am mu nig-gil-ma numun-nam-lu-qal- URU(?)-ag At that time Zi-u-suddu. The light of the hero [hatch] of the into BtrR mu-un-da-BtR d isul... Zi-u-sud-du tf'ma-gur-gur KA(T)- Zi-u-suddu opened the great boat. the king.. by the soul of earth shall ye conjure . the king. rises 5 nig-gil-(ma) ki-ta e-de im-ma-ra-e-de' The niggilma of the ground abundance... Shamash (the sun-god) came forth shedding light over the heaven and earth.APPENDIX 8UMERIAN DELUGE STORY u-7-am ge-7-am a-ma-ru kalam-ma ba-ur-ra-ta 5 is When The flood for seven days. in Zi-u-sud-du lugal-am d igi An En-lil-la-su KA-ki-su-ub-ba- Zi-u-suddu.sa(?) a^ma-gurgur-su ba-an-tu-ri-en Zi-u-sud-du lugal-am Shamash enters the interior ( T) of the great boat. with you. (and) Enlil by the soul of heaven.Utu gis-sir-ni(?)...

72 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES RESEARCHES -su V-3 kur-bal kur-dilmun( ?)-na ki mu-un-ti-es za- In a land." as already noted. Translations have been published also The Chaldean Account of Genesis 263ff Haupt Nimrod-Epos 133ff and Pinches by Fox Talbot.ki-i ta-az-ziz-ma ina puhur ildnimeS [Tell me]. Lenormant. the secret story . how ba-la-ta tas-'-u found life in hast thou stood up. gal-bi(?)-ti(?)-es-a The -ra( rest of the column. Su-ri-ip-pak alu sa ti-du-su at-ta narPu-rat-ti sak-nu [ina a-hi] Shurippak. O. Ungnad ATS I 50ff . Muss-Arnolt. Ball. For comparative purposes the following four are freely quoted in the discussions in the notes: Jensen Cuneiform Parallels E. E. [ina n]a-a-hi na-da-at-ta e-li(lu) si-ri- And in resting thou liest upon thy back. King. is missing. Barton and others. . . . Crilgames a-mat ni-sir-ti will reveal. Oppert. Rogers. . they caused him to dwell. 5 Gilgames a-na sa-su-ma izakkara(-ra) a-na Vm-napis-tim ru-u-qi a-na-at-ta-la-kum-ma Um-napis-tim ki-i ia-a-ti-ma at- Gilgamesh said to him. and Rogers Instead of the usual reading [u i-n]a ' ' a-lii na^da-at e-li si-ri-Tca "thou liest down upon thy E. mi-na-tu-ka ul sa-na-a ta Thy appearance like art. Zimmern. Winckler. tJm-napishtim is . the distant one I look upon thou art. The text is published in Delitzsch AL S lOlff IV R3 43f. Dhorme Choix lOOff . . Gilgamesh. is Amorite. Haupt. 9. f) Zi-u-sud-du SAL . even to Gil- gamesh I . 5 George Smith published the first translation in (1876). ka . about three-fourths of the text. for I am thou gu-um-mur-ka un-ti lib-bi a-na e-pis tu-qu- There perfection of heart unto thee to make combat. a city which thou knowest. KB 90ff. for I am like u 5 at-ta ul sa-na-ta ki-i ia-ti-ma at-ta And thou art not different. side. 6. and the assembly of the gods? tfm-napis-tim ana sa-su-ma izakkara d (-ra} a-na Gilgames lu-up-te-ka d tJm-napishtim spoke to him. . Clay. . Jeremias. to trm-napishtim. Jensen. that of Dilmun. 10 u pi-ris-ta sa ilani meS ka-a-sa lu-uq-bi- And the decision of the gods to thee I ka &l will relate. upon thy back the writer proposes the above. is thee. Jastrow. Is situated (on the bank) of the Euphrates. The word nisirtu meaning "hidden thing. d THE DELUGE STORY IN THE GILGAMESH : EPIC. . VI 1 228ff. not changed.

Ea counseled with them. E." Ungnad. Si-me-ma is also apparently a gloss for bi-is-sa-att. Ennugi. "I enclosed it. . . es) hin". qikkis! Wall. The writer feels that qikkii or qiqqii is an archaic Amorite word which is glossed by igaru "wall. Jensen translated line 60." and Hilpreeht ' Cover it like the subterranean waters. city was old when the gods within 15 [kir]-ba-su abu-su-nu dA-nu-um ma-lik-su-nu qu-ra-du dEn-lil guzalu-su-nu d d En-Urta d gu-gal-la-su-nu d En-nu-gi Nin-igi-azag E-a it-ti-su-nu ta-me-ma qi-ik-ki- gods. hear O wall. namely 1C* see Clay BE X:116. .APPENDIX DELUGE 8TOBY IN OILOAME8H EPIC dlu su-u la-bir-ma ildni mel kir-bu-u [a-n]a sa-kan a-bu-bi ub-la lib-ba-Sunu ildni mel rabute mtl 73 That it. wall O. ^p ' ' ' ' es. brought their hearts to send a deluge. Ungnad [An] den Ozean lege es vor Anker (f). then zi-ir-ma would probably be from or "Vtf "to turn aside". build a ship Leave possessions. protect (sdsi) \ it with a roof E. qikkis. give attention Man of Shurippak. "Ich " and Rogers. 20. The great 20 a-mat-su-nu u-sa-an-na-a a-na su qi-ik-kis qi-ik-kis i-gar i-gar The lord of wisdom." entwarf(f) den Vorderbau(f) und zeichnete es (das Schiff) The word 3o-a-& is perhaps to be identified with the Amorite form of Shamash. The word ia-a-Si also occurs in line 61. If instead of na-ak-ku-ra the injured line should prove to read ina ma-ak-lcu-ra. En-Urta. ' Ich warf hin di& Vorder. ! ! ! Tear down the house. and He repeated their words to the qikkis : qi-ik-ki-su d Tu-Tu si-me-ma i-ga-ru hi-is-sa-as amel Su-ru-up-pa-ku-u mar Ubarau-qur bita bi-ni elippa 25 mus-sir mesre(-e) se-'-i napsdte mei na(f)-ak-ku-ra zi-ir-ma na-pis-ta bullit Qikkis. 26. Nabopolassar in a late building inscription from Sippar calls himself gestalt zeichnete . Their herald. in Sa-a-Si e-sir-H. E. . . son of Ubara-Tutu. Dhorme "Sur I'oc6an place-le! "." Rogers " the heaven cover it with a roof. take thought for ! life ! Abandon property . dimensions be measured! breadth and its length be propor! tioned [ki]-ma ap-si-i sa-a-si su-ul-lil-si [Lijke the apsu. [These drew near] their father. Anu Their counselor. "Je tracai ses contours. Jensen translates 31 " " [B]eim Weltmeer leg es (." Dhorme. and the preceding line would be a gloss. save life ! [s] u-li-ma zer nap-sa-a-ti ka-la-ma a-na Bring into the ship the seed of everything ! life of lib-bi "elippi "elippu sa ta-ba-an-nu-si at-ta l[u]-u man-du-da mi-na-tu-sa 30 []W-M mit-hur ru-bu-us-sa u mu-rak-sa The ship which thou Let Let its its shalt build. 31. the Akkadian word i-ei-ir-an-ni "hates me" occurs a few lines below. the warrior Enlil." A wooden wall would alone furnish material for the construction of the boat. Their hero. je les dessinai.

the covering. it was absolutely necessary that it have a roof. 54 u . 51 [k]a(f) .. [ra-b]a-a e-bu-ra-am-ma . I will dwell. ... : [a]-di-ma i-zi-ir-an-ni- [I kn]ow that Enlil hates me. my lord.. the u si-bu-tum i-zak-ka-ra . pa-as(z. a harvest..-[u]r(f)be-li sa taq-ba-a at-ta ki-a-am [The word] of the lord.. I will execute. In the deluge text above. . thus I will observe. . namely the firmament. When the muir kukki. kup-ra dan-nu ina mi-gi-ir . pi ta About fifty lines missing.. He said unto me.... ]-s* 55 sir-ru .... in the eve- ning.. "like the apsu.[na] pdni-ia-a-ma [ur]-rad-ma ana apsi li-ia it-ti I may Nor on the I will not dwell in your city.... [hi]-sih-tu ub-la bore the asphalt... . ma 45 . [mim-mu-u ... s) u ... and ma 40 ul us-sab ina a[li-ku]-nu-ma d [in] a qaq-qar En-lil ul a-sak-ka. glows se-e-ri] ina na-ma-a-ri heard [a]s-ma-a .. with [Ea] as-ba-ku my nune meS lord. d [E-a be]- go down to the ocean. 8:10.. and [mu-ir] ku-uk-ki (ina li-la-a-ti) . The passage it would seem should be translated. does it not refer to the course through which Shamash travels. [u-sa-az-na-nu-ku]-nu-si sa-mu-tum ki-ba-a-ti Will send you a heavy rain. a catch of fish. It is written without the determinative KB III 64:11. as hitherto noted..74 YALE ORIENTAL SERIES RESEARCHES I V-3 [a]-na-ku i-di-ma a-zak-ka-ra a-na d . city. Strong da-as-u KB III 2. [A catch of] birds. . 50 . I brought the necessities].... The word seems to mean Shamash. 13. [eli k]a-a-su-nu u-sa-az-na-an-ku-nu-si issure meS bu-[']-ur nu-uh-sam-ma [bu-'-ur] [Upon] you will he (Enlil) then rain abundance. as thou hast commanded. soil of Enlil set my face.. understood.. the vault above the earth? The word apsu was a synonym... [at]-ta-'-id a-na-Jcu ep-pu-us 35 d [ [m]i(f) lu-pu-ul dlu um-ma-nu [But what] shall I answer the people..... In the case of the deluge ship. and said to Ea. E-a be-li-ia . his servant Verily thou shalt say to them. enclose it with a roof". ]E-a pa-a-su i-pu-us-ma i-qab-bi ana ardi-su ia-a-tu lu at-ta ki-a-am ta-qab-ba-as-sunu-ti ia-a-si d Enlil and the elders ? Ea opened his mouth and spoke.

I raised its form. with a roof 60 ad-di la-an-si sa-a-si ur-tag-gi-ib-si a-na e-sir-si I laid its hull. "Nach dem Entwurf(f)". be from the same root. concealment." It seems to the writer that the word does refer to the " bottom. gin* is the Jer 6:9 " KB VI 1 p 490) Amorite. which. son enceinte. is the common Hebrew ")D "to gather.APPENDIX DELU(iE HTOHY IN CIUJAMKSH KI'K' 75 ina fya-an-si u-mi [a]t-ta-di bu-na-sa as-kan ty-sa 10 GAR "-* * saq-qa-a 1 On I placed the fifth day. and I I in- stalled the necessities. aS-Tcan may be a dialectical form of ai-kun. in Akkadian may concealed While the word puzru and pazrv. 70. because that E. Jensen read ina KAN-&I-SA "nach dem plan. 65 a-mur pa-ri-su u fyi-siji-tuin compartments. cf." Ungnad." Dhorme "!' interieur. smeared over the smeared over the basket bearers HI sar iddi [at-ta-bak] a-na lib-bi Three sars of bitumen inside. Dhorme "contours. I enclosed it (Mff). are in the first person singular. KAN If it is correct." As already noted. ina E. and that the root is very probably the Hebrew Fft "to lodge. Rogers ina KAN-sa sa "in its plan. VI sar ku-up-ri at-ta-bak a-na qi-i-ri Three sars of bitumen (outside) wall. " &i-a "Quant a Dhorme. ' ' ' ' ' ' . Su-us-su-ul-lu is (Jensen - niDD ' ' E. the verb with the above meaning was not in current use. pass the night. were slaughtered.[ni] u-pa-az-zi-ru amllmaldhu brought in. 60. E. made decks) six times. divided (into divisions) seven times. 58. VI-su I covered I I ap-ta-ra-as [pa-ri-s]u a-na VII -su qir-bi-is-zu ap-ta-ra-as a-na IX-su it (i. with the exception of line 59. "hull." and Rogers. gather in. The writer proposes the above reading. fci-i-ri is translated by Jensen "Innenraum. oil which sacrifices con- Two For sars of oil the a-na n[ise mei ] ut-tib-bi-ih alpe mei [the people] oxen shipman stowed away. e. la-an Ungnad. "sikkdti si me ina qabli-sa lu-[u] am-fyasad-di Water-tanks in I inspected the its midst I constructed. divided its interior nine times. hull or "Vorderbau. The root of u-pa-az-zi-rv." Hebrew " E. ' ' the part of the boat in which the people lodged. I III sar sabe mes na-as "su-us-su-ul-sa i-zab-bi-lu e-zi-ib Three sars of I oil the samna (e-zu-ub) sar samni sa i-ku-lu ni-iq-qu 70 77 sar sam. enclose. its walls about its perimeter 120 -sa igardti taaa 10 im-ta-bir ki-bir mufy- mei cubits high. GAR 120 cubits was proportioned the length of its jii-sa upper part. Vordergestadt ". 68. 66. Jensen translated " " is The word " and " outside (f). saved a sar of sumed." Rogers Ungnad "den Schmelzofen(f) "wall." The sentence preceding and the eight that follow all contain a verbal form.

li-ku-si-ni pat-su [mimma i-su-u e] -si-en-si mimma i-su-u e-si-en-si kaspu mimma i-[su-u e] -si-en-si-en-si mimma i-su-[u e-si-en]-si zer napsdte 85 ia hurasu was opened wide. I caused to go up. and closed the door. I and wine. their were With all that I had. e-lis u sap-lis 80 .. laid down my d l[a-a]m Samas ra-bi-e elippu gam-rat " hand). ' ' It seems to the writer that it is an expression meaning. Shamash fixed a time (saying). . I loaded it. With all that I had of silver. I. 76. . and The ship ropes ( ?) which they made. Enter the ship and close the door. . I loaded it. . he finished the task. the craftsmen. With all that I had of gold. E. The muir kukki at even will send a heavy ma-a-ni ka-li-su-nu u-se-li plain. sup-su-qu-ma meS us-tab-bi-lu gi-sa(?) elippa epusu . pis-sa-ti qa-ti ad-di I and open[ed a box] of ointment. I loaded it. Before (?) Shamash. I e-ru-ub a-na lib-bi elippi-ma ap-te-hi ba-a-bi E. u-mu a-na i-tap-lu-si pu-luh-ta i-si Of the storm. they installed above and below. With all the seed of life that there was. oil Must. I observed its appearance. I dreaded. . family The cattle of the field.76 as-gi-is YALE ORIENTAL SEEIES RESEARCHES I V-3 immere me * u-mi-sam-ma si-ri-[su ku-ru]-un-nu samnu u karanu um-ma. pleted my task (lit. me ka-la-ma us-te-li a-[na] libbi elippi ka-la kim-ti- I caused to go u sa-lat-ia bu-ul seri u-ma-am seri mdre meS um- up into the ship all my and relatives. the beast of the all of them. the great ship was finished. entered the ship. sesame wine. a-dan-na d amas is-ku-nam-ma li-la-a-ti mu-ir ku-uk-ki ina u-sa-az-na- an-nu sa-mu-tu ki-ba-a-ti e-ru-ub ana [lib]-bi elippi-ma pi-hi bob (elippa) -ka 90 a-dan-nu su-u ik-tal-da mu-ir ku-[uk-ki] ina li-la-a-ti i-za-anna-nu sa-mu-tu ki-ba-a-ti sa u-mi at-ta-tal bu-na-su rain. . The muir kukki at even sent a heavy rain.. I loaded it. In all the translations qa-ti ad-di is made to refer to the ' ' ointment. That time arrived.[no. to drink like from the [I made a fe]ast like the Akitu festival. I com- tim-ma ap-t[e] .. On e-si-en-si from the Amorite root 1VJJ see Chap. 81. To behold the storm. water gave the workmen river. . as-qi] ki-ma me nan-ma 75 i-sin-[na as-ku-na] ki-ma u-mi a-ki- slew sheep daily.

like isten(-en) u-ma me110 ha-an-tis i-zi-qam-ma .. A-nun-na-ki is-su-u di-pa-ra-a-ti 105 ina nam-ri-ir-ri-su-nu u-ha-am-ma-tu The Anunnaki raise the torches. The people in heaven did not recognize each other. Quickly it overwhelms. mat-a One day.. generally done. The word pi-fii-i is not Akkadian. 95. . he advances En-Urta proceeds .. ma-a-ti rab-su i-ses-si in the enclosure. and [covers] the mountains. they ascend to the heaven of Anu. Everything that was bright turns darkness] the land . ki-ma qab-li ul eli [nise mel u-ba]-'-u . a-fyu a-fra-su ul u-ta-ad-da-a ni$e mel ina im-mar same(-e) Brother could not see brother. With their flashes they illuminate the land. They withdraw. e-[tu-ti] ut-tir- [to mdtu kima e ih-se(b [u])- . The gods cower like a dog they lie down . the onset.. Nebo and Sharru go before." as is a mistake. to sa elippi a-na Bu-zu-uramll maldfyi ekallu at-ta-[di-i]n a-di bu-se-e-su Amurru To the master of the Amurru. ma-a-tum sa d Adad su-mur-ra-as-[su] i-ba-'-u The fury of Adad reaches the heavens.APPENDIX DELUGE STORY IN GILGAME8H EPIC 95 a-na d pi-fyi-i 77 ship. the sailor. There rises from the foundation of the heavens a black cloud. same(-e) [mim]-ma nam-ru ana ru . but the Hebrew HHS an ^ is seems that to regard the latter as borrowed from the Babylonian piftdtu "district. possessions.. Buzur- I entrusted the great house. it E. Like a war engine it comes upon the people. Ishtar cries like a it is woman > in travail. They go as messengers over mountain On and land..... Adad thunders in the midst of it. including its mim-mu-u i-lam-ma d se-e-ri ina na-ma-ri is-tu i-sid same mel ur-pa-tum sa-lim-tum Adad ina lib-bi-sa ir-tam-ma-am-ma 100 dNabu u d Sarru il-la-ku ina mah-ri il-la-ku guzale mei sadu-u u ma-a-tum the appearance of the break of dawn. the deluge. tar-kul-li d Ura-gal i(u)-na-as-sah il-lak dEn-Urta mi-ify-ra u-sar-di d Urragal tears out the mast( f ). ildnimeS ip-la(tal)-fyu 115 it-te-ify-su i-te-lu-u d A-nim a-bu-ba-am-ma ana same(-e') sa ildni mei d kima kalbi kun-nu-nu ina kals-tar ki-ma a-lit-ti The gods fear the deluge.

Six days and six nights. As already mentioned. 131. I verily will bear (again) (which) Like a spawn of fish fill my people. and the light fell uq-tam-mi-is-ma at-ta-sab a-bak-ki I upon my countenance. a-bu-[bu me]-hu-u i-sap- The wind tears.78 YALE ORIENTAL SEEIES EESEARCHES d V-3 u-nam-ba be-lit i[ldni] ta-bat rig-ma The lady of the gods wails with her beautiful voice. huddle] ra] -a pu-uh-ri-e-ti VI ur-ri u mu-sa-a-ti il-lak sa-a-ru together. but "sea" (= Q). and I sat down and wept. E. the flood was at an end. ap-pa-al-sa-am-ma u-ma(ta-ma-ta) sokin qu-lu looked upon the sea. E. When the seventh day arrives. ta-am-ma 125 ildnime* su-ut ti-sa ba-ku-u it- The gods of Anunnaki weep with her. mdre me nune meS u-ma-al-la-a d A-nun-na-ki tarn- the sea. 133. assembly of the 0. ana hul-lu-uq nise meS -ia qab-la aq-bi-ma a-na-ku-um-ma ul-la-da ni-su-u-a-a-ma ki-i For the destruction of my people. [pa-ah- . all u kul-lat te-ni-se-e-ti i-tu-ra a-na ti-it-ti And mankind was turned to clay. fya-aja-al-ti is Hebrew. 135 ki-ma u-ri mit-hu-rat u-sal-lu ap-ti eli Like a log they floated about. rik) me-hu-u a-bu-bu qab. and the deluge-tempest pan mdtu 130 si-bu-u u-mu i-na ka-sa-a-di it-ta-rak (v." as is done by all translators. Which had fought The I an army. they [they sit weep- kat-ma(sab-ba) sap-ta-su-nu Their lips are silent. u-mu ul-lu-u a-na ti-it-ti lu-u i-tur-ma The former day is 120 as-su a-na-ku ina pu-hur (ma-har) ildni meS aq-bu-u limutta ki-i aq-bi ina pu-fyur (ma-har) ildni meS limutta When gods I spoke evil in the verily turned to clay. . see Jensen KB VI 1 p. showing that the latter should not be translated "day. In the duplicate text ta-ma-ta takes the place of u-mu.la sa im-dah-su ki-ma ha-ai-al-ti i-nu-uh tdmtu us-ha-ri-ir-ma im-hul-lu overwhelms the land. that I spoke evil in the assembly of the gods. 498. was horrified. the hurricane had spent a-bu-bu ik-lu itself. ildni meS as-ru as-bi i-na bi-ki-ti The gods are depressed ing. the voice was silent. the dellike uge-tempest subsides in the onslaught. sea rested . I nap-pa-sa-am-ma urru im-ta-qut dur ap-pi-ia opened the hatch. I or- dered the cataclysm.

did not return. Mount NLsir held the ship that it moved not. ap-pa-li-is kib-ra-a-ti hat-tu tamti * i-te-la-a looked in terrible. day. and the Nerab Inscription 1:6. kniete bin a-da-guru uk-tin Seven and seven adagur pots ' ' . that it moved not. see JAOS 35. "Je m'affalai. a sixth day Mount Nisir held it. (everything) to the four winds. I 150 u-se-si-ma sinundu** 9ur u-mas-sir il-lik sinundu iffur i-tu-ra-am-ma man-za-zu ul i-pa-as-sum-ma is-sah-ra brought out and released a swallow. . it seems to the writer that namely the Zakir 11:20. the root is the Hebrew p^J ' to escape. il-lik The dove went forth It did not it turned have a resting place. it croaked (?) . a fourth day Mount Nisir it. On na-a-si ul id-din isten(-en) u-ma sana-a Ni-sir Ki-Min sal-sa sir u-ma sadu(-u) One it. it moved not. that A fifth day." Dhorme. 59 19. karP at VII u VII E. 55) has already pointed out that the root of na-a-H is not n&iu "to it is a synonym of al&ku 2 R 35:50 e f. ' ' . an island arose. 363. It seems to the writer that the root of vq-ta-am-mi-is may Rogers ' ' ' possibly be the Hebrew t^J^ to feel a loathing. . Professor Torrey has kindly called my attention to the haf'el of this verb meaning "remove" in the two old Aramaic inscriptions. mountain. and AJSL 33. It did not have a resting place. the sea was 140 a-na XII** a-na * ad na-gu-u Ni-sir i-te-mid "elippu iad Ni-sir sadu(-u) elippa ii-bat-ma a-na the twelfth day. it it waded. it re- turned. all directions. ' cf Is. turned. Jensen translates "kniete neider. a second day. . that it moved not. abhorrence. and 11:8. 54 f. as-kun sur-qi-nu ina sadi(-i) eli ziq-qur-rat I made upon the summit of the I set out. 9. I brought out and released a dove. . line 126. : " p. "Ich ' I bowed. " cf. As sway. The raven went forth it saw the drying I . ma 155 ik-kal i-sa-ah-hi u-se-si-ma a-na i-tar-ri ul is-sah-ra up of the water It . Upon Mount Niir. The swallow went forth it turned . 137. Mount Nisir held u-ma ri-ba-a u-ma sadu(-u) NiKi-Min 145 han-su sis-sa sadu(-u) Ni-sir Ki-Min siba-a A held third day.APPENDIX DELUGE STORY IN GILGAME8H EPIC eli 79 dur ap-pi-ia il-la-ka di-ma-a-a Over I my countenance ran my tears." Ungnad. Poebel (ibid. tremble. a libation I IV sdre at-ta-qi ni-qa-a I sent offered a sacrifice. E. u-ma i-na ka-sa-a-di u-se-si-ma summata i9fur u-mas-sir summatu*""' i-tu-ra-am-ma man-za-zu ul i-pa-as-sum(sim)-ma sah-ra is- When the seventh day arrived. quake. it re- u-se-si-ma a-ri-ba u-mas-sir il-lik a-ri-bi-ma qa-ru-ra sa me i-mur-- brought out and released a raven. approached. the ship grounded. 142.

cedar wood and myrtle. so that da-ris ai am-si ildni mei lil-li-ku-ni a-na dEn-lil ai il-li-ka sur-qi-ni forever I will not forget. of the gods. Enurta pa-a-su epus-ma iqabbi d izakkar(-ar) ana qu-ra-di En-lil man-nu-um-ma sa la dE-a a-ma-ti ban-[nu] d En-Urta opened his mouth. war- ki-i ki-i la tam-ta-lik-ma a-bu-ba tas- Why.80 YALE OEIENTAL SEEIES EESEARCHES qand if V-3 i-na sap-li-su-nu at-ta-bak u dsa erina 160 ildni meS i-si-nu i-ri-sa Beneath them I piled reeds. why hast thou not taken counsel . which Anu had made according to her wish. people he numbered for destruc- When at last Enlil arrived. flood? kun be-el hi-ti (ar-ni) and hast sent a e-mid hi-ta-a-su 185 be-el hab-la-ti e-mid hab-lat-su On On the sinner place his sin . the evil doer place his crimes . di-su i-mur elippa-ma i-te-ziz dEn-lil lib-ba-ti im-ta-li sa ildni meS dlgigi He saw the ship then Enlil was wroth He was filled with anger against the . Enlil shall not come to the offering. I shall not forget my neck- am-si ume meS ana an-nu-ti lu-u ah-su-sa-am-ma Upon these days I shall think. here. Let the gods come to the offering. ai-um-ma u-si na-pis-ti 175 ai ib-lut amelu ina ka-ra-si Has anyone come out alive ? No man shall survive the cataclysm. . NIMmeS rabute meS sa d A-nu-um i-pu-su ki-i su-hi-su 165 ildni meS an-nu-ti lu-u abnusibri-ia ai She raised the great jewel (?). He i- said to the warrior Enlil Who without Ea shall devise the com- u dE-a i-di-e-ma ka-la sip-ri 180 dE-a pa-a-su epus-ma iqabbi d izakkar(-ar) ana qu-ra-di En-lil at-ta abkal ildni meS qu-ra-du mand? And Ea knows every matter. . Ye gods lace. ildni meS i-si-nu e(i}-ri-sa ta-[a-ba] ildni meS ki-ma zu-um-be-e eli bel niqe The gods smelled the sweet savor. and spake. He said to the warrior Enlil : Thou wise one(?) rior. ip-tah-ru ul-tu ul-la-nu-um-ma d belit ildni ina ka-sa-di-su is-si When finally the lady of the gods ar- rived. deluge . 170 u nise mei -ia im-nu-u a-na ka-ra-si ul-tu ul-la-nu-um-ma dEn-lil ina ka-sa- And my tion. Ea opened his mouth and spoke. Igigi gods. a-na sur-qi-ni as-su la im-tal-ku-ma is-ku-nu a-bu-bu Because he took not counsel and sent the . The gods like flies gathered about the saerificer. The gods smelled the savor. .

take counsel concerning him. lu-u e-mu-u ki-i(ma) ildnimeS na- they are elevated like gods. . Let a lion come and diminish the people. Parallels 108f .. . and caused me to dwell afar the mouth of the rivers. .n apishtim and his wife are associates .. Let Urra come and destroy the people. (and) caused to My kneel beside me.. 205 il-qu-in-ni-ma ina ru-qi ina pi-i He ndrdti meS us-te-si-bu-in-ni off at took me.. 343f. 8 I will loosen sa(?) sa(f) . . Instead of thy sending a deluge. will take all the people together.-ka . e-nin-na-ma mi-lik-su mil-ku Now i-lam-ma Ea a-na lib-bi elippi is-bat qa-ti-ia-ma ul-te-la-an-ni-ia-a-si 200 us-te-li us-ta-ak-mi-is sin-nis-ti i-di-ia ina hand.APPENDIX BABYLONIAN FRAGMENT ru-um-me ai ib-ba-ti-iq 81 off su-du-ud ai . Trad. Ea went up He took my il-pu-ut pu-ut-ni-ma iz-za-az ina bi-riin-ni i-kar-ra-ban-na-si He turned our faces and he stood between us he blessed us. . F. A FRAGMENT OF DELUGE STORY . Instead of thy sending a deluge. . . . that pun- am-ma-ki tas-ku-nu a-bu-ba nesu lit-ba-am-ma nise mel [ir] li-sa-afy-fyi- Instead of thy sending a deluge.[ma] ka-la ni-si is-te-nis i-za-bat . i-na pa-ni tJm-napistim a-me-lu-tum-ma e-nin-na-ma Vm-napistim u sinnisti-su Formerly t)m-napishtim was a man. . and Bab. I am-ma-ki tas-ku-nu a-bu-ba Ur-ra lit-ba-am-ma mdtu(nise mes ) gis lis- 195 a-na-ku ul ap-ta-a rabute me* At-ra-fya-sis pi-ris-ti d me * pi-ris-ti ildni have not revealed the decision of the great gods. . and brought me up. am-ma-ki tas-ku-nu a-bu-ba 190 barbaru lit-ba-am-ma nise mes a[h-jii-ir] li-sa- am-ma-ki tas-ku-nu a-bu-ba fou-sah-hu lis-sa-kin-ma d mdtu lis-[gis] Instead of thy sending a deluge. off si-ma lu-u a-sib-ma fim-napistim ina ru-u-qi ina pi-i ndrati mei Verily t}m-napishtim shall dwell afar at the mouth of the rivers. wife he brought up. a-pa-as-sar. su-na-ta 6* u-sab-ri-sum-ma I Hani is-me caused Atra-hasis to see a dream. into the ship.. . Let a wolf come and diminish the people. . Published by Hilprecht BE Ser. That charity ( ?) be not cut ishment be not . . D V 1 33f It was also translated by Eogers Cuneiform and by Jastrow Heb. IN BABYLONIAN. Let there be a famine and ruin the land. and now tJ m . and he heard the decision of the gods.

D V p... waw 7 conjunctive.. his son Xisouthros reigned for eighteen sars in and the story has been recorded as follows. but built the 9 boat. he (Kronos) said" etc. the Greek might almost equally well mean "When asked (by Xisouthros) where he was to sail.... to set sail when asked where he was sailing. i'elippa ra-be-tam bi-ni-ma . my 8 Through ambiguity caused by indirect discourse. ' ' . middle. F. Gutschmid and Schoene follow the Armenian version. G.. 8.. i>avirr]yf)ffai>Ta Ms.. "with a strong roof cover it.. u-ma-am si-rim i?-sur sa-me-e .. Harmon of Yale University.. vavmfyija'a. build a great ship and . which thou shalt make. Verily observe silence... A. fowl of the heaven. shall be .82 . 61) Poebel anticipated the writer in the rejection of the reading ba-btt (see Historical however.... M.... After the death of Ardatos. 7.. H. . Eogers correctly translated. . -ti YALE OEIENTAL SERIES RESEAKCHES la-am a-bu-bu wa-si-e V-3 5 ... . . 51)....... 9. It was so taken F. Kronos appeared to him in his sleep and said that on the fifteenth of the month men would be destroyed by a deluge.... He bade him therefore. n'(?) zu-lu-la dan-na zu-ul-lil and her (giant boat) 'the reserver of life. to say.... p..... the ma which follows is not an emphatic particle.' .... ga-be-e gab-bi lu bi-nu-uz-za . ' Gutschmid.. before the deluge comes .. The translation and notes here presented are by 20-24.. for a number (or of a kind).. and go aboard it with his family and close friends to stow in it food and drink.. five 10 furlongs ' ' F. I pp.." Schoene Eusebi Chronicorum Libri Duo Vol.. setting down in writing the beginning.. -a-ni ma-la i-ba-as-su-u lu--kin ub-bu-ku lu pu-ut-tu hu-ru-su . his reign a great deluge took place.. To the gods. . 7 .. the total height.... It (she) shall be a sa lu-na-si-rat na-pis-tim . to put in it also living creatures. ......i rb A. the city of the Sun to build a boat.. BE Ser. its struc- ture. si-i . BEEOSSUS' VERSION OF THE ATRA-HASIS EPIC.. beast of the field.. lu i? magurgurrum ma-sum- .... : by the author of the Armenian version. ---- ku-um mi-ni u qi[n]-ta . pavTnjyfiffaffffai ' ' 10 fifteen. colleague.. winged and four-footed. . ..... to bury them in Sippara.... as many as there are I will bring destruction..... except where differences are noted. .... and family ....... and end of all things. Prof. 5. It has been shown that j-|2J| is the root of ga-be-e (see Hilprecht... te-ip-pu-su . M. The text followed is that of A.. protect with a great cover. and when all his preparations were complete.... in order to pray that men Daisios ... blessings. speechless..." 8 He did not disobey. Texts The root of bu-ru-su seems to be the Hebrew ^"Iff "to be silent... magurgurrum name shall be 10 . but the Hebrew ... ' ' may have F.

in the mountains of the Kordyaioi in Armenia. But of this boat that grounded in Armenia some part still remains there. Xisouthros himself they never saw again. irefn Schoene. he disembarked with his wife. for because of his piety he was gone to live with the gods and that his wife. they sacrificed to the gods and went by a roundabout way 11 to Babylonia. dug up the writings at Sippara. On hearing this. then. But when they were let go for the third did not come back to the boat again. and the helmsman and after he had done homage to the earth. disappeared with all those who had disembarked from the boat. Xisouthros let some of the birds go but as they found no food nor place to alight. and that it was fated for them to recover the writings at Sippara and publish them to men. and looked for him. and people get pitch from the boat by scraping it off. assembled and stowed everything in accordance with the directions. and the helmsman had received a share in the same honor. muddy. also that the country where they were belonged to Armenia. too. an altar. they had appeared. . Those who had remained in the boat disembarked when Xisouthros and his companions failed to come in. unstopping some part of the boat's seams and perceiving that to the boat with their feet the boat had grounded upon a mountain. but a voice came calling him by name. to Babylonia. and so repopulated Babylonia. built temples. Xisouthros concluded that land time. . and sacrificed to the gods.APPENDIX BERO88U8' VERSION in length 83 and two furlongs in width. built . After the deluge had begun and had quickly ceased. they came back into the boat. They went. and use it for amulets. telling them that they must be pious. He told them. his daughter. his daughter. founded many cities. Ms. Again after some days Xisouthros let the birds go. from the air. and embarked his wife and children and his close friends. that they would go back to Babylonia. and they came back .

84 YALE ORIENTAL SEEIES EESEAECHES V-3 DYNASTIC LISTS OF EARLY BABYLONIA. 12 I Kish I Ur Kingdom 1 2 3 4 Mesh-anni-pada Mesh-kia Elulu Balulu Awan Kingdom .


.. . Libit-Ishtar Ishme-Dagan. s. Sin-magir Damiq-ilishu. Urra-imitti Sin(?)Ellil-bani Zambia . s. Kingdom 2357 Ishbi-Urra 2325 2315 2294 2274 2263 2235 2214 2209 2202 2201 2177 2174 2169 2165 2154 Gimil-ilishu. Idin-Dagan. s. .86 Las-si-ra-ab YALE ORIENTAL SERIES RESEARCHES Ill V-3 Ur Kingdom Si-u-um 21 Tirigan 21 kings V Uruk Kingdom 1 Utu-hegal Nisin B. s. . s.. . Ur-Enurta Bur-Sin. Iter-pisha. s. Ea.C.




















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