You are on page 1of 75

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

Ak'orkdif;
(okdYr[kwf)

trSww
f &'kid ,
f m&D
arC0wD OD;em&'

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

trSwfw&pmrsufESm
pmtkyfonf ukd,fawmhfu&kPm Zmwfvrf;wGJrsm;rSm ykHoPmeftrsKd;rsKd;jzifhyg0ifo&kyfaqmifcJhonfh
Zmwfvu
dk rf if;om; arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'\pmayrsm;teuf taumif;qk;H pmayvuf&mwpfck jzpfygonf/
vGefcJhaom 1313-ckESpf? 0gqkdvwGif yxrtMudrfykHESdyfxkwfa0cJhjcif;jzpfojzifh ,ck 1363-ckESpfwGif
pmtkyo
f ufwrf;onf ESp(f 50)jynfh a&T&wkow
Ydk idk cf yhJ gjy/D trsK;d bmom omoemtwGuf olrwlatmif pGr;f aqmif
oGm;cJah om arC0wDq&mawmfO;D em&'*kPt
f vDvu
D dk ykaH z:ylaZmfaomtm;jzifh a&T&wktxdr;f trSwpf mtkyjf zpf
aom Ak'o
rkid ;f (od)Yk trSww
f &'kid ,
f m&D [laompmtkyu
f dk a&Tjrefrmwku
Yd ,
kd pf m; 'kw,
d tMurd x
f w
k af 0vku
d yf g
onf/
orkdif;a<u;ukday;qyfEkdifMuygap[kpDpOfol
(17-7-2001)

ed'gef;
earmAk'g,
rZsrd wkid ;f ac:aom tdE,
d jynfMu;D okYd bk&m;zl;oGm;a&mufMuaomyk*K v
d w
f o
Ykd nf usK;d yJjh yKd ysuv
f su&f adS om
taqmuftOD;rsm;ESifh&kyfwkawmfrsm;udk zl;jrifMu&ayvdrfhrnf/ xkdokdYzl;jrif&aomtcg xkdyk*KdvfwkdY\pdwf"gwfukd
txl;xdcu
dk o
f mG ;rnft
h jyif 0rf;enf;aMu uGjJ cif;vnf; jzpfayvdrrhf nf/ okaYd omf tb,faMumifh ausmif;? uef?
apwD? ykxdk;? omoemawmfMuD;wdkYrSm xdkuJhodkY ysufpD;,kd,Gif;um t<uif;r&jzpfav&oenf; qkdwmudk
od&o
dS u
l m; txl;&Sm;ayvdrrhf nf/ yg&mZduPft|uxmed'gef; r[m0ifusr;f ZdewyumoeD "ry't|uxm
paomusr;f wko
Yd nf omoemxGe;f pOfrQuo
dk m a&;om;az:jyxm;avonf/ Ak'a cwftcgor, tdE,
d jynfMu;D \
oef;acgifpm&if;wGif Ak'b
momonf xdyq
f ;Hk rSaecJ&h aomfvnf; vuf&t
dS Ed ,
d oef;acgifpm&if;rlum; Ak'b
mom
OD;a&udk rSeaf jymif;ESiMhf unf&h yI gaomfvnf; ajymyavmufatmif rawGU&S&d awmhacs/ [dEL ESirhf q
l vifO;D a&onfom
vQif trsm;qkH;jzpfavonf/
omoemxGe;f pOfudk uk&d ifb0uyif od&cdS ahJ om uREyfk o
f nf omoemysupf Ofudk txl;odvo
dk jzifh 1941ckEpS w
f iG f tdE,
d jynfMu;D okYd xGuv
f mcJah vonf/ t0uRe;f wGif (1)0gqkjd y;D 'dempyl&? Am&mPoDpaom jrKd UwkYd
(9)ESpw
f idk w
f idk f ynmoifMum;vsuyf if ta&;Mu;D aompmwk?d pmcRerf sm;udk &SmazGpak qmif;&avonf/ Am&mPoD
[dEL,leDAmpwDMuD; *Dwmpavmvm;tjzpfjzifh ynmoifMum;cJhpOf &mZ0ifyg&*lq&mMuD;wpfOD;jzpfol y&dkzuf
qmMuD; tmvmawumESifhoGm;a&mufaqG;aEG;av&m if;yk*KdvfMuD;u Ak'omoemawmfMuD; uG,fyykHukd
c&m;aphwGif;us odEkdif&efrSm (1) ausmufpmbufXmerS tpD&ifcHpmrsm; (2) 'dpMwdwf*ZufwD,mpmtkyfrsm;
(3) [dE?D b*FgvD? t*Fvyd pf aom bmomrsm;jzifh a&;om;xm;aom&mZ0ifrsm; (4) zm[D,ef[al 0qifrw
S w
f rf;rsm;
ponfwu
Ydk dk aphiatmifzwf&v
I Qif txku
d t
f avsmuf &Ekid rf nfjzpfaMumif;ESit
hf MuaH y;avonf/ xkaYd Mumifh uREyfk rf mS
az:jyygpmtkyfrsm;ukd tEkvkHy#dvkHzwf&IjyD;vQif vkdtyfaom pmykd'frsm;ukd aumufEkwf,l&avonf/ odkYaomf
uREyfk pf mtkyu
f m; xkrd QEiS rhf jy;D ajrmufEidk af o;ojzifh tDv,
D wf[pd wk&d aD c:pmtkyMf u;D udk umvuwm;jrKd U t&Iwpdk f
pmMunfhwkdufMuD;rS iSm;&rf;um zwf&Ijcif;jzifh ta&;MuD;rnfhpmykd'frsm;udk xkwfEkwf,ljyefavonf/ ,ck
a&;om;xm;aom taMumif;t&mrsm;ukd pkaqmif;&SmazGcJh&mwGif (6)ESpfMumcJhavonf/
uREyfk &f &Sx
d m;aom paumvm;&Sprf mS vnf; ESpaf phaejyjD zpfojzifh 1948-ckEpS w
f iG f ,leAD mpwDMu;D rS xGucf jhJ y;D
ta&SUygupwef&Sd jrefrmvlrsKd; (16000)wkdY\omoemtusKd; bmomtusKd;ukd arQmfukd;um trIudpt00wkdYudk
xrf;aqmifae&if; pmtkyu
f dk &[ef; (8)0gajrmufwiG f t0uRe;f abwvD,m&Gm pwifa&;om; jy;D qk;H jcif;odYk
2

a&mufavonf/ if;&Gmae udkrJwkwf? ratmifomESifhukdxGef;vSjzL? r0if;pdefOD;wkdYu oDwif;uRwfvQif ykHESdyf


xkwaf 0&ef wm0ef,x
l m;onft
h cdu
k f uHMurmqk;d 0g;vSaom uREyfk rf mS ygupweftpd;k &rif;wku
Yd jynfoUl vkjH cKaH &;
Oya'tyd'k (f 6)? yk'rf (18)t& zrf;qD;um 'um;A[kad xmifMu;D xJwiG f (6)vcGw
J idk w
f idk f pHapavonf/ {jyv
D (7)&uf
aeYwiG f if;tpk;d &\vSL'gef;tyfaom jynfEiS 'f Pfwq
H yd af wmfukd vufccH jhJ y;D rdrad 'ojzpfaom arC0wDrmef
atmifuRef;ESifh&rf;jAJuRef;av;awmifwkdufe,fodkY vma&mufjyD; tusKd;taMumif; a[majymjyoavaomaMumifh
]]Ak'o
rkid ;f }}}}udk
tenf;i,fcefaY vmufaom 0wKaMu;aiGrsm;udk &&Scd o
hJ jzifh omoemhysupf Ofusr;f ac:xku
d af om ]]Ak
ykEH ydS x
f w
k af 0Ekid jf cif;jzpfygonf/ pmtkyu
f dk a&;om;az:jyvku
d &f aom uREyfk \
f t"duapwemrSmum; rnfonfh
vlrsKd;ukdrS rkef;xm; rmefwkdremvkdaom oabmr&SdygaMumif;/ tHhzG,f(8)jzmESifhjynfhpkHaom igwkdYomoem
awmfMuD;onf tdEd,jynfwGif rnfaomtaMumif;wkdYaMumifh uG,fy&avonf[laom taMumif;OkH
tvkH;pkHukd tukeftpifodMu&efESifh jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH&Sd omoemawmfMuD;ukdvnf; xdkodkYrjzpfap&ef
rnf o k d Y r nf y k H umuG , f apmif h a &S m uf o if h a Mumif ; [l a om&nf & G , f c suf o m&S d y gaMumif ; /
pmtkyfxGufay:Ekdif&ef (1) rd*'g0kefq&mawmfOD;udwdru pmrltenf;i,fcefYudk pkaqmif;ay;jcif;?
(2) ppfawGjrKd Utky&f mZ0wftyk Of ;D omausmu
f aumufEw
k ,
f v
l adk om pmyk'd rf sm;ukd wku
d yf &ku
d w
f mESit
hf xl;MuKd ;pm;um
&ku
d af y;jcif;? (3) pma&;q&mrmefatmif yD,(OD;ode;f vGi)f u pum;toGm;tvmponfwYkd csKUd ,Gi;f csurf &SEd idk af tmif
ulnDay;jcif;? (4) 33-vrf;? eHygwf-186ae usm;nDaemifaq;wkdufykdif&Sif 'g,umOD;btkdESifha':vSpdefwkdYu
aiGaMu;? tMuHPfponfwkdYjzifh ulnDapmifray;jcif;? uJhodkY wwftm;oa&GU tbufbufrS ulnDapmifr
ay;Muaom &[ef;yk*Kdvf? vlyk*KdvfwkdYtm; txl;aus;Zl;wifotyfygaMumif;/
pmtkyf 0guspum;tokH;tEIef; tenf;i,fcefY tqifrajyrIrsm;&SdcJhygrl tjypfr&I tusKd;jyKum
zwf&IMuyg&ef pmzwfy&dowfMuD;okdY av;eufpGmawmif;yeftyfygaMumif;/
arC0wD OD;em&'

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

trSm
arC0wDO;D em&'onf Ak'o
rkid ;f pmrludk zwfwnf;jzwfay;&efEiS t
hf rSma&;ay;&ef uReaf wmft
h m; trdeYf
&Sad vonf/ uReaf wmfonf OD;em&'\pmrlukd tprStqk;H wkid af tmif zwfMunfyh g\/ okaYd omf t&Sijf rwfrmS pmayA[k
okwESifhwuG ta&;tom;ESHYpyfuRrf;usifoljzpfojzifh wkdaeaomei,frsm;\tjrD;udk &Snf&SnfqGJcsay;&kHrSwyg;
wpfvkH;wpfyg'rQ jyifqifjznfhpGuf&ef uRefawmfrawGU&Sdyg/
pmtkyfwpftkyfukd zwfMunfhrdvQif xkdpmtkyfa&;om;ol pma&;q&m\taMumif; tjcif;t&mrsm;udk
odvMdk uonfq
h E&w
dS wfMuonft
h m;avsmpf mG pma&;olO;D em&'ESiphf mzwfy&dowfrsm;tMum;wGif uReaf wmfrw
d q
f uf
ay;&ef wm0ef&Sdavonf/
arC0wDOD;em&'[laombGJUtrnfukd rSwfrdcsifrS rSwfrdMuayrnf/ okdYaomf ygupwefu jynfESif'Pf
ay;vku
d af ombke;f Mu;D wpfyg;udrk u
l m; vlMu;D ? vli,frusef wpfwidk ;f jynfv;Hk u rSwrf Md urnfrmS rkcsyif jzpfygonf/
OD;em&'onf jrefrmjynfrS ygVdy#d uwfpmayrsm;udk wwfajrmufonfw
h idk af tmif oif,jl y;D aemuf 'kw,
d
urmppfMu;D rjzpfrD wpfEpS af vmufu tdE,
d ok<Yd uoGm;cJah vonf/ Am&mPoD,el AD mpwDwiG f (4)ESprf Q t*Fvyd ?f
ouw? b*FgvDpaom wuov
dk yf nmbmom&yfrsm;udk oif,jl y;D aemuf ta&SUygupwef b*Fvm;t0uRe;f odYk
jyef<uvmum omoemjyKvkyfief;ESifhtrsKd;om;a&;vkyfief;rsm;udk xda&mufpGm tm;MudK;rmefwuf aqmif&Guf
cJhavonf/ OD;em&'onf Ak'bmom0ifrsm;toif;udk wnfaxmifonfhjyif t0uRef;wGifaexkdifaom jrefrm
wpfaomif;ajcmufaxmifcefYwkdY\vlenf;pk tcGifhta&;rsm;ukd ygupweftpkd;&xH rMumrMum ta&;qkdcJhav&m
bmoma&;ESit
hf rsK;d om;a&;wGif t,lonf;vSaom ygupweftpk;d &onf t&Sijf rwftm; 'um;axmifMu;D twGi;f okYd
apwemAv0jzifh yifhaqmifcJhavonf/
aemufqkH;wGif tem[m&oydwfudk ukdifpGJum tpmiwfcHaom OD;em&'tm; axmifrSxkwf jynfESif
'Pfay;&aomtajcodkY a&mufcJhavonf/
1948-ckESpf wGif OD;em&'onf jrefrmjynfodkY jynfESif'PfESifhtwl jyefvnf <ua&mufvmaomtcg
t0uRef;jyempmrlESifhrlMurf;tm;jzifh jyD;pD;vmaom Ak'orkdif;yg wpfygwnf; yg&Sdvmygonf/
jrefrmjynfokdY jyefa&muf&SdjyD;aemuf Ak'orkdif;udk qufvuf tacsmukdifa&;om;avonf/
Ak'o
rkid ;f rSm Ak'o
moemorkid ;f yifjzpfavonf/ jrefpmpmayjzifh a&;om;xm;aom &mZ0ifEiS o
hf moem
0ifusr;f rsm;wGif omoemxGe;f um; ay:aygufvmyku
H dk zwf&MI u&rnfjzpfaomfvnf; Ak'& iS af wmf y&deAd m efpv
H eG jf y;D
aemuf tdE,
d wGif Ak'o
moemonf tb,fyHk uG,yf oGm;onfuu
kd m; xkpd mtkyrf sm;wGif tus,w
f 0ifh a&;om;xm;
onfudk rawGU&acs/ okaYd omf ,ck arC0wD\Ak'o
rkid ;f rSmrl Ak'o
moemhaemufyikd ;f \&mZ0ifukd tao;pdwu
f m
Ak'omoemonf bmomjcm;t,lonf;orm;rsm;\vufcsufjzifh tb,fykHuG,fyoGm;onfukd c&m;aphwGif;us
az:jyxm;avonf/
uReaf wmf xifonf/
arC0wDOD;em&'onf Ak'orkdif;udk Ak'bmomqefYusifa&;tjcm;bmom0if t,lonf;orm;
rsm;\ya,m*jzifh tdE,
d ESijhf refrmtygt0if urmtESt
YH jym; avmifpv
JG su&f adS om Ak'o
moemrD;Mu;D udk tcsed rf D
jird ;f owf&efEiS ahf vmifpv
JG waYH om omoemhr;D udyk g MuKd wifumuG,Ef idk &f ef taxmuftyHjh zpfaom oifcef;pmtkyf
wpftkyfjzpfygap[laom &nf&G,fcsufjzifh a&;om;jcif;jzpfayvdrfhrnf[k uRefawmfxifygonf/
trSeaf wmh pmtkyo
f nf jrefrmjynfwiG f &So
d if&h x
dS u
dk af om pmtkyw
f pftyk jf zpfonfjh yif &mZ0ifvu
dk pf m;
olwkdif;ESifhAk'bmom0ifwkdif; csefrxm;yJ zwfoifhzwfxkdufaom pmtkyfwpftkyfjzpfonf[k ,kHMunfygonf/
onfx
h ufawmh uReaf wmftxl;wvnf a0zefa&;om;&ef vdrk nfrxif? pmtkyo
f nf tb,frQ tESpf
om&ESijhf ynfph
Hk tb,frQtzk;d xku
d w
f efonf/ tb,fuo
hJ aYkd om t&nftcsi;f rsK;d &Srd S pmtkyrf sK;d udk a&;om;
Ekdifrnf/ tb,frQ tyifyef;cH pkaqmif;a&;om;rS pmtkyfrsKd;ay:aygufEkdifrnfukdum; pmtkyfzwfjyD;aom
aemufqkH;wGif pmzwfolukd,fwkdif od&Sd&rnfyif jzpfygonf/
rmef a tmif y D ,
4-5-51
4

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

Ak'orkdif;
r[maAm"d (0g) Ak'* ,m
b*0g twkv wdy&0ocif jrwfAk'bk&m;&Sifukd,fawmfjrwfMuD;\ oAnKwxif&Sm; bk&m;tjzpfokdY
a&muf&Sdawmfrlaomae&mum; r[maAm"dac: Ak'*,mjrdKUyifjzpfawmhonf/ xkdjrdKUonf tdEd,jynf bD[me,f
*,m'dpMww
d w
f iG f wnf&adS vonf/ pmtkyw
f iG f bk&m;&Siu
f ,
dk af wmfjrwf\vufxufawmfrpS omoem'g,um
oD&"d rmaomurif;Mu;D vufxufwidk af tmif Ak'* ,mESiyhf wfoufaom taMumif;twKyw
rd sm;ukrd az:jyyJ oD&d
"rmaomurif;rSonf ,aeYxd jzpfysucf ahJ om? jzpfysuv
f su&f adS om r[maAm"d\Murmqk;d uko
d m c&m;aphwiG ;f us
a0zefa&;om;vkdayonf/ Ak'*,mjrdKU&Sd r[maAm"dyifESifhowXmewnf;[laom Ak'&Sifawmfudef;0yfprg,f
awmfrlaomae&mrsm;onf urmay:&Sd Ak'bmom0iftaygif;wkdY\bmoma&;udpESifhpyfvsOf;vsuf ta&;MuD;
aom tjrwfqkH;ae&m[kac:&ayrnf/

bmomMuD; 4-bmomESifhtjrwfqkH;ae&m 4-&yf


urmay:wGif Ak'b
mom? [dEL bmom? c&pf,mefbmomESit
hf pvmrfbmom[l bmomMu;D 4-ck&&dS m
[dEL bmom0ifwt
Ydk zkYd Am&mPoD? t,k',
? jAEd m Aef? [&d'mG &mESirhf xl&mjrKd Uwko
Yd nf tjrwfq;Hk aom jrKd Ursm;jzpf
xkjd rKd UMu;D rsm;&Sd ausmif;uefapwDyx
k ;dk paom bmoma&;taqmufttkrH sm;udk [dEL wku
Yd omykid q
f idk t
f yk cf sKyv
f suf
&Sad vonf/ c&pf,mefbmom0ifw\
Ydk tjrwfq;Hk aomae&mrSm ygvufpwkid ;f jynf a*s&q
k vifjrKd UwGi&f adS om c&pf
awmfa,&Iudk arG;zGm;&mt&yfyifjzpf xkdae&mudkvnf; c&pf,mefwkdYuom oabmuspDrHtkyfcsKyfvsuf
&Sad yavonf/ tpvmrfbmom0ifw\
Ydk tjrwfq;Hk aomae&mrSm tvmocif\wrefawmfr[
dk mrufukd arG;zGm;&m
t&yfjzpfaom tm&yfjynf&dS rumjrKd UESihf if;\ocsKi ;f &S&d m ar'DemjrKd UwkjYd zpfavonf/ xkad e&mwku
Yd v
dk nf; tm&yfjynf
om;rlqvifrsm;uom ykid q
f idk t
f yk cf sKyv
f su&f adS vonf/ Ak'b
mom0iftaygif;wk\
Yd tjrwfq;Hk ta&;Mu;D qk;H aom
ae&mum; Ak'bk&m;\yGifhawmfrl&mESifhowXmewnf&mjzpfaom r[maAm"dac:Ak'*,mjrdKUyif jzpfawmhonf/

aMuuGJzG,faumif;aom Ak'*,m
a&GUrQyif txGwt
f jrwfq;Hk jzpfaomfvnf; Ak'b
mom0ifr[kwo
f ?l Ak'& efoMl u;D wpfO;D u ykid q
f idk x
f m;
jcif;aMumifh 0rf;enf;aMuuGJzG,f&mawGUjrif&onfum;...
1/
apwDykxkd;ponfwkdYrSm aemufaz;tdrfomwrQ npfywfvsuf&Sdjcif;/
2/
zl;ajrmfolwkdYtm; orm"d r&Ekdifavmufatmif &maxmifruaom olawmif;pm;rsm;u vma&mufum
qlqlylyl awmif;cHMujcif;/
3/
Ak'0g'ESifhqefYusifbufjzpfaom [dELr[ma'0vdif&kyfMuD;wpfckudk apwDawmfMuD;atmufxyf&Sd&kyfyGm;
awmfa&SU csxm;jcif;/
4/
qGrf;awmfuyf? qDrD;ylaZmfaomtcg qkawmif;vkdYrqkH;rDrSmyif tvpf0ifokwfavh&Sdjcif;/
5/
rkOvdEma&tkdifawmf a&csKd;jcif;? npfywfaomt0wfrsm;udk zGwfavQmfjcif;? rpifaq;jcif;/
6/
apwD? ykxdk;ysufrsm;rS tkwfausmufrsm;jzifh tdrfaqmufjcif;? qifwif;ukwf? jrif;wif;ukwfESifhrpiftdrf
omvkyfjcif;/
uJo
h Ykd ,kwrf maomnpfywfyrHk sm;udk awGUjrifMuaom uREyfk Ef iS w
hf uGA'k b
mom0iftaygif;wkrYd mS tb,f
rSmomvQif pdwf\csrf;omrIudk &&SdEkdifygawmhtHhenf;/
xkaYd Mumifh vGwv
f yfaom jrefrmEkid if aH wmf&dS Ak'b
mom0iftaygif;wkEYd iS u
hf rmAh 'k b
mom0iftaygif;wko
Yd nf
rQrGefjrwfaomae&mawmfukd bmomjcm;vufwGif;rSrdrdwkdYvuf0,fokdYa&muf&Sdvmatmif MudK;pm;tm;xkwfoifh
vSayonf/ Ak'b
mom0iftaygif;wd\
Yk trGejf rwfq;Hk aomAk'* ,mukd Ak'b
momwku
Yd om ykid q
f idk &f rnf[k awmif;
5

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

earmw b*0awm t&[awm ormorK'

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

qkcd ahJ omf rnfo?l rnf0gurS w&m;enf;vrf; rus[k a0zefEidk rf nfr[kwaf y/ wGif uREyfk o
f nf pmtkyu
f kd
zwfow
l idk ;f od&MdS uap&ef Ak'b
momykid rf [kwaf om tdE,
d jynfpwdwpf rf if;owif;pm a0zefa&;om;xm;onfudk
a&;om;az:jyvkdufygtHh/
Statement of object and reasons
The Maha Bodhi Temple at Buddhagaya is most Sacred Shrine of Buddhist World, as it stands on
the spot where Lord Buddha attained Supreme Wisdom. It is to the Buddhist what Macca is to the
Muslim, Ayodhya to Hindu and Jerusalem to Christian. It is in the hands of a non-Buddhist, the Saivite
Mahanth of Buddhagaya. For many years past the Buddhists have been greaty dissatisfied with his management of the temple and temple Land. They have expressed their strong desire to have them restored to
their control. The desire is but natural and this bill is intended to make provision for the better management
of the temple and temple Land and for their restoration to the Buddhists of India, Burma and Ceylon
without prejudice to the right of Hindus to worship the image of Buddha in the temple and to offer Pinda
at the Bodhi Tree to the north of the temple.

Oya'jyK&jcif; taMumif;&if;cHaz:jycsuf
Ak'*,mjrdKUwGif wnf&Sdaeaom r[maAm"dapwDawmfjrwf\ae&mwGif Ak'bk&m;&Sifonf oAnKwa&T
Pfawmfudk &&Sdawmfrlojzifh urmay:&SdAk'bmom0ifwpf&yfvkH;wkdYtwGuf tjrwfqkH;aomae&mjzpfayonf/
rGwq
f vifrsm;tzdYk rumjrKd U? [dEL rsm;tzkYd t,k',
jrKd U? c&pf,mefrsm;tzkYd a*s&q
k vifjrKd Uwko
Yd nf tjrwfq;Hk jzpf
bdouJo
h Ykd Ak'b
mom0ifrsm;tzdYk xkad e&monf tjrwfq;Hk jzpfayonf/ xkad pwDEiS ahf jrrSm Ak'b
momwkt
Yd zkrYd nfrQyif
tjrwfqkH;jzpfapumrl Ak'bmomr[kwfol oD0*kdPf;0ifr[efY\vufxJusa&mufaerIaMumifh Ak'bmom0if
taygif;wkdYrSm ol\jyKjyifrIpDrHykHwkdYudk rsm;pGmyifrESpf jcdKufEkdifyJ &SdcJhavonf/ olwkdYonf ukd,fykdiftkyfcsKyfpDrHcGifh
&&Szd &Ydk m xufoefaomoabmqErsm;udk az:jycJah vjy/D oabmw&m;rSm txl;obm0usvaS yonf/ if;jyif
Oya'Murf;onf Ak'* ,mapwDawmfMu;D udk jyefvnfjyifqifa&;ESiahf pwDawmftxJ&dS [dEL wk&Yd yk yf mG ;awmfuu
kd ;kd uG,rf I
ESifhaAm"dyifajc&if;wGif qGrf;awmfuyfrIwkdYudk rxdckdufapyJ tdEd,-jrefrmESifhoD[kdVfAk'bmomwkdYuom tkyfcsKyf
xm;&ef &nf&G,favonf/
aqmif;yg;udk 1935-ckESpfu OD;odef;armif? OD;bpDESifha'gufodrf;armifwkdYu Ak'*,mOya'Murf;udk
a&;qGjJ y;D a'vDb&k ifccH sKyMf u;D xH wifoiG ;f cJph Ofu umvuwm;jrKd UrS xkwaf 0aom Statesman ac:owif;pmMu;D rS
a&;om;az:jyvkdufavonf/ Ak'bmomwkdYtzkdY txl;pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;\/

tjrwfqkH;ae&mrsm;
Ak'bmom0iftaygif;wkdY\ tjrwfqkH;aomae&mrsm;rSm(1)
Ak'*,mjrdKU&Sd aAm"dyifESifha&Tyvifwnf&mXme/
(2)
rd*'g0kefawm&Sd "rpMumw&m;OD;ukd a[mawmfrl&mXme/
(3)
om0wdjynfaZw0efausmif;awmfMuD;xJ&Sd anmifapmif;awmfwnf&mXme/
(4)
ouFe*kd&fXme
[l t0dZ[dwXme (4)ck&adS vonf/ xkXd mersm;udk ork'& m**Fg0gVKopJ rk u yGiahf wmfrMl uukejf y;D aom
bk&m;&Sit
f qlqw
l Ydk rpGeaYf umif;ay/ yGiq
hf yJ iG v
hf wjYH zpfaombk&m;&Siw
f v
Ydk nf; rpGeaYf umif;? rpGex
Yf u
dk af y/ xdaYk Mumifh
tjrwfqkH;ae&mrsm; (0g) t0dZ[dwXmersm;jzpfavonf/

Ak'*,m apwD'g,um
r[maAm"dESifhyvifawmf\a&SUrsufESmbufwGif txyftm;jzifh ESpfxyf&Sdaompwk*HapwDawmfMuD;wpfql
ukd awGU&S&d \/ if;apwDawmfMu;D rSm ta&SUESit
hf aemufbufoYkd 57- awmif? awmifEiS ahf jrmufudk tawmif 506

&S\
d / atmufro
S nf txufiu
S jf rwfem;awmftxd ayaygif; 100-ausmcf ef&Y adS vonf/ atmufxyfwiG f Pfawmf
3-awmifausmcf ef&Y adS om ausmufnKd qif;wkawmfMu;D wpfql ude;f 0yfvsu&f o
dS nf/ apwDawmfMu;D udk omoemh
'g,umoD&"d rmaomurif;Mu;D onf ae&mwGif ao;i,faomapwDuav;wpfqu
l o
kd m aqmufvyk cf
hJ c&pf
ou&mZf 2-&mpkavmufu r*"aejynfawmfMu;D udk pk;d pHawmfral omAk'b
momrif;wko
Yd nf vuf&adS pwDawmfMu;D ukd
aqmufvyk cf ahJ Mumif;ESiahf z:jyxm;\/ tcsKUd aomynm&Sirf sm;url c&pf 5-&mpkavmufrmS apwDMu;D udk aqmuf
vkycf ahJ Mumif;ESiahf wGU&S&d jyefavonf/ q&mtrsK;d rsK;d wku
Yd rnfoyYdk ifa&;om;a0zefapumrl ausmufpm0efrif;Mu;D
umeif*ef\ (Archaeological report of Bihar) ac:aompmtkyw
f iG f okaYd &;om;xm;av\/
apwDawmfukd taomurif;w&m;onfomvQif aqmufvyk v
f LS 'gef;cJo
h nf[k qkEd idk pf &mtaMumif;&S\
d /
taMumif;rSmrlum; uREkfyfwkdYonf apwDawmfMuD;udk trdefYt&wl;az:cJhpOfu &&SdcJhaomausmufpmtcsKdUwGif
taomurif;w&m;MuD;onf apwDukd aqmufvkyfvSL'gef; om"ktEkarm'emjyKcJhaMumif;ukd yg&Sd&um;
om"ujzifh apwD'g,umukd taomurif;w&m;MuD;[k rSwf,l&ayrnf/

r[m0ifusrf;tqkd
r[m0ifusrf;tvkdtm;jzifh oD&d"rmaomurif;w&m;MuD;onf &mZj*dK[fjynfwGif bk&iftZmwowf
vufxufu XmyemcJhaom "gwfawmfckepfp&GwfwkdYudk wl;az:&&dScJhjyD;aemuf ZrL'dyfuRef;tvkH; tESHYtjym;
uk;d uG,pf rd ahf omiSm &Spaf omif;av;axmifaom jrKd UEkid if w
H Ydk wpfjrKd UvQif apwDwpfqw
l nfavap[l uk;d q,fh
ajcmufuka#aom aiGtojymwkdYudk trwfwkdYtm;tyfESif; apwDwpfqlESifhausmif;wpfaqmifpD wnfaqmuf
awmfral pavonf/ &Spaf omif;av;axmifaom jrKd U&GmMu;D i,fww
Ydk iG f apwDwpfqpl D wnfaqmufvLS 'gef;cJah om
taomurif;w&m;MuD;onf b,fenf;ESifhrqkd r[maAm"duJhodkY t0dZ[dwXmeMuD;udk csefvSyfxm;cJhrnfr[kwf?
tMuD;tus,faqmufvkyfvSL'gef;cJhrnfomwnf;/

[la0qifESifhzm[D,ef
c&pfou&mZf 4-&mpkuek cf geD;wGif zm[D,eftrnf&adS omw&kwb
f ek ;f awmfMu;D wpfyg;onf tdE,
d jynfoYdk
<uvmjy;D vQif twkid ;f wkid ;f tjynfjynfoYkd vSnv
hf nfumbk&m;zl;oGm;cJ\
h / if;zm[D,efonf r[maAm"doYdk a&muf
&SdcJhpOfu rsm;jym;vSpGmaomausmif;uef? apwDykxkd;rsm;udk zl;ajrmfcJh&aMumif;ESifh aomVowkdif;'kdif,m&DwGif
az:jyxm;\/ xkaYd emuf [la0qiftrnf&adS omw&kwb
f ek ;f Mu;D wpfyg;onf [oQ0'erif;Mu;D vufxuf jzpfaom
6-&mpkavmufu rZsrd wkid ;f odaYk &muf&cdS ahJ o;&m r[maAm"dtaMumif;ESiyhf wfouf txl;pdw0f ifpm;zG,af umif;
aomrSwfwrf;MuD;udk if;\'dkif,m&DpmtkyfwGif a&;rSwfxm;cJhavonf/ xkdYjyif [la0qifESifhra&S;raESmif;aom
ESpo
f u&mZfww
Ydk iG v
f nf; rsm;pGmaomw&kwb
f ek ;f Mu;D wko
Yd nf r[maAm"dyifoYkd a&muf&cdS ahJ o;\/ odaYk omf olwu
Ydk o
hJ Ykd
rSww
f rf;rsm; ra&;om;cJjh cif;aMumifh rnforl nf0gjzpfaMumif; rod&&dS acs/ umeif*efq&mMu;D u az:jyxm;onfrmS
EkdifiHjcm;bk&m;zl;om;wkdYonf tdEd,jynfMuD;wGif rGwfqvifrsm; pkd;pHcJhaom ESpfou&mZfrsm;jzpfaom 1298?
1302? 1328ESifh 1331-ckESpf wkdYuvnf; wpfa,mufjyD;wpfa,muf a&muf&SdcJhaMumif;ESifhygVdbmomjzifh
a&;xk;d xm;aom ausmufurn;f tcsKUd wGif awGU&S&d onf[q
k \
dk / xko
d u&mZfrsm;u a&muf&cdS ahJ ombk&m;zl;om;wkYd
rSm apwDyx
k ;kd rsm;\yuwdtajctaeudk rzl;ajrmfEidk Mf u&awmhbJ rGwq
f vifwYdk t<uif;r&zsuq
f ;D rIaMumifh usK;d yJh
avmifuRrf;xm;aom taqmufttkHtysuftpD;rsm;ukdom zl;jrifoGm;Mu&&Smavonf/
txufyg bk&m;zl;om;rsm;\rSwfwrf;rsm;t&qkdygu oD&d"rmaomurif;w&m;MuD;onf rGwfqvifwkdY
0ifa&mufzsuq
f ;D jcif;udck cH &hJ aom c&pf 12-&mpkxd rysurf pD;? r,krd ,Gi;f bJ wnf&cdS ahJ Mumif;udo
k Ed idk af vmufay\/

aAm"dyif
apwDawmfMu;D \aemufbufwiG f uyfaygufaeaom aAm"dyifMu;D wpfyifudk zl;awGU&ayrnf/ if;tyif
onf tvk;H tm;jzifh 10-awmif? tjrifh 32-awmifcefjY rifrh m; tkwef &H w
H jYdk zifh 0kid ;f umxm;avonf/ aAm"dyif
taMumif;ESifhpyfvsOf; q&mawmfOD;udwd\tdEd,aMu;rkHusrf;wGif atmufygtwkdif; a&;om;xm;avonf/
7

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


]]oD&d"rmaomurif;MuD;onf Ak'bmomrjzpfrD a&SUtzkdY remvkd0efwkdpdwf&Sdonfjzpf ppfonfawmf
taygif;ESiv
hf ma&mufjy;D vQif yifv;Hk ESiw
hf uGaom tukid ;f tcufwydYk g ckwjf zwfcidk ;f apavonf/ xdaYk emuf taemuf
buf reD;ra0;aomt&yf pkyjHk y;D rS tyiftikwu
f kd rD;yk&H UdI ,Zfyal Zmfav[k ykPm ;wpfa,muftm; apckid ;f
vku
d &f m xkyd P
k m ;onf rif;Mu;D qkw
d idk ;f jyKavonf/
xkdokdYyif zsufqD;apaomfvnf; yg&rDawmft[kefaMumifh rD;ckd;jidrf;vQif jidrf;csif; xdkxufomvGefMuD;rm;
wifw
h ,faom aAm"dyifMu;D wpfyif aygufa&mufvmavonf/ okv
Yd Qif aAm"dyifjrwf\wefc;dk Mu;D rm;yku
H dk rif;
w&m;Mu;D jrifvQif rdrjd yKaomtjypfudk atmufarhvsuf pdwEf v
S ;Hk ylyefjcif;odaYk &mufav&um; r[maAm"dyifae&m
oku
Yd ,
dk w
f idk <f ucsaD wmfrjl y;D vQif aeY&ufrsm;pGmwkid af tmif ylaZmfyovsu&f o
dS nfudk rdz&k m;odvwfaomf bmomw&m;
mrp&d,0ifjyD;vQif vQKdU0Sufaom tMuHtpnfjzifh rif;MuD;r&SdpOf aAm"dyifawmfukdtjzwfckdif;avonf/
taomurif;w&m;Mu;D vma&mufjy;D ,Zfyal Zmft[
hH k Munfah vvQif ykid ;f jywfvsuaf eonfudk jrif&um; Mu;D pGmaom
pdk;&drfjcif;onf jzpfvwf EGm;EkdY&nfjzifhylaZmfjyD; t"d|mefawmfrlavvQif ,ciftwkdif; tjrpft&if;rSayguf
vmjyefavonf/ ,ckvdk tHzh ,
G o
f &l J xl;uJvpS mG aom wefc;dk jym#d[mawmfudk jrif&jcif;aMumifh rif;w&m;Mu;D tm;
wkd;aomo'gw&m; &Sdonfjzpf t&yfav;rsufESmukd tkwfwHwkdif;jzifhum&HjyD;vQif tpOfxm0&qnf;uyfoGm;
aMumif;ESifh a&;om;xm;avonf/
okaYd omf q&mawmfO;D udwu
d rnfonfu
h sr;f rS xkwEf w
k
f az:jyxm;aMumif;ESihf ryg&Sad cs/ pum;rSm
o*FZmq&mawmfb&k m;Mu;D \pum;ykpH mtkyx
f rJ S jzpfwef&monf/ us;D oJav;xyfq&mawmfb&k m;Mu;D \ r[m0if
pum;ajypmtkyf aemufqufwJG um; jrefrmou&mZf 1171-ckEpS ?f wefc;l vqef; 13-&ufaeY r[maAm"dyifoYdk
aZ,sausmfxifESifhaZ,sausmfpGmwkdY a&mufcJh awmifpl;pl;okdYxGufonfhcufru cufvufukdif; okH;jzmonfwGif
atmufyidk ;f vk;H ywf ig;xGmwpfru
dk u
f kd oD&"d rmaomurif; yifah qmifavaomaMumifh jywfvsu&f o
dS nfponfjzifh
okaom"dwr[m&mZ0ifawmf yOrtkyf? pmrsufESm 181- a&;om;az:jyxm;onfukd awGU&dS&aMumif;ESifhqkd
xm;avonf/
(Mr.L.L.S.O Malley's Bengal District Gazetteer, chapter III. Page No.54) wGiy
f g&Sad om aAm"d
yiftaMumif;udk rltwkdif; bmomjyefqkdvkdufOD;tHh/
]]Ak'bmom0iftaygif;wkdY\ omoemh&efolwpfOD;[k ac:qkdxkduf oD0bk&m;ukd ukd;uG,fqnf;uyf
avh&adS om b*Fvm;jynftv,fyidk ;f &Sib
f &k if &mZmqmquFmonf c&pf 6-&mpkavmufu aAm"dyifudk ckwjf zwfw;l
az:jyD;vQif axmywfrsm;jzifh oGef;avmif;um rD;&IdUypfavonf/ taMumif;ukd r*"wkdif;jynf &Sifbk&if
yl&mPAmrmu od&adS wmfral vaomf bk;d ab;rsm;jzpfuek af om taomutp&Sad om arm&d,rif;tqufqufwYdk
\jrwfE;dk aumfa&mfyal Zmfawmfro
l nfudk twkvu
dk af omtm;jzifh xyfru
H mpku
d yf sK;d cJ&h avonf/ okyYd if yl&PAm
rmu pku
d yf sK;d xm;aomfvnf; bmoma&;wGif mrp&,
d Mu;D rm;vSaom qmquFmonf a'gotrsurf ;D vQu
H o
hJ Ykd
xGujf y;D vQif 'kw,
d rcd w
k jf zwf rD;&IUd jy;D aemuf rnforl qkd ae&mwGix
f yfr
H aAm"dyifrpku
d af p&[k trdeaYf wmf
xm;cJah vonf/ bd;k ab;tpOftEG,rf pS uk;d uG,q
f nf;uyfvmaom aAm"dyifukd tvGe&f adk oavh&adS om yl&mP
Amrmuonfvnf; 'kwd,rd xyfrHpkdufysKd;jyef\/ txl;tHhzG,faumif;aom aAm"dyifawmfonfvnf; wpfnOfh
wnf;rSmyif 10-aycefMY u;D jrifv
h mavonf/ ,if;uJo
h Ydk tHzh ,
G o
f &JaygufzmG ;vmonfukd awGUjrif&aom qmquFm
onfvnf; tvGefaMumuf&GHUwkefvIyfaompdwf&Sdonfjzpf 3-Mudrfajrmuf t<uif;r&ckwfjzwfjyD;vQif 24-ay
cefYjrifhrm;aom ausmufvuf&ef;MuD;udk um&Hxm;cJhavonf/ jyKtyfjyD;aom0D&d,ukd vufravQmhvkdaom
yl&mPAmrmuonfvnf; EGm;rwpfaxmifrS npf&tyfaom EkdY&nfwkdYjzifh oGef;avmif;um 3-Mudrfajrmuf
pkdufysKd;cJh&avonf/ (um; rpwmrmav\tqkd)
ausmufpm0efrif;MuD; umeif*efurl xkdausmufvuf&ef;MuD;udk aAm"dyiftm; &efolwkdY rzsufqD;Ekdif&ef
yl&PAmrmuyif aqmufvyk cf o
hJ nf[q
k \
dk / txufygtcsuMf u;D onf tvGet
f MhH ozG,af umif;aom tcsuMf u;D
wpfckyif jzpf Ak'&Sifawmf\zGm;zufawmfjzpfaomaAm"dyiftm; rolawmfrif;wkdYu rnfokdYyif tpwkH;ypf&ef
MuH&G,ftm;xkwfapumrlvnf; tprwHk;EkdifaMumif;ukd xif&Sm;atmif jyvkdufaomom"uMuD;wpf&yfyifjzpfay
onf/ wGif uREyfk o
f nf r[maAm"dyif wefc;dk 'yd g'fMu;D rm;yku
H kd tenf;i,faz:jyvkad yonf/ r[dEa x&focif\
8

tMuaH y;csut
f & a'0geHy,
D wdrif;Mu;D oHCrdwm ax&DrESi'hf uP
d omcgudk oD[Vdk u
f Re;f odYk yifah qmifawmfr&l ef
t&d|trwfMu;D tm; yg#vdyw
k af ejynfawmfoYkd oHwreftjzpfjzifh apvTwcf ahJ vonf/ t&d|trwfMu;D onfvnf;
yg#vdyw
k af ejynfawmfoYkd qku
d af &mufvmvwf taomurif;w&m;Mu;D tm; o0PfvmT ESiw
hf uG avQmufxm;
av&m bk&ifrif;jrwfu rdefY[awmfrlonfum;...
]]bk&m;ocifu,
dk af wmfMu;D \yGiahf wmfr&l m aAm"dyifonf bk&m;ud,
k af wmfEiS w
hf al omaMumifh "g;jzifch w
k yf idk ;f
jzwfjcif;iSmrxdkuf}}
[kqkdavonf/ odkYESifh &[ef;oHCmawmftaygif;wkdYtm; yifhzdwfpnf;a0;awmfrljyD;vQif taMumif;udk
avQmufxm;av&m t&Sijf rwfwu
Ydk bk&m;ocifu,
dk af wmfjrwfMu;D \ y&deAd m efjyKcgeD; &wemanmifapmif;xuf
avsmif;vsuf t"d|mef 5-csux
f m;cJah Mumif;udk a[mawmfrjl y;D rS 'uP
d omcgonf aq;'ef;jrif;oDvmjzifo
h m;&mrS
tvdktavsmufjywf a&TzsOf;wnfvwHUonfukd odawmfrlavonf/ xkdodkYodawmfrljyD;aom oD&d"rmaomu
rif;Mu;D onfvnf; &[ef;y&dowf? vly&dowftaygif;jc&H v
H suf aAm"dyif&adS wmfr&l mt&yfokYd <ucsaD wmfral vonf/
aAm"dyifoYdk a&mufawmfral omtcg rif;w&m;Mu;D onf a&Tpw
k u
f u
dk idk
f aq;'ef; jrif;oDvmESio
hf m;jy;D rS
tu,f aAm"dyifonf vuFm'Dyok<Yd uxku
d o
f nfjzpft/hH igonfvnf; bk&m;omoemawmf oHo,uif;&Si;f
aom'g,umwpfOD; tu,f jzpfonfrSef\/ jrif;oDvmESifhom;&mrS jywf a&TzsOf; rwfwyf&yfwnfonf
jzpfygapownf;[k t"d|mefjyKonfEiS w
hf pfjyKd ief uf aAm"dcufonf jywfvmawmfr
l eHo
Y mnTeaf ysmif;jzifjh ynfah om
a&TzsO;f xuf wnfavonf/ tndK? ta&T? teD? tarmif;? teuf jyKd ;jyKd ;jyufaomaom a&mifjcnfawmfwo
Ydk nf
xGuv
f m pMum0Vmwku
d t
f vk;H udk zk;H vTr;f ajr; ,Suv
f suf txufjA[mjynfwidk af tmifa&mufavonf/ xdaYk emuf
a&TzsOf;ESifhwuGaom &wemaAm"dyifonf &wemtif;ysOfrS txufaumif;uifokdY ysHwuf 7-&ufvkH;vkH; vl
wkdYrjrifEkdifaom qD;ESif;wdrfwkdufodkY 0ifwnfavonf/
r[maAm"dr@vtjyif ,ckuo
hJ Ydk wefc;dk jym#d[mudk jyawmfrcl jhJ y;D onfah emuf oD[Vdk u
f Re;f odaYk &mufomG ;
aomtcgvnf; a&TzsO;f wGix
f nf
h ajrwGipf u
dk rf nfjyK&m aumif;uifoYdk ysw
H ufvsuf tawmif&pS q
f ,f&adS om
t&yfwnfjyD;vQif yifpnftukdif;MuD; toD;t&Guftcufao; tcuf>rmwdkYrS jym0gpdrf;vJh? e*g;oGJUtwl jzLcsD?
eDcsD t&nf'D;'D;,dkpD;rnfhozG,f ajcmufoG,faoma&mifjcnfawmfwkdYonf xGufukef\/ vltm;vkH; wkdY&TifjyKH;arGU
avsmzf ,
G f toG,o
f ,
G af oma&mifjcnfwo
Ydk nf ae0ifonfw
h idk af tmif xGe;f awmuf oD[Vkd u
f Re;f tvk;H udk zk;H vTr;f jy;D
rS jA[mjynfwidk af tmif wufav\/ rk;d csKyaf omtcgrSomvQif aumif;uifrq
S if; wGi;f wnfavonf/ ,if;
okdYwnfvmaomtcg r[myx0DajrMuD;onf aumif;csD;ay;ojzifh wkefvIyf\/ xkdaAm"domcgrS wpf&maom
tjrpfi,fwo
Ydk nfvnf; a&TzsO;f odaYk jr; ,Suu
f ek v
f suf ajroko
Yd ufavuke\
f / rsm;pGmaomvltaygif;wko
Yd nf yef;eHo
Y m
wkdYjzifh ylaZmfMuukefownf;/ okdYvQif tHhzG,faumif;aMumif;wkdYudk yg&mZduPft|uxmed'gef;ESifh r[m0if
usrf;wkdYwGif vm&Sdawmfrlavonf/ a&GU rQavmuf MuD;us,faomwefckd;jym#d[mawmfteEESifhjynfhpkHawmf
rlaom jrwfpGmbk&m;ocif\zGm;zufawmf aAm"dyiftm; rolawmfrif;wkdY\ya,m*aMumifh aoEkdifaumif;tHh
avm/ rnfonfeh nf;ESirhf S tpwk;H Ekid rf nfr[kwaf y/ tjrpfusev
f Qif tjrpfrjS yefvnfaygufymG ;vm&rnfomwnf;/
qmquFmonf r[maAm"dyifudk wl;az:cJph Ofu tjrpf\tqk;H udk &SmrawGUEkid [
f k [la0qif\usr;f u
qkdjyef\/ yl&mPAmrmuonf olUavmufMuD;us,faom aejynfawmfukd pkd;pH&aomrif;wpfyg;yif r[kwfjim;
aomfvnf; if;\trdefYudk zDqefum okH;Mudrfwkdifwkdif pkdufysKd;avonfrSm xkdaAm"dyif\wefckd;awmfaMumifhyif
jzpf\[k ,lq&ayrnf/

,ck&Sdaeaom aAm"dyif
c&pf 19-&mpktppjzpfaom 1811-ckESpfu blcseef[m rDvweftrnf&Sdaomt*Fvdyfynm&SdwpfOD;onf
Ak'*,mjrdKUodkYa&muf&SdcJhzl;&m cufrig;jzmjzifhpnfyifae ajr\yuwdae&mrS tjrifhay30-cefY&Sdaom aAm"d
yifMu;D wpfyifukd jrifz;l cJo
h nfq\
dk / xdak Am"dyif\toufrmS tESpw
f pf&mtkrd nfrxif[v
k nf; qkad o;\/ 1875ckESpfwGifum; aAm"dyifonf wpfukd,fvkH; ,kd,Gif;vmaomaMumifh 76-ckESpfwGif aveDMurf;ESifhvJygoGm;av
onf/ xkt
d yifrt
S aphrsm;udk ,lxm;vku
d o
f nft
h jyif tcufMu;D wpfcufuv
kd nf; if;ae&myif jyefvnfpu
dk yf sK;d cJh
avonf/ xkt
d ukid ;f rS pnfyifjyefyY mG ;vmaom aAm"dyifrmS ,ck&adS eaomtyifjzpf\/ rnforl nf0g pdu
k cf o
hJ nf[k
9

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


um; ryg&Sad cs/ (Dr.Rajendra Lal Mitra's Buddha-Gaya. Chapter VIII Page No.82) a'gufwm&m*sijf 'm
vmvfrdMw\ Ak'*,mac:pmtkyf? pmrsufESmeHygwf 82wGifum; odkYa&;xm;avonf/
]]tvGew
f &m tkrd if;vSjyjD zpf wpfpw
d af jcmufaeaom aAm"dyifMu;D onf rdro
d mG ;a&mufcahJ om 1887ckEpS w
f iG f avrkew
f idk ;f wku
d cf wfraI Mumifh vJygoGm;avonf/ odaYk omf [dEL vlrsK;d wku
Yd xkt
d yifrS tudik ;f Mu;D wpfuikd ;f
ukd,ljyD;vQif apwDawmf\ajrmufbufay 80-cefYuGmaomae&mwGif jyefvnfpkdufysKd;MuaMumif;ESifhawGU&dS&jyef
ao;\/ w&kwb
f ek ;f Mu;D [la0qif r[maAm"doaYkd &muf&cdS ahJ om c&pf 6-&mpkavmufuvnf; tukid ;f tcufponf
wkdYESifh txl;pnfum;aeaomaAm"dyifMuD;wpfyifukd zl;ajrmfcJh&aMumif;ESifha&;om;xm;jyef\/ aAm"dyifum;
yl&mPAmrmpku
d yf sK;d cJah om aAm"dyifjzpfwef&monf/ blcs eef[mrDvwef awGUcJo
h nfqadk om aAm"dyifrmS tESpf
wpf&mxufydk toufMuD;onf rxifqkdjcif;aMumifh [la0qifa&muf&SdcJhaom c&pf 6-&mpkESifhr[mrDvwef
a&muf&cdS ahJ om c&pf 19-&mpkrmS txl;uGmjcm;vsu&f &dS m ESpaf ygif;wpfaxmifausmt
f wGi;f aAm"dyiftqufaygif;
rnfrQpkdufysKd;cJhjyD;qkdwmudk a0zefEIdif;,SOf&ef tawmfyifcJ,Of;vSawmh\/ a'gufwm&m*sifj'mrdMw\ 1887-ck
ESpw
f iG f jyefvnfpu
dk yf sK;d &onfqadk om aAm"dyifonfvnf; rnfonfeh nf;ESirhf qkd ,ckapwDawmfMu;D \ajrmufbuf
wGif &Sad eaomaAm"d yifjzpfEidk rf nf r[kwaf y/ tokq
Yd rdk l aAm"dyifcufMu;D ukd apwDawmf\ajrmufbufp;l pl; ay
80-tuGmavmufwiG f pku
d yf sK;d cJo
h nf[q
k x
dk m;jcif;aMumifh jzpfonf/ aAm"dyifudk apwDawmfMu;D \ajrmufbuf
cyfvrS ;f vSr;f wGi&f adS eaom aAm"dyif[,
k q
l tyf\/ uREyfk w
f t
Ydk xl;rSwo
f m;&efrmS umm; apwDawmfMu;D \taemuf
bufwGif ,ck&Sdaeaom aAm"dyifonf 1876-ckESpfwGif avrkefwkdif;wkdufcwfjyD;rS jyefvnfpdkufysKd;xm;aom
aAm"dyifjzpf toufrmS 75-ESp&f jdS y[
D k rSw,
f t
l yf\/ tcsKUd aomusr;f *efww
Ykd iG u
f m; vuf&adS Am"dyifudk bk&m;&Sif
vufxufawmfrS aAm"dyifyJjzpfae[ef? taomrif;w&m;MuD;pkdufysKd;cJhaom aAm"dyifyJjzpfovkdvkd trsKd;rsKd;
jzef;oef;um a&;om;Muuke\
f / xku
d o
hJ Ykd trsK;d rsK;d a&;om;Muukeaf omq&mwk\
Yd pum;rSm rSerf nf? rSm;rnfqw
dk mudk
az:jyygom"ursm;ukd okH;oyfa0zefjcif;jzifh odEkdifrnfjzpf txl;az:jyp&mrvkdawmhay/ odkY&mwGif uREkfyfwkdY
oHo,jzpfz,
G &f mum; vuf&adS Am"dyifonf bk&m;&Si\
f vufxufawmf&dS aAm"dyifMu;D rSqif;oufvmaom tEG,f
0Ho [kwf r[kwu
f o
kd m pOf;pm;&ayrnf/ xko
d aYkd 0zefcv
hJ Qif twufajc&m&Su
d tqif;ajc&mvnf; &S&d rnf[al om
pum;ykt
H & Ak'& iS af wmfjrwfMu;D yGiahf wmfrcl ahJ omaAm"dyifMu;D \tEG,0f o
H pifppftrSejf zpfonf[k rSw,
f u
l ek &f m\/

r[efY*D&dESifhAk'*,m
c&pf 14-&mpktpavmufu jA[PykPm ;wko
Yd nf r[maAm"dajrae&mESiw
hf uG aomaAm"dyifMu;D ukyd g
ykid q
f idk cf MhJ uavonf/ ausmufpm0efrif;Mu;D umeif*ef\xifjrifcsurf mS bmomw&m; t,lonf;vSaom [dEL
ykPm ;wko
dY nf apwDawmf\a&SUrsuEf mS wGif uyfxm; 1308-ckEpS [
f k aeYpx
JG ;dk xm;onfukd awGU&S&d aom AdEk;d
ajc&mukd uk;d uG,af pmifah &Smufonfrw
S pfyg; aAm"dyifuv
dk nf;aumif;? apwDawmfMu;D ukv
d nf;aumif;? apwDawmf
y&d0P
k t
f wGi;f &Sd rnfonfb
h &k m;ykx;dk udak omfrv
S nf;aumif; uk;d uG,af pmifah &Smufjcif;r&Syd J aiG&&krH Qom tydik cf MH u
avonf/ olwo
Ydk nf rif;tqufqufwrYdk S vSL'gef;xm;cJah om pde?f ausmuf? ywjrm;? a&T? aiG tp&Sad om tzk;d
te*xdkufwefaom bk&m;b@mawmfudk vuf0g;MuD;tkyfrdavonfhtjyif EkdifiHjcm;bk&m;zl;om;rsm;xHrSvnf;
ode;f oef;uka#ruaom aiGtojymrsm;udk &&dcS yhJ w
Hk \
l / tokq
Yd rdk l olw\
Ykd tquftEG,jf zpfaom r[ef\
Y a&SUaemuf
tajctaeudk EIdif;,SOfjcif;jzifh odEkdif\/(r[efY*D&dqdkolrSm Ak'*,mapwDawmfMuD;udk vuf&Sdykdifqkdifxm;oljzpf
ypnf;yp,t&mwGif apmfbGm;wpfa,mufrQ <u,f0aeaom [dEL&aohMuD;jzpfonf/)

rpwmrmwif\tqkd
(Martin's Eastern India) ac:rmwif\ta&SUtdE,
d ac:pmtkyw
f iG f a&;om;xm;jyefonfrmS vuf&rdS [efY

\bk;d ab;rsm;jzpfMuukeaf om uG,v


f eG o
f rl [efw
Y o
Ydk nf ,cktcg eef;awmfwrQ Mu;D us,v
f su&f adS om ausmif;Mu;D
ae&mwGif c&pf 1590-jynfEh pS u
f ausmif;i,fwpfaqmifukd pwifaqmufvyk u
f m aexkid o
f mG ;Muavonf/ xkd
pOftcgwke;f u apwDawmfMu;D rSm csKEH ,
G t
f xyfxyf&pfywfxm;jcif;aMumifh awmMu;D ozG,f qdwjf ird v
f su&f adS vonf/
xkad usmif;i,fonf apwDawmfMu;D rS udu
k f 4000cefu
Y mG a0;avonf/ r[efw
Y o
Ydk nf xkpd OftcgrSp aAm"dr@v
ae&mawmfukd tydik cf v
H mMuonf[q
k \
dk / rpwmrmav\ba*Fg'dpMww
d *f Zufw,
D m okaYd &;om;xm;jyef\/
10

]]tdEd,jynfMuD;onf rGwfqvifwkdYvufatmufodkY tvkH;pkHusa&mufjyD;onfaemuf arm*kdvfrif;wkdYonf


13-qufwkdifatmif a'vDjrdKUawmfMuD;rS xD;eef;pkdufcJhMuavonf/ vuf&Sdykdifqkdifolr[efY\bkd;ab;rsm;wkdYonf
r[maAm"dy&d0kPftygt0ifjzpfaom wm&m'D&Gmudk c&pf 1727-ckESpfu a'vD&Sifbk&ifrkd[mruf&Sm;xHrS tydkif
pm;ay;ojzifh &&SdcJhavonf/ xkda&mtcgu apwDawmfMuD;\atmufwpfykdif;rSm ajrxJwGifjrKyfaeavonf/ ol
wko
Yd nf apwDawmfMu;D udyk if ykid q
f idk x
f m;aomfvnf; apwDawmfMu;D udjk yjy;D aiG&mS onfrw
S pfyg; rnforYkd Q jyKjyifjcif;?
apmifha&Smufjcif;r&SdcJhacs[k qkdjyef\/
(Hunter's Indian Empire. Page.203-256) [efw
Y m;\tdE,
d eftifyg,mac:pmtkyf pmrsuEf mS -203ESihf
256wGif az:jyxm;jyefonfrSm...
]]Ak'b
mom0if olawmfpiftaygif;wk\
Yd tjrwfq;Hk aomae&m]Ak'* ,m}ukd ykid q
f idk x
f m;olrmS r[eft
Y rnf&dS
aom oD0*kP
d ;f om;[dEL &aohMu;D jzpf olonf Ak'b
&k m;tm; rdrw
d u
Ydk ,
kd w
f idk u
f ;dk uG,q
f nf;uyfv
dk odr;f qnf;
xm;&aMumif; qifjcifay;vsu&f &dS m taMumif;ESiphf yfvsO;f c&pf 1811-ckEpS u
f *,mpD&ifp\
k taMumif;udk
&SmazGavhvm&&Scd ahJ om blcseef[mrDvwef\ud,
k af wGUrsm;udk uREyfk af &;om;rnfqydk gu ,cktcg apwDawmfMu;D
\atmufxyfwGif udef;0yfprg,fawmfrlvsuf&Sdaom ausmufndK&kyfyGm;awmfMuD;rSm xkdpOftcgwkef;u [dELwkdY
vspv
f QL&Ixm;aomaMumifh ykrd n
dk pfayvsu&f \
dS / apwDawmfMu;D \aemufbufwiG f uyfaygufa&mufvsu&f adS om
aAm"dyifokdYzl;ajrmf&efvma&mufMuukefaom [dELbk&m;zl;om;rsm;tm; r[efY\wynfhjzpfol *D&dwkdYonf [dEL
ewfuGef;rsm;ukdom oGm;a&mufzl;ajrmfMu&ef nTefjyay;Muonfukd awGU&Sd&\/ bmoma&;wGif mrp&d,
tm;Mu;D vSaom *D&w
d o
Ydk nf Ak'* ,mokv
Yd ma&mufMuukeaf om [dEL bk&m;zl;om;wkt
Yd vkiYd mS &nfreS ;f ewfueG ;f
tcsKUd udk aqmvsipf mG apwDtjyifbufrS aqmufvyk v
f u
dk Mf u\/ xked wfueG ;f rsm; jy;D pD;onfaemuf r[ef\
Y wynfh
jzpfol *D&drsm;u rkef;wD;&GH&SmzG,faumif;aom Ak'&kyfyGm;awmfukd rzl;ajrmfMu&ef a[majymwm;jrpfjyD;vQif
tqkdygewfuGef;rsm;odkY ac:,lavh&SdMu\/ t,lonf;vSaom[dELwkdYonf if;wkdY\taoG;tom;jzpfaom
Ak'& iS af wmftm; rke;f wD;&G&H mS zG,af umif;aMumif;ESiphf yG pf yJG w
k cf wfaom pum;rSm txl;tHzh ,
G af umif;\[k a&;om;
xm;\/
(The Buddha-Gaya by Dr.R.L Mitra) ac:a'gufwmrdMw\Ak'*
,mac:pmtkyw
f iG f okzYd wf&&I ao;\/
]]r[efYonf Ak'*,mapwDawmfMuD;ukd ykdifqkdifolwpfOD;tjzpfjzifh *kPf,laeaomfvnf; apwDawmfudk
apmifha&SmufolwpfOD;taejzifh rnfonfhtcgrS *kPfr,lbl;aMumif;? taMumif;rlum; olonf jrif;aZmif;wGif
aexkid cf &hJ aomb0rS apwDawmfudk trSo
D [JjyKum Mu;D yGm;vmoljzpf b@mwku
d Mf u;D ozG,jf zpfaom Ak'* ,mukd
tykid cf x
H m;&jcif;om jzpfonf/ olwo
Ydk nf rnfonft
h cgrS apwDawmfukd qnf;uyfco
hJ nfr[kw/f qnf;uyfvrd hf
rnfr[kwaf Mumif;udk xif&mS ;pGm jyayOD;tH/h ,cktcg [dEL ewfueG ;f rsm;pGmwku
Yd kd apwDawmfy&d0P
k t
f jyifbufwiG f
aqmufvkyfxm;Mu&m (1) wm&ma'0Dausmif; (2) 0g*DqGm&Da'0Dausmif; (3) qmbw&Da'0Dausmif; (4) yO
pEmausmif; (5) r[ma'0ausmif; (6) AdEkd;ausmif;wkdYjzpfMu\/ ewfuGef;rsm;udk aqmufvkyf&jcif;rSm
rdrw
d u
Ykd om uk;d uG,&f efr[kwaf o;bJ r[maAm"dob
Ydk &k m;zl;vmMuaom [dEL wkt
Yd m; rke;f wD;&G&H mS zG,af umif;aom
Ak'& yk yf mG ;awmfrsm;tm; rzl;ajrmfMu&efEiS hf xdek wfueG ;f rsm;udk zl;ajrmfjcif;jzifh udpj y;D pD;Ekid &f ef &nfoefvsuf aqmuf
vkyx
f m;Muavonf/ (History of Bihar by B.P. Tripathi M.A. Ph.D)
rpwmMwyd gxD\bD[m&mZ0iftqkrd mS um; okw
Yd nf;/ ]]bcifr[wr*E\
D tjrJ xm0pOfo;Hk pGaJ vh&adS om
vufeufMuD;um; t[ow&m;awmfyifjzpf w&m;awmfrSm oef;aygif;rsm;pGmukefaom tdEd,om;wkdYtm;
pm&dwz UHG jzKd ;a&;bmomt,l0g' ajzmifrh wfwnfMunfa&; paomtaxmuftyHah ygif;rsm;pGmwku
Yd kd ay;vsu&f \
dS /
w&m;awmfrSm Ak'*,mjrdKUrS bk&m;tjzpfokdY a&muf&SdawmfrlcJhaom bcifMuD;a*gwr&Sifawmf\a&TEIwfawmfrS
xkwaf z:>rufMum;awmfrcl ahJ om a'oemawmfyif jzpfawmhonf/ w&m;awmf\rlvblwwnf&mXmeonf uREyfk f
wkb
Yd [
D me,f&dS Ak'* ,mac: bkred ufoefajrrSe?f ajraumif; jrKd Uawmfa[mif;yifjzpfawmh\/ jrKd Uawmfuav;rSm
&Siaf wmfa*gwrok;H vlUocif bk&m;&Si\
f wefc;dk awmft&Sed af Mumifh urmMu;D wpfcv
k ;Hk tarT;tMuKd io
f if;ysUH vIid cf \
hJ /
Ak'b
&k m;\tat;jrqk;H aom w&m;a&pifuv
kd nf; uREyfk w
f b
Ydk [
D me,foel ,fom;wko
Yd mvQif OD;pGmyxr aomuf
okH;cJhonfhtjyif taomurif;w&m;MuD;vufxufu urmwpfckvkH;okdYyif Ak'0g'wnf;[laomrsKd;aphudk pkdufysKd;
ay;cJ&h um; ,ckwidk f urmtESt
YH jym; pnfum;vsu&f adS vonf/ odaYk omf bD[me,fwiG u
f m; r&Scd yhJ gjy/D vuf&b
dS [
D m
11

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


e,fol? e,fom;wkdYESifhwuGaom tdEd,om;wkdY\tay:um; Ak'\Mo0g'awmf rwnfawmhjyD/ w&m;awmfESifh
uif;a0;cJhacsjyD/ Ak'omoemwnf;[laom zkd;vrif;MuD;vnf; uG,fycJhjyD; arSmiftwd zkH;vTrf;vsuf&SdavjyD/
bcifMu;D a*gwr\vuf&m? ajc&mrsm;jzpfaom Ak'* ,mjrKd U&Sad usmif;uef? apwD? ykx;dk ponfwrYdk mS vnf; usK;d yJjh yKd
ysuv
f su&f &dS um; zl;jrif&oluREyfk w
f \
Ydk pdwEf v
S ;Hk udk txl;xdcu
dk w
f ek v
f yI af p wm;r&? qD;rEkid f rsu&f nfjzKd ijf zKd i,
f pdk ;D
apyg\/ ae&mawmfudk uREyfk w
f Ydk [dEL rsK;d EG,jf zpfaom r[efaY c:&aohMu;D u tykid ,
f x
l m;jcif;aMumifh xyfr
H
jyKjyifvkdaom Ak'bmom0ifolawmfpiftaygif;wkdYrSm trsKd;rsKd;tcufMuKHaeMu&&Sm\/ ae&monf r[efY\
vufxJ rQMumjrihfpGm&SdaebdouJhodkY Ak'bmomwkdY\vufxJ&SdcJhygrl ,ckvkdtajctaersKd;&Sdrnf r[kwfay/
uREyfk u
f m; [dEL jzpfaomfvnf; [dEL r[ef\
Y npfayykw
H u
Ydk kd xkwyf ,fypfEidk rf nfr[kw/f ol\Ak'* ,mapwDawmfukd
tydik cf x
H m;jcif;&nf&,
G cf surf mS aiG&&kEH iS v
hf id &f yk ?f AdEk;d &kyf ponfwu
Ydk kd apwDawmfMu;D txJ csxm;jy;D Ak'b
mom
bk&m;zl;om;wkdY\OD;csjcif;ukd cH,l&ef&nf&G,favonf/ OD;csMuaom Ak'bmom0ifwkdYonfvnf; xkdt&kyfwkdY\
t"dyg,fudk em;vnfrnfr[kwfay/ Ak'trSwfjzifhOD;csMurnfjzpfaomfvnf; r[efYtzkdY txl;*kPf,lp&mjzpf\/
axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom &kyw
f ak wmfrsm;udk r[efw
Y cH g;0wGif pDwef;xm;jcif;? &kyw
f ak wmfrsm;ygaom ausmufcsyf
rsm;jzifh rD;zdkacsmifvkyfjcif;? qifwif;ukwf? jrif;wif;ukwfvkyfjcif;? tjyifbufwHwkdif;MuD;wGif xnfhoGif;jcif;?
Ak'acgif;awmfrsm;udk r[ma'0DOD;acgif;rsm;vkyfjcif;? okdYvQif ,kwfrmnpfywfaomtvkyfwkdYjzifh Ak'bk&m;ukd
apmfum;onfruao;bJ tvGefY tvGef&kdif;pkdif;npfay vluavwkdYuJhodkY Ak'&kyfyGm;awmf\vufawmfwpfzufukd
i&kwMf uw
d af usmufv;Hk Mu;D vkyjf cif;ESirhf piftrd o
f mwpfc\
k a&SUbufwiG f &yfawmfrw
l pfqu
l yfxm;onfudk awGU&S&d \/
uREyfk o
f nf [dEL bmom0ifwpfO;D yifjzpfaomfvnf; [dEL r[ef\
Y ,ckuo
hJ Ykd npfywf,w
k rf myku
H dk jrif&ojzifh pdw"f gwf
rSm tawmfwkefvIyfacsmufjcm;rdavonf/ Ak'bmom0ifwkdYtzkdYum; tb,fqkdEkdifzG,f&m &SdawmhtHhenf;/
(Ancient Magadha by J.C.Ghose) a*spaD Cmqf\a&S;r*"pmtkyw
f iG f awGU&S&d jyefao;onfrmS ]]aAm"dyif
uk[
d Ed L wku
Yd ;dk uG,q
f nf;uyfyEHk iS yhf wfouf uREyfk w
f o
Ydk &d oavmufrmS olwo
Ydk nf *,mjrKd Uay:wGif MoZmwdurd
ESifhjynfpkHqkH;aom AdoQe*kdPf;0if&aohMuD;\trdefYtwkdif;om vma&mufzl;ajrmfMu\/ &aohMuD;udk,fwkdifum;
Ak'& yk yf mG ;awmfukd rnfonft
h cgrS &dcS ;dk onfudk rawGU&aMumif;? taMumif;qkad omf olonf jA[PZmwf0ifwpfO;D
jzpf a*gwrrSm cwd,rsKd;EG,fjzpf&um; olUxuf Zmwfedrhfol[kt,l&Sdjcif;aMumifhjzpfonf/ xkdYjyif Ak'*,m
apwDawmfyidk &f iS rf [efo
Y nfvnf; Ak'& yk yf mG ;awmfuv
dk nf;aumif;? aAm"dyifuv
dk nf;aumif; rnfonft
h cgrS &Scd ;dk onf
r&Scd ahJ Mumif; aAm"dyifudk zl;ajrmfvadk om [dEL wkrYd mS r[efx
Y w
H iG f tzk;d tcukad y;jy;D rS zl;ajrmfuefawmhMu&avonf/
aAm"dyiftm;&nfreS ;f vSL'gef;aomtvSL0wKwu
Ydk u
dk m; *,m0gvf&aohMu;D uodr;f ,l\/ xkaYd Mumifh aAm"dyifjrwf
tm; r[efY\a&Tvrf;aiGvrf;zGifha&;udk zefwD;ay;wwfaom jy'g;vkH;ESifhwlonf[k ajymqkdEkdifp&m&Sd\/ xkdol
ESpfOD;pvkH;wkdYonf r[maAm"dodkY [dELwkdY vma&mufzl;ajrmfMuonfukd remvkd0efwkdaompdwf&Sdwwf\/ odEkdif
avmufaomtcsufMuD;wpfckrSm aAm"dyifrS tukdif; 42-ukdif;udk ckwfjzwf,ljyD;vQif *,mjrdKUywfvnfwGif pkduf
ysKd;vkdufjcif;yif jzpf\/ t"du&nf&G,fcsufrSm [dELbk&m;zl;om;wkdYtm; *,mjrdKUay:&Sd aAm"dyifrsm;udk zl;ajrmf
jcif;jzifh ESpfodrfhauseyfap&efjzpf\/ (um; aCmqf\a&;om;csuf)
odkYvQif q&mtrsKd;rsKd; ynm&SdtrsKd;rsKd;wkdY\a&;om;xm;Muonfukd axmuf&Ia0zefjcif;jzifh r[efY\
Ak'*,mapwDawmfukd udk;uG,f&eftvkdYiSm tydkifcHxm;&ygonf[k r[maAm"dyiftoif;MuD;udk wnfaxmifcJhol
tem*g&du"rygvESifhw&m;jzpfpOftcgu w&m;olMuD;a&SU acsyajymqkdcJhaompum;rSm rnfonfhenf;ESifhrS
r[kwfEkdif/ rrSefEkdif/ [dELapwDawmftjzpfjzifh ajymif;vGJum ukd;uG,fvkdaomaMumifhvnf;aumif;? apwDawmf
Mu;D onf Ak'b
momwkv
Yd ufxo
J Ykd usa&mufomG ;ygu olUtzkYd jy'g;vk;H aysmufq;Hk oGm;onfEiS w
hf jl cif;aMumifh vmbf
vmb qkwf,kwfoGm;rnfukdodaomaMumifhvnf;aumif; tykdifcHxm;jcif;jzpfonf[k ,lqtyfayonf/

jrefrm&Sifbk&ifrsm;ESifhAk'*,m
r*"wkdif;wGif Ak'bmom0if&Sifbk&ifrsm; pkd;pHawmfrlcJhpOfumvrsm;u txl;ojzifh MunfndKjrwfEkd;jcif;
cHcJh&aom Ak'*,mapwDawmfjrwfMuD;rSm ESpfaygif; 800-eD;yg;avmuf jyKpkapmifha&Smufol 'g,umrsm;ESifhuif;
a0;cJjh y;D onfah emuf rolawmfrif;wk\
Yd vufatmufysupf ;D ,k,
d iG ;f vsu&f cdS ahJ v&m bk&m;apwDyx
k ;dk wdrYk mS awmMu;D
ozG,f csKEH ,
G t
f xyfxyf&pfywfjy;D vQif aus;oHiu
S o
f H wnHnw
H jYdk zifh 0rf;enf;aMuuGzJ ,
G &f m tqift
h wef;jzif&h dS
12

aecJah vonf/ 0dw&dk ,


d bk&ifrMu;D \vufxufou
Ykd sa&mufaomtcg0,f b0&Sirf if;w&m;Mu;D onf zk;H tkyv
f su&f dS
aom jcKHEG,frsm;udk oefY&Sif;um bk&ifrMuD;\tultnDjzifhxyfrHwnfxm;cJhavonf/ jrefrmou&mZf 1183ckESpf? ewfawmfvqef; 9-&ufaeY qifjzL&Sifrif;w&m;\ajr;awmf pwkwtr&yl&jrdKUwnfbk&ifrif;jrwfonf
tzk;d te*xu
dk w
f efaom tvSL0wKtpktpkwu
Ykd kd vSL'gef;cJah Mumif;ESiu
hf rn;f pmxk;d xm;avonf/ wpfzef 1236ckESpf? wefaqmifrkef;vwGif jrefrm&Sifbk&ifrif;w&m;MuD;onf tdEd,jynftpkd;&\tultnDjzifh Ak'*,mapwD
awmfudk jyefvnf&&Sd&eftvkdYiSm tMudrfMudrf MudK;yrf;aqmif&Gufav&m wpfMudrfwpfcgatmifjrifcJhzl;aMumif;ESifh
r[efEY iS "hf rygvtrI? *,m'dpMww
d ?f w&m;olMu;D rufzmqif\xk;H wGif awGU&S&d \/ r[efo
Y nfvnf; rdr&d xm;orQ
aom bk&m;b@mrsm;udk jyeftyfco
hJ nfq\
dk / jrefrmbke;f awmfMu;D wko
Yd nfvnf; oDaygrif;ESit
hf *Fvyd pf pfjzpfonf
wkid af tmif apwDawmfteD;&Sd oDaygrif;w&m;Mu;D \y&dabm*wku
d Mf u;D wGif aexkid zf ;l avonf/ ,cktcg if;wdu
k Mf u;D
rSm tkw?f t*FawponfwYdk uGt
J ufjy;D ysupf ;D ,k,
d iG ;f vsu&f adS vjy;D jrefrmbk&m;zl;om;wko
dY nfvnf; rwnf;ckEd idk f
awmhjyD/ apwDawmfudkrSDjirf;um awmif;&rf; pm;aomufaeMuaom olawmif;pm;rsm;ESifh*sm&l;0g;vm;ukvm;
ukvm;rwkYdae&momjzpfaeawmhonf/ wkdufMuD;\'g,umum; &wem*D&djrdKUwGif ajracgif;atmif;vsuf&Sd&mrSm
jrefrmjynfojYdk yefvnfa&muf&v
dS mayjy/D ol\vuf&m? ajc&mrsm;jzpfaom y&dabm*wku
d Mf u;D ESirhf [efjY cx
H &J dS ausmuf
*lMu;D wku
Yd m; ,aeYtxd rysupf ;D ao;bJ txift&Sm;&Sad o;&m jrefrmjynf&dS Ak'b
mom0ifoal wmfpiftaygif;wkYd
onf uG,fvGefol'g,umrsm;tm; &kdaoaomtm;jzifh taqmufttkHrsm;udk wpfenf;enf;apmifha&Smufxm;
oifh\/

ausmufpm*lawmfMuD;
b0&Sifrif;wkef;rif;w&m;MuD;onf ygVd-jrefrmESpfbmomjzifh >yrf;aomausmufurnf;pmukd *lawmfMuD;
xJwGif pkdufxlxm;cJh\/ xkdausmufpmurnf;pmwGif a&;om;az:jyxm;aom tvSL0wKwkdYrSm pdefvkH;a& 511vkH;? jrvkH;a& 311-vkH;? ywjrm;vkH;a& 3966-vkH;? ykvJvkH;a& 623-vkH;wkdYudk r[maAm"dapwDawmfMuD;twGuf
&nfreS ;f um vSL'gef;cJah Mumif;ESiahf wG&&dS \/ ,cktcg if;vkP
d *f Ml u;D 2-ckpvk;H ukd r[ef\
Y wynfv
h ufom;rsm;u
uREJ mG ;? qdw?f jrif;wku
Yd akd uR;arG;&ef yJ? jrufpaom tpm;taomuf okad vSmif&m*kad 'gifMu;D tjzpfjzifh tok;H jyKvsuf
&S&d um; tvGev
f yS ckid cf o
hH yf&yfaom ausmufpmrsm;yif tenf;i,fcefY ysupf ;D ,d,
k iG ;f vsu&f o
dS nfudk awGU&S&d \/
ausmufpm*lawmfonf r[efjY cx
H &J dS [if;cif;tv,fwiG &f \
dS / *lawmifbufcyfvrS ;f vSr;f t&yfwiG f tkwrf eI Yf
a&mifow
k x
f m;aom rif;wke;f rif;w&m;Mu;D aumif;rIawmfZ&yfMu;D wpfaqmif&\
dS / Z&yfMu;D udk [dEL bk&m;zl;om;
wkw
Yd nf;ckad exkid &f ef ('ufbif*vk)d tjzpfjzifh tok;H jyKxm;\/ Z&yfMu;D rSm oDaygrif;\aumif;rIawmf y&dabm*
wkdufxuf wpfqcefYteHtvsm;us,f0ef;onfhtjyif ausmufrsm;jzifhaqmufvkyfxm;jcif;aMumifh txl;ckdifcHh\/
txufygtaMumif;t&mrsm;ukd zwf&jI cif;jzifh jrefrmrif;wkYd bk&m;yGiahf wmfr&l mAk'* ,mukd twDrQjrwfE;dk aumfa&mf
ylaZmfcJhaMumif;udk odEkdifvdrfhrnf[k ,kHMunfrdyg\/

"rygvESifhAk'*,m
1891-ckEpS f arv 30-&ufaeYwiG f oD[Vkd o
f m;Oygoumwpfa,muf udv
k b
H jdk rKd UwGif r[maAm"dtoif;Mu;D
udk wnfaxmifcJhavonf/ toif;MuD;\t"du&nf&G,fcsufrSm Ak'*,mapwDawmfukd Ak'bmomwkdYvuf0,fodkY
jyefvnfa&muf&adS &;ESiyhf #d uwfusr;f *efrsm;ukv
d nf; tdE,
d bmomtrsK;d rsK;d wdjYk zifh jyefqadk &;om;&ef &nf&,
G af v
onf/ toif;Mu;D tdcsyf -f okr*Fvq&mawmfu Ou|? ukv
d edk ,ftv
dk aumufu twkid yf ifcv
H Ml u;D tjzpfjzifh yg
0ifMujy;D vQif "rygvrSm tusK;d aqmiftjzpf &Guaf qmifavonf/ toif;Mu;D ukd wnfaxmifjy;D 3-ESprf QMum
aomtcg OD;"rygvonf trsKd;rsKd;aomwkdif;jynfEkdifiHwdkYodkY oGm;a&mufvSnfhvnfjyD;vQif toif;MuD;ESifhtquf
toG,fjyKvkyfavonf/ 1893 -ckESpfu tar&duefjynf csDum*kdjrdKUwGifusif;ycJhaom (Parliament of Religions) ac:"robifMu;D okYd Ak'b
momwk\
Yd txl;uk,
d pf m;vS,w
f pfa,muftjzpfjzifh wufa&mufavonf/ 1892ckEpS w
f iG f Ak'* ,mtaMumif;yg0ifaom owif;aqmif;yg;trsK;d rsK;d wkjYd zifh a&;om;a0zefxm;aomr[maAm"d*sme,f
ac:pmapmifudkvnf; umvuwm;jrdKUrSxkwfa0avonf/ xkd*sme,f trsm;qkH;a&;om;avh&SdaomtcsufwkdYrSm
13

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


r[efYtykdifcHxm;aomAk'*,mapwDawmfESifhajrae&mudk rnfonfhenf;ESifhAk'bmomwkdYvufodkY a&muf&Sd&rnf
enf;[laom tcsufyifjzpf\/ "rygvonf r[maAm"dokdYvmwkdif;vmwkdif; &kyfyGm;awmfrsm;udk [oFmjy'g;
okwv
f rd ;f jcif;? ,rif;&kyo
f zG,f t0wfywfxm;jcif;? bk&m;a&SUwGif tr*Fvmvdi&f yk Mf u;D udck sxm;jcif;? bk&m;zl;om;
wkYd orm"dysuu
f u
G af vmufatmif &maxmifruaom olawmif;pm;wku
Yd vma&mufawmif;cHjcif;? taESmift
h ,Suf
ay;jcif;? uJhokdYaomjyKrlykHwkdYudk awGUMuKH& tvGefpdwfrcsrf;romjzpf&um; 1894-ckESpf? rwfvxkwf if;\
*sme,fwiG f Ak'* ,majr&mudk Ak'b
momwku
Yd om ykid yf idk Ef idk Ef idk t
f yk cf sKyf cGi&hf &Sad &;ESirhf w&m;ojzifh ykid q
f idk x
f m;aom
r[efY\vufrS w&m;rQwaomtzdk;tcjzifh0,f,l&ef[l acgif;MuD;ykdif;rS a&;om;az:jyvkdufavonf/ xkdokdY
a&;om;vkdufjcif;rSm jyKpkapmifha&Smufolr&SdbJ ysufpD;,kd,Gif;aeaom apwDawmfMuD;\Murmqkd;udkrjrif&J? rzl;
&JaomaMumifhyifjzpf\/ oabmw&m;ukd "rygvra0zefrD a&S;rqG qmtD'GiftmEkdonf 1886-ckESpf?
umvuwm;jrdKUrS xkwfa0aom ',fvDawvD*&yfac:owif;pmrS a&;om;az:jyzl;avonf/ 1893-ckESpfwGif
"rygvonf tar&duefjynfwiG f usi;f ycJah omr[m"robifMu;D rStjyefwiG f 0de,ykoQygrvmac:aom owif;
pmxJ odzYk wf&&I avonf/ ]]Ak'* ,mjrKd U&Sd ausmif;? uef? apwD? ykx;dk wku
Yd kd r[mar'ifwzYdk suq
f ;D cJah om c&pf
1201-ckESpfwGif Ak'*,mjrdKUwGifoDwif;okH;Muukefaom bkef;awmfMuD;wkdYonf apwDtwGif;&Sd &kyfyGm;awmfrsm;udk
aqmif,al vjy;D aomf &mZj*Kd [&f adS wmMu;D wpfcx
k w
J iG f 0Sux
f m;cJah vonf/ bk&m;cef;onfvnf; ,ckuo
hJ Ykd atmufrmS
r[kwb
f J apwDawmfMu;D \ txufxyfom&Sad vonf/ ,ckum; tay:xyfwiG f &kyyf mG ;awmftvsO;f r&Sad wmhjy/D
bk&m;cef;\wnfae&mrSmvnf; atmufxyfomjzpfaeaMumif;ESifh tqkdygowif;pmu az:jyxm;avonf/ xkdY
aMumifh "rygvonf wkdusKd*syef*kdPf;csKyfq&mawmfMuD;tm; xkdae&mESifhxkdufwefaom &kyfwkawmfMuD;wpfqludk
xkvkyfay;&ef wkdufwGef;cJhav&m q&mawmfMuD;onfvnf; tvGefacsmrGwfoyg,fawmfrlvSaom &kyfyGm;awmf
wpfqludk vufaqmifay;tyfvkdufavonf/

r[efY\,kwfrmrI
"rygvonfvnf; 1894-ckEpS ?f rwfv 1-&ufaeYwiG f tdE,
d jynfojYdk yefa&mufvmjy;D onfah emuf xk&d yk yf mG ;
awmfESifhtwl *,mjrdKUodkY arv 17-&ufaeYwGif qkdufa&mufvmavonf/ xkdodkYa&mufvm&jcif;rSm olonf
arv 19-&ufaeYjzpfaom uqkefvjynfhaeYwGif anmifa&oGef;yGJusif;y xkd&kyfyGm;awmfukdvnf; apwDawmf
tay:xyfwiG f ylaZmfxm;&ef &nf&,
G cf suaf Mumifjh zpf\/ okyYd al Zmfawmhrnft
h aMumif;udk ol\*sme,fwiG v
f nf;
tus,w
f 0ifah &;om;vku
d \
f / yxrtzkYd udpw
iG f rnforl nf0gurSvnf; taESmift
h ,Suaf y;vdrrhf nfr[kw[
f k
txif&cdS o
hJ nft
h wkid ;f ukum ;wHceG ?f za,mif;wkid t
f pkw
H jYdk zifh tay:xyfoYdk ylaZmf&eftvkiYd mS oGm;Muavawmh\/
xkcd P r[ef\
Y wynfrh sm;jzpfMuaom a*sygv*D&?f r[d`E* &D Ef iS w
hf jcm;aus;uRew
f u
Ydk yg pk&k ;Hk vmMujy;D vQif "rygv
tm; wm;jrpfMuavawmhonf/ "rygvonfvnf; Ak'bmom0ifwkdY\tjrwfqkH;jzpfaom t0dZ[dwXme&Sd y&d
abm*Mu;D \tay:xyfwiG f rxm;&[k [dEL wku
Yd wm;jrpfMuonfukd w&m;enf;vrf;usonf[k r,lqacs/ xkYd
aMumifh ylaZmfjrt
J wkid ;f ylaZmfaeav&m tqkyd g *D&rf sm;wko
Yd nf "rygv\vnfyif;udu
k idk u
f m wGe;f vSev
f u
dk jf y;D onfh
aemuf]]b'rmh&}fS } tp&So
d nfjzifh npfnrf;pGmqJqMdk urd ;f armif;Mujy;D vQif &kyw
f ak wmfuv
dk nf; tay:xyfrS atmuf
xyfoq
Ykd iJG ifcsvu
dk af vonf/ *syefAo
d u
k mq&mMu;D wk\
Yd taumif;qk;H aomvufp? vufersm;jzpfaom &kyyf mG ;awmf
crsmrSmvnf; wefc;dk jym#d[mawmf rjyEkid af wmhbJ olawmif;pm;ESi*hf s&;l 0gvukvm;? ukvm;rwd\
Yk usupf m;&mjzpf
aom aAm"dr@vtjyif0,f usdef;pufawmfrl&avawmhownf;/
"rygvtm; *,mjrKd U 'dpMww
d w
f &m;olMu;D rufzmqifu armfawmfum;jzihw
f ifaqmif,o
l mG ;&avonf/

w&m;pGJjyD
"rygv\w&m;pGJcsuft& *,m'dpMwdwfw&m;olMuD;rufzmqifu tdEd,&mZowf yk'fr 296-t&?
wpfbmomu wpfbmomukd taESmifht,Sufay;rI xif&Sm;aomaMumifh r[d`E*D&dADrmvfa'0*D&fESifha*sygv*D&f
wkt
Yd m; axmif'PfwpfvESi'hf PfaiGwpf&mpD uscaH p&ef? tu,f 'PfaiGwpf&mukd rxrf;aqmifEidk yf gu axmif
15-&ufpw
D ;dk uscaH p[ktrdecYf srw
S af vonf/ w&m;qk;H jzwfaomaeYrmS 1895-ckEpS ?f ZlvidI f 19-&ufaeYu t
14

rdefYcsrSwfvkdufavonf/ xkdokdYtrdefYcsrSwfonfukd rem,lvkd y#emjrdKUpuf&Sif&kH;awmf t,lcH0ifjyefav&m


axmif'Pfwpfvudk y,f 'PfaiGwpf&mpD ay;aqmif&ef? raqmifEidk u
f rufzmqif\trdet
Yf wkid ;f axmif'Pf
15-&ufpu
D scaH p&ef trdecYf srw
S cf ahJ vonf/ xko
d q
Ydk ;Hk jzwfcsuu
f v
kd nf; rauseyfEidk af o;aom r[efo
Y nf axmif
aygif;rsm;pGmaom aiGtojymrsm;udk oGe;f avmif;um umvuwm;jrKd U [ku
d u
f w
k &f ;Hk awmfoYkd t,lc0H ifavonf/
[kdufukwfw&m;olMuD; rpwmAefem*sDu r[efYonf rdrdykdifeufodkY0ifvmaomolukd ykdif&Sif\0w&m;twkdif;
twefwefwm;jrpfaomfvnf; rem,lvkdaom "rygv\t"rusL;ausmfrIaMumifh t"du&kPf;jzpfyGm;&um;
r[efYrSm tvsOf;tjypfr&Sd/ w&m;aovGwfap[k trdefYcsrSwfavonf/
(taMumif;udk rufzmqif\pmrsufESm100-ausmfcefYaom jzwfxkH;&SnfMuD;rSbmomjyefqkdvkdufonf)
tus,u
f o
kd v
d rdk l (Maha Boddhi Case)ac:pmtkyu
f zdk wf&MI uyguke/f /xkaYd Mumifh "rygv\tvky[
f l
orQrmS oJa&usjzpfc&hJ avonf/ um; uREyfk w
f v
Ydk ufxufwiG f jzpfymG ;cJah om t"du&kP;f rQomjzpf a&S;vGef
avjy;D aom umvwke;f u r[efw
Y o
Ydk nf Ak'b
momrsm;tay:wGif rnfrQapmfum;cJv
h rd rhf ,fqw
dk mudk pOf;pm;&ef
tcsufMuD;wpfckyif jzpfavonf/

vlxkbmom
tdE,
d jynfwiG f bmoma&;0g'rsm; acwfpm;cJph Ofu *,mpD&ifpo
k nf txl;pdw0f ifpm;zG,af umif;aom
ae&mwpfcktjzpfjzifh xif&Sm;cJhzl;\/ tokdYqkdrlum; u&kPmocif jzpfawmfrlaom a*gwr&Sifawmfbk&m;rSm
*,m'dpMww
d f Ak'* ,mjrKd UwGif yGiahf wmfrcl jhJ cif;aMumifh jzpfonf/ ok&Yd mwGif &omrsK;d pko
H if;ysUH xkaH om Ak'w
&m;awmf
onfum; *,me,fol? e,fom;wkdY\udk;uG,fqnf;uyfjcif;rS uif;a0;cJhayjyD/ ousrkedbk&m;&Sif\yGifhawmfrl
&mjzpfaom aAm"dyifawmfjrwfrmS vnf; *,me,fo?l e,fom;wkYd qnf;uyfaumfa&mfjcif;xuf Ekid if jH cm;Ak'b
mom
0ifwYdk ylaZmfyojcif;uko
d m cH,v
l su&f \
dS / Ak'w
&m;awmfonf *,mpD&ifpEk iS w
hf uG tdE,
d Ekid if aH wmfwpfavQmuf
vkH;wGif vlxkbmomjzpfcJhaomfvnf; ewfrdpmrsm;udk ukd;uG,fjcif;jzifh armuw&m;wkdYudk vkdvm;awmifhw
vsuf&SdMuukefaom vlrsKd;wpfrsKd;u EkdifxufuvljyKrI? zdESdyfcsKyfjc,frIwkdYaMumifh tat;qkH;aom Ak'w&m;a&mif
jcnfawmfMu;D rSm vk;H 0epfjrK yu
f ,
G yf oGm;&avonf/ ,cktcg *,mjrKd Uonf bmoma&;udpE iS phf yfvsO;f ta&;
MuD;aomjrdKUrsm;teuf wpfjrdKUtygt0ifjzpfavonf/ taMumif;qkdaomf AdEkd;yg'fac:aom ewfuGef;pifwGif
uG,v
f eG o
f b
l ;dk ab;rsm;udk &nfreS ;f tvSLay;um rnfonf'h *k w
b
d Hk yifusa&mufcpH m;ae&apumrl ok*wdbo
Hk Ydk
oGm;a&mufMuonf[k t,l&jdS cif;aMumifh jzpfonf/ xko
d t
Ydk ,l&jdS cif;udk q&'g[kac:onf/ Ak'b
momonf *,m
pD&ifpkajrmufydkif;wGif tvGefw&mpnfyifcJhaomfvnf; awmifbuftydkif;um; ysHUESHYcJhykHr&acs/ awmifbuf
tykid ;f onf xkpd Oftcgwke;f u awmMu;D om&Scd [
hJ efwo
l nf/ ajrmufbufyidk ;f vlO;D a&rSm enf;onfjzpfap? rsm;onf
jzpfap Ak'b
momwko
Yd mMu;D pk;d cJ[
h efw\
l / odEidk af vmufaomtcsurf mS um; r*"wkid ;f wGif Ak'b
momwkt
Ykd iftm;&Scd hJ
pOfu trsm;tjym; aqmufvyk v
f LS 'gef;cJah om ausmif;? uef? apwD? ykx;kd rsm;udk ae&mwumwGif awGU&S&d jcif;jzifh
odEkdifavonf/

[dELwkdY qnf;uyfykH
[dEL wko
Yd nf 0uf? Muuf? qdwf ponfwu
Ydk kd owfjzwf,Zfyal Zmfjcif;jzifh armuw&m;udk vkv
d m;Mu\/
Ak'bmomwkdY\tjrwfqkH;jzpfaom r[maAm"dyifatmufwGif xl;jcm;aomAdEkd;ajc&mwpfcka&mufaejcif;rSm
tvGex
f ;l qef;vS\/ ajc&mrSm Ak'* ,mjrKd U&Sd [dEL taqmufttkw
H w
Ydk iG f uk;d uG,af vh&adS om t&m0wKrsK;d jzpf
wpfOD;wpfa,mufu bmrSrqkdifaom aAm"dyifatmufcsxm;jcif;rSm Ak'ajc&mawmftjzpfvSnfhpm;vkdaom
aMumifh jzpfwef&monf/ Ak'& yk yf mG ;awmfrsm;udk rsm;pGmukeaf om ausmif;? uef? apwDtysut
f pD;wkrYd v
S nf;aumif;?
opfyifatmufrsm;rSvnf;aumif;? *,mpD&ifpk&Sd trsKd;rsKd;aomae&mwkdYrSvnf;aumif; wl;az:&xm;avonf/
xd&k yk w
f ak wmfrsm;udk [dEL wko
Yd nf AdEk;d ausmif; yDwvmausmif;wk\
Yd tpGe;f em;csxm;onfudk awGU&\/ wcsKUd w
av bk&m;OD;acgif;rsm;udk r[ma'0OD;acgif;tjzpfjzifh ukd;uG,fxm;Mu\/ &maygif;rsm;pGmaom apwDysufrsm;rS
oD0vdi&f yk rf sm;udv
k nf; &&S\
d / odv
Yk Qif vdirf sm;ukyd g apwDysurf sm;rS&&Sjd cif;? Ak'& yk yf mG ;awmfrsm;udk trsK;d rsK;d aom
15

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


[dELewfuGef;wkdYwGif wnfxm;onfukd axmuf&Ijcif;jzifh [dELwkdYonf Ak'bk&m;udk xm0pOfyif ukd;uG,fav
a&mhovm;[k ,kHrSm;oHo,&SdzG,f&m jzpf\/ olwkdYonf rnfonfhtcgrS vkdvm;cJhonfr[kwfaomaMumifh Ak'
bmomrif;qufrsm;jyKwfjyD;onfhaemuf olwkdYbmom0ifrif;rsm;vufxufwGif EkdifxufuvljyKum Xmyemxm;cJh
onf[k rpwmrmavu qkd\/ ,cktcg todtvdrmenf;yg;aom [dELtcsKdUu Ak'bk&m;ukdOD;csMuaomf
vnf; Ak'[laomtrSwfjzifhvnf;aumif;? Ak'bmom\xkH;wrf;t&jzifhvnf;aumif;? OD;csMuonfr[kwf/
ol w k d Y , k H M unf a om ewf r d p m rsm;tjzpf j zif h o m &S d c k d ; Mu\/
*,mpD&ifpkwGif&Sdaom ewfuGef;rsm;wGif xm;&SdjyD;jzpfaom &kyfyGm;awmfrsm;udk [dELwkdYonf [oFmjy'g;
okwjf cif;? Muuf? iSu?f qdwOf ;D acgif;rsm;udk yef;uk;H ozG,jf yKjy;D vnfyif;qGjJ cif;wkjYd zifh txufyga&;om;a0zefcsurf mS
vkaH vmufayjy/D Ak'* ,mtaMumif;ESiyhf wfouf trSeu
f kd xkwaf z:a&;&rnfqydk gu [dEL bk&m;ausmif;uefwo
Ydk Ykd
r0if&aomZmwfn[
hH Ed L wku
Yd om apwDawmfMu;D teD;aeolwt
Ydk jzpfjzifh uk;d uG,af vh&MdS uonf/ ,cktcgum; wa&GU
a&GUajymif;vGv
J suf &Sad csjy/D *,m'dpMww
d &f dS [dEL tcsKUd ESib
hf *FgvD[Ed L tcsKUd ajymqkad vh&o
dS nfrmS Ak'b
momonf
trd[dELbmomrS uGJxGufoGm;aom om;wpfbmomjzpf trd[dELbmomukd r,kHMunfrI? ykefuefrIwkdYaMumifh
tdEd,jynfwGifuG,fyoGm;&avonf/ [dELbmomum; ruG,fyao;/ 31-uka#aomvlwkdY\qnf;uyfckdvIHrIudk
cH,lvsuf&Sdao;aMumif;ponfjzifh ajymqkdavh&SdMu\/

tdEd,jynfwGif r[mar'ifjyefYyGm;&jcif;taMumif;
,cktcg tdE,
d ESiyhf gupwefjynfww
Ydk iG f rGwq
f vif 10-uka#cefY ysUH ESv
YH su&f o
dS nfukd awGU&S&d \/ EkdifiH
awmf b momtjzpf j zif h ud k ; uG , f q nf ; uyf c J h a om Ak ' b momMuD ; um; t&if ; tjrpf y grusef tpwk H ; av
cJhayjyD/ okdYuG,f&jcif;\taMumif;um; todkYenf;/ c&pf 600-avmufu rGwfqvifwpfOD;wpfa,mufrS
r&SdcJhaomtdEd,jynfwGif tb,faMumifh ,cktcg rGwfqvif 10-uka#&Sdaeygoenf;/ tm&yfjynfuyif
10-uk a #ygvma&mh o vm;[k ar;cG e f ; xk w f c J h y grl uREk f y f u m; od k Y a jzqk d & ayvd r f h r nf /
(1)
[dEL vlrsK;d wkrYd nDnw
G rf aI Mumifh tdE,
d jynfwnf;[laomqwfaumifMu;D udk pyg;Mu;D a>ryrmP&Sad om tm&yf
ESifhtmz*efjynfwkdYu rsKdoGwfcJhavonf/
(2)
c&pf 9-&mpkavmufup ,aeYtxd rGwfqvif 10-uka#aygufyGm;ae&jcif;rSm tm&yfjynfrSm tdrf
axmifpv
Hk ma&mufjy;D tdE,
d jynfwiG f arG;zGm;jcif;aMumifrh [kw/f tm&yfjynfrv
S ma&mufwu
dk cf u
dk cf phJ Ofu
olwrYdk mS rde;f r[l tvsO;f ryg[k qkEd idk pf &m&S\
d / ok&Yd mwGif rGwq
f vifrif;wko
Yd nf ESpaf ygif; 700-cefY
tdEd,jynfMuD;udkpkd;rkd;tkyfcsKyfMuav&m axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaomwkdif;wpfyg;om;rGwfqvifrsm;wkdYonf
[dELESifhAk'bmomrS &maxmifruaomtrsKd;orD;wkdYtm; rw&m;aomt"ry&d,m,ftrsKd;rsKd;jzifh tp
f iG Mf u;D
vmrfbmomodYk qGiJ ifoiG ;f cJjh y;D vQif ESpaf ygif; 700-cefY vlazmufomoemjyKvyk if ef;Mu;D udk wGiw
vkyfcJh&um; ,cktcg vlOD;a&tm;jzifh vl 10-uka#jzpfvm&avonf/

tpvmrfomoemjyKenf;
urmay:&Sd bmomtoD;oD;wkrYd S vlrsK;d toD;oD;wko
Yd nf rdrw
d \
Ydk ud;k uG,&f m omoemawmfMu;D xGe;f um;
pnfyifprd ahf omiSm jynfwiG ;f ? jynfyESpXf me omoemjyKvyk if ef;Mu;D udk txl;MuKd ;yrf;Muuke\
f / tpvmrfbmom
rSwpfyg; tjcm;aombmomwk\
Yd omoemjyKyrHk mS rdrw
d \
Ydk t,l0g'rsm;udk auseyfavmufatmif &Si;f vif;a[majym
jyjy;D rS oabmayguf vkv
d m;aomyk*K v
d rf sm;udk rdrw
d u
Ydk ;kd uG,&f m bmomMu;D xJoYkd oGwo
f iG ;f Muukeo
f nf/ odaYk omf
vnf; tpvmrfbmom0ifw\
Ydk omoemjyKyu
Hk m; xku
d o
hJ rYkd [kwaf y/ rGwq
f vifwpfO;D wpfa,mufu wjcm;bmom
0if rde;f rwpfO;D tm; wpfcck ak omenf;y&d,m,fjzifh cspMf uKd uaf tmifo,
G af qmifjy;D r,m;tjzpford ;f ydu
k af vh&o
dS nf/
xkrd ed ;f rrS aygufzmG ;vmaomom;orD;wku
Yd kd orD;rde;f rjzpfcrhJ l rGwq
f viftppfEiS v
hf ufxyf om;a,musmf ;jzpfygu
xkrd ed ;f r\tEG,jf zpfaom rde;f rESiyhf if vufxyfavh&\
dS / vk&d if;udak &;om;&rnfqykd grl rGwq
f vifomoemjyKenf;
udk vlazmufomoemjyKqkdygu rSm;Ekdifrnfr[kwfay/ tdEd,jynfMuD; ESpfaygif; 700-avmuftkyfcsKyfcJhaom
rGwq
f vifwo
Ydk nf az:jyygenf;jzifh omoemjyKcahJ v&m ,cktcg rGwq
f vifaygif; 10-uka#jzpfvm&avonf/
16

ukd&efusrf;MuD; yg&SdonfrSm a,musfm;wkdYrSm vufxyfxdrf;jrm;tyfaom r,m;jzpfap? todrf;tajrmifjzpfap


av;a,muf,&l ef tcGijhf yKonf/ ok;H Murd w
f idk w
f idk f uGm&Si;f jy;D aom r,m;ukrd l aemufxyfr,l&awmhacs/ ok&Yd mwGif
tjcm;a,musmf ;wpfa,mufonf xkrd ed ;f rukd vufxyfxrd ;f jrm; umrpyf,u
S jf y;D onfah emuf uGm&Si;f vQif yxr
vifMu;D onf olrtm; xyfro
H rd ;f ydu
k Ef idk jf yefavonf/ (Mu;D us,af omtjypfwpfpw
Hk pf&mr&Sb
d J uGm&Si;f jcif; rjyK
Ekdif&ef okdYynwfxm;[efvuPm &Sdonf/)
tv m onf rk d [ mruf o d k Y t xl ; ay;tyf x m;aom pyg,f & S , f y g0gum; vuf x yf r ,m;jzpf a p?
tacsmifr,m;jzpfap? ta&twGufr&Sd vkdoavmuf,lEkdifaomtcGifh? rdrdESifhtwl r,m;wkdYtdyftyfaom
tvS n f h u d k oabm&S d o vk d j yif q if a jymif ; vG J E k d i f a omtcG i f h ? uG m &S i f ; jyD ; onf h a emuf j zpf a p aoqk H ; jyD ; onf h
aemuf j zpf a p? rd r d r ,m;uk d ol w pf y g;r,l & aomtcG i f h ? tcG i f h ( 3)yg;ud k tv m onf rd k [ mruf o d k Y t yf
ES i f ; avonf [ l \ /

acwfrDaom tpvmrfw&m;awmf
Ak'*,mESifh[dELwkdY\tjzpftysufukd uREkfyfodoavmuf a&;om;az:jycJhavjyD/ wpfzef qufvuf
Ak'* ,mESirhf [mar'ifw\
Ydk tjzpftysurf sm;udk uREyfk \
f &SmazGpak qmif;xm;aom om"u,kwrd sm;jzifh ud;k um;um
a&;om;vdkayao;onf/ [dELbmom0ifwdkYonf Ak'&Sifawmftm; ewfrdpmrsm;wkdYuJhodkY tpGJtjrJr,kHMunf[k
qkd&jim;vnf; Ak'bk&m;tm;&Sdckd;EkdifMuao;\/ Ak'w&m;awmfukd a[majymjyornfhyk*Kdvfrsm;vnf; &SdwwfMu
ao;onf/ ud;k uG,yf ?Hk qnf;uyfycHk si;f vnf; wlEidk o
f avmuf wlMu\/ odaYk omf tpvmrfbmom0ifrw
G q
f vif
vlrsK;d wkt
Yd zku
Yd m; Ak'& yk yf mG ;awmfrmS opfw;Hk ? ausmufw;Hk avmufom t"dyg ,f&\
dS / apwD? ykx;dk ponft
h aqmuf
ttkrH sm;udv
k nf; ausmufyHk tkwyf aHk vmufom oabmxm;Mu\/ tb,faMumifq
h adk omf 0dnmOfuif;aombk&m;?
apwD? ykx;dk rsm;ukd uk;d uG,q
f nf;uyfjcif;jzifh tusK;d r&d/S ud;k uG,o
f u
l v
dk nf; aus;Zl;rjyKEidk ?f ud;k uG,o
f o
l mvQif
aus;Zl;jyK&onf[k ,lqMuonfhtjyif igwkdY&SifawmfxG#fxm;jrwfpGmbk&m;\ a[mMum;>rufabmf w&m;awmf
ukdvnf; pme,fZif;ESifh'@m&D0wKrsm;om av;eufonf[k ,lqMuonf/ if;wkdYouf0if,kHMunfaom w&m;
awmfum; rk[
d mrufac: tm&yfjynfom;wpfO;D tm; xm0&bk&m;ck'd gt&Siu
f ay;tyfcahJ om ]]uk&ef}}}usr;f pmtkyf
wpftyk w
f nf;omjzpf\/ Ak'0 g't&tm;jzifv
h nf;aumif; [dEL 0g't&tm;jzifv
h nf;aumif;? 'ge oDv ponfwu
Ydk kd
tm;xkwq
f nf;yl;u aumif;&mok*wdb0odaYk &muf ygPmwdygw tp&So
d nft
h ukov
dk w
f &m;udk tm;xkwu
f sL;
vGefaomolwkdYrSm raumif;aom'k*wdbkHb0okdY usa&mufMu&onf qkd\/ okdYaomf rGwfqvifw&m;awmfum;
xkduJhodkYr[kwf? EGm;MuD;wpfaumifudk pm;vkdaompdwfjzifh owfjzwf (wpf&m)aomyk*KdvfwkdYtm; 0jzdK;aptHh/
EGm;owform;tzdYk EGm;owfjcif;wnf;[laom raumif;usK;d tukov
dk u
f u
H rnO;f qJEidk (f 0g)tjypfrxku
d f ta[m
oduo
H mvQif jzpf\/ tMuifoo
l nf tvmocif\EIwcf ygXfawmfjzpfaom uk&efusr;f udk r,kMH unfjim;tH?h xko
d \
l
oPmef&Sad om rsupf ?d em;? ESmacgif;paom z'Gg&ajcmufyg;wko
Yd nfvnf; wefz;dk r&Su
d ek /f xkaYd Mumifh tpvmrf
bmom0ifwpfOD;u if;\ZD0defudk acRvkdufjcif;jzifh tjypfr&Sd/
uk&efusr;f Mu;D vm&Sjd yefao;onfrmS tvmudrk ,kMH unfaomolwt
Ydk m;ppfwu
dk jf cif;onf Mu;D aomtusK;d &Sd
\/ r[mrufbmomMuD;yGm;a&;twGufjzpfaom ppfyGJwGif usqkH;aomrGwfqvifvlrsKd;wkdYonf aumif;uifbkH
cHpm;&vwUH / xku
d o
hJ Ydk oabm&Sad om ppfyrJG sK;d wpfaeYwu
dk jf cif;onf ESpv
f ywfv;Hk 0ga&Smifjcif;xuftusK;d Mu;D \/
wyfrx
S u
G af jy;jcif;? wku
d cf u
dk &f ef jiif;qefjcif;? ppfp&dwaf iGaxmufy&hH ef jiif;qefjcif;wko
Yd nf Mu;D av;aomtjypf&dS
\[l yg&Sad vonf/
tpvmrfbmom0iftaygif;wkdY\ wpftkyfwnf;aompmwpfapmifwnf;aomusrf;jzpfaom(0g) bmom
w&m;\0dnmOf[kqkdtyfaom uk&efusrf;MuD;wGif uJhokdY pdwf"gwfudkwuf<uap&ef vIHYaqmfvsufxm;&um;
r[mrufbmom0ifwo
Ydk nf tjcm;bmomrsm;ESiw
hf u
dk cf u
dk Mf u&m tb,frmS omvQif tukov
kd t
f rIukd aMumuf&UG H
Ekdifygawmhrnfenf;/ (um; acwfrDaom tpvmrfw&m;awmfwnf;/)
17

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D

Ak'* ,mudk rGwq


f vifwYdk zsuq
f D;ykH
E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

(Mr.L.S.S.O Malley' I.C.S Bengal District Gazetteer chapter V. Page No.26)wGifyg&Sdaom

Ak'* ,mESirhf [mar'ifw\


Ydk tjzpftysuu
f kd 0rf;enf;pGmjzifah &;om;az:jy&ayth/hH ]]c&pfou&mZf 1193-ckEpS w
f iG f
rk[
d mrufbwfw,
D mcdv*saD c:rGwq
f vifppfAv
dk Mf u;D onf r*"wkid ;f ac:bD[me,fukd odr;f ydu
k cf ahJ vonf/ bwfwD
,mcdv*sq
D o
dk nfrmS tdE,
d jynfMu;D udk a&S;OD;pGmvma&mufwu
dk cf u
dk cf ahJ om rk[
d mrufa*:&Dac: tmz*efppfAv
dk cf sKyf
Mu;D \Akv
d rf LS ;wpfa,mufjzpf ol\wm0efrmS bD[me,fukd wku
d cf u
dk &f ef jzpfavonf/ tjcm;Akv
d rf LS ;wpfa,muf
\trnfrSm rkd[mrufukwfbG'defjzpf ol\wm0efrSmum; ,lyDe,fudk wkdufckduf&ef jzpfonf/
olwEYdk pS af ,mufpvk;H vufatmufcpH pfom;aygif; 6000-cefu
Y kd tkycf sKy&f avonf/ rk[
d mrufbwfw,
D m
cdv*sED iS ahf emufyg rGwq
f vifppfom;wko
Yd nf *,m'dpMww
d &f dS vlaygif;ajrmufrsm;pGmwku
Yd kd owfjzwfv,
k ufjy;D vQif
uk;d uG,&f mtaqmufttkaH ygif;rsm;pGmwku
Yd v
kd nf; zsuq
f ;D ypfav&m xkt
d xJwiG f Ak'* ,mjrKd Uay:&St
d aqmufttkw
H Ydk
yg0ifavonf/ 1193-ckESpf? rwfvwGif olwkdYonf ppfom;aygif; 2000-cefYESifhAk'*,mjrdKUodkYvma&mufum
ausmif;paom taqmufttkw
H t
Ydk m; rD;&IUd jcif;? vk,ufjcif;? &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; "g;? vSpH aom vufeufwjYdk zifh
owfjzwfjcif;? &maygif;rsm;pGmaom apwDyx
k ;kd wku
Yd v
kd nf; &uf&ufpufpuf zsuq
f ;D jcif;? ajrykcH si;f ra&wGuEf idk f
avmufatmif rsm;jym;vSaom &kyw
f ak wmfrsm;tm; &ku
d cf sK;d jcif;? ajcaxmufEiS ehf if;jcif;? ausmufuefjcif; odv
Yk Qif
&ufpufMurf;MuKwpf mG zsuq
f ;D av&um; "g;? vSv
H ufeufrS vGwaf om&[ef;awmftcsKUd rSm wdAufjynf eDaygvfjynf
ESifhtdEd,jynfawmifydkif;odkY wdrf;a&SmifoGm;Mu&&Smavonf/ bD[me,fwGif vltrsm;qkH;ckdukd;&mjzpfaom Ak'
bmomonf bwfw,
D mcdv*s\
D "g; oefvsuf rD;paom vufef ufwjYdk zifh toufaysmufc&hJ avonf/ axmifaygif;
rsm;pGmaom&[ef;oHCmawmfrsm;vnf; ysHvGefawmfcJh&&Smavonf/}}
pmrsufESm 55-wGif a&;om;xm;jyefonfrSm...]]c&pf 12-&mpkukefcgeD;wGif r*"wkdif;olwkdif;om;wkdY
\ukd;uG,f&memxjzpfaom oHCmawmft&SifjrwfwkdYrSm vkH;pkHuG,fcJhjyDjzpf&m wkdif;MuD;wpfavQmufwGif awmMuD;
aovm[dr0EmuJo
h Ykd qdwjf ird v
f su&f adS vonf/ r*"wkid ;f wpfcv
k ;Hk ukd awmufajymifapcJah om omoemta&mif
awmfonfvnf; vuG,af eY nOfo
Y ef;acgifausmt
f csed u
f o
hJ Ykd trdu
k t
f arSmiftwd zk;H tkyv
f su&f adS wmhonf/ &[ef;
&Siv
f t
l aygif;wk\
Yd pk&;Hk 0wfjyK&mjzpfaom ausmif;? uef? apwD? ykx;dk ? "rm&kpH onfwrYdk mS vnf; jymykt
H wdjzpfjy;D vQif
wkid ;f jynfcadk tmif; vltaygif;wkt
Yd m; aomuvIu
d v
f JS 0rf;enf;pzG,af umif;aom tjcif;t&mudk jyovsu&f &dS m
Oygoum OygouDrtaygif;wkrYd mS ,lMuK;H r& rsu&f nfrsm;yif wjzKd ijf zKd iw
f pufpuf usc&hJ &Smukeaf wmhownf;/
rGwfqvifvufatmufokdY usa&mufMu&&Smaom r*"wkdif;oltacsmtvSwkdYukdvnf; rGwfqvifppfom;wkdYu
oabmusa&T;,ljyD;vQif twif;t"rtpvmrfbmomodkY qGJoGif;Muavukefonf/ tvkdqErwlbJESifhumr*kPf
pnf;pdrfudk jrdefjrdef&Suf&SufMuD; cHpm;Muavukefonf/}}
rpwma*s-pD ausmuf"l&D\Am&w 0&oQwd[mqJac:pmtkyf pmrsufESmeHygwf 123-wGifum; odkY
a&;om;xm;jyef\/
]]r*"wkdif;MuD;udk 3-Mudrfwkdifatmif rGwfqvifwkdY0ifa&mufwkdufckdufcJh\/ 1193- ckESpfwGif rkd[mruf
bwfw,
D mcdv*so
D nf ajcvsuw
f yf? jrif;wyf? &xm;wyf? ukvm;tkww
f yfwjYdk zifh 0ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
dk af v&m r*"wkid ;f
awmifbuftykid ;f udk vG,u
f pl mG atmifjrifc
hJ rsm;pGmukeaf om vl? &Si&f [ef;wkt
Yd m; owfjzwfjcif;? vk,ufjcif;
olawmfpiftaygif;wdYk ude;f atmif;&mjzpfonfh ausmif;ocFr;f paom taqmufttkw
H u
Ydk zkd suq
f ;D jcif;? trsKd ;orD;
rsm;tm; rk'drf;usifhjcif; uJhodkY &uf&ufpufpuf aomif;usef;arTaESmufMuukefonf&Sdaomf 1195-ckESpfwGif
a&T? aiGb@majrmufrsm;pGmwku
Yd v
kd ,
k jl y;D tdE,
d jynfajrmufbuf&dS 'ufuif;e,foYdk jyefomG ;Muavonf/ wkid ;f jynf
udk rnforYdk nfyt
Hk yk cf sKy&f ef[al om Oya'pnf;rsO;f wpfpw
Hk pfcu
k rdk Q ra&;qGcJ ahJ cs/ xkaYd Mumifh ppfyu
JG kd pD;yGm;a&;
taMumif;cHaom ppfy[
JG q
k t
dk yfygayownf;/ &mZj*Kd [?f emvE? yg#vdyw
k jf rKd Ursm;okYd ra&mufcahJ o;/ Ak'* ,m
taqmufttkw
H rYdk mS um; tcsed t
f cgwke;f uyif yg0ifco
hJ jzifh ysupf ;D jcif;odaYk &mufMuayjy/D Ak'* ,mudk zsuq
f ;D
pOfu bwfw,
D mcdv*s\
D ppfom;aygif;rsm;pGmwkrYd mS umva&m*g? ausmufa&m*g? ykvyd af &m*gwkaYd Mumifh r&IrvS
aoaMuysufpD;Muonfqkd\/ xkdokYd aoaMuysufpD;onfukdyif bwfwD,mcdv*sDum; aMumuf&GHUjcif;r&Sdao;/
a*gwrbk&m;ukd qkH;rrIaMumifh ig\ppfom;aygif;rsm;pGm r&IrvSaoaMu&avjyD/ xkdYaMumifh a*gwronf
vlowfb&k m;jzpfomjzpfonf[k pGypf u
JG m ppfom;wk\
Yd tavmif;tcsKUd udk Ak'* ,mjrKd U&Sad usmif;&m apwD&mwkw
dY iG f
18

jrK yEf jHS y;D tcsKUd udk Ak'* ,mESi*hf ,mtMum;odYk ,laqmifjy;D vQif apwD? ykx;kd rsm;rS ausmuftw
k w
f jYdk zifh t&k;d *lAvDrsm;
aqmufxm;cJhavonf/
xkdYaMumifh 1193-ckESpfudk bD[me,fawmifykdif;&Sd Ak'bmom0if&[ef;&SifvlwkdY\aoG;pufrsm; ajr
ay:odkYuscJh&aom ESpfou&mZf[l rSwf,lMu&ayrnf/ Ak'bmom&[ef;awmfrsm;rS ,dkpD;cJh&aom rsuf&nf
pufEiS ahf oG;pufwu
Ydk m; Ak'* ,majrMu;D wpfcv
k ;Hk udek jD ref;pGwpf adk pavonf/ axmifaomif;ruaom bk&m;? ausmif;?
apwDyx
k ;kd wkrYd mS vnf; tErd b0oku
Yd sa&mufum jyKpak pmifah &Smufrnfh 'g,umrsm;ESiu
hf if;a0;Mu&avonf/ Ak'
&Siaf wmfb&k m;\bk&m;tjzpfoYdk a&muf&adS wmfr&l m t0dZ[dwXmeMu;D wpfcyk if jzpfvifu
h pm; ocFg&"rpufuiG ;f rS
rvGwu
f if;Ekid o
f jzifh uJo
h Ykd rGwq
f vifw\
dYk "g; oefvsupf aom vufeufwjYkd zifh ysupf ;D jcif;odYk a&muf&ygwum;[k
oHa0*,lMuyguke/f taMumif;twKyw
u
d kd xkwaf z:um a&;om;vku
d &f aom uREyfk o
f nf ,cka&;qJaomcP
yifvQif tcJraMujzpfr\
d / aMuuG0J rf;enf;rdyg\/ Ak'b
mom0if olawmfpiftaygif;wkt
Yd zdYk txl;emusn;f zG,f
aumif;vSawmh\/
'kwd,wpfzef tqkdyg bwfwD,mcdv*sDonf c&pf 1197-ckESpf? Zefe0g&DvwGif r*"aejynfawmfodkY
0ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
dk jf yefav&m a&S;uuJo
h yYkd if [dEL ESiAhf 'k b
momESp&f yfpvk;H udk zsuq
f ;D jyefavonf/ wwd,tMurd f
1199-ckESpfwGif r[mrufukwfbG'defonf yg#vdykwf? Ama*gvfyl&fpaom bD[me,fajrmufbuf&Sd jrdKUrsm;rS
0ifa&mufwkdufckdufjyefav&m yg#vdykwf? emvE? &mZj*dK[fpaom e,frsm;&Sd bk&m;taqmufttkHaygif;rsm;pGm
wkdYESifh &[ef;awmfaygif;rsm;pGmwkdYtm; owfjzwfzsufqD;av&m emvefrxlEkdifatmif ysufpD;&avawmhownf;/
ou&mZf r*"wkid ;f ac:bD[me,fMu;D rSm rGwq
f vifwv
Ydk ufatmufoYkd vk;H pku
H sa&muf&avawmhonf/
if;ukwfbG'defonfyifvQif bD[me,fwpfckvkH;ukd yGJOD;xGufbk&ifcHtjzpfjzifh tkyfcsKyfcJhavonf/ (rnfokdYrnfykH
zsuq
f ;D cJo
h nfqw
dk mudk yg#vdyw
k ?f bD[m? emvEEiS &hf mZj*Kd [t
f aMumif;rsm;udk bmomjyefxm;aom pmtkyf
aemufykdif;wGif zwf&IMuygukef/)

[dELvnf; roufom
(1) rGwfqvifwkdYonf Ak'bmomudkomvQif zsufqD;cJh [dELbmomudk rxdcJhygovm;/
(2) tdE,
d jynfwiG f Ak'b
momESi[
hf Ed L bmom[l bmomMu;D 2-bmom &Scd yhJ gvsuf [dEL bmom ruG,yf bJ
bmaMumifh Ak'b
momonfomvQif uG,yf av&oenf;/
(3) Ak'b
momawG b,fudk a&mufomG ;ovJ/
uJhokdY ar;cGef;xkwfcJhvQif uREkfyf okdYajzqkd&ayrnf/
(1) rGwfqvifwkdYonf Ak'ESifh[dELESpfbmompvkH;udk trSefpifppf zsufqD;cJhonf/
(2) Ak'o
moem uG,yf &jcif;rSm omoemawmf\ 0dnmOfozG,jf zpfaom &[ef;awmfrsm; tpwk;H cJ&h jcif;aMumifh
omoemuG,yf &avonf/ [dEL omoemjyKrsm;jzpfaom jA[PykPm ;wku
Yd m; tnTerYf wk;H cJ?h tikwrf Quse&f dS
cJjh cif;aMumifh [dEL omoemruG,yf bJ ,ckxd wnfjrv
J su&f adS o;\/
(3) Ak'bmom0ifwkdYonf teD;uyfqkH;jzpfaom [dELbmomodkY ul;ajymif;oGm;cJh rdef;racsm rdef;rvSrsm;tm;
rGwq
f vifwu
Ydk vlazmufomoemjyK&ef rdrw
d rYkd [mar'ifbmomokYd twif;t"r qGo
J iG ;f ojzifh ygoGm;&
&Smavonf/
tus,u
f kd odapOD;tH.h ..omoemqko
d nfrmS trnfrQom&S
d toufr&Sad om t0dnmPuemrynwf
Mu;D wpfcjk zpf omoemudk jyKpak pmifah &Smufrnfyh *k K v
d rf sm;&Srd o
S mvQif wnfjrEJ idk rf nf/ pnfyifEidk af yrnf/ omoem
awmf pnfyifjyefyY mG ;a&;? Mumjrifph mG wnfjrEJ idk &f efrmS omoemh0n
d mOfozG,f jzpfaom&[ef;awmfrsm;onf tvGef
ta&;Mu;D vS\/ omoemawmftxJ&dS w&m;awmftqDtESpw
f o
Ydk nf omoemjyKy*k K v
d t
f ay: wnf&rnf/ omoem
jyKy*k K v
d \
f a[mMum;>rufaz:w&m;awmfonf omoemawmfukd rSw
D if;cdv
k MHI uukeaf om vlw\
Ydk tay:wnf&rnf/
odrYk o
S mvQif omoemawmfMu;D vnf; pnfyifEidk rf nf/ jyefyY mG ;Ekid rf nf/ Mumjrifph mG wnfjrEJ idk rf nfjzpf\/ tMuiftcg
omoemawmfMuD;\wHcg;rSL;ESifhwlaom &[ef;awmfrsm; r&SdtHh/ omoemawmfudk rSDwif;ckdvIHMuukefaom vl
wko
Yd nfvnf; w&m;awmfwnf;[laomusiphf OfrS csKUd ,Gi;f vwUH / vpf[if;Muukev
f wUH / xku
d o
hJ Ykd csKUd ,Gi;f vpf[if;
19

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


Muukefonf&Sdaomf rSDckd&mukdif;uRef;ozG,fjzpfaom omoemawmfjrwfMuD;rSm qkwf,kwfokOf;zsif;vm tqkH;
uG,fjcif;okdY a&muf&ayrnf/
Oyrm - [dEL omoemwnfwahH &;twGuf jAm[PykPm ;wko
Yd nf tvGet
f a&;Mu;D aomyk*K v
d rf sm;jzpfMu
onf/ taMumif;qkrd l [dEL bmom\tqDtESpjf zpfaom a0'usr;f ? aZmwdusr;f ? Oyedousr;f ? eDwu
d sr;f ? uAsm
vuFmusr;f wko
Yd nf trsm;tm;jzifh olw\
Ydk oEmefom wnfMuonf/ tpvmrfbmomwnfwahH &;onf armfv0D
ac:yk*K v
d w
f t
Ydk ay:wnf\/ taMumif;qkad omf tpvmrfbmom0ifw\
Ydk wpftyk w
f nf;aompm? wpfapmifwnf;
aomusr;f qkt
d yfao uk&efac: ormusr;f pmrSm olwt
Ydk ay:om trsm;qk;H wnf\/ c&pf,mefbmom0ifwt
Ydk zdYk
(father) ac:omoemjyKwo
Ydk nf ta&;Mu;D aomyk*K v
d rf sm;jzpf\/ xdx
k o
dk aYdk om bmomwkdY xkx
d o
dk aYdk om omoem
jyKrsm;r&dScJhjim;tHh/ tcsdefumv tenf;i,ftwGif;yifvQif uG,fyoGm;vdrfhrnf/
uREkfyfwkdYAk'bmomrsm;tzkdY omoem0dnmOfozG,fjzpfaom &[ef;awmfwkdYonf ta&;MuD;qkH;jzpfonf/
tb,faMumifq
h adk omf okw?f 0denf;? tbd"rm[kqt
dk yfaom yd#uwfo;Hk ykrH mS &[ef;awmfw\
Ydk tay:om trsm;
qk;H wnfvsu&f \
dS / 'gwGirf uao;yJ 0dyembm0emyGm;rI? pmayusr;f *efoifMum;rI? rdpm 0g'DoabmokYd ouf0if
aeaomolukd orm0g'Djzpfvmatmif a[mMum;rI tp&So
d nfwo
Ydk nf uREyfk w
f u
Ydk o
hJ aYkd om&[ef;awmfw\
Ydk wm0ef
yifjzpfb\
d / tusO;f tm;jzifh a&;rnfqv
dk Qif omoemawmfukd pnfyifjyefyY mG ;atmif aqmif&u
G &f rnfyh *k K v
d rf sm;rSm
&[ef;awmfrsm;yif jzpfonf[k qkdvkd\/

[dELbkef;MuD;ESifhAk'bmombkef;MuD;
C&m0go tdr&f mwnfaxmifru
I kd rpif? wHawG;ayguforQ &H&G mS jy;D &[ef;tjzpf&&Sv
d maom Ak'b
mom
omoem0efxrf;&Si&f [ef;wdrYk mS jrwfpmG bk&m;&Si\
f ynwfawmfjzpfaom 0denf;a'oemawmfEiS t
hf nD zef&nfpeG ;f
aomjrwfouFef;udkom 0wf&kH&um; tdrf&mwnfaxmifaom tm*g&duvl'um? 'umrwkdY0wfqifykHESifh txl;
wvnf uGmjcm;vsuf&Sd&m b,fae&mb,fa'oyif oGm;vmEkdifapumrlvnf; qifay:rSm tvHvTifhouJhodkY
xif&mS ;ay:vGiMf u\/ taetxkid rf mS vnf; vl'umrsm;ESiahf &maESm raetyfjcif;aMumifh ausmif;? uef? vkP
d *f l
wkYd om aexkid af vh&jdS yef&m t&m&mwGif uGmjcm;vsu&f \
dS / odaYk omf [dEL ykPm ;wkdY 0wfpm;aexkid yf EHk iS v
hf o
l mrefwYdk
\0wfpm;aexkid yf rHk mS um; wpfpm;wnf;yifjzpf xl;jcm;jcif; r&Sv
d aS y/ vlomrnuJo
h yYkd if "kw?D vkcH sn?f abmif;bD
wkdYudk 0wfqifEkdif\/ vlomrnuJhodkYyif om;r,m;? tdk;tdrftwnfwusESifhumr*kPf\pnf;pdrfudk jrdef&SufpGm
ok;H aqmifcpH m;Ekid \
f / ukeo
f ,
G jf cif;? v,fvyk jf cif;? rif;rIxrf;jcif;ESiw
hf &m;"r a[mMum;rIwu
dYk v
dk nf;jyKvyk Ef idk \
f /
xkaYd Mumifh [dEL bke;f Mu;D ac:ykPm ;wk\
Yd b0udk bk&m;vnf;zl;? vdyOf vnf;wl;&aomb0[k ac:qku
d rSm;Ekid rf nf
r[kwaf y/ ykPm ;ESiyhf P
k m ;r[kwo
f w
l \
Ydk xl;jcm;aomoauFwrSm ykPm ;wd\
Yk ud,
k w
f iG f csnpf vG,yf g ykPm ;r[kwf
olwkdYrSm rygjcif;rQomjzpf\/ if;pvG,fi,fonfvnf; ukd,fcEmtwGif; t0wfjzifhzkH;tkyfvsuf&Sdav&m wkdif;
wpfyg;om;wkdYtzkdY ykPm;ESifhykPm;r[kwfoludk cGJjcm;odEkdifzkdY&m tawmfyifcJ,Of;ayrnf/
c&pf 1193-ckEpS w
f iG f r*"e,fawmifyikd ;f odYk 0ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
dk cf ahJ om rk[
d mrufbwfw,
D mcdv*sD trSL;
&Sdaom rGwfqvifppfom;wkdYonf vlomrefwkdYudk owfjzwfnOf;qJonfxuf bmom\0dnmOfozG,fjzpfaom
[dEL ykPm ;wkEdY iS Ahf 'k & [ef;awmfwu
Ydk o
kd m tpaysmufow
k o
f ifcahJ vonf/ *,mjrKd U&Sd AdoQe*kP
d ;f 0ifyP
k m ;rsm;tm;
tpaysmufokwfoifcJhjyD;onfhaemuf AdoQeyg'frEd&ac: bk&m;&Sdckd;ausmif;MuD;tm; rGrGaMuatmif zsufqD;jcif;?
ppfwuf&mXmewkdif; ra&rwGufEkdifavmufaom pvG,fESifhykPm;wkdYtm; owfjzwfjcif;? trsKd;orD;rsm;tm;
rk'rd ;f usijhf cif;? rGwq
f vifwpfa,mufvQif ykaP;r 3^4a,muf us,jl cif;? tkrd if;rpGr;f jzpf t&G,v
f eG af eojzifh
om;orD;r&Ekdifonfh ykaP;rrsm;ukd owfjzwfjcif;? okdYvQif &ufpufMurf;MuKwfpGm owfjzwfMuav&m ra&
rwGufEkdifavmufaomykPm;wkdYonfvnf; aoaMuysufpD;jcif;odkY a&mufMu&avukef\/ &maxmifruaom
ykaP;rwkdYonfvnf; rGwfqvifr,m;rsm;b0okdY usa&mufMu&&Smavonf/ uJhodkY aoaMuysufpD;jcif;rsm;
vwfaomf pvG,w
f pfyifujdk yum igwkjYd Am[PrsK;d a[h ponfjzifh Zmwftm;jzifh *kP,
f al vh&w
dS wfaomykPm ;wko
Yd nf
vnf; Zmwf\jrifhjrwfjcif;ukd rjyEkdifawmhbJ pvG,frsm;udkcRwfum omrnvltoGifjzifh ykef;a&Smifum aeMu
&avawmhonf/ xkaYd Mumifh ykPm ;wpfrsK;d vk;H um; tqufrjyKwcf ?hJ <uif;useo
f avmuf <uif;use&f pfjcif;aMumifh
,cktxd [dEL omoemwdraf umroGm;bJ 35-uka#avmufaom [dEL vlrsK;d wk\
Yd rScD &dk m udik ;f uRe;f ozG,f jzpfvsuf
20

&Sad vonf/ xkpd Oftcgu ykPm ;wpfrsK;d vk;H om jyKe;f wD;cJrh nfqydk gu [dEL omoemMu;D ,ckvw
dk nfwv
hH suaf eEkid rf nf
r[kwfay/ Ak'omoemuJhodkYyif uG,fyoGm;ayrnf/
Ak'b
mombke;f awmfMu;D wkrYd mS rlum; olwu
dYk o
hJ Ydk vl0wfaMumifuv
kd jJ y;D toGiaf zsmuf aexkid &f ef tawmfyif
cJ,Of;vS\/ &[ef;awmfwo
Ydk nf vl0wfaMumifukd vJ&rHk Qjzifh odum rusEidk [
f o
k &d adS omfvnf; ,if;acwftcgwke;f u
oHCmawmft&Sijf rwfwrYkd mS ,ckacwf oHCmawmft&Sijf rwfwx
Ydk uf qwufxrf;yd;k ydrk
dk t,lonf;wwfMuonf/
0denf;odum yk'af wmfuv
dk nf; omvGe
f aMumuf&UHG &kad oMu\/ ao;i,faomv[kutmywfyifjzpfapumrl oifrh d
u yg&mZduwrQ &dak ojy;D t,lw&m;onf;vSaom oHCmawmfwo
Ydk nf rGwq
f vifwYdk owfjzwfonfw
h idk af tmif
vl0wfaMumifudkvJum ukd,fazsmufrcHMuawmhbJ r&PmEkwdur|mef;pD;jzef;vsufyif aoyGJ0ifMu&&Smav
ukeaf wmhownf;/ yg&rDEek ,faomoHCmawmftcsKUd rSmvnf; vlxu
G Mf u&avonf/ rGwq
f vifwo
Ydk nfvnf; 0g0g
jriforQ tqD;twm;r&Sd owfjzwfMuav&m oHCmawmf[o
l rQ jrLrQrusef ysv
H eG af wmfr&l &Smavonf/ ukov
kd af &;?
'gea&;ponfww
Ykd iG f rygvQirf jy;D tvGet
f a&;Mu;D aom oHCmawmfrsm; tpwk;H jyjD zpf&um; use&f cdS o
hJ 'l g,um
'g,dumrwkdYrSm wjznf;jznf; [dELbmomodkY trsm;qkH;ouf0ifoGm;jyD;vQif wcsKdUwavrSm rGwfqvifwkdY\
enf;y&d,m,ftrsKd;rsKd;jzifh tpvmrfbmomokdY oGwfoGif;jcif;udk cHMu&&Smavonf/

bmaMumifh rGwfqvifawG 0ifvm&ovJ


tdEd,jynfonf w&kwfjynfMuD; csefvSyf urmay:wGif vlOD;a&tm;jzifh t<u,f0qkH;aom EkdifiHMuD;
wpfEkdifiHjzpfygvsufESifh tb,faMumifh rGwfqvifvufatmufodkYusa&muf&oenf;[lrlum; [oQ0'eoDvm
'dMwrif;Mu;D ewf&mG pHjy;D onfah emuf c&pf 7-&mpkavmufwiG f Ekid if aH wmfwpfcv
k ;Hk udk pd;k rd;k tkycf sKyEf idk af om rif;aumif;
rif;jrwfr&SdawmhjyD/ wpfjrdKUwpfe,f? wpfjynfwpfrif;qkdovkd tcsif;csif;uGJjym;vsuf&Sd&m apmfbGm;aygif; 400ausmcf efjY zpfomG ;avonf/ xkad pmfbmG ;rsm;teuf ajrmufbuf uo&D ? odEK ? umaemZft*sr?D b*Fvm;? bD[mESihf
awmifbufwpfavQmufwGifvnf; pmvkus&m*suk#fyPfj'? apmv? ap& tp&Sdaom apmfbGm;wkdYonfomvQif
&mZ0if trsm;tm;jzifh xif&mS ;cJo
h nf/ olwo
Ydk nf wkid ;f jynfEidk if u
H kd rnforYdk nfyHk tkycf sKy&f rnf? umuG,rf nf
qkdwmudk wpfpdwfwpfa'orQvnf; pOf;pm;Mu[efrwlacs/ aejynfawmftwGif;&Sd tacsmtvSa'0D uacsonf
wnf;[laom armif;rrdH a>c&Hy&dowfwkdYESifhumr*kPfpnf;pdrfukd jrdefjrdef&Suf&SufMuD; cHpm;jcif;jzifh tcsdefukd
jzKe;f wD;vsu&f adS vonf/ tdE,
d jynf a&TaiG &wemrsK;d pkjH ynf0h pkaH Mumif; Mum;od&aom tm&yfEiS t
hf mz*efepwef
jynfom; rGwq
f vifrsm;wko
Yd nfvnf; xko
d MYdk um;od&jcif;aMumifh tdE,
d jynfajrmufbuf 'ufuif;e,frS 0ifa&muf
wkdufckdufMuav&m wpfpwpfpESifhc&pf 12-&mpkavmufwGif tdEd,wpfjynfvkH;udk odrf;ykdufrdavonf/ yxr
a&S;OD;pGm 0ifa&mufwkdufckdufaom rGwfqvifppfAkdvfMuD;\trnfrSm r[mrufbdefumpif jzpfonf/
arm&d,rif;qufro
S nf rGwq
f vifrif;qufwidk af tmif tdE,
d jynfwiG f rif;trsK;d rsK;d ajymif;vGcJ o
hJ nfukd
az:jyrnfqkdygu tvGefYtvGefyif us,f0ef;vSayonf/ xkdodkYyif us,f0ef;jim;vnf; pmtkyfwGif usOf;Ekdif
oavmufusO;f a&;om;az:jyvkad yonf/ taMumif;rSmrlum; Ak'b
momwko
Yd nf [dEL rif;wk\
Yd zsuq
f ;D rIaMumifh
vnf; ajrmufrsm;pGmysupf ;D cJzh ;l av&m xkt
d aMumif;rsm;udk csev
f yS
f xm;ypfcrhJ nfqydk gu pmtkyw
f iG f omoem
uG,yf t
Hk aMumif; tpkt
H vifygEkid rf nf r[kwaf wmhay/ xkaYd Mumifh tdE,
d &mZ0ifukd tusO;f csK;H a&;om;az:jy
vkduf&ayOD;tHh/

arm&d,rif;quf c&pfray:rD 322 rS 184-txd


c&pfray:rD tESpf 3-&mpkavmufu tdE,
d jynfoYkd 0ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
dk cf ahJ om *&dppfAv
dk Mf u;D tvufZEm;
tm; Ekid if aH wmfrS wku
d x
f w
k v
f u
dk af omolrmS arm&d,rsK;d EG,pf E*w
k r if;yifjzpf\/ tvufZEm;onf yef*syjf ynfudk
wku
d cf u
dk af tmifjrifonfwidk af tmif pE*w
k u
m; r*"aejynfawmfukd rpk;d pH&ao;acs/ tvufZEm;onf yef*syef ,frS
tdE,
d jynftv,fyikd ;f odaYk &mufvmaomtcgrSom pE*w
k r if;onf Zeu(ouw psmPus)[kac:aom ykPm ;
trwfMu;D \tultnDjzifh eErsK;d EG,jf zpfaom yg#vdyw
k jf ynf&iS b
f &k if "eeErif;ukd owfjy;D vQif r*"jynfawmfukd
pkd;pHawmfrlavonf/ r[m0ifusrf; "eeErif;onf ZeuykPm;MuD;tm; rMunfndKrESpfjrdKUojzifh wpfckaom
21

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


yGJobifrSa`Eysuf t&SufwuGJjzpfatmif ESifxkwfav&m xdk&efjidK;jzifh pE*kwrif;om;tm; tultnDay;jyD;
"eeErif;\OD;acgif;udk jzwfap rif;vkyfawmfrlapavonf/ tdEd,&mZ0ifwdkYum; xkduJhokdYryg&Sdacs/ Zeu
ykPm ;onf &mZeDwyd nm? puf,E&m;ynm? aq;ynmESiahf A'ifynmrsm;udk wpfzufurf;aygufatmif wwfajrmuf
olwpfO;D jzpf tdE,
d jynfxo
J Ykd usL;ausm0f ifa&mufvmaom*&dtvufZEm;tm; Ekid if aH wmfrS jyefvnfwu
dk x
f w
k &f ef
ppfrsK;d aphukd wnfaxmiftahH omiSm "eeErif;\txHawmf tojymaiG 6-ode;f udk awmif;cHae&m bk&ifrif;jrwfu
ysu&f ,fjyKjy;D olUtm; eef;awmftwGi;f rStjyifoYdk qGx
J w
k yf pfavonf/ rnfaomtrsuaf 'goaMumifh pE*w
k f
rif;om;tm; tultnDay;um "eeErif;tm; acgif;jzwf eef;wufapavonf[o
k m awGU&S&d \/ pE*w
k rf if;Mu;D
onfvnf; xkZd euyP
k m ;Mu;D \taxmuftyHjh zifh *&dtvufZEm;tm; wGe;f vSew
f u
dk cf u
fdk af v&m rMumrDatmifjcif;
odYk a&mufavonfq\
dk /
tcsKdUaom&mZ0ifwkdYum; pE*kwfrif;\rdzk&m;MuD;onfyifvQif tvufZEm;\orD;awmfjzpfaMumif;
ESifhzwf&I&ao;onf/ yg#vdykwfjynf arm&d,rif;qufudk tkwfjrpfcscJholrSm pE*kwfrif;[k rSwf,lMuygukef/
r[m0ifusr;f \tvkt
d m;jzifh arm&d,qko
d nfrmS [dr0EmawmpyfteD; Oa'gif;? MuKd ;MumoHwjYdk zifEh pS v
f zdk ,
G f
&Sad omjrKd U rif;jyKaom&Sib
f &k ifrmS arm&d,trnf&
dS wpfyg;aomrif;wku
Yd owfjzwfvwfaomf pE*w
k rf if;udk
ud,
k 0f ef&jdS y;D aomrdz&k m;onf yg#vdyw
k jf ynfteD;okYd ajy;cJ
h rMumrD om;i,fuav;udk rD;&I;oefpY ifzmG ;jrifawmfrl
avonf/ qif;&Jaomb0wGif usa&mufaejcif;aMumifh om;oli,fuav;udk arG;jrLzk&Yd m vuPmr&Sad omrdz&k m;
Mu;D onf aopdrahf omiSm EGm;jc0H ypfxm;cJah vonf/ ok&Yd mwGif pErnfaomEGm;vm;onf a&S;OD;pGmxGuv
f m
oli,fukd apmifo
h nfukd taMumif;jyK pE*w
k trnfwiG o
f nfq\
dk / tdE,
d &mZ0iftcsKUd um; arm&mrnfaom
rdef;rrSzGm;jcif;aMumifh arm&d,pE*kwtrnf&Sdonf[k qkd\/ tcsKdUaom&mZ0ifrlum; arm&d,trnfjzifh a&S;
tcgwkef;uyif xif&Sm;cJhaom cwd,trsKd;tEG,frS qif;oufvmjcif;aMumifh pE*kwarm&d,rnfwGifonf[k
a&;om;Mu\/ pum;rSm r[m0ifusr;f tqkEd iS hf wpfpw
d w
f pfa'owlaeojzifh ,kw&d v
dS \
S / xkaYd Mumifh pE*w
k f
rif;MuD;tm; arm&d,rsKd;EG,f[kom rSwf,ltyf\/ pE*kwfrif;MuD;\ukd;uG,faombmomum; Ak'bmomr[kwf
*sKdif;bmom[k tdEd,&mZ0ifq&mwkdYu a&;om;Muonf/

taomu (0g) oD&"d rmaomu


pE*kwfrif;MuD;onf c&pfray:rD 322-ESpfrSonf 298-wkdifatmif xD;eef;pnf;pdrfudk odrf;ydkufjyD;onfh
aemuf eef;pH24-ESpfwGif ewf&Gmvm;vwfaomf om;awmfAdEKom&rif;MuD;onf 298-ckESpfrS 272-ckESpfxd pkd;pH
awmfrljyD; eef;pH 26-ESpfwGif ewf&GmpHuHawmfukefavonf/ xdkYaemuf om;awmftaomurif;w&m;MuD;onf
272-ckESpfrS 232 -ckESpftxd tESpf 40-wkdifwkdif ZrL'dyfuRef;tvkH;udk odrf;usKH;tkyfcsKyf rif;vkyfawmfrlav
onf/
taomurif;w&m;Mu;D \i,frnfrmS p@maomujzpf olonf 99-a,mufaom tpfuakd wmfwt
Ydk m;
owfjzwfjy;D onfrS aemufumv yg#vdyw
k af ejynfawmf&dS arm&d,eef;awmfMu;D udk odr;f ydu
k t
f yk cf sKy
f Ekid if w
H iG f
rif;vkyfawmfrlavonf/ taomurif;w&m;MuD;onf EkdifiHawmftus,ft0ef;ESifhwefckd;tmPm t&SdqkH;aom
rif;jzpf bdk;awmfpE*kwfrif;MuD;onf rsm;pGmukefaom wkdif;e,fy,fwkdYudk pdk;pH&bdouJhokdY olonfvnf; ,ck
tcg Mo&dpt
rnfjzifh xif&mS ;vsu&f adS om umvd*jF ynfEiS w
hf uG awmifbufukd r'&yfe,f yEmjrpf? ajrmufbufudk
e,fygvfjynf? taemufbufudk umblvef ,fEiS t
hf a&SUbufoYdk tmoHe,fwidk af tmif tifyg,mtm;jzifu
h s,jf yefaY wmf
rlavonf/ bdou
d cf jH y;D r[m&mZm"d&mZbGUJ xl;udk &&Sad wmfrjl y;D aom taomurif;w&m;Mu;D onf Ekid if aH wmfudk
tmPmpufawmfjzifh rtkyfcsKyfawmhbJ "rpufwnf;[laom w&m;vufeufawmfjzifh tkyfcsKyfawmfrlavonf/
uJhodkY "rvufeufjzifh tkyfcsKyf&jcif;rSm taomurif;w&m;MuD;onf umvd*Fjynfudk wkdufckdufatmifjrif
awmfrlaomtcg todef;ruaomvlwkdYtm; owfrdcJhjcif;? 'Pf&m&aprdcJhjcif;? zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifcJhjcif;? rnf
aomtjypfrsm;ESiw
hf idk ;f jynfcakd tmif; vltaygif;wkt
Yd m; 'kAu
d E & uyfEiS o
hf wE& uyfwjYdk zifh aoaMuysupf ;D jcif;odYk
a&mufMu&av&m taomurif;jrwfrmS tvGet
f rif;aMumuf&UHG wkev
f yI jf cif;jzpf&um; wkid ;f jynfEidk if u
H t
kd yk cf sKy&f m
wGif ppfvufeufudk tokH;rjyKawmhbJ w&m;wnf;[laom "rvufeufjzifhom tkyfcsKyfawmfrlavonf/
(um; Zm*'dqfcsE&aCmqf\tdEd,&mZ0ifcsKyftqkd)
22

wm&mcse\
f tdE,
d &mZ0iftusO;f csKyf(Tara Chand's A Short History of India)a&;om;jyefonfrmS um;
]]umv*Fppfajrjyif aomif;ode;f ruaom vltaygif;wdu
Yk kd owfjzwfrcd ahJ om oD&"d rmaomurif;Mu;D onf rdrjd yK
tyfaomtukov
dk w
f &m;udk tzefwvJvJ atmufarhro
d jzifh tvGet
f rif;aMumuf&UHG wkev
f yI v
f su&f adS epOf Oy*kyw
(Oy*kwu
f kd qkv
d [
dk efw\
l /)trnf&adS om &[ef;awmfwpfyg;ESiahf wGUqk
H wPSmwnf;[laomnTeAf u
G rf S vGwaf jrmuf
&mvGwaf jrmufaMumif;jzpfaom w&m;awmfukd Mum;em&jcif;aMumifh Ak'b
momokYd ouf0ifomG ;avonf/ tvGef
w&mrS csKjd red v
f aS omw&m;awmfonf ol\ESv;Hk [',twGi;f okYd wpufpufp;D 0ifvsu&f adS v&m oHCmawmft&Sif
jrwfwt
Ydk m; Mu;D pGmaomtvSLudak y;jcif;? Oykoo
f w
D if;aqmufwnfjcif;? w&m;emjcif;paom ukov
dk t
f rIwjYkd zifo
h m
arGUavsmfvsufaeavawmh\/ rdrd,kHMunfaom w&m;awmfukd wjcm;wjcm;aom wkdif;e,fy,f&Sd vl&Siftaygif;
wkdYonfvnf; rdrduJhokdYyif ,kHMunfMuap&ef &nfoefpdwfxm;vsuf omoemhtmZmenfbGJUxl;csD;avmufaom
yk*K v
d w
f t
Ykd m; wdAuf? w&kw?f rGe*f v
dk ,
D mh? wl&uDjynfrsm;ESit
hf mz&duwku
d ?f Oa&mywku
d o
f w
Ykd idk af tmif omoemjyK
rsm; ydv
Yk w
T af vonf/
rif;w&m;Mu;D \0D&,
d awmfwaYdk Mumifh Ak'b
momonf urmay:wGif vltrsm;qk;H wk\
Yd ud;k uG,&f m bmom
&yfMu;D wpf&yf jzpfz;l avonf/ jrwfpmG bk&m;&Si\
f omoemawmfuGjJ ym;vsu&f adS om t,l0g'trsK;d rsK;d ukyd aysmuf
ap&eftvkiYd mS wwd,o*Fg,emudv
k nf; wifawmfrcl ahJ vonf/ jrwfpmG bk&m;&Siu
f ,
kd af wmfjrwfMu;D tm; trSww
f &
&Sdap&efESifhwkdif;oljynfom; vltrsm;wkdY w&m;udkouf0ifjzLpifaom pm&dw0g&dwudk&&Sdap&eftvkdYiSm rif;vrf;
rawmfMu;D rsm;wpfavQmufv;Hk usiphf Of? usix
hf ;Hk trsK;d rsK;d yg0ifaom ausmufpmwkid w
f u
Ydk kd pGiphf iG rhf m;rm;Mu;D pdu
k x
f l
xm;cJah v&m ,ckwidk f txift&Sm; awGUjrif&ygao;\/ tcvGwpf moifausmif;aygif;rsm;pGmESiahf q;&kaH ygif;rsm;pGm
wku
Yd v
kd nf; ae&mwumwGif aqmufvyk v
f LS 'gef;onft
h jyif wd&pmefrsm;tzkYd oD;oefaY omaq;&krH sm;udk aqmufvyk f
ay;jcif;? aq;yif? 0g;yifwu
Ydk v
kd nf; wpfae&mESiw
hf pfae&m zvS,jf yKumpku
d yf sK;d apjcif;jzifh Ekid if aH wmfwpfavQmuf
vk;H aq;yifaq;jrpfwu
Ykd v
kd nf; jynfah pcJ\
h / a& acgif;yg;rIaMumifh awGUMuKaH eMu&&Smaom vl&iS t
f aygif;wd\
Yk
qif;&J'u
k u
kd yaysmufap&ef &nfoefvsuf ra&wGuEf idk af vmufaom a&wGi;f a&uefwu
Ydk v
kd nf; wl;az:ay;cJah v
onf/
xkrd w
S pfyg; rif;vrf;rawmfMu;D rsm; wpfavQmufv;Hk a&csr;f tk;d rsm; wnfxm;jcif;? c&D;onftaygif;wdYk
t&dycf adk tmif;Ekid &f ef o&uf? tifMuif;? anmifpaom opfyifwu
Ydk v
kd nf; pdu
k yf sK;d apcJah o;\/ okv
Yd Qif tvSL'ge
t&m&ufa&mrI? ow0gwkdYtm; oem;Muifemjcif;aMumifh rif;w&m;MuD;tm; yD,'D [laombGJUxl;udk &&Sd
awmfral vonf/ rif;w&m;Mu;D onf Z&mt&G,o
f Ydk a&mufvwfaomf tvk;H pkaH om ypn;f Opmwdu
Yk kd vSL'gef;umrQjzifh
tm;&wif;wdrfjcif;r&Sdao;bJ rdrdukd,fwkdifyifvQif vtenf;i,fcefYavmuf 'kvbtjzpfjzifh &[ef;abmifodkY
0ifavaomaMumifh &mZod&mZdrif;&[ef;[lvnf; trnfwGifavonf[l\/
rpwmprpff\atmufpzkdYausmif;om; tdEd,&mZ0ifESifhqGm&Djyq'f\rkd;'if; tdEd,&mZ0ifwkYdum;
]]edaj*m"omraP\w&m;awmfudk Mum;em "ryDwdjzpfvSaom taomurif;w&m;MuD;onf ykPm;wkdYtm;
MunfnKd aomyoEapwemudk jzwfawmuf Ak'b
momudk ouf0if,MHk unfvmaMumif;ESirhf [m0ifusr;f rSmuJo
h Ykd
a&;om;xm;&m pum;onfvQif ,kw&d v
dS \
S / xkaYd Mumifh Oy*kwr ax&f\a[mcRwrf aI Mumifh taomurif;w&m;
Mu;D tuRww
f &m;&&Sad vonf[al om ]]wm&mcse}f }\pum;rSm ,kwrd &S/d r[m0ifusr;f t&qkad omf Oy*kwaf x&f
t&Siftm; rm&fewfrif;tm; wm;jrpfqkH;rpdrfhaomiSm a&wGif;? a&uefwkdYudk a&pufcsaomyGJobifMuD;okdY txl;
wvnf yifah vQmufco
hJ jzifh t&Sijf rwfonfvnf; <ua&mufawmfrjl y;D vQif wefc;dk awmftrsK;d rsK;d jzifh wm;qD;cJah Mumif;
ESifhyg&Sdavonf/
r[m0ifusr;f yg&Sjd yefao;onfrmS ykPm ; wu'eG ;f wdu
Yk dk rMunfnKd ? rjrwfE;dk Ekid af om taomurif;Mu;D
onf jrwfaom tvSLcHy*k K v
d u
f &kd mS azGvsuaf epOf wpfaeYo edaj*m"omraPonfvnf; eHeufapmapm q&mwkYd
jyKxu
dk jf yKtyfaom 0w&m;udk jyKpjk y;D r,fawmf\tdro
f Ykd qGr;f cHvmavaomf rif;w&m;Mu;D onfvnf; avom
wHcg;0 &yfvsut
f a&SUt&yfoYkd a&S;&Ijy;D arQmrf eS ;f aepOf rif;&ifjyifoYkd jzwfoef;um <uvmawmfral om omraPudk
jrifawmfral vaomf tvGeMf unfnKd aompdw&f o
dS nfjzpf trwfwt
Ydk m; tyifch idk ;f avonf/ omraPonfvnf;
eef;wGi;f odYk <uvmawmfr
l ighxufov
D &Sad omolr&S[
d k odvsuf rif;Mu;D tm; oydwaf wmfuakd y;jy;D vQif &mZyvif
ay:okYd wufxidk af vonf/ rif;Mu;D onf trsK;d rsK;d aom cJz,
G ?f abmZOfwu
Ydk kd oydww
f iG x
f nf
h uyfavonf/
23

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


omraPonfvnf; jred &f u
S pf mG bkO;f ay;ok;H aqmifay\/ qGr;f bkO;f ay;jy;D aomtcg rif;Mu;D u okaYd vQmufxm;
avonf/
]]omraP? oif\rsK;d EG,u
f m; tb,fenf;/ oifonf tb,fo\
l tqk;H trukd cH,o
l enf;/ oif\t,l
um; tb,fokdY&Sdoenf;/}}
omraPu jyefvnfajzMum;awmfrlavonfrSm...
]]ig\rsK;d EG,u
f m; a,s"w
H &m;ig;yg;udk tukeo
f jd rifawmfral om bk&m;&Si\
f rsK;d EG,w
f nf;/ xkt
d &Sib
f &k m;
\tqkH;trMo0g' igwnfownf;/ ig\t,lonfvnf; tqlqlaombk&m;&SifwkdY\aysmfpH&m edAmefudkom
tm&kHjyKownf;}}[k rdefYawmfrlavonf/ xdkYaemuf rif;w&m;MuD;u toifwkdYq&m\a[mMum;>rufabmf
w&m;awmfudk Mum;emvkdygaMumif;ESifhavQmufxm;avaomf tyrma'g trwHy'H yrma'g rpKaem y'H tp&Sd
aom"ry'usrf; tyrm'0*fudk ukefpifatmif a[mjyvkdufavonf/
xkaYd Mumifo
h mvQif rif;w&m;Mu;D rSmAk'b
mom0ifjzpfvmavonf/ xkaYd emufrS rif;w&m;Mu;D onf omoem
awmfudk MunfndKvGef; a&wGif;aygif; &Spfaomif;av;axmif? a&uefaygif; &Spfaomif;av;axmif tp&Sdaom
MuD;pGmaomr[m'geMuD;udk jyKawmfrljyD;vQif jrwfpGmbk&m;ocify&dedAmefjyKawmfrlonfrS 325-ckESpfwGif &Sif
r[marm*vyd w
k w

d ax&ft&Sit
f rSL;xm; yg#vdyw
k af ejynfawmf wwd,o*Fg,emwifawmfral vownf;/

ud;k wkid ;f ud;k XmeodYk omoemjyK apvTwjf cif;


taomurif;MuD;onf rdrdukd;uG,f,kHMunftyfaom omoemawmfMuD;ukd urmwpf&yfvkH;&Sd wkdif;EkdifiH
[lowkdY ysHUESHYwnfaptHhaomiSm ukd;wkdif;? udk;XmeodkY omoemjyKyk*Kdvfxl; yk*KdvfrGefwkdYtm; apvTwfawmfrl
cJhavonf/
(1) rZsEdutrSL;&Sdaom ig;OD;aomrax&fwkdYudk uoD&wkdif;ESifh*Em&wkdif;odkY apvTwfawmfrlonf/
(2) r[ma'0trSL;&Sdaom ig;OD;aomrax&fwdkYudk r[ouwkdif;odkY apvTwfonf/
(3) &udwtrSL;&Sdaom ig;OD;aomrax&fwkdYudk 0e0goDwkdif;odkY apvTwfawmfrlonf/
(4) a,meu"r&udwtrSL;&Sdaom ig;OD;aomrax&fwkdYudk ty&Ewkdif;okdY apvTwfawmfrlonf/
(5) r[m"r&udwtrSL;&Sdaom ig;OD;aomrax&fwkdYudk r[m&|wkdif;odkY apvTwfawmfrlonf/
(6) r[m&udwtrSL;&Sdaom ig;OD;aomrax&fwkdYudk a,meuwkdif;odkY apvTwfawmfrlavonf/
(7) rZsdrax&fMuD;rSL;aom ig;OD;aomrax&fwdkYudk [dr0Emt&yfodkY apvTwfawmfrlonf/
(8) aomPrax&f? Ow&ax&ftrSL;&Sdaom ig;OD;aomrax&fwkdYudk ok0Pbkrdwkdif;odkYapvTwfawmfrlonf/
(9) r[mr[dEa x&f? #d,ax&f? Ow,
d ax&f? ormvax&fEiS b
hf 'omvax&fig;OD;wkt
Yd m; vuFm'Dyrnfaom
oD[Vdk u
f Re;f odYk apvTwaf wmfro
l nf/
rax&ftaygif;wko
Yd nfvnf; a&mufav&ma'owkid ;f vltaygif;wkt
Yd m; a'oema&at; tjrKd uaf q;
udk wkdufauR;awmfrlMuojzifh rdpm0g'Daysmuf orm0g'DwnfMuavonf/ (0g)Ak'bmomrsm;jzpfMuukefonf
[l\/

uk;d wkid ;f ud;k Xme a0zefjyjcif;


taomurif;w&m;MuD;uJhokdY omoemjyKrif;aumif; rif;jrwfwpfa,mufukd taMumif;jyK jrefrmjynf
oD[Vdk u
f Re;f ? ,k;d ',m;jynftp&Sad om Ekid if w
H w
Ydk iG f ,ckxufwidk af tmif omoemawmfae0ef; xdex
f ed x
f eG ;f vsuf
&Sd&um; uREkfyfwkdYtzkdY taomurif;w&m;MuD;ESifhomoemjyK<ucJhMuukefaom t&Sifaumif; t&SifjrwfwkdYtm;
aus;Zl;wif qkH;Ekdifp&mr&Sdacs/ taomurif;MuD;vufxufawmfu apvTwfcHcJh&aomyk*KdvfwdkYrSm &[Emrsm;
omvQijf zpfaMumif; xif&mS ;vSayonf/ ,cktcg uREyfk w
f o
Ydk moemawmfonf ax&0g'DEiS rhf [m,me? wpfenf;tm;
jzifh [de,meESirhf [m,me[l ESprf sK;d ESppf m; *kP
d ;f uGjJ ym;vsu&f adS v&m ax&0g'DomoemxGe;f um;pnfyifaom
wkdif;jynfrsm;rSm jrefrmjynf-,dk;',m;jynfESifhoD[kdVfuRef;wkdYjzpf r[m,meAk'bmomudk ouf0if,kHMunfaom
wkid ;f jynfwrYdk mS w&kw?f wdAuf? *syefEiS u
hf armZjynfwjYdk zpfMuonf/ jrefrmjynf&t
dS csKUd aomynm&Srd sm;ESihf tdE,
d
24

&mZ0ifq&mtcsKdUu *Em&wkdif;udk w&kwfjynf[k a&;om;Mu\/


rZsEdutrSL;&Sdaom ig;OD;aomrax&fwdkYonf uoD&ESifh*Em&wkdif;odkY <ua&mufcJhonfqkdjcif;aMumifh
w&kwjf ynf[k a&;om;Ekid pf &mr[kw/f uo&D wkid ;f onf *Em&wkid ;f ESihf yx0Dtm;jzifh qufpyfr&I adS yrnf/ xkjYd yif
rZsEu
d trSL;&Sad om ax&focifwo
Ydk nf &[Emppfrsm;jzpfMu w&kwjf ynfoYkd trSepf ifppf a&mufco
hJ nfreS yf grlum;
jrefrmjynfrmS uJo
h Ydk ax&0g'DomoemxGe;f yoifo
h nf/ ,ckvdk r[m,meomoemxGe;f aernf r[kwaf y/ ax&
0g'D&[Emwko
Yd nf tokv
Yd Qif r[m,meomoemudk pku
d yf sK;d cJyh grnfenf;/ *Em&wkid ;f qko
d nfrmS uo&D (Kashmir) e,fEi
S q
hf ufpyfvsu&f adS om umblvef ,fukd ac:onf/
if;e,ftwGi;f &Sd taqmuftOD;tysut
f pD;wku
Yd kd qkid &f mausmufpmbufXmerS 1945-ckEpS u
f wl;az:cJh
onfwiG f rsm;pGmaom bk&m;&ky?f bk&m;avmif;&kyEf iS t
hf 0avmud awqGm&&kyrf sm;tjyif *Em&wkid ;f trnfygaom
ausmufpmrsm;yg&SdcJhygaMumif;ESifh (Archaeological Report) ac:ausmufpmbufXmerS tpD&ifcHpmudk tvm
[mA'fjrKd UrSxw
k af 0aom]]vD'g;&f}} (The Leader) ac:owif;pmwGizf wf&v
I u
dk &f ayonf/ xkaYd Mumifh umblvef ,f
udkomvQif *Em&wkdif;[k ,lqtyfayownf;/ xkdYaMumifh...
(1)
rZsEdutrSL;&SdaomigOD;aomax&ft&SifwkdYonf uoD&wkdif; (Kashmir) jynfESifh*Em&wkdif; (Kabul)
e,fodkYomvQif <ua&mufawmfrlcJhMuonf/
(2)
r[m&uw
d trSL;&Sad om ig;OD;aomrax&fwu
Ykd kd a,meuwkid ;f yef;ao;jynfoaYkd pvTwcf o
hJ nf qkx
d m;jyef&m
yef;ao;jynfonf ,cktcg w&kw?f rGwq
f vifwidk ;f jynfjzpfae\/ y&kzd ufqmq&mMu;D tJ,ef*&fu a,meuwkid ;f
ukd ,d;k ',m;jynf (Siam) [ka&;om;xm;ojzifh if;udyk if,w
k &d rdS \
d / taMumif;qkrd l ,k;d ',m;jynfwiG f ,ckwidk f
ax&0g'Dfomoemawmf pnfyifxGef;um;aejcif;aMumifh jzpf\/
(3)
r[ma'0trSL;&Sdaom ax&ft&SifwkdYonf r[ouwkdif;? r'&yfe,fawmifykdif;odkY <ua&mufcJhonf/
(4)
&udwrax&fwkdYonf r[ouwkdif;ESifh qufpyfvsuf &Sdaom tma&Asyifv,furf;ajc&Sd 0e0g'Dwkdif;rkdif;qkd;e,fodkY <ua&mufcJhonf/
(5)
&udwax&focifwkdYonf ty&Ewkdif;-bkHabe,fokdY <ua&mufcJhonf/
(6)
r[m"r&udwtrSL;&Sdaom rax&fwkdYonf r[m&|wkdif; rm&|DpwdwfodkY <ua&mufcJhonf/
(7)
rZsdrtrSL;&Sdaomrax&fwkdYonf [dr0Emt&yfjzpfaom edaygvfjynfodkY <ua&mufcJhonf/
(8)
aomPax&f? Ow&ax&fwkdYonf ok0PbkrdoxkHjynfodkY <ua&mufcJhonf/
(9)
r[mr[dEt
rSL;&Sad omrax&fwo
Ydk nf vuFm'Dyrnfaom oD[Vdk u
f Re;f (Ceylon) od<Yk ua&mufawmfrcl o
hJ nf/
w&kwfjynfodkY r[m,mea&muf&SdoGm;ykHudk ued&Surif;taMumif;wGif qufvuf az:jyygrnf/
igwkYd\udk;uG,f&m rSDckd&mukdif;uRef;MuD;ozG,fjzpfaom omoemawmfMuD; a&GUrQ wnfjrJvsuf&Sdae&jcif;\
taMumif;rSm taomurif;w&m;Mu;D ESi&hf [Emt&Sijf rwfw\
Ydk aus;Zl;awmfaMumifyh if jzpfonf/ odaYk omf omoem
awmfyifu,
kd rf Mu;D wnf&mjzpfaom tdE,
d jynfMu;D um; uG,yf cJah vjy/D taomurif;w&m;Mu;D \aumif;rIawmfwYdk
onfvnf; ysufpD;csKdU,Gif;vsuf&Sdae&m uREkfyfESifhwuGaom zl;jrif&ol Ak'bmom0ifolawmfpiftaygif;wkdYtm;
a&S;a[mif;acwfMuD;udk jyefvnfwovGrf;qGwfrdapavonf/
a&GUrQ omoemawmfMuD;udk av;pm;MunfndK yp,y&dpm*t&mwGif tvGef &ufa&mawmfrlvS
aom taomurif;w&m;MuD;\tkduHum; qkd;0g;avpG? [dELtrwfwkdY\aESmifh,Sufwm;qD;rIaMumifh ol\pdwfukd
tvGeftrif;xdckdufjcif;udk cH&avpG? bduKaraw,s\taomu&mZ0if (Asoka-World greatest Emperor)
pmtkyf pmrsufESm-26 wGifyg&Sdonfudk xif&Sm;pGm jyayOD;tHh/
''History says that he had resolved to give a thousand million pieces of gold to the Master's
service, and when far advanced in years, he had actually give nine hund-ered sixty million. Anxious to fulfil
his vow before death, he daily sent great wealth to the monastery at Pataliputta. But some of the powerful
ministers objected to the aged King's policy and forebade the treasurer to comply with King's demands.
The Emperor was now near death and unable to raise himself from his bed. The failure to ob tain any
supplies from the reasury made him sorrowful''

t"dyg,f- &mZ0ifwGif a&;om;az:jyxm;onfrSm olonf uka#wpf&maom a&T aiG &wemudk Ak'


25

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


omoemawmfMu;D tm; vSL'gef;&ef t"d|mefcsu&f adS vonf/ aemufEpS af ygif;rsm;pGmMumvwfaomf 96-uka#aom
a&TaiG&wemrsm;udk trSepf ifppf ay;vSLawmfral vownf;/ olraorD t"d|mefcsuf atmifjrifEidk &f ef pd;k &drMf u;D
pGmjzifh rsm;pGmaomypn;f Opmrsm;ukyd g yg#vdyw
k jf ynf&dS ausmif;awmfMu;D okYd aeYpOfyo
Ykd awmfrMl uavonf/ od&Yk mwGif
wefckd;tmPm&Sdaom 0efMuD;wpfOD;onf rif;w&m;MuD;awmif;cHwkdif; ray;zkdY&ef b@mpdk;0efMuD;tm;wm;jrpfav
onf/ rif;w&m;Mu;D onf tvGet
f rdk if;rpGr;f jzpf uk,
d w
f idk t
f yd &f mrS rxEkid b
f J aovke;D tcg ol\vkv
d m;tyfaom
ypn;f Opm&wemrsm;udk b@mwku
d rf aS wmif;cHr&ojzifh olUtm; txl;ojzif0h rf;enf;aMuuGaJ pavawmhownf;/
''Now pious King sent to the monastery all the vessels of gold which furnished the royal table.
Then he gave away all the vessels of silver, and finally the vessels of iron. When all the metallic ware had
thus been exhausted, the royal table was furnished with earthen ware.

t"dyg ,f- xkaYd Mumifh u&kPmocifjzpfawmfral om bk&ifrif;jrwfonf bk&ifph m;yGrJ sm;ay:wGif qif,ifcif;
usi;f xm;aom a&Tt;dk ? a&Tcu
G rf sm;udk ausmif;awmfrsm;udk ay;ydv
Yk LS 'gef;vku
d af vonf/ if;aemuf aiGt;dk aiGcu
G f
rsm;udk ay;ykdYvSL'gef;jyefavonf/ if;aemuf oHtkd;oHcGufrsm;udk aemufqkH;tjzpfjzifh vSL'gef;awmfrlavonf/
a&T? aiGtp&Sad om owKypn;f rsm;udk ukeo
f mG ;aomtcg bk&ifph m;yGcJ MHk u;D udk ajrtk;d ajrcGuw
f jYdk zifh cif;usi;f xm;
avonf/
''Then Asoka burst into tears and asked Radhagupta, a beloved minister, ''who now is the Emperor of India"? The devoted minister did obeisance and respectfully replied. "Your Majesty is the Lord of
Jambudipa."
But sorrowful King said to him, "why do you say from kindness what is untrue"? I am fallen from
my royal state.

t"dyg ,f- xkaYd emuf taomurif;Mu;D onf rsu&f nfw'D;'D; pD;usawmfr


l ol\vl,aHk wmfwpfO;D jzpfol
&m"m*kwtrnf&Sdaom 0efMuD;wpfOD;tm; ar;jref;awmfrlavonfrSm b,folonf tdE,jynfMuD;\bk&ifjzpf
oenf;/ cspaf Mumuf&adk oaom0efMu;D onfvnf; 'l;axmufO;D nTwjf cif;udk jyKjy;D av;jrwf&adk opGm jyefavQmuf
xm;avonfrmS t&Sirf if;jrwfMu;D omvQif ZrL'DyguRe;f Mu;D t&Sio
f cifjzpfygonf/ od&Yk mwGif bk&ifrif;u olUtm;
rdeMYf um;awmfrjl yefavonfrmS oifonf ightm; u&kPm&Sv
d suEf iS hf tb,fah Mumifh rrSeaf ompum;udq
k &dk ygoenf;/
igonf &mZb0rS avQmusvsuf&SdacsjyD/
"Then the King, who was near death, took the half of an amalaka fruit brought to him as medicine,
and calling to a faithful servant, sent it to kukkutarama monastery, praying the sangha to partake of it, his
Last gift.
Asoka asked the devoted servant to salute the sangha in his name and address them respectfully in
this wise:
"Accept, Lord, this last gift of your servant, to this pass have come the riches of Emperor of India.
"My power and royalty have departed, deprived of health and physic, deserted by physician, to
me no refuge is left that of Holy Sangha. May my noble Master, the Sangha, partake of it, my Last gift."

aovkqjJ zpfaeaom taomurif;w&m;Mu;D onf olUtwGuaf q;tvkiYd mS ,laqmifvmcJah om qD;jzLoD;


wpfjcrf;udk ukuK#m&kHausmif;awmfMuD;&Sd oHCmawmft&SifjrwfwkYdtm; ol\aemufqkH;aom tvSLtjzpfjzifh okH;
aqmifawmfr&l ef ol\trIawmfxrf;wpfO;D tm; ydcYk idk ;f vku
d af vonf/ rif;w&m;Mu;D onf olUtm;cspaf Mumuf&adk o
aom trIxrf;wpfOD;tm; ol\ukd,fpm; &kdaopGmuefawmhyef;qif av;jrwfpGm enf;twkdif;avQmufxm;
&ef rdefYMum;awmfrlavonf/
]]t&Sib
f &k m;? wynfah wmf\aemufq;Hk jzpfaom 'geudk vufcaH wmfryl gbk&m;? 'geonf tdE,
d jynf&h iS f
bk&if{u&mZfjzpfawmfrlaom wynfhawmf\ypnf;wkdYwGif aemufqkH;ygbk&m;/ wynfhawmf\wefckd;tmPmESifh
bk&ifb0onfvnf; wynfah wmfrS xGucf mG cJah csjy/D use;f rmoefprG ;f jcif; r&Sjd yjD zpf orm;awmfrsm;vnf; vuf
26

avQmhcJhacsjyD/ wynfhawmfrSm oHCmawmft&SifjrwfwkdYrSwpfyg; udk;uG,f&memx r&SdawmhygjyD/ wynfhawmf\


q&mrsm;jzpfawmfral om oHCmawmft&Sijf rwfwo
Ydk nf wynfah wmf\aemufq;Hk tvSL'geudk bkO;f ay;ok;H aqmif
awmfrlygapukefownf;/}}
onfwu
Ydk m; taomurif;Mu;D \aemufq;Hk 'geyifjzpfavonf/ taomurif; Mu;D onf rnforYdk nfyHk
omoemawmfjrwfMuD;tm; av;pm;MunfndKcJhonfudk txufygom"ujzifh odEkdifavmufjyD/ rnfa&GUrnfrQyif
omoemawmfjrwfMuD;udk MunfndK rif;usifhw&m; 10-yg;udk apmifhpnf;apumrl rif;w&m;MuD;\ aemufykdif;
tajctaerSm [dEL trwfw\
Ydk aESmif,
h u
S rf aI Mumifh rsm;pGmyifpw
d rf csr;f rom jzpfc&hJ avonf/ uREyfk o
f &d oavmuf
rSm taomurif;MuD;\rdzk&m;i,fwkdYrSm trsm;tm;jzifh [dELbmom0ifrdef;rrsm;jzpf tdkrif;rpGrf;jzpfaeaom
rif;MuD;tm; ae&mwumwGif aESmifh,SufcJhonf[l\/ if;tjyif taomurif;MuD;\tEG,fawmfjzpfaomrif;wkdY
onf [dEL &ifaoG;rsm;omjzpfMu [dEL omoemudo
k m tpOftquf cs;D ajrm ufMuavaMumif;ESihf &mZ0ifq&m
tcsKUd u a&;om;Mu\/ odaYk omf xdrk if;wkpYd ;kd pHcphJ Ofu Ak'o
moemawmfMu;D rSm rnforYdk nfrQ qkw,
f w
k jf cif;r&Scd o
hJ jzifh
if;rif;wkdYonf omoemawmfMuD;udk rcsD;ajrmufaomfvnf; raESmifh,Suf[k ,lqEkdifonf/

arm&d,tifyg,mMuD; ysufpD;&ykH
omoemh'g,um taomurif;w&m;MuD;onf c&pfray:rD 232-ckESpfwGif ewf&Gmvm;vwfaomf
om;awmfukverif; if;\om;awmf 'o&xrif;? if;\nDawmfqHjywdrif;? if;\om;awmf qmvdoQLurif;?
if;\om;awmf a'00&rif;? if;\om;awmf &Sw"Ekrif;? if;\nDawmf jAd[j'rif;[l taomu\tEG,f
awmfrsm;jzpfMuaom rif; 7-qufwo
Ydk nf c&pfray:rD 184-ckEpS w
f idk af tmif rif;jyKavonf/ uJo
h t
Ykd pOftwkid ;f
&mZtarGukd cH,v
l mMuaomfvnf; if;rif;wko
Yd nf bk;d awmf? ab;awmfrsm;jzpfMuukeaf om pE*w
k t
aomurif;
wku
Yd o
hJ w
Ykd efc;dk tmPm r&Sad wmhjyjD zpf&m tifyg,mMu;D wpfcv
k ;Hk wpfpwpfpESiu
hf sO;f &k;H um tm;enf;vmavonf/
&Sw"Ekrif;vufxufwiG f tifyg,mMu;D txJrS ykid ef uftajrmuftrsm; vGwx
f u
G o
f mG ; if;\nDawmf jA[
d j'rif;
vufxufwGif tvGefus,fjyefYaom EkdifiHMuD;wpfckvkH;ysufpD;oGm;jyD;vQif rif;qufvnf; jyKwfcJh&avownf;/

qk*H rif;quf c&pfray:rD 184 rS 80 xd


arm&d,rif;quf jyKw&f jcif;\taMumif;rSm c&pfray:rD 184-ckEpS w
f iG f arm&d,0Hojzpfaom jA[
d j'rif;
tm; if;\ppfAv
dk cf sKyMf u;D jzpfol yk&rS Md wonf r*"wkid ;f rS oQuoQmvDppfom;tcsKUd \tultnDjzifh OD;acgif;awmf
udjk zwfum arm&d,eef;awmfukd vk,al vonf/ xkaYd emuf rdr\
d rsK;d EG,u
f v
kd nf; qk*H 0Ho[k ac:wGiaf pavonf/
rpwm tvmawum\a&S;a[mif;tdE,
&mZ0if (Ancient History of India by prof:Alterkar) ac:
pmtkyw
f iG f yk&rS Md wrif; omoemawmfukd zsuq
f ;D cJah Mumif;ESi
hf odYk zwf&&I \/ ]]arm&d,rif;quf jyKwjf y;D onf
aemuf qkH*rsKd;EG,fjzpfaomrif;wkdYonf Ak'bmomukd enf;trsKd;rsKd;jzifh zsufqD;Muav&m ausmif;uefbk&m;
taqmuftOD;rsm;pGmESifh oHCmawmfaygif;rsm;pGm aoaMuysufpD;jcif;odkY a&mufMu&avonf/ qkH*rif;wkdYonf
tenf;ESit
hf rsm; rif;wkid ;f rif;wkid ;f vkyd if zsuq
f ;D cJo
h nf[k qk&d jim;aomfvnf; yPmrtm;jzifh zsuq
f ;D cJo
h nf/
yk&rS Md womvQif trsm;qk;H zsuq
f ;D cJ
h olUtm; Ak'b
momwk\
Yd &efol tMu;D pm;wpfa,muf[k ,lq&ayrnf/ xdk
rif;onf oQ0d ac:xm0&bk&m;udk ud;k uG,af om[dEL ? jA[PvlrsK;d jzpf oD&"d rmaomurif;Mu;D vufxufawmfu
[dELbmomwdkY tqifhtwef;edrfhus&zl;onfukd &mZ0ifudk jyefvnfokH;oyfwkdif; rauseyfEkdif/ oD&d"rmaomu
rif;MuD;onf ykPm;ynm&Sdrsm;ESifh[dELbmomudk pGefYypf&jcif;rSm Ak'bmom&[ef;awmfwkdY\a[mcRwfrIaMumifh
jzpfonf[,
k q
l jy;D vQif jA[
d j'rif;tm; OD;acgif;udjk zwf arm&d,xD;eef;udpk ;dk pH&onfEiS w
hf pfjyKd ief uf]]igonfvnf;
taomurif;uJo
h Ykd igud;k uG,af ombmmomukd cs;D ajrm ufaytH?h igwkb
Yd momukd okO;f zsi;f atmif vIUH aqmfz;l aom
&efow
l u
Ydk v
kd nf; okwo
f if&iS ;f vif;aytH}h }[k Murd ;f 0g;awmfrjl y;D vQif yg#vdyw
k jf ynfrS yef*syef ,f *smvEmjrKd Uodt
Yk xd
ausmif;? apwDwu
Ydk rkd ;D &IUd jcif;?/ wpfyg;ru rsm;jym;vSpmG aom oHCmawmfwt
Ydk m; &ufpufpmG owfjzwfjcif; ponf
wkdYudk jyKvkyfav&m a&wGufjyojcif;iSm r0Hhavmufaom oHCmawmfrsm;ESifhausmif;apwDykxdk;ponfwkdYrSm
ysufpD;jcif;okdY a&mufMu&avonf/ yg#vdykwfjynf&Sd ukuK#m&mrausmif;awmfMuD;ESifh q,mvfukd#f;jrdKUxuf
0ef;usif&Sd oHCmawmft&SifjrwfwkdYrSm xkdacwfwGif ysufpD;Mu&avonf/
27

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

oHCmOD;acgif; wpfv;Hk qkaiG 500d^


rQ&ufpufMurf;MuKwaf om vky&f yfrsm;ESit
hf m;&wif;wdrjf cif;r&Sad o;aom yk&rS Md wrif;onf Ekid if aH wmf
twGif;odkY odkYaMunmvkdufavonf/ ]]tMuifolonf Ak'bmom&[ef;wpfyg;\OD;acgif;wpfvkH;udk jzwf
ig\xHarSmufodkY vma&mufjyoEkdifjim;tHh/ xkdoltm; qkawmfaiG 500d^pD csD;jrifhrnf/ tMuifAk'bmom0if
wpfO;D onf &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; ud;k uG,q
f nf;uyfjcif;? tvSLay;jcif; ponfwu
Ydk kd tu,f jyKvyk jf im;tH/h xkd
Ak'b
mom0iftm; zrf;qD;jy;D ig\a&SUarSmufoaYkd &mufatmif ydaYk qmifEidk o
f t
l m; qkawmf aiG 200d^uspD cs;D jri rhf nf
[k aMunmvku
d &f m ra&rwGuEf idk af vmufaom vl'um? 'umrrsm;ESi&hf [ef;awmft&Sijf rwfwrYdk mS aoaMuysupf ;D
jcif;odYk a&mufMu&avukeo
f nf/ use&f pfol Ak'b
mom0ifwt
Ydk m; &mZy&d,m,ftrsK;d rsK;d jzifh wpfpp[dEL bmomodYk
ouf0ifapavonf/ xkdYaMumifh jrwfpGmbk&m;&Sifudk,fawmfjrwfMuD; y&dedAmefpH0ifawmfrlonfrSp w0if;0if;?
wxdefxdef awmufajymifvmcJhaom omoemawmfMuD;ukd yGJOD;xGufzsufqD;cJholrSm [dELjAm[PrsKd;EG,fjzpfaom
yk&SrdMwrif;yif jzpf\[k tdEd,jynf&mZ0ifq&mwkdYu rSwfwrf;wifMuukefownf;/

yk&SrdMwESifhrdvdErif;MuD;
yk&SrdMwrif;onf arm&d,eef;awmf pdk;pHvsuf&SdpOf *&dppfom;wkdYonfvnf; yef*syfe,fudk 0ifa&muf
wku
d cf u
dk Mf uavawmhonf/ *&dw&f iS b
f &k ifrv
d Ed ( ouwbmomjzifh rdeEm)rif;Mu;D onf t,k',
jrKd Uawmfudk ausmf
vGef tdE,jynftv,fykdif;jzpfaom &mZykwee,fukdyg odrf;ydkufavonf/ aemuf wa&GUa&GUESifh yg#vd
ykwef ,fpyfow
Ydk idk af tmif qku
d af &mufvmavonf/ r*"wkid ;f yk&rS Md wrif;onf rnfuo
hJ yYkd if omoemawmfukd
zsuq
f ;D aeapumrl ajrmufbufjzpfaom e,fy,fww
Ydk iG u
f m; omoemawmfta&mifrmS aevru awmufajymif
vsuf &Sdaeao;\/ rdvdErif;MuD;\rSm;,Gif;aomt,l0g'ESifh ,kHrSm;jcif;oHo,trsKd;rsKd;wkdYukd t&Sifem*aoe
rax&fu y,fazsmufawmfro
l jzifh vk;H 0 Ak'b
momukd ,kMH unfouf0ifvmjy;D omoemh'g,umMu;D wpfa,muf
jzpfcahJ vonf/ rdvEd y Omac:aomusr;f Mu;D onfvnf; xkad cwfu xGuaf y:cJo
h jzifh ,ckwidk f uREyfk w
f t
Ydk m; bmom
w&m; oefY&Sif;MunfvifrIwnf;[laom tvif;a&mifukd ay;vsuf&Sdavonf/

toar" ,ZfylaZmfjcif;
yk&SrdMwrif;MuD;onf toar",Zfac: jrif;,Zfudk ylaZmfjcif;jzifh wkdif;jynf&Sd tE&m,ftrsKd;rsKd;wkdYudk
wm;jrpfcJhonfqkd\/ yk&SrdMwESifhom;awmf t*eDrdMwwkdYonf ppfrIa&;&mwGif tvGefw&mrS uRrf;usifvdrmjcif;
aMumifh r*"e,ferd w
d o
f x
Ykd d usL;ausmv
f maom rdvEd r if;Mu;D tm; yef*syef ,fou
Ykd satmif jyefvnfwu
dk cf u
dk af v&m
atmifjrifawmfrlavonfqkd\/ yk&SrdMwrif;ewf&GmpHavaomf om;awmft*eDrdMwrif;onf zcif\t&kduft&m
jzpfaom xD;eef;pnf;pdru
f kd qufvufp;kd pHavonf/ rif;vufxufwiG f ay:aygufcahJ om r[mu0dumvD'go
onf rmv00dum*eDrMd wrfac: t*eDrMd w\twKyw
u
d sr;f Mu;D udk ouw*gxmwkjYd zifh a&;om;pDu;Hk xm;cJah vonf/
xkjdY yif ouk@v0wK? arC'lw0wK? &Ck0H o
H 0wKpaom Zmwf0wKwu
Ydk v
kd nf; a&;om;xm;cJah v&m xd0k wKrsm;rSm
,cktcg tdE,jynfpmayavmuwGif pdwf0ifpm;zG,f&m taumif;qkH;jzpfavonf/
t*eDrMd wrif; ewf&mG vm;jy;D onfah emuf qk*H tifyg,mMu;D rSm wjznf;jznf; tm;enf;vmavawmhonf/
c&pfray:rD tESpf 80-ckEpS w
f iG f qk*H rsK;d EG,w
f w
kYd iG f tqk;H pGerf if;jzpfaom 'qrfrif;tm; 0goka'0rif;u owfjzwf
H [k trnfwGifapavonf/
jyD;vQif rif;\tbdodufukd cH,ljyefawmfrlavonf/ ol\tEG,fudkvnf; umEG0o
odkYaomf umEGrif;wkdYum; tcsdeftenf;i,frQom pkd;pHcJh&jyD; rMumrD rif;qufjyKef;oGm;avonf/
qkH*ESifhumEGrif;wkdY tkyfcsKyfpkd;rkd;cJhpOfu tdEd,jynftwGif;odkY wkdif;wpfyg;om;wkdYonf tMudrfMudrf
0ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
dk Mf uavonf/ *&dwv
f rl sK;d wkYd wku
d cf u
dk jf y;D onfah emuf tm&Stv,fyidk ;f rS quvlrsK;d wkYd wpfzef
0ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
dk Mf ujyefavonf/ quvlrsK;d wko
Yd nf [dEL ukqaf wmifukd ausmv
f eG jf y;D vQif wuov
dk ?f rxk&m?
rmv0ESi*hf *l sm&wfjynfwu
Ydk kd 0ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
dk o
f jzifh qk*H -tifyg,mMu;D wpfpw
d w
f pfa'o vufvw
T &f avonf/
xkaYd emuf c&pf 80-avmufwiG f ukqmPfvrl sK;d wko
Yd nf tm&Stv,fyidk ;f rS 0ifa&mufvmjy;D vQif *&dwEf iS hf
yg&'fvlrsKd;wkdYydkifqkdifxm;aom tdE,jynfajrmufbufa'o&Sd e,fy,ftcsKdUudk wkdufckdufatmifjrifawmfrlojzifh
28

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'
pdk;rkd;tkyfcsKyf rif;vkyfMujyefavonf/

ulqmPfrif;wkw
Yd iG f ued&u
S rnfaomrif;onf wefc;dk tmPmt&Sq
d ;Hk aomrif;jzpfonf/ xkrd if;onf c&pf
81-ckESpfrS 120-ckESpftxd ay&S0gjrdKUwGif xD;eef;pkdufcJhavonf/ ol\tifyg,mrSm u&S*&-,m,uE? ckwef?
umblv?f *Em&? uo&D ? qif;'fEiS Ahf m&mPoDjrKd Uodw
Yk idk af tmif us,jf yefaY vonf/ rif;onf a&SUtzkYd Ak'b
mom
r[kwfjim;aomfvnf; r[m,mebkef;awmfMuD;rsm;\ wpfpwpfp a[mcRwfrIaMumifh aemuftzkdY Ak'omoem
awmfudk tvGefMunfndKav;pm;aom omoemh'g,umMuD;wpfa,muf jzpfvmavonf/ rif;vufxuf
taCmoem*ZkeESi0hf okrMd wtrnf&adS om Ak'b
momynm&SMd u;D wkYd ay:aygufc\
hJ / taCmoonf uAsm?
*DwESijhf yZmwf0wKa&;om;&mwGif tvGeu
f Rr;f usiv
f rd m av&um; rsm;pGmukeaf omuAsmusr;f ESit
hf bd"rmaumuf
Ekwcf suu
f sr;f *efrsm;ukd ou#bmomjzifh crf;em;pGm pD&ifa&;om;xm;cJah vonf/ ued&u
S rif;Mu;D onf tvSL'ge
ay;urf;pGefYMuJjcif; tvGef&ufa&maompdwfapwem &Sdonfhtjyif &[ef;oHCmawmfwdkYtm;vnf; txl;ojzifh
MunfnKdav;pm;wwfavonf/ rif;MuD;onf tvGefvSyoyg,f vl&Siftaygif;wkdY\MunfndKpzG,f jzpfaom
apwDawmfMu;D wpfqu
l kd ay&S0gjrKd U wnfapjy;D vQif tpOfxm0&uk;d uG,q
f nf;uyfawmfral vonf/ xkad cwf xkd
tcgwke;f u apwDMu;D onf tvSq;Hk ? tckid q
f ;Hk ? taumif;qk;H jzpfav&m jynfEidk if w
H pfvmT ;wGif trnfausmMf um;rI
aMumifh Ekid if jH cm;bk&m;zl;om;wko
Yd nfyifvQif vma&mufz;l Muavonf[\
l / Ekid if aH wmfo;Hk a&T'*Fg;? aiG'*Fg;ukv
d nf;
jrwfpmG bk&m;&Si\
f ykaH wmfjzifh oGe;f vkyu
f m ok;H pGaJ pavonf/ odo
Yk eG ;f vky&f jcif;rSm bk&m;&Siu
f ,
kd af wmfjrwfMu;D
tm; tpOfowd&ap&efjzpfonf[k qk\
d / rif;vufxuf ok;H pGcJ ahJ om aiG'*Fg;wpfjym;udk ukoed m&krH S wl;az:
&&SdcJhav&m xkd'*Fg;wGif atmufygtwkdif; a&;om;xm;avonf/
oQmMoemaem oQmouaeoQu aumoQmaem
aAma'g tyg'uoayg/
teufum;- oQmMoemaem=rif;xufrif;jrwfjzpfawmfrlxaom/ aumoQmaem=pwkwo*Fg,emwif
bk&if{u&mZfrif;vnf;jzpfawmfrx
l aom/ oQmou ae&Saum=ued&u
S rif;Mu;D \/ tyg'uoayg=tjrx
J m0pOf
ud;k uG,q
f nf;uyfyal Zmftyfxaom/ aAma'g=ig;0trSef a,s"u
H t
kd rSeq
f ufquf odavwwfxaom jrwfpmG
bk&m;wnf;/
(om"uudk ausmufpm0efrif;Mu;D umeif*ef a&;om;aompmtkyEf iS Ohf ;D udwq
d &mawmf\ tdE,
d aMu;rkH
usrf;rS&&Sdonf/)
acwfuyif r*"wkdif; omoemawmfrSm tawmfuav; arS;rSdefaejyD jzpfaomfvnf; Am&mPoDrS
uoD&jynfwkdifatmif wkdif;e,fy,ftoD;oD;wkdYum; omoemta&mif xGef;ajymifvsufyif &Sdavao;\/

r[m,mef o*Fg,emwifjcif;
qGm&Djyq'f\rkd;'if;tdEd,&mZ0ifwGif a&;om;xm;onfrSm ]]taomurif;MuD; ewf&Gmvm;jyD;aemuf
tdEd,EkdifiHa&;tajctaerSm bom;wpfjyef? usm;wpfjyefqkdovkd [dELESifhAk'bmom0ifrif;wkdYonf tcsif;csif;
&IH;vkduf? Ekdifvkduf xyfjyefwvJvJ wkdufckdufMuav&m EkdifiHawmfMuD; wpfckvkH;rSm ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmwkdifwkdif rjidrf
roufbJ &Sad ecJah vawmhonf/ xku
d o
hJ jYkd zpfysuaf epOf Ak'o
moemawmfvnf; *kP
d ;f Mu;D 18-*kP
d ;f ESi*hf P
kd ;f i,f
40-cefY uGJjym;vmavonf/ ,ckuJhokdY uGJjym;&jcif;rSm [dELbmomrS Ak'bmomokdY ul;ajymif;vmaom
&[ef;awmfrsm;ESifh rlv&Sdae&if; &[ef;awmfwkdY\tcsif;csif; 0g'uGJvGJrIaMumifh jzpfavonf/ tcsKdUaom
&[ef;awmfrsm;onf Ak'bmom[kyifqkd&apumrl qG&fac: xm0&bk&m;ukdvnf; ,kHMunfMu\/ tcsKdUum;
0denf;ynwfawmf tjyifbufraS e usiMhf ut
H m;xkwv
f Mdk u\/ tcsKUd aom &[ef;awmfw\
Ydk t,l0g'um; od&Yk \
dS /
0denf;qkdonfrSm aexkdifpm;aomufrIpaom `Ed,oH0&oDvESifhygwdarmuoH0&oDvudk vkHjcKHatmif rapmifh
pnf;Ekdifaom &[ef;awmfrsm;twGuf&nfnTef; jrwfpGmbk&m;&Sifudk,fawmfjrwfMuD;u ynwfawmfrlavonf/
igwku
Yd o
hJ aYkd om ygwdarmuo0H &oDvudk vkjH cKEH idk af omyk*K v
d rf sm;tzkYd 0denf;yd#uwfawmfukd oifMum;&ef
29

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

ued&Surif;vufxuf Ak'omoem

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


rvk[
d k t,l&MdS uonf/ okv
Yd Qif t,l0g'trsK;d rsK;d uGjJ ym;vmav&um; [de,me(0g)ax&0g'DEiS rhf [m,me[l
*kP
d ;f Mu;D ESp*f P
kd ;f ay:xGuv
f mavawmhonf/ uJo
h Ykd t,l0g'uGjJ ym;rIMu;D rsK;d um; taomurif;Mu;D vufxuf
awmfuvnf; wpfMudrfay:aygufcJhzl;ojzifh arm*vdykwwdrax&ftrSL;&Sdaom oHCmawmft&SifjrwfwkdYu
wwd,o*Fg,emwifjcif;jzifh jidrf;at;apavonf[l r[m0ifusrf;ESifhyg&mZduPf t|uxmed'gef;wkdYwGif
vm&Sdjcif;aMumifh tqkdyg qGm&Djyq'f\&mZ0iftqkdudk uREkfyfu vHk;0axmufcHvkduf\/ taomurif;MuD;
vufxufawmfu uGjJ ym;cJyh u
Hk m; okw
Yd nf;/ taomurif;Mu;D onf Ak'b
momjzpfvmjy;D aemuf vmbfvmbrS
qkw,
f w
k if wfrw
G f acgif;yg;Muukeaf omwdww
d o
Ydk nf &[ef;cGio
f 0Ykd ifvmavonf/ ,if;odyYk if0ifvmjim;aomfvnf;
yd#uwfawmfukd oifMum;jcif;r&Sb
d J rdrw
d \
Ydk tusiu
hf o
kd m usiMhf uuke\
f / tcsKUd um; aeudt
k wkvu
dk
f usiMhf uuke\
f /
tcsKUd um; w&m;r[kwo
f nfudk w&m;vky
f a[majymMuukeo
f nf/ xkaYd Mumifh &[ef;aumif;wku
Yd m; xdw
k w
d w
d EYdk iS hf
Oykofy0g&Pm paomuHMuD;uHi,fwkdYudk rjyKMuukef/ taomum&kHausmif;awmfMuD; 7-ESpfywfvkH; Oykofy0g
&PmrS uif;uke\
f / taMumif;udk rif;w&m;Mu;D odavvQif trwfwpfO;D tm; t"du&kP;f udk jird ;f at;acsavmh[k
apckdif;av&m xkdtrwfrkdufonf rsm;pGmukefaom oHCmawmfwkdYtm; oefvsufjzifh OD;acgif;udk jzwfavonf/
rif;MuD;onfvnf; rsm;pGmyif pdwfESvkH; rcsrf;rom jzpfav&um; rdrd\oEmef pGJuyfvsuf&Sdaom oHo,ESifh
t"du&kPf;MuD;udk jidrf;at;ap&ef arm*vdykwwdrax&ftm; yifhavQmuf wwd,o*Fg,em wif&av
onf[l\/
xkaYd Mumifh ued&u
S rif;vufxufwiG f ay:aygufc&hJ aom t"du&kP;f rsK;d aMumifh ax&0g'DEiS rhf [m,me
omoem[k *dkPf;ESpf*dkPf; uGJcJh&jyefaMumif;ESifha&;om;xm;aom qGm&Djyq'f\&mZ0ifudk uREkfyfu vkH;0
axmufcHvkduf\/ oD&d"rmaomurif;MuD;vufxufawmfu ay:aygufcJhaom t"du&kPf;MuD;wGif rif;MuD;u
ax&0g'Dtvko
d Ydk vku
d v
f mavaomaMumifh 0g'opfukd vkv
d m;aomyk*K v
d w
f rYdk mS yaysmufc&hJ avonf/ ued&u
S rif;
Mu;D um; t,lopfudk vkv
d m;Muukeaf om yk*K v
d w
f \
Ydk tvko
d Ydk vku
d yf goGm;ojzifh r[m,meomoemMu;D rSm wpfaeY
wpfjcm; pnfyifjyefYyGm;vmavawmhonf/
ued&u
S rif;Mu;D onf r[m,meomoemawmfMu;D Mumjrifph mG wnfaptHah omiSm uo&D jynf ausmif;Mu;D
ausmif;i,fwkdYudk aqmufvkyfapjyD;vQif 0okrdMwtrSL;&Sdaom r[m,mefbkef;MuD;ESifhpwkwo*Fg,em wifawmf
rlavonf/ o*Fg,emwifyGJodkY r[m,me&[ef;aygif; 500-avmuf wufa&mufcJhonfqkd\/ xkdr[m,me
bkef;MuD;wkdYonf yd#uwfawmf&Sd usrf;MuD;usrf;i,fwkdYrS tqDtESpfudk xkwf,ljyD;vQif ]]r[mbmoQ}}ac: *gxm
wpfodef;&Sdaom usrf;MuD;udk ouwbmomjzifh trsm;oabmwl oDukH;a&;om;Muavonf/ o*Fg,em
wifyMJG u;D 18-*dP
k ;f om;wkv
Yd nf; nDnw
T Mf uukeo
f nfq\
dk / odn
Yk n
D w
T &f jcif;rSm tvGet
f m;enf;aeaom ax&
0g'D&[ef;awmfwrYkd mS tiftm;Mu;D rSm;vSaom r[m,mefbek ;f awmfMu;D wdt
Yk vko
d Ydk vku
d Mf uavaomaMumifh jzpfav
onf/ o*Fg,emudk tdE,
d &mZ0ifwYdk pwkwo
*Fg,emac:Muonf/ odaYk omf r[m0ifusr;f um; ryg&Sad cs/
yxro*Fg,emukd &mZj*Kd[fjynf tZmwowfriff;MuD;ESifh&Sifr[muyrax&fjrwfwdkY wifawmfrlavonf/
'kw,
d o*Fg,emudk &Si,
f rax&fEiS u
hf mvmaomurif;Mu;D wku
Yd a0omvDjynf wifawmfral vonf/ wwd,
o*Fg,emukd &Sifr[marm*vdykwwdrax&fESifhtaomuriff;MuD;wkdYu yg#vdykwfjynf wifawmfrlavonf/
pwkwudkoD[kdVfuRef; 0*grPdrif;MuD;vufxufwGif wifawmfrl\/ yOrudk b0&Sif rif;wkef;rif;w&m;MuD;
vufxuf &wemykHaejynfawmf wifawmfrlavonf/
twkid ;f yif r[m0ifEiS &hf mZ0ifusr;f wkYd om &Sad vonf/ xkaYd Mumifh ued&u
S rif;Mu;D vufxufu uo&D
jynfwGif wifawmfrlcJhaom o*Fg,emudk r[m,mefo*Fg,em[kom ,lqtyfayownf;/

w&kwfjynfodkY omoemjyKapvTwfjcif;
rpwma*spD ausmuf'&l \
D Am&w0oQwwd[mqfac: b*FgvDbmomjzifh a&;om;xm;aompmtkyw
f iG f
ued&u
S rif;Mu;D vufxufu w&kw?f wdAuf paomEkid if w
H o
Ydk Ykd omoemjyKapvTwcf ahJ Mumif;ESihf atmufygtwkid ;f
zwf&I&avonf/
30

txufygpmonf b*FgvDbmomjzpf rltwkid ;f udk ckid cf ahH om om"utjzpfjzifh az:jyvku


d &f ayonf/
t"dyg,frSm...
]]ued&Surif;MuD;onf Ak'bmomMuD;yGm;a&;ESifhysHUESHYa&;udk tcgcyfodrf; vkHYvjyKcJhavonf/ taomu
rif;MuD;uJhodkY ued&Surif;onfvnf; Ak'omoemawmf MumjrifhpGm wnfwHhpdrfhaomiSm o*Fg,emwpfMudrf
wifawmfrlavonf/ if;jyif wdbuf? w&kwf? ae aygvf? tmoHpaom xkdwkdif;jynfrsm; ,ckwkdif omoem
awmfonf wnfvsu&f adS vao;\}} pum;pkjzifh taomurif;Mu;D \vufxufu w&kwjf ynfoo
Ydk m omoem
jyKyk*Kdvfrsm; ra&mufcJhaMumif;udk xif&Sm;avonf/
rZsEdutrSL;&Sdaom ig;OD;aom &[Emax&ft&SifwkdYonf uoD&wkdif; if;wkdif;ESifh yx0Dtm;jzifh
qufpyfvsuf&Sdaom *Em&wkdif;okdYom <ua&mufcJhonf[k rSwf,ltyf\/ tu,f a&muf&SdcJhonfrSefygu
jrefrmjynfrSmuJhodkY ax&0g'DomoemomvQif wnf&Sdoifhonf/ r[m,mefomoem &Sdaernf r[kwfay/
ued&u
S rif;Mu;D vufxufou
Ykd srS r[m,mefbek ;f Mu;D wkYd oGm;a&mufomoemjyKavaomaMumifh ,cktcg
r[m,mefomoemxGe;f um;vsu&f adS vonf/ xkjYd yif ued&u
S rif;vufxufrS xkwaf 0cJah om r[m,mefusr;f pm
wku
Yd v
kd nf; wdAufEiS w
hf &kwjf ynfwYdk om trsm;tm;jzifh tok;H jyKvsu&f &dS um; onfvnf; ,kMH unfavmufaom
oufaocHMuD;wpf&yfyifwnf;/

r[m,mefqkdwm bmvJ
r[m,mefqo
dk nfrmS jrwfpmG bk&m;\ynwfawmfrt
l yfaom 0denf;w&m;awmfukd oifMum;em,ljcif;rjyKbJ
tusifhoDvjzLpifpGm usifhMuHtm;xkwfu edAmefodkYvnf;aumif; xm0&bk&m;okdYvnf;aumif; a&mufEkdifonf[k
t,l&Sdonfvnf; wpfaMumif;/ jrwfpGmbk&m; oufawmfxif&Sm;&SdawmfrlpOfu &kyfwkawmf qif;wkawmfwkdYudk
ud;k uG,&f ef ra[mMum;cJah omfvnf; vl&iS t
f aygif;wk\
Yd pdw"f gwfudk yom'ed,sjzpfap edAm efr*fzv
dk o
f Ykd a&muf
apwwfaomw&m;rSm &kyfyGm;awmfudk ukd;uG,fqnf;uyfonfrSwpfyg; wjcm;enf;vrf;r&Sd[k t,l&Sdonfvnf;
wpfaMumif;? a*gwrjrwfpGmbk&m;onf y&dedAmefpH0ifawmfrlavjyD;aomfvnf; xm0&bk&m;uJhodkY jzpfae[ef
vuPm&So
d nf[
l vnf;aumif;? uJo
h t
Ykd ,l&jdS cif;aMumifh bk&m;&kyw
f ak wmfrsm;udk ud;k uG,q
f nf;uyfonfomru
EkpOfumvuyif jzpfczhJ ;l aom aAm"dowac: bk&m;avmif;&kyyf mG ;rsm;ukyd g ud;k uG,q
f nf;uyfMuavawmhonf/
xdkYjyif av;oacsFESifh urmwpfodef;umvywfvkH; yg&rDawmftqlqlwkdYudk jznfhusifhawmfrlonfrS &tyfaom
bk&m;&Sif\b0onf rnfonfhenf;ESihfrS y&dedAmefrjyKEkdifwef&m/ tMuiftcg urmavmu"gwfMuD;&Sd ewf? vl?
jA[mtaygif;wkdYonf w&m;&SdtHh/ xkdtcg uG,fy wpfae&mrS &Ipm;aevwHY/ tMuiftcg w&m;ysuftHh/
xdktcg jyefvnf yGifhvmawmfrlvwYH[k [dEL0g'uJhokdYt,l&SdMuavonf/ rnfaomtaMumif;wkdYaMumifh
r[m,mef*kdPf;[k ay:aygufvmavonf/ c&pftESpf 200-rS 900-txd r[m,mefomoemonf tdEd,
jynfMuD;wpfckvkH;wGif tvGefpnfyifjyefYyGm;cJh&m ta&;MuD;aomausmif;? apwD? ykxdk;ponfwkdYudkvnf; *kdPf;
om;wkdYuom tkyfcsKyfcJh&avonf/
xkad cwfu xkvyk cf ahJ om ode;f ? oef;uka#ruaom bk&m;&kyw
f ak wmfrsm;ESib
hf &k m;avmif;&kyw
f ak wmfrsm;
t0avmudawqG&t&kyfrsm;? wm&ma'0DewforD;&kyfwkrsm;udk ausmif;wkdif; ykxkd;wkdif; ,ckwkdif txift&Sm;
awGUjrif&avonf/ r[m,mefomoemudk Ak'0 g'ESi[
hf Ed L 0g'ESpcf pk vk;H a&maESmxm;aomomoem[kac:qkyd g
u rSm;Ekdifrnfr[kwfay/ odkYaomf uREkfyfwkdY ax&0g'Domoemawmfvnf; &kyfwkawmfukdukd;uG,faom tavh
tvm&Sdaeayonf/ taomuriff;MuD;vufxufawmfuvnf; &kyfwkawmfrsm;udk vSL'gef;cJhaMumif;ESifhausmufpm
tcsKdUwGif zwf&I&jyefavonf/ odkYaomf &kyfyGm;awmfudk udk;uG,faomtavhtvmrSm y&dedAmefpH0ifawmfrl
avjyD;aom bk&m;&Sifudk,fawmfjrwfMuD;tm; trSwfw&&Sdap&efESifhMunfndKjcif;yom'&Sdap&eftjyif xkdodkYtrSwf
31

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


w&MunfnKd jcif;jzifh ukov
dk w
f &m;rsm;yGm;rsm;Muap&ef? omoemawmfvnf; rwdraf um ryaysmufap&ef t"du
&nf&G,fcsuf&Sd&mum; "avhxkH;pHrSm tvGefyif rGefjrwfvSayonf/ qufvuf a&;om;&rnfqkdygrl bk&m;?
ausmif;? apwD? ykxkd;wkdYudk rsufarSmuf txift&Sm; zl;ajrmfMu&ojzifh omoemawmfMuD;vnf; ,aeYtxd
rwdrfaum? ruG,fyEkdifao;[k qkdEkdifp&m&Sd\/ urmay:wGif bmomMuD;av;ck&Sd&m tpvmrfbmomrSwpfyg;
tm;vkH;aombmomwkdY &kyfwkawmfudk udk;uG,fqnf;uyfjcif;tavhtvmonf &Sdukef\/ odkYaomf &kyfwkawmf
ukd ukd;uG,fqnf;uyfjcif;um; tpvmrfbmom0ifrsm;tzkdY {&mrqefYusifbufMuD;wpfckaywnf;/

oQmwf0g[efrif;quf
c&pf 120-avmufwGif ued&Surif;MuD; ewf&GmpHavaomf ol\tifyg,mMuD;rSmvnf; wa&GUa&GUESifh
ysupf ;D jcif;odaYk &muf&avonf/ qu? yg&'f tp&Sad omvlrsK;d wko
Yd nf tdE,
d jynfajrmufyikd ;f tESt
YH jym;Mu;D pd;k aepOf
tHjh 'vlrsK;d wko
Yd nfvnf; awmifyikd ;f tdE,
d jynf wpfpwpfp ysUH ESv
YH mavonf/ xdt
k jhH 'vlrsK;d wk\
Yd rsK;d EG,u
f kd oQwf
0g[efrif;quf[k trnfwGifapavonf/ xdkrif;rsKd;wkdYwGif a*g"eDykMwoQwueDtrnff&Sdaomrif;onf tdEd,
&mZ0ifMuD; xifay:cJhavonf/ oQwf0g[efrif;wkdYonf Zmwftm;jzifh jA[PykPm;rsKd;jzpfaomfvnf; [dEL
bmomESiAhf 'k b
momESp&f yfpvk;H udk tnDtrQaxmufyu
hH n
l aD vaomaMumifh rif;rsm;vufxufwiG f Ak'b
mom
bufrmS qkw,
f w
k rf rI &S?d rif;wkYd onf c&pf 450-xd pk;d pHcjhJ y;D uG,yf oGm;avonf/

*kwrif;vufxuf a&TacwftdEd,
arm&d,rif;qufjyKwfcJhjyD;onfhaemuf tdEd,jynfMuD;\EkdifiHa&;tajctaerSm tESpf 500-avmuf
rjidrfroufjzpfcJhjyD;vQif c&pf 4-&mpkukefcgeD;wGif *kw0Hotrnfjzifh rif;wpfquf ay:aygufvmavonf/

pEm*kyw (pE*w
k )
rif;wkdY\yxrqkH;rif;rSm pE*kwjzpf olonf vdp0Drif;wdkY\tEG,fawmfwpfOD;jzpfol ukrm&a'0D
rif;orD;ESix
hf rd ;f jrm;&pfywf vufxyfawmfrjl y;D vQif yg#vdyw
k af ejynfawmf &mZbdaouudck ,
H al wmfral vonf/
rif;onf [dELbmom0ifwpfOD;jzpfaomfvnf; Muif&mawmfrdzk&m;MuD;ukrm&a'0D\yg;eyfrI? vdrmrIwkdYaMumifh
Ak'b
momudv
k nf; ,kMH unfavonf[\
l / Muif&mawmfrzd &k m;Mu;D onf Ak'o
moemawmftm; tvGet
f rif;MunfnKd
awmfrlojzifh EkdifiHawmfwpfavQmufwGif xm0pOfr[m'geMuD;udk jyKawmfrlavonfqkd\/ jrwfpGmbk&m;&Sif
ud,
k af wmfjrwfMu;D "rpMumw&m;OD;udk a[mawmfr&l m rd*'g0keaf wm "r&mZduausmif;awmfMu;D udk aqmufvyk f
vSL'gef;cJah vonf/ ausmufpmbufqidk &f m tpD&ifcpH mESi&hf mZ0iftcsKUd wGif [du
k jf 'bwfe,f&dS t*sEm vkP
d *f Ml u;D
onfyifvQif rif;rdzk&m;wkdY\aumif;rIawmfjzpfaMumif;ESifha&;om;xm;avonf/

orkj'*kw
c&pf 340-ckESpfwGif pE*kwrif;MuD; ewf&GmpHavaomf om;awmforkj'*kwrif;onf zcif\&kduf&mudk
qufvufp;dk pHawmfral vonf/ *kwr sK;d EG,w
f w
Ydk iG f rif;onf wefc;dk tmPmtMu;D qk;H aom rif;jzpf Ekid if aH wmf
tus,t
f 0ef;rSm ta&SUukd jA[yMk wjrpfx?d awmifukd er'gjrpfx?d aemufukd ,rkemjrpfx?d ajrmufukd [dr0Em
awmifxdjzpfavonf/
rif;um; Ak'b
momukd vk;H 0rvkv
d m;aom [dEL t,lonf;wpfO;D jzpf wkid ;f jynf&dS yka&m[dwyf P
k m ;
wk\
Yd pum;udk vku
d ef mjy;D vQif Ak'b
momudk tEkenf;ESizhf suq
f ;D avonf/ &[ef;rcH&? w&m;ra[m& ponfjzifh
Oya'xm;avonf/ olonf 6-Murd w
f ikd w
f idk f toar",Zfac: jrif;,Zfudk ylaZmfavonf/ okaYd omf xkpd Oftcgu
tdE,
d jynf\ynma&;onfum; Ak'b
mom&[ef;awmfwEYdk iS Ahf 'k b
mom0ifynm&SMd u;D wk\
Yd vufxw
J iG &f adS omaMumifh
Ak'o
moemawmfMu;D rSm rnforYdk Q qkw,
f w
k rf rI &Sad cs/ rif;vufxufwiG f jAm[PykPm ;rsK;d wko
Yd nf &mZtylaZmfukd
cH,lavojzifh txl;ojzifh yvTm;EkdifMuavonf/
32

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

orkj'*kwr if; uHawmfuek af vaomf if;\'kw,


d om;awmfjzpfol 'kw,
d pE*w
k 0 Md wrm'dMwonf zcif\
&kduf&mawmfukd qufvufpkd;pHjyefavonf/ rif;vufxufwGif quvlrsKd;wdkY\EkdifiHawmfokdY 0ifa&muf
wku
d cf u
dk af vojzifh atmifjrifawmfral vonf/ rif;um; pmayudk tvGe0f goemygoljzpf uAsmvuFm trsK;d
rsK;d wku
Yd kd ouwbmomjzifh ynm&SMd u;D wkt
Yd m; a&;om;oDu;Hk apavonf/ &mZ0ifq&mtcsKUd u r[mu0dumvD
'gorSm acwfwiG f ay:aygufco
hJ nf[k a&;om;Mujyef\/ rif;vufxufwiG f Ak'b
momudk epfemrI r&Scd ahJ y/

ukrm&*kwrif;
'kwd,pE*kw0dMwrm'dMwrif; ewf&Gmvm;vwfaomf if;\'kwd,om;awmfukrm&*kwrif;onf c&pf
414-ckEpS w
f iG f zcif\oD[moeyviu
f kd odr;f ydu
k af wmfral vonf/ rif;onfvnf; toar",Zfukd ylaZmfvdk
ojzifh &[ef;awmfwt
Ydk m; &mZy&d,m,ftrsK;d rsK;d jzifch sKycf s,jf yefavonf/ rif;vufxufwiG f [kP;f trnf&adS om
awmifov
l rl sK;d wko
Yd nf *kwE idk if aH wmfoYkd 0ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
dk Mf uav&m rif;Mu;D ESio
hf m;awmfquE*w
k r mS tMurd f
aygif;rsm;pGm oGm;a&muf ESdrfeif;&avonf/ Ak'bmomwkdYtzkdY qkwf,kwfrIum; r&SdcJh/
ukrm&*kwrif; ewf&GmpHavvQif tdrfa&SUrif;om;jzpfol om;awmfquE*kwonf c&pf 455-ckESpfwGif
&mZbdaouudk cH,al wmfral vonf/ rif;vufxuf [kP;f vlrsK;d wkYd cPcP 0ifa&mufMuavonf/ okaYd omf
atmifjrifjcif;odu
Yk m; ra&mufc/hJ quE*w
k r if; ewf&mG pHavaomf if;\tifyg,mMu;D rSm wjznf;jznf; ysupf ;D oGm;
d m;\/ taMumif;qkad omf acwfwiG f
avonf/ *kwa cwfukd tdE,
d &mZ0if a&Tacwf(Golden Period) [kac:qkx
tdEd,EkdifiHawmfMuD;rSm t<u,f0qkH;aom tqifhtwef;odkY a&mufcJhonfomru "gwkaA'ynm? pdwfynm?
uAsmvuFmynm? em#uynm? ocFsmynm? aZmwdynm? '&foQeyf nmESiAhf o
d u
k mynmwkrYd mS txl;ojzifh xGe;f um;
cJah vonf/ acwf Adou
k mMu;D wkx
Yd rH S tarG&xm;vku
d af om [ku
d jf 'bwfe,fx&J dS t*sEm vkP
d *f Ml u;D rSm pHerl
emwpfcjk zpf oGm;a&mufz;l ajrmfow
l idk ;f rtHMh o rcs;D rGr;f Ekid b
f J raeEkid /f taMumif;ESiphf yfvsO;f tus,u
f kd
odvv
dk Qif (The Architectural Survey of India) ac:pmtkyu
f dk zwf&MI unfyh g/

w&kwfbkef;MuD; zm[D,ef
r[maAm"dtaMumif;wGif az:jycJjh y;D aom w&kwb
f ek ;f Mu;D zm[D,efonf 'kw,
d pE*w
k r if;vufxufwiG f
tdE,
d jynfob
Ykd &k m;zl;a&mufc\
hJ / xdak cwf tdE,
d \tajctaeudk tus,w
f 0ifah &;om;cJ&h mwGif ,if;acwftcgu
Ekid if aH wmfo?l Ekid if aH wmfom;wko
Yd nf trsm;tm;jzifh oufowfvw
G f pm;Muonfq\
dk / tcsKUd aomae&mwkYd MuufoeG f
udyk if MuOfa&SmifMuonf[\
l / bke;f awmfMu;D onf tdE,
d jynfMu;D \tajctaeudk ol\rSww
f rf;wGif a&;om;
xm;cJah vonf/ uREyfk w
f t
Ydk zdYk ,ckuo
hJ Ykd rSwo
f m;zG,t
f aMumif; twKyw
rd sm;udk a&;om;xm;cJah om bke;f awmfMu;D
OD;zm[D,eftm; txl;aus;Zl;wifoxkdufygayownf;/

&mZ0ifuG,faomacwf
*kwr if;quf uG,cf jhJ y;D onfah emuf Ekid if aH &;tajctaerSm jird 0f yfyjd ym;jcif;r&Sad wmhbJ qlyal omif;use;f
x<uav&m wpfjrKd U? wpfe,f? wpfjynf? wpfrif;jzpfjy;D tpdwpf w
d t
f >rm>rm uGjJ cif;okYd a&muf&avonf/ okEYd pS f
aygif; 250-avmuf uGJjym;vsuf&SdcJh&um; &mZ0ifvnf; uG,fycJh&avonf/

[oQ0'eoDvm'dMwrif;
c&pfEpS f 6-&mpktv,favmufwiG f jyAmu0'etrnf&adS om rif;wpfyg;ay:aygufvmavonf/ if;rif;
&mZ,0'e [oQ0'e [lom;awmfEpS yf g;ESi&hf mZ,oQ&D trnf&adS omorD;awmfwpfyg;&Sad vonf/ orD;awmf
&mZ,oQ&Dudk umnuAZrif;j*[Am&frmESifhxdrf;jrm;avonf/
acwfwiG f b*Fvm;jynftv,fyidk ;f &mZqmquFmtrnf&adS om rif;wpfyg;onfvnf; ypKye t
f cg
33

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

'kwd,pE*kw0dMwrm'dMwrif;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


rk&Sd'gb'fac:aom jrdKUteD;&Sd uEok0PjrdKUawmfwGif xD;eef;pkdufavonf/ qmquFmonf r[m&mZm"d&mZ
bGUJ xl;udk cH,al wmfrjl y;D onfah emuf wpfyg;aomrif;wk\
Yd Ekid if o
H Ykd usL;ausm0f ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
dk af v&m ajrmufbufukd
Am&mPoDjrKd Uxd? awmifbufudk Mo&dpe ,fxd atmifjrifawmfral vojzifh tifyg,mMu;D rSm wpfpwpfp us,0f ef;vm
avonf/ rif;um; oD0ac: xm0&bk&m;udk ud;k uG,af om [dEL t,lonf;rif;jzpf r*"jynfawmfEiS w
hf uG
ol\Ekid if aH wmfwpfavQmufwiG f aexkid o
f w
D if;ok;H Muukeaf om &[ef;awmfwt
Ydk m; tjypftrsK;d rsK;d &Sm owfjzwfav
onfhtjyif bk&m;yGifhawmfrl&m r[maAm"dyifawmfukdvnf; ckwfjzwf rD;&IdUcJhavonf/ taMumif;ESifhpyfvsOf;
uREyfk o
f nf (Mr. L.L.S.O Malley I.C.S.Bengal District Gazetteer) rpwmarmav\ba*Fg'dpMww
d f *Zuf
wD,m tcef;-3? pmrsufESm-No.54 wGifokdY zwf&I&avonf/
"About 600 A.D Sasanka the king of Central bengal who was a worshipper of siva and fanatical
enemy of Buddhism, dug up and burnt the Bodhi tree, but it was replanted by Purna varman. The king of
Magadha who surrounded it with a wall in order to prevent it being out down again."

t"dyg,frSm-]]c&pf 6-&mpkavmufu oD0bk&m;udk ukd;uG,fqnf;uyf Ak'bmom0ifwkdY\omoemh


&efolMuD;wpfOD;jzpfol b*Fvm;jynftv,fykdif; &Sifbk&ifqmquFmonf aAm"dyifawmftm; tjrpft&if;uyif
wl;az:jy;D rD;&IUd ypfavonf/ odaYk omf r*"wkid ;f jynf&iS b
f &k if? yl&mPAmrefonf xkad e&m jyefvnfpu
kd yf sK;d jy;D vQif
aemifaomtcg uJhokdY rzsufqD;Ekdif&ef ausmufvuf&ef;MuD;jzifh um&Hxm;cJhavonf/
wGirf uao;bJ Ak'b
mombk&m;? ausmif;uefwYdk oD0bk&m;ESiMhf uif&mawmf jyb0wDw\
Ydk ,Suv
f su&f dS
aeaom vdi&f yk Mf u;D rsm;udk Xmyemjcif;? ausmif;ueftcsKUd ukd ewfueG ;f ozG,t
f ok;H jyKjy;D ,Zfyal Zmfapjcif; tp&Sad om
bmoma&;csKyjf c,frw
I u
Ydk kd rif;vufxuf tvl;tvJccH MhJ u&&Smavonf/ odaYk omf Ak'b
momum; tprwk;H
ao;/ ol\tmPmpufra&mufaom e,fjynfwkdY xGef;um;vsufyif &Sdavao;\/
jybmurif;Mu;D uHawmfuek af vaomf om;awmfMu;D &mZ0'eonf zcif\&ku
d &f mawmfukd qufvufp;dk pH
avonf/ rmv0jynf&Sifbk&ifa'0*kwonf qquFmrif;ESifhr[mrdwfjyKjyD;vQif &mZ,0'erif;MuD;\a,mufz
awmf umnuAZrif;tm;owf ESrawmf&mZ,oQ&t
D m; rawmfrw&m; apmfum;onfudk Mum;odawmfral vonf/
xkdodkYMum;od&vwfaomf tvGefyif tcJraMuEkdifbJ&Sd&um; umnuAZjynfokdY csufcsif; ppfcsDawmfrljyD;vQif
a0'*kwrif;tm; ESdrfeif;awmfrlavonf/ odkY&mwGif qquFm\owfjzwfrIaMumifh &mZ,0'erif;MuD;rSm tedp
a&muf&avonf/
&mZ,0'erif;MuD; tedpa&mufvwfaomf nDawmf[oQ0'oDvm'dMwrif;onf tpfukdawmf\t&kduf
t&mudk qufvufp;dk pHawmfral vonf/ rif;onf umr&lywkid ;f ukd pk;d pHawmfral om Amqu&fAm&fEiS rhf [mrdwf
zGUJ jy;D vQif qquFmodYk ppfaMunmavonf/ av;ESpw
f idk w
f idk f aMumufrufz,
G af umif;aomppfyMJG u;D jzpfc&hJ avonf/
aemufq;Hk olonf qmquFmrif;\toufZ0D ed u
f kd acRvu
dk jf y;D onfah emuf wpfyg;aomEkid if w
H u
Ydk v
kd nf; wku
d cf u
dk f
atmifjrifawmfrlav&m ol\tifyg,mMuD;rSm wpfaeYwpfjcm; us,f0ef;vmavawmh\/

w&kwfbkef;awmfMuD; [la0qif
rif;vufxufwiG f [la0qiftrnf&adS om w&kwb
f ek ;f Mu;D wpfyg;onf tdE,
d jynfoYkd bk&m;zl;a&mufc
hJ
zm[D,efenf;wl rSwfzG,fom;zG,faumif;aom acwf\tajctaeESifhAk'bmomwkdY\taMumif;twKywdrsm;udk
a&;om;xm;cJhavonf/
xkrd w
S w
f rf;rS od&&dS onfrmS ]]&mZ[oQ0'erif;Mu;D onf rif;usiw
hf &m;q,fyg;ESin
hf aD om rif;wpfyg;jzpf
tvSL'get&mvnf; tvGeyf if &ufa&mvSonf[\
l / u0d0gPAonf &mZ*k&jk zpf ]][oQp&dw}} trnf&dS
aom [oQrif;Mu;D \twKyw
d(Biography)ukad &;om;pDu;Hk cJah vonf/ rif;Mu;D onf Ekid if aH wmfo?l Ekid if aH wmfom;
wk\
Yd <u,f0csr;f omrIEiS t
hf usiphf m&dwj zLpifru
I kd tcgcyford ;f vkv
d m;\/ bmomw&m; t,lronf;vSay/ tvk;H pkH
aombmomudk tnDtrQyif axmufyHhonfqkd\/ tedvfcsEaCmqf\ &mZ0if [oQrif;MuD;onf ewf&GmpH
rnfEh pS w
f iG f vk;H 0Ak'b
momukd ouf0if,MHk unfomG ;aMumif;? olonf [la0qiftm; txl;jrwfE;dk MunfnKd vo
S jzifh
umnuAZt&yf ausmif;awmfMuD;wpfaqmifESifhusufoa&r*FvmESifhjynfhpkHaom "rm&kHMuD;wpfckudk aqmuf
34

vkyjf y;D vQif [la0qifxH tjrw


J &m;awmf Mum;emavonf[\
l / rpwma*spaD usmuf"&l \
D pmtkyf zwf&&I jyef
onfrSm ]][oQrif;MuD;onf ewf&GmrpHrD 5-ESpfavmufwGif ]]oaEm oacw}}}rnfaomyGJobifMuD;wpfckudk
qif,ifusif;yavonf/ xkdyGJawmfMuD;odkY [la0qifvnf; <ua&mufcJhonf[l\/
yGo
J bifMu;D udk qif,ifprd ahf omiSm rif;Mu;D onf rsm;pGmukeaf om ausmif;awmfMu;D wku
Yd v
kd nf;aumif;?
,m,DapwDrsm;ESifhrEd&rsm;udkvnf;aumif; us,fjyefYaomajrjyifaqmufvkyfapavonf/ tjyifbufrS ppf
onfawmfwt
Ykd m; jc&H aH pmifah &Smufavonf/ rif;Mu;D onf yxr&uf Mu;D us,af omr[m'geudk ay;vSLawmfrjl y;D
Ak'&kyfyGm;awmfudk OD;acgif;xufodkY yifhawmfrljyD;vQif &[ef;? ykPm;? rif;? rdzk&m; paomta>ct&Htaygif;wkdY
jc&H jH y;D vQif pDwef;vSnv
hf nfawmfral vonf/ xkaYd emuf 2-&ufwidk w
f idk f aeESihf oD0bk&m;udk ylaZmfjyefavonf/
xkdYaemuf &uf 20-wkdifwkdif Ak'&[ef;awmfrsm;ESifhykPm;rsm;tm; vSL'gef;auR;arG;jyefavonf/ xkdYaemuf 10&ufwidk w
f idk f tmZD0u&[ef;wkt
Yd m; auR;arG;jyefavonf/ xdaYk emuf &ufaygif; 30-wkid w
f idk f qif;&Jo?l qif;&Jom;
wdkYtm; t0wftpm;? aq;0g;rsm;ESifhaMu;aiGrsm;udk vSL'gef;jyefavonf/
odkYvQif 75-&ufwkdifwkdif MuD;pGmaomr[m'geudk jyKawmfrljyD;onfaemuf rif;w&m;MuD;\tqkH;pGef
aomaeY rdr\
d ykvo
J ,
G Ef iS ahf &Tb,ufwefqmponfwu
Ydk kd &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; vSL'gef;awmfrjl y;D vQif rdru
d ,
dk w
f idk f
'kvb
&[ef;cHawmfral vonf/ &[ef;rSvx
l u
G jf y;D rSmvnf; olawmfaumif;? oljrwfavmif;wkt
Yd oGijf zifh 0wfqifjy;D
vQif w&m;ESifhomarGUavsmfvsufaeavonf/ 'gwGifruao;bJ rif;jzpfonfrS 5-ESpftwGif; pkaqmif;&&Sd
tyfaom tcGeb
f @mawmfwu
Ydk v
dk nf; wkid ;f jynfudk apmifah &Smuf&efxm;aom qif jrif; vufeufwu
Ydk kd csev
f yS
f
tukeftpif vSL'gef;awmfrlavonf/
txufyg pum;&yfrsm;t& [oQrif;MuD;onf a&SUtzkdY (Theosophy) oabmrsKd;vkd bmomwkdif;ukd
,kHMunfavaomfvnf; aemuftzkdY vkH;0Ak'bmomjzpfoGm;avonfqkd\/ pum;onfvnf; ,kwd&Sd\/

b*Fvm;jynf ygvrif;rsm;
0*Fwkdif;? b*Fvm;jynf qquFmrif;ewf&GmpH uHawmfukefavaomf wkdif;jynfMuD;rSmvnf; tpdwfpdwf
trTmrTmuGjJ ym;jcif;okYd a&muf&avonf/ uGjJ ym;jy;D tcsi;f csi;f roifrh jrwfjzpfaeaomtjcif;t&mudk rcHEidk Mf u
aom wkid ;f oljynfom;wko
Yd nf a*gyva'0trnf&adS om vlynm&SMd u;D wpfO;D tm; rif;ajrm ufMuavonf/ a*gygv
a'0rif;eef;wufjyD;onfhaemuf EkdifiHawmftwGif; jzpfyGm;vsuf&Sdaom qlylaomif;usef;rIMuD;rSm wjznf;jznf;
jidrf;at;oGm;avawmhonf/ if;\rif;qufudkvnf; ygv0Ho [k trnfwGifapavonf/

"rygvrif;
a*gygvrif; ewf&mG pHjy;D aemuf om;awmf "rygvonf c&pf 8-&mpkavmufwiG f qufvufeef;wufjyef
avonf/ ygvrif;wkw
Yd iG f rif;onf ol&owEd iS jhf ynfph aHk om rif;wpfyg;jzpf ol\tifyg,mrSm b*Fvm;jynfrS
,cktcg tmz*efepwefac:aom *Em&wkid ;f odx
Yk d us,jf yefaY vonf/ bD[me,fwiG f ausmaf pmxif&mS ;cJah om
0dur oDvmausmif;awmfMu;D udk rif;vufxufwiG f pwifaqmufvyk af vonf/ if;ausmif;awmf&monf ,cktcg
oQdv0&GmteD;wGif wnf&Sdavonf/
&GmtaMumif;ESiphf yfvsO;f rpwmrmav\ bD[mESiMhf o&dp* Zufw,
D m (Bihar and Orissa District
GAzzteer by Mr.L.S.S.O Malley, I.C.S)pmrsuE
f mS eHygwf233-wGif atmufygtwkid ;f a&;om;xm;avonf/
Silao - Village in the Bihar Subdivision, ten mile South of Bihar, on the Rifgir extention of the
Bakhtiarpur-Bihar light Railway. The village is a large grain mart, and contain a police station. It is said that
the best basmati rice in the district is obtained here, and the place has also a local reputation for the
excellence of it parched rice and its sweatmeat, which before the coming of the railway were mainly sold
to pilgrim on their way to Rajgir Silo contains two tombs and mosque with numerous incriptions in persian
and Arabic characters. The mosque is of ordinary kind without cloisters attached. It is built of stone and
mortar, and the floor in front is paved with stone. The whole of stone was obtained from Hindu or Buddhist
buildings. The pavement is indeed one mass of imbedded pillars, and proves that the building destroyed to

35

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

furnish the profusion of materials must have been numerous and extensive.

t"dyg ,frmS ]]bD[mjrKd U qyf'0D ZD eH ,f &Sad om oQv


D 0&Gmonf bD[mjrKd UrS 10-rkid f a0;uGmaom bw,
d m
,lEiS b
hf [
D m&xm;vkid ;f i,fay:wGif wnf&adS vonf/ if;&Gmonf aumufyo
J ;D ESaH &mif;0,f&mXmewpfck jzpfav
onf/ c&kid ef ,fwiG f yxrwef;pm;jzpfaom bwfprk wDqefukd &GmrSyif &Ekid o
f nf/ if;jyif aumif;rGeaf om
rkefYaMumfrsm;ESifhrkefYqef;rsm;xGufjcif;aMumifh &Gm\trnfrSm xifay:ausmfapmvsuf&Sdavonf/ xkdpm;aomuf
zG,frsm;udk rD;&xm;vrf; razmufvkyfrDuyif &mZj*dK[foGm; bk&m;zl;om;wkdYtm; a&mif;cs&avonf/ oQD0&Gm
AvDMuD;wpfckESifht&kd;*lESpfck&Sd\/ t&dk;*lrsm;ESifhAvDMuD;wGif tm&ADtu&mudk yg&Sm;bmompum;jzifh a&;xkd;xm;
aom ausmufurn;f rsm;&Sad vonf/ AvDausmif;Mu;D rsm;ay: arQmpf ifrygbJ &k;d &k;d rQom jzpfavonf/ a&SUbuf
orHwvif;ukd ausmufjzifh cif;xm;av&m xkyd pn;f rsm;rSm Ak'b
momESi[
hf Ed L bmom0ifwyYkd idk q
f idk af om taqmuf
ttkw
H rYdk S ,lxm;avonf/ vrf;bufu cif;xm;aom orHwvif;ae&mum; ajrxJ jrK yv
f su&f adS om ausmufwidk f
wk\
Yd ae&mjzpfonf/ ,ckuo
hJ Ykd tESt
YH jym;tok;H jyKxm;aom 0wKypn;f rsm;udk jrifjcif;jzifh rGwq
f vifwYdk zsuq
f ;D ypf
aom taqmufttkHrsm;rSm rnfrQrsm;jym; us,fjyefYaMumif;udk xif&Sm;apavonf/
This tradition is explained by the fact Silao is Contraction of Vikamasila, the name of one of most
famous of Buddhist monasteries in India. From Tibetian Chronicles we know that the monastery was a
great seat of learning in 11th Century when it was ruled over by Atisha or Dipankara Srijnana, who had
been proclaimed the Dha- mapala or Buddhist hierarch of Magadha. He left it at the invitation of the king
of Tibet and succeed in reforming the debassed form of Buddhism them prevelent in that country (103853). The monastery of Vikramsila appear to have flourished till the Muhammedan Conquest, when it was
burnt by the invaders. (Report; Arch, Surv. In -dia Vol., VIII: Sarat Chandra Das, Life of Atisha, J.A.S.B
Vol. IX part I 1891)

t"dyg ,frmS ]]oQv


D 0&Gm\ae&monf 0dur oDvmausmif;awmf&mMu;D jzpf[ef vuPm&So
d nf[k tpOf
tvmajymqkMd uavonf/ xkad usmif;awmfMu;D onf tdE,
d jynfwiG f trnfemrausmMf um;cJah om ausmif;awmfMu;D
rsm;xJwiG f wpfausmif;tygt0ifjzpfavonf/ wdAufvrl sK;d wk\
Yd rSww
f rf;rsm;rS od&&dS onfrmS xkad usmif;awmfMu;D
udk twdoQac: 'DyuF&moD&pd smetkycf sKycf ahJ om c&pf 11-&mpkavmufwiG f crf;em;Mu;D us,af om wuov
kd Mf u;D
wpfck jzpfavonf/ olUtm; r*"wkid ;f Mu;D \"rrmru[k ausmMf um;xifay:cJah vonf/ xdt
k &Sio
f nf wdAuf&iS f
bk&if\zdwfrEujyKcsuft& ausmif;awmfMuD;rS xGufcGmjyD;vQif azgufjyefaeaom wdAufomoemudk c&pf
1038-53-ckEpS w
f iG f okwo
f if &Si;f vif;avojzifh atmifjrifawmfral vonf/ 0dur oDvmausmif;awmfMu;D onf
rGwfqvifwkdY usL;ausmf0ifa&muf rD;&IdUzsufqD;ypfavonfwkdifatmif pnfyifcJhavonf/}}
uREkfyfonf xkdae&modkY oGm;a&mufMunfh&Iav&m az:jyyg t&kd;*lMuD;rsm;ESifhAvDMuD;udkyg awGUjrifcJh&
avonf/ xkAd vDukd rGwq
f vifwo
Ydk nf 0dur oDvmausmif;awmfMu;D rS&&Sad om tkwaf usmufwjYdk zifh aqmufvyk f
xm;av&m az:jyvsuf&Sdaom oufaocH0wKMuD;um; ausmufpmygaeaom ausmufjym;rsm;pGm AvD&Sdaejcif;
yifjzpfonf/ ausmif;awmfMuD;rSm ygvrif;rsm; vufxufrStpjyK rGwfqvif0ifa&mufzsufqD;ypfonfxd
oHCmawmfaygif; 6000-cefaY exkid o
f w
D if;ok;H cJah vonf/ xkd 6000-avmufaomoHCmawmfww
Ykd iG f rGwq
f vif
wk\
Yd vufcsuaf Mumifh 4000-rQavmuf aoaMuysupf ;D cJo
h nf[\
l / useo
f C
H mawmf 2000-wkrYd mS tquftoG,f
&Sd&m wdAufjynfodkY xGufajy;Muavonf[lownf;/
rpwm qGmjyq'f\&mZ0if a&;om;xm;onfrSm c&pf 11-&mpkESpfwGif emvEausmif;awmfMuD;rSm
0dur oDvmausmif;avmuf wd;k wufrrI &Sad wmhayg/ 0dur oDvmausmif;onfomvQif r*"wkid ;f ynma&;jyemudk
vG,fulpGm ajz&Sif;ay;cJhavonfqkd\/ odkYaomf usL;ausmf0ifa&mufol rlqvifwdkY\zsufqD;rIum; 0duroDvm
ausmif;awmfMu;D ESiAhf 'k o
moemawmfukd uG,yf aponf r[kwaf o;/ r*"wkid ;f Mu;D \ynma&; tvif;a&mifuykd g
uG,fapavonf[l\/
36

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

"rygvrif; tedpa &mufavaomf om;awmfa'0ygvonf touf 39-ESpw


f iG f eef;wufawmfral vonf/
rif;vufxufwGif [kPf;vlrsKd;wkdYEkdifiHESifhtmoHMo&dpEkdifiHwkdYudk odrf;ykdufatmifjrifavonf/ acwfwGif
*sm0gESio
hf rk wuRe;f &Sib
f &k if AvykMwa'0onf oHwrefwpfO;D tm; apvTwaf wmfrjl y;D vQif emvEwuov
dk Mf u;D
\OypmxJ ausmif;awmfMuD;wpfaqmifudk aqmufvkyfvSL'gef;cJhavonf/

r[Dygvrif;
a'0ygvrif; tedpa&mufjyD;onfhaemuf ygvEkdifiHawmfMuD;rSm wa&GUa&GUqkwf,kwfvmavonf/ xkdY
aMumifh aemufq;Hk rif;jzpfaom r[Dygvonf yXrygv0Hotrnfukd zsuo
f rd ;f 'kw,
d ygvrif;qufukd wnf
axmifavonf/ rif;vufxuf awmifbuftEd ,
d jynfrS apmvrif;wko
Yd nf Ekid if o
H 0Ykd ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
dk af v&m
Mo&dpe,fudk ay;tyfvkduf&avonf/ r[Dygvrif;MuD;onf r[m,mefomoemawmfudk txl;ojzifh MunfndK
awmfral vaomaMumifh wdAufjynfoYkd r[m,mef&[ef;awmfrsm;tm; omoemjyKapvTwjf yefavonf/ ,if;acwf
tcgu b*Fvm;jynfajrmufyikd ;f 'dempyl&'f pd Mww
d rf [myk&af c:aomt&yf&dS r[Dygv'DCaD c:aom ausmif;awmfMu;D
rSm tvGepf nfyifaejyefavonf/ wdAufjynfoYkd omoemjyKapvTwv
f u
dk af omyk*K v
d w
f w
Ydk iG f 0dur oDvmausmif;
tkyMf u;D 'DyuF&moD&pd smerax&fEiS o
hf \
l aemuf r[Dygv\om;awmf e,ygvwku
Yd o
kd m &mZ0if a&;om;az:jyMu
onf/ r[Dygvrif; ewf&mG pHjy;D onfah emuf 0dj*[ygvrif;? 'kw,
d r[Dygvrif;? &mrygvrif;? &mZygvrif;[l
rif;av;yg; qufvufp;dk pHcjhJ y;D aemuf c&pf 900-avmufwiG f rif;qufoOk ;f oGm;avawmhonf/ 'kw,
d ygvrif;wkYd
onfvnf; Ak'bmomudkom t,l&SdMuojzifh b*Fvm;jynfrS Am&mPoDjrdKUxd omoemawmfruG,fy rarS;rdSdef
bJ awmufyvsufyif&Sdavonf/ r[m,mefbkef;MuD;wkdY a&;om;pDukH;cJhaom usrf;wkdYonfvnf; acwfwGif
rsm;pGm ay:xGufcJhavonf/
ygvrif;rsm;aemuf aoerif;wkdYonf tdEd,jynfodkY rlqvifwkdY0ifa&mufwkdufckduf atmifjrifcJhaom
c&pf 12-&mpkxd pd;k pHcMhJ uavonf[q
k &dk jim;vnf; ,cifu rif;rsm;uJo
h Ykd bke;f wefc;dk r&Sad wmhjy/D apmfbmG ;rsm;
tjzpfjzifo
h m e,fy,ftenf;i,frQukd tkycf sKy&f avonf/ tdE,
d jynfMu;D rSm ysupf ;D csed w
f efvmojzifh ,ckuo
hJ Ydk
jzpfvmavonf/ wkdif;wpfyg;om;wkdY tMudrfMudrfwkdufckdufjcif;udk a&S;ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmuyif cHcJh&aomfvnf; nD
nTwjf cif;wnf;[laom tiftm;pkjzifh jyefvnfacsreI ;f cJ&h m *&dwt
f vufZef;'g;ponfwrYdk mS tdE,
d jynfrq
S w
k cf mG
&avonf/ tdEd,jynfMuD;\ysufpD;jcif;odkY a&mufrnfjzpfaom uHMurmqkd;MuD;wGif Ak'omoemawmfMuD;vnf;
yg0if&avonf/ omoemjyKrif;aumif;rif;jrwfrsm; r&Sad wmhjyjD zpf aovke;D vlrrmwpfO;D uJo
h Ykd tiftm;qkw,
f w
k f
vsuf&Sdaom Ak'omoemawmftm; xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufol r[m,mef&[ef;awmfwkdY\rav;pm;rI? 0denf;
w&m;awmfrS azmufjyefusirhf ?I tcsi;f csi;f cku
d &f efa'gojzpfymG ;rI ponfwu
Ydk m; vl'um? 'umrwk\
Yd MunfnKd jcif;
udk qkw,
f w
k af p omoemawmfMu;D tm; ysupf ;D uG,yf apavonf/

omoemqkwf,kwfykHESifhuG,fyykH
The first event that deserves notice in post Gupta period is the disappearance of Buddhism from
land of it's birth. The Palas of Bengal were the last king of India to patronise Buddhism. Under the Senas
the successors of the Palas, Buddhism found to support and began to disappear rapidly. The final stroke
was delivered by the Muslim invaders who drove away all the Buddhists from Bihar. (A New History of
India by Iswari Prasad Page, 142.)

t"dyg,f- rpwmqGm&Djyq'f\tdEd,&mZ0ifopf 142-pmrsufESmwGif a&;om;xm;onfrSm


]]Ak'b
momonf rlvjzpf&m Ekid if aH wmfrS *kwr if;wkv
Yd ufxuf yXra&S;OD;pGmuG,yf cJ&h avonf/ od&Yk mwGif
b*Fvm;jynf\aemufq;Hk &Sib
f &k ifrsm;jzpfMuukeaf om ygvrif;wko
Yd nf Ak'b
momudk ulnaD xmufyMhH uavonf/
aoerif;wkv
Yd ufxufum; wpfpw
Hk pfcak om taxmuftyHu
h rkd Q r&&Sad vaomaMumifh apmvsipf mG aysmufu,
G f
pjyKavjy/D aemufq;Hk rlqvif 0ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
dk o
f w
l u
Ydk Ak'b
mom0iftm;vk;H wkt
Yd m; bD[me,frS armif;xkwf
ypfavawmhonf/
37

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

a'0ygvrif;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


Though the final destruction came in the twelth and thirteenth Centuries, Buddhism had been
declining from the previous Centuries. The Chief Causes of decline were the loss of roval support, the
quarrels amongs the monks and foreign invasions. Besides these there was a lack of piety in the Buddhist
Church. The monks led corr-upt live in monasteries. A new revival of Brahmanism took place under the
leadersship of Kumarilla Bhatta (750 A.D)and Sankracharya (born in 788 A.D). The latter was a Nambudry
Brahmana of Southern India, a profoundly learned man and a philosopher."

t"dyg,frSm- Ak'omoemawmfonf c&pf 12-ESifh13-&mpktwGif; vkH;0uG,fyysufpD;oGm;&aomfvnf;


a&S;ESpf&mpkrsm;uyif wa&TUa&TU qkwf,kwfvmavonf/ uG,fy&jcif;\t"dutaMumif;&if;rSm &Sifbk&ifrsm;\
ulnDaxmufyHhrIudk r&&Sdjcif;? &[ef;awmf tcsif;csif; ckduf&efjzpfyGm;jcif;? if;aemuf rlqvifwkdY0ifa&muf
wkdufckdufjcif;aMumifh jzpfonf/ 'gwGifruao;bJ &[ef;awmfrsm;\0denf;ynwfawmfrS azmufjyefusifh
jcif;aMumifh Ak'bmomausmif;uef taqmuftOD;rsm;ukd vl'um? 'umrwkdY apwem ysufjym;Muavonf/
xkdYjyif c&pf 750-avmufwGif ukrm&Dvb'trSL;&Sdaom ykPm;wkdYonfvnf; [dEL0g'udk pifjydKifwnf
axmifvmMuavonf/ c&pf 788-ckESpfwGif arG;zGm; tdEd,jynfawmifykdif;om; erL'&DykPm;rsKd;jzpfol
tbd"rmbufqkdif&m ynm&SdMuD; qHMumusm&,onfvnf; qewef0g'ukd (0g) urmOD;0g'ukd jyefvnf
xl a xmif a vonf / }}
txufyg ykPm ;ESpOf ;D wko
Yd nfvnf; rdrw
d \
Ydk 0g'ukd wnfaqmufvadk omaMumifh Ak'b
momudk "renf;?
t"renf;wkjYd zifh zsuq
f ;D avonf/ ukrm&Dvb'onf 0*F&mZfwidk ;f ac: b*Fvm;jynfomoemudk zsuq
f ;D av&m
ajrmufbufb*Fvm;jynf&dS r[Dygv'DCaD usmif;awmfMu;D ESihf if;ausmif;awmftxJwiG f oDwif;ok;H aexkid Mf uukeaf om
oHCmawmft&SifjrwfwkdYrSm ysufpD;jcif;odkY a&muf&avonf/ b*Fvm;jynfwGif wpfckwnf;aom ausmif;MuD;
r[Dygv'DCDum; rlqvifwkdYzsufqD;onfhwkdifatmif rwnf&SdawmhjyD/

omoemzsuf qHMumusm&,
yk&SrdMworkj'*kwqmquFmpaom rif;wdkYonf jrwfpGmbk&m;omoemawmfukd enf;trsKd;rsKd;jzifh zsuf
qD;cJhonf[k qkd&jim;aomfvnf; omoemawmfMuD;um; vkH;0epfjrKyfroGm;EkdifcJhay/ arS;rSdefwpfvSnfh awmufy
wpfvSnfhqdkovkdjzpfjyD; [dELrif;wkdYvufxuf [dELomoemxGef;vif;awmufajymif Ak'bmomrSm arS;rSdef
cJah vonf/ Ak'b
momwd\
Yk vufxufoYkd usjyefvQiv
f nf; Ak'o
moemawmfrmS Munfvifawmufajymif [dEL
omoemawmfrmS arS;rSed cf ahJ vonf/ okt
Yd m;jzifh rSw
d w
f w
Hk pfcg zGiw
hf w
Hk pfvn
S jhf zpf&jcif;rSm &Sib
f &k if\t,l0g'
wnfavonf/ c&pf(8)&mpk ukecf geD;ESi(hf 9)&mpkoYkd a&mufvwfaomf Ak'o
moemawmfMu;D rSm &Sib
f &k if\axmufyhH
rIuif;av&um; txl;ojzifh qkw,
f w
k v
f su&f adS v&m qHMumusm&,onfvnf; qewe0f g'(urmOD;usr;f *efukd
vku
d ef m&aom0g'uk)d ukd wnfaxmifavonf/ qewew
f &m;udk wnfaxmifvadk om qMumusm&,onf Ak'
bmom&[ef;awmfwkdYtm; rw&m;vufeuf? "g;vufeuf? pum;vufeufwnf;[laom vufeuf 3-rsKd;wkdYjzifh
ESdrfeif;jyD;vQif tdEd,jynftv,fydkif;ESifhawmifydkif;omoemudk pwifzsufqD;avawmh\/ xkdacwfwGif&Sdaeaom
tv,fykdif;ESifhawmifydkif; tdEd,om;&[ef;awmfwdkYrSm omoemawmfudk jyKpkapmifha&Smufrnfh omoemh'g,um
rif;rsm;ESifhuif;a0;cJhjyDjzpf y&d,wdpmayusrf;*efwkdYudk roifMum;EkdifawmhyJ 0dyem"l&ukdom xrf;aqmif
vsu&f MdS uavonf/ qHMumusm&,um; Ak'b
mmomwkdY Mu;D pd;k vsuf &So
d nfukd rvkv
d m;aomyk*K v
d w
f pfO;D jzpfonf/
xkdYjyif [dELrsm; Ak'bmomjzpfoGm;&ykH? Ak'bmompmayusrf;*efrsm;udk vltrsm;vkdufpm;rIaMumifh [dELurmOD;
usr;f rsm;aumae&yk?H usr;f rsm;aumaejcif;aMumifh [dEL wkYd pm&dww
&m;rS csKUd ,Gi;f aeMuykH ponfwu
Ydk kd od&&dS ojzifh
ESvkH;rom,m jzpf&avonf/ xdkYjyif Ak'bk&m; igwkdY\qGm&ac: xm0&bk&m;&Sif\ 9-ckajrmuf t0wm&
("r'w
l )jzpfygvsuEf iS Ahf 'k b
momwko
Yd nf xm0&bk&m;ukd ,kMH unfrrI &SMd u/ [dEL bmom0ifwu
Ydk m; a*gwrbk&m;
tm; ,kMH unfMuonf/ oabmodYk ouf0ifwidk ;f ouf0ifwidk ;f Ak'b
momwkt
Yd ay: tcJraus zsuq
f ;D vk&d
um; rdrt
d jzpfukd t0wm&[k trnfay;jy;D vQif qewew
f &m;udk tpjyK a[mMum;avawmhonf/ xkpd Oftcg
wke;f u tdE,
d jynfawmifyikd ;f ESit
hf v,fyidk ;f udk apmvrif;wku
Yd tkycf sKy
f 0*Fwidk ;f udk aoerif;wkYd tkycf sKyaf vonf/
xdkrif;wkdYonf [dELbmom0ifrsm;jzpfMuavaomaMumifh ta&;MuD;vQif aoG;eD;w,fqkdbdouJhodkY 0g'csif;wl&m
38

qHMumusm&,tm; tm;ay;ulnjD y;D vQif Ak'o


moemawmfukd pwifzsuq
f ;D Muavonf/ if;rif;wku
Yd ,
kd w
f idk v
f nf;
qHMumusm&,tm; Mwo
d QP? &mrpaom bk&m;wku
Yd o
hJ Ykd qGm&ac: xm0&bk&m;\t0wm&wpfa,muf[k ,kH
MunfMuonf/ zsuq
f ;D yku
H m; qHMumusm&,onf awmifbuftEd ,
d jynfwiG f aexkid o
f w
D if;ok;H Muukeaf om &[ef;
awmfwt
Ykd m; 0g'jyKd iyf o
JG Ykd wufa&mufMu&rnf[k &m*sijf 'mapmvrif;\ trdeaYf wmfjzifh zdwaf c:avonf/ &[ef;
awmfwdkYu yd#uwfawmfudk Ekdifeif;pGm rwwfuRrf;Muojzifh qHMumusm&,\0g'jydKifyGJokdY rwufa&muf0Hhacs/
xkt
d cg qHMumusm&,onf &m*sijf 'mapmvrif;tm; ud,
k w
f idk zf w
d af c:ay;&ef wku
d w
f eG ;f vwfaomf rif;onfvnf;
qHMumusm&,qkw
d idk ;f oabmwljy;D vQif rwufa&mufaom&[ef;tm; oefvsuEf iS Ohf ;D acgif;udk jzwfrnf[k &ifo
h ;D
pGmzdwaf c:avonf/ &[ef;awmfwrYdk mS bk&ift
h rdeaYf wmfukd rvGeq
f ef0o
hH jzifh 0g'jyKd iyf MJG u;D okYd pdwrf yg? tvdrk wlyJ
ESiw
hf ufa&mufMu&avonf/ qHMumusm&,um; [dEL ESiAhf 'k b
momusr;f *eftapmifapmifwu
Ydk kd ESpYH yfpmG wwfuRr;f
olwpfOD;jzpfonfhtjyif pum;t&m <u,f0vSayonf/ qHMumusm&,ESifh&[ef;awmfwkdY\oabmwl uwdjyK
csurf mS tu,f [dEL w&m;awmfonf Ak'w
&m;awmfavmuf tqDtESpt
f jynfph jHk im;tH?h igwkt
Yd m;vk;H Ak'0 g'udk
cH,Ml uygrnf/ oifwAYdk 'k b
momonf igwk[
Yd Ed L bmomavmuf tajctjrpfr&Sjd im;tH?h oifwt
Ydk m;vk;H [dEL bmom
\t,l0g'udk cH,Ml u&rnf/ &[ef;awmfwrYdk mS &mZ'Pfukd rcH0o
hH jzifh pdwrf ygbJEiS hf oabmwlvu
dk &f avonf/
0g'jyKd iMf u&m qHMumusm&,\y&d,m,fukd jyefvnfracsyEkid af om&[ef;awmfwrYdk mS &I;H jcif;odYk a&muf&avonf/
qHMumusm&,u oifwkdYAk'bmmomonf igwkdY[dELbmomavmuf wefzkd;r&SdaMumif; xif&Sm;jyD/ Ak'bmom\
rlvblwwnf&mbmomrSmvnf; [dEL bmomjzpfonf[q
k jdk y;D vQif uwdtwkid ;f ouf0ifapavonf/ jiif;qefaom
&[ef;wdkYtm; qHMumusm&,onf tqifoifhpkxm;aom wdwd&[ef;wkdYtm; zrf;qD;ap yGufyGufqlaeaom
axmywftkd;MuD;xJodkY t&Sifvwfvwfxnfhjcif;jzifh rsm;pGmukefaomoHCmawmfwkdY\ toufZD0defrSm axmywfyl
tkd;MuD;xJ jywfuif;oGm;&avonf/ enf;tm;jzifh wjcm;rsm;pGmae&mwkdYvnf; zsufqD;cJhao;\/ qewef
w&m;udk a[mMum;ojzifhvnf; rsm;pGmaomAk'bmom0ifwkdYtm; [dELbmomodkY ouf0ifapavonf/
yk&rS Md wpaomrif;wko
Yd nf omoemawmfukd zsuq
f ;D cJah omfvnf; aemufwufvmrif;wko
Yd nf Ak'b
momxJrS
trsm;qkH;jzpfjcif;aMumifh omoemawmf ruG,fyEkdifcJhay/ qHMumusm&, zsufqD;jyD;onfaemuftzdkYum; rnf
onfhomoemjyKrif;rSvnf; ray:vmonfhjyif r[mar'ifwkdY\ "g;? rD;paom vufeufwkdYjzifhom ed*kH;urwf
tqkH;owfvkduf&avonf/

wdkYbk&m;qkdaompum; rSefEkdifygrnfavm
Ak'b
&k m;onf wkb
Yd &k m;? Ak'b
momonf wkb
Yd mom Ak'b
momESi[
hf Ed L bmomqkw
d m trnfrQomuGv
J
JG
oabmum; twlwyl gyJponfjzifh tpOf0g'jzefaY vh&adS om [dEL wdt
Yk xJrS yk&rS Md w? qHMumusm&, paomyk*K v
d f
wko
Yd nf Ak'b
momwkt
Yd ay: &uf&ufpufpuf ,kwrf mcJah om a&S;acwfukd jyefvnfowdoaH 0*&p&mMu;D wpfcyk if
jzpfayownf;/ ,ckacwf [dEL wku
Yd m; Ak'& yk yf mG ;awmftm; trsm;tjym; &Scd ;dk Mu\/ odaYk omf b,fvo
dk abmxm;
ESifh&Sdckd;Muw,fqkdwmudkod&Sd&ef vkdtyfayonf/

t0wm&ac: "r'lwtaMumif;
[dELwkdYonf Ak'&kyfyGm;awmftm; &Sdckd;umrQjzifh Armjynf&SdAk'bmom0ifwkdYonf [dELrsm;udk Ak'bmom
pm&if;xJ xnfMh uavonf/ xdu
k o
hJ jYkd zpf&jcif;\taMumif;&if;udk &SmazGMunfah omtcg olwpfyg;u 0g'jzefjY cif;
aMumifo
h mjzpf rdr\
d ud,
k yf idk
f Pfjzifh [dEL ESiAhf 'k b
momwd\
Yk oabmw&m;tm;jzifh a&maESmrI&ydS ?Hk uGmjcm;ykw
H Ydk
udk od&o
dS u
l m; tvGeyf if &Sm;vSayonf/
taMumif;qkdaomf jrefrmvlrsKd;xJrS [dELpmayudk ESHYpyfatmif avhvmzl;ol r&Sdjcif;aMumifhjzpfonf/
uREyfk w
f t
Ydk zdrYk mS um; rsm;pGmuGv
J v
JG su&f o
dS nfuo
kd m awGU&ayonf/ txl;qefu
Y siv
f su&f adS om t,ltqrSm [dEL
wdo
Yk nf xm0&bk&m;udk ,kMH unf Ak'b
momwku
Yd m; xm0&bk&m;udk tvsO;f r,kMH unfjcif;aMumifyh if jzpfonf/
[dELwkdY,kHMunfaom qGm&ac: xm0&bk&m;qkdonfum; awm? awmif? a&ajr? ork'&mESifho0dnmPu?
t0dnmPu ouf&o
dS ufrw
hJ u
Ydk kd zefqif;ay;wwfaom xm0&bk&m;jzpf if;bk&m;rS apvTwv
f u
dk af om t0
39

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


wm&(0g)"r'w
l (9)yg;&So
d nf/ a*gwr&Siaf wmfb&k m;rSm (9)ck ajrmufjzpfaMumif;ESio
hf Q0d yl&mPf? AdoQPyl&mPf?
t*eDy&l mPfEiS t
hf 0wm&yl&mPfusr;f wkw
Yd iG f a&;om;xm;avonf/ t0wm&\t"dyg ,frmS tMuiftcgu urm
avmuMu;D ormtmZD0w&m;wko
Yd nf uG,yf vsuf rdpm 0g'Dt,l&adS omolw\
Ykd ygyw&m;onf vTr;f rk;d &Sad ecJt
h ?hH
xkt
d cg qGm&ac:aom xm0&bk&m;&Sio
f nf avmuolavmuom;taygif;wkt
Yd m; w&m;a&at;tjrKd uaf q;
wkdufauR;&ef apvTwfvkdufaom "r'lwukd t0wm&[kac:onf/ (0g) xm0&bk&m;ocif\udk,fpm;awmf[k
ac:onf/ xkt
d 0wm&wku
Yd m; &mr? oDwm? *aPoQ? 'k&*? Mwo
d QP? ol&wD? [Ekrmef? AdEk;d ESiahf *gwr
&SifawmfwkdY jzpfonfqkd\/
Ak'b
momusr;f *efrsm;t&qkyd grl a*gwr&Siaf wmfb&k m;onf okar"mb0rStpjyK av;oacsEF iS u
hf rm
wpfodef;umvywfvkH; yg&rDawmftqlqlwkdYudk jznfhusifhawmfrljyD;rS bk&m;tjzpfokdY a&muf&Sdawmfrlavonf[k
qkjd cif;aMumifh tqkyd g [dEL yl&mPfusr;f tqkEd iS hf rk;d ESiahf jrMu;D ru uGmjcm;vSavonf/ xkjYd yifwpf0 Ak'b
momwkYd
tvkdtm;jzifh &kyf? emrf (2)yg;wkdY\uif;jywf&mtrSef jynfedAmef? wpfenf;tm;jzifh Zmwd? Z&m? Asm"d? r&P
paomwpfq,fw
h pfyg;aomrD;taygif;rS uif;vGw&f mtrSef jynfeAd m ef[ak c:avonf/ [dEL bmom0ifwaYdk wmifw
h
avh&adS om armu(armuf&)S edAm efum; xku
d o
hJ rYkd [kw/f emrf &kyEf pS yf g;tpkEH iS yhf if(armuf&)S armuoYdk a&mufonf
&Sdaomf tkdjcif;? emjcif;? y#doaEwnf aejcif;? aojcif;w&m;wkdYrS uif;a0;tyfjyD(0g)rD; wpfq,fhwpfwefudk
ausmv
f eG t
f yfjy[
D k (jA[
d "&anm yedousr;f )wGif tus,w
f 0ifah &;om;xm;avonf/ xkaYd Mumifh olw\
Ydk armuf&S
w&m;ESifhigwkdYedAmefonfvnf; tvGefyif uGmjcm;vSayonf/
xkrd w
S pfyg; jrwfpmG bk&m;ud,
k af wmfjrwfMu;D onf bk&m;tjzpfoYdk ra&mufrD a&SUtzdYk O'uvmr? tVm&
vmrac: [dEL a,m*DMu;D wkEYd iS Ohf &ka0vawmwGif tbd"rmoabmudk enf;cHjy;D aqG;aEG;wkid yf ifav&m [dEL w&m;
onf armuom tqk;H &Sjd cif;aMumifh udavomaESmiftrd rf S wu,fwrf; rxGuaf jrmufEikd [
f k od&adS wmfral vonf/
&kyfESifhemrfonf jzpfjcif;wnf;[laom taMumif;w&m;&Sdygvsuf ysufjcif;w&m;um; olwkdYt,l0g'xJr&Sd[k
odawmfrjl y;D vQif wpfu,
dk w
f nf;om edAm efa&mufaMumif; w&m;aumif;w&m;rSeu
f dk &Smawmfral vonf/ rMumjrifh
rDyif aAm"dr@Kdiftjyif oAnKwxif&Sm;bk&m;tjzpfodkY a&muf&Sdawmfrlavonf/
[dEL wko
Yd nf rnfoyYdk if Ak'b
&k m;tm; ,kMH unfonf[k qkjd im;tHv
h nf; if;wk\
Yd t"duaumfa&mf&mjzpfaom
&mr oDwm paombk&m;wku
Yd o
hJ Ykd av;av;pm;pm;r[kwMf uacs/ uREyfk o
f nf [dEL wk\
Yd wd&pwefac: tjrwfq;Hk aom
ae&mrsm;jzpfMuaom [&d'gG &? t,k',
? jAEd m ref? rxl&mpaomjrKd Uwko
Yd Ykd ud,
k w
f idk o
f mG ;a&mufjy;D vQif ud;k uG,q
f nf;
uyfyw
Hk u
Ydk kd tuJcwfcahJ vonf/ Am&mPoDjrKd Uum; Mumjrifph mG aexkid yf nmoifMum;cJo
h jzifh &S&d o
dS rQaom [dEL
bk&m;&Sdckd;ausmif;rsm;odkY tMudrfaygif;rsm;pGm <ua&mufMunfh&IcJhzl;\/ yk&mPfusrf;rsm;yg&Sdaom (9)yg;aom
t0wm&wk\
Yd &kyyf mG ;awmf a*gwr&kyyf mG ;awmfrw
S pfyg; tm;vk;H aomt0wm&wk\
Yd &kyyf mG ;awmfrsm;om&S
d a*gwr
&kyyf mG ;awmfuu
kd m; rnfonf[
h Ed L rE&D rSmrSvnf; rawGU&S&d acs/ trSet
f m;jzifq
h adk omf (9)ckajrmufxm;jcif;aMumifh
uREkfyfwkdY\vufq,facsmif;udk [dELbk&m;&Sdckd;ausmif;okdY oGm;wkdif;oGm;wkdif; tokH;rjyKMu&avonfrSm 0rf;enf;
zG,&f mMu;D wpfck jzpfavonf/ olw\
Ydk yl&mPfusr;f rsm;udk olwu
Ydk ,
kd u
f vnf; r,kMH unf&ma&mufavonf/ xkaYd Mumifh
[dELawGajymovkd [dELESifhAk'bmomrwlEkdif tuGmMuD; uGmjcm;vSawmhonfomwnf;/

tpvmrf
[*s&wfrl[ruf/
/c&pf 570-rwkdifrDu at&SwkdufMuD;\taemufbufydkif;wGif wnf&Sdaom
tm&yfjynfonf ,cktcguJhodkY tpvmrfomoemxGef;um;&m wkdif;jynfMuD; r[kwfao;aMumif;? xkdwkdif;jynf
us,fjyefYaom oJuEm&MuD;rsm;&Sdjcif;aMumifh aumufyJoD;ESHrsm; rjzpfxGef;Ekdif/ xkdodkYrjzpfxGef;Ekdifjcif;aMumifh
wkdif;oljynfom;wdkYrSm trsm;tm;jzifh ypnf;rJhb0wGif aexkdifMu&avonf/ bmomtm;jzifh tcsKdUopfyifwkdYudk
ud;k uG,Mf u\/ tcsKUd um; tkwaf usmufwu
Ydk kd uk;d uG,Mf u\/ odt
Yk rsK;d rsK;d uk;d uG,v
f su&f \
dS / if;wk\
Yd bmomudk
trnfrn
S &hf efyif cJ,Of;avonf/ tusiphf m&dwt
m;jzifv
h nf; tcsi;f csi;f owfjzwfjcif;? vk,ufjcif;paom 'kp&dw
tavhtvmrsm;om &Sdavonf/ odkdYjzpfaepOf c&pf 570-ckESpfwGif [*s&wfrl[rufukd aum0f&pfrnfaom
olqif;&JrsKd; y#doaEwnfarG;zGm;avonf/ olonf i,fpOftcgumvuyif taygif;taz:wkdYrS uif;
wpfu,
kd w
f nf; qdwjf ird pf mG aexkid w
f wfaom tavhtvm&do
S nf/ t&G,o
f aYdk &mufvwfaomf olonf rumjrKd U
40

wGif&Sdaom a[&mrnfaomawmifMuD;\vkdPf*lwGif wpfudk,fwnf; ur|mef;w&m;ukd pGJjrJpGm tm;xkwfav&m


Pfwnf;[laom tvif;a&mifudk &&So
d nf qk\
d / touf 40-&Sad omtcg olonf wkid ;f jynfukd vSnv
hf nf
w&m;a[majymavonfum; tvm[laom xm0&bk&m;&Sifonf&Sd\/ xkdxm0&bk&m;&Sifonf urmMuD;udk
apmifah &Smufvsu&f adS vonf/ ig tvmrSay;oem;awmfral om uk&efrnfaomusr;f pmtkyv
f nf; &S\
d / oifwo
Ydk nf
tvmt&Sifjrwf\EIwfuygXfawmfjzpfaom uk&efusrf;pm ygonfhtwkdif;om usifhMuHtm;xkwfMuukefavmh/
oifwo
Ydk nf tvmocifukd 0wfjyKMuavmh/ tvmrSwpfyg; 0wfjyKp&m oifwYdk r&S/d rnforl qkd xkvyk u
f jzpfEidk f
onfh bk&m;&kyrf sm;udk tb,faMumifh uk;d uG,Mf u&oenf;/ xkb
d &k m;rsm;udk oifwu
Ydk omaus;Zl;jyK&\/ oifwu
Ydk kd
jyef aus;Zl;jyKonf[lr&Sd/ oifwkdYonf wpfaeY(5)Mudrf &Sdckd;avmh/ xkdokdY&Sdckd;aumfa&mfylaZmfcJhonf&Sdaomf
tvmonf oifwkdY\pmo,udk jyD;pD;apvwHY/ ,if;uJhodkYyif a[mMum;jim;vnf; tm&yfvlrsKd;wdYkum; ol\
aemufoYkd rvku
d Mf uacs/ ol\r,m;onfomvQif yGOJ ;D xGut
f pvmrfbmomxJo0Ykd ifvmavonf/ wcsKUd um; ol
\toufudkyif aoaMumif;MuHMuav&m rl[rufrSm rumjrdKUrS ar'demjrdKUodkY xGufajy;&avonf/ xdkjrdKU ol
onf wynfv
h ufom;rsm;pGmwku
Yd kd pkaqmif;jy;D vQif tm&yfjynftESt
YH jym; vku
d v
f w
H &m;a[mcdik ;f avonf/ rMumjrifh
rD tm&yfjynfMuD;wpfckvkH; tpvmrfw&m;awmf\tvkdokdY vkdufygoGm;Muavonf/ wkdif;jynf\tusifhpm&dw
onfvnf; tpvmrfw&m;awmf\tvif;a&mifaMumifh wpfwpfp yaysmufoGmm;avonf[l\/ c&pf 635ckESpfwGif t*s&wfrl[rufonf ar'demjrdKU tvmocif\tmPmawmfudk emcHoGm;&avonf[l\/

tpvmrftifyg,m
xkdacwftcgu tm&yfvlrsKd;wkdY\t"dutvkyfMuD;um; tpvmrftifyg,m csJUxGif&efjzpfavonf/
olwo
Ydk nf rdrw
d ,
Ydk MHk unf&m tpvmrfw&m;awmfMu;D \rsK;d aphrsm;udk urmvk;H Mu;D ay:wGiw
f if pdu
k yf sK;d vkad v&um;
xuf0ef;usifEkdifiHrsm;ukd wnDwnTwfwnf; 0ifa&mufwkdufckdufodrf;ydkufjyD;vQif cvdzmac:aom q&mMuD;wkdYudk
omoemjyKapavonf/ rl[ruftedpa&mufjyD;onfESifh aemiftESpfwpf&mrQ Mumvwfaomf ajrmuftmz&du
wdkuf&Sd tD&wf? tD&ef? tD*spf? ygvufpwkdif;? wl&uD? qpfA&D;,m; paomjynfwkdYrSm tpvmrfw&m;awmf\
vTr;f rk;d jcif;udck &H avonf/ c&pf tESpf 570-avmufu taphrQ ysK;d ay;cJah om tpvmrfomoemMu;D rSm wa&GUa&GU
tjrpfqufjyD; pnfyifjyefYyGm;vmcJhav&m ,ckuREkfyfwkdYacwfwGif uka# 40-rQavmufaom vlOD;a&ukd vuf&
odrf;ydkufxm;avawmhownf;/

tdE,
d jynf ESihf rlqvif
toQ0'eoDvm'dMwrif;Mud; ewf&GmpHjyD;onfhaemuf c&pf 700-tpavmufup tdEd,jynftvkH;udk
odrf;ydkuftkyfcsKyfrif;vkyfEkdifaom r[m&mZ"d&mZbGJUxl;cHrif;rsm; r&SdawmhjyD/ wpfjrdKUwpfe,f wpfjynfwpfrif;
qko
d vkjd zpfjy;D trsK;d rsK;d uGjJ ym;vsu&f adS vonf/ okzYd &kzd &J jyKd uv
JG su&f adS epOf tm&yfjynfom; tm*smZfrnfaom
tm&yfrlqvifppfAkdvfMuD;onf c&pf 8-&mpkukefcgeD;wGif 'g[d&ftrnf&Sdaomf odEK&Sifbk&iftm; 0ifa&muf
wkdufckdufavonf/ 'g[d&fbk&if\&Jwif;pGm ckcHwkdufckdufrIaMumifh tm&yfppfonfawmfwkdYrSm rdrdwkdYwkdif;jynfodkY
qkwfcGmajy;Mu&avonf/

rl[ruf bdefumpif
'kw,
d wpfzef rl[rub
f ed u
f mpifrnfaom tm&yfvil ,fppfAv
dk w
f pfa,mufonf 3-ESpw
f idk w
f idk f xyfr
H
odEKe,fudk xkd;ppfqifavaomf 'g[d&frif;rSm if;\vufcsufjzifh tedpa&muf&avonf/ Muif&mawmf tedp
a&mufavjyD[laomowif;udk r[m&mPdodEKrwDMum;&avaomf ukd,fwkdifppfOD;pD;um wkdufckdufjyefavonf/
rnfokdYyif &JpGrf;owd&Sd&Sd ckcHwkdufckdufavaomfvnf; tiftm;MuD;rm;vSaom rl[rufbdefumpif\tiftm;udk
rEkid ef if;&um; rdrw
d u
Ydk ,
kd u
f kd axmywfrsm;jzifh oGe;f avmif;um aemufygppfonfawmfrsm;ESit
hf wl rD;ykMH u;D xJoYkd
ckefqif;ojzifh r&PyGJ0ifoGm;avonf/ xkda&mtcgrSp odEKe,frSm rlqvifvufatmufcHjzpfvmavonf/
41

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

qAkw*def
c&pf 10-&mpktv,favmufwGif qAkw*deftrnf&Sdaom *ZeDjrdKUapmfbGm; tmz*efepwefjynfom;
rlqvifonf yef*syfe,fodkY 0ifa&mufwkdufckdufjyefavonf/ xkdacwfwGif yef*syfjynfudk tpkd;&aomrif;rSm
Z,ygvjzpf olonf wpfyg;aomrif;wk\
Yd tultnDjzifh jyefvnfcck w
H u
dk cf u
kd af v&m qAkw* ed rf mS tmz*efjynf
odkY jyefvnfqw
k cf mG &avonf/ aemufrsm;rMumrD xkq
d Akw* ed o
f nf odEK e,foYkd 0ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
dk af v&m tm&yf
jynfom;rlqvifwrYdk mS ppf&;HI ojzifh rdrw
d XYdk meDojYdk yefomG ;Muavonf/ qAkw* ed f tedpa &mufonf&adS omf 'kw,
d
om;awmf plvwefrl[rufonf *ZeDjrdKUukd odrf;ydkuftkyfcsKyf rif;vkyfjyefavonf/ tdEd,jynf&SdjrdKUMuD;rsm;wGif
a&T? aiG? &wemaygrsm;ykEH iS ahf usmif;bk&m;wkYd a&T? aiG trsm;tjym;&Sad eaMumif;udk Mum;od&aomtcg olonf
bcif\enf;wl yef*syjf ynfukd 0ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
kd af v&m t&G,v
f eG
f tkrd if;rpGr;f jzpfaeaom Z,ygvrif;Mu;D rSm
olUtm; rwGef;vSefEkdifojzifh rD;ykHMuD;xJodkY ckefqif;ojzifh tedpa&muf&avonf/

rl[rufa*:&D
c&pf 1191-ckEpS rf mS rl[ruaf *:&Dtrnf&adS omtmz*efppfAv
dk Mf u;D wpfO;D onf tdE,
d jynfxo
J Ykd usL;ausmf
0ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
dk jf yefav&m ok;H ykEH pS yf cHk efaY vmufaom e,fy,frsm;rSm ol\vufatmufou
Ydk sa&muf&avonf/
a*:&D0ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
dk pf Ofu jyx
D &DG mZf(yx0D&mZ)rnfaomrif;rSm a'vDjrKd Uudt
k pk;d & Z,csE& rnfaomrif;rSm
Am&mPoDtygt0ifjzpfaom umaemZf(umodu&mZfwidk ;f )udk tpk;d &avonf/ xkrd if;wko
Yd nf tcsi;f csi;f roifh
jrwfMuojzifh wkdufcdkufvsuf&Sdavonf/ okdYjzpfaepOf a*:&Donf ppfonfawmf tvkH;tcJESifh0ifa&mufum
jyw
D &GDd mZfudk xk;d ppfqifwu
dk cf u
kd af vawmhonf/ jyw
D &DG mZfonf a,mufzawmfoQr&fqif\tultnDjzifh jyif;xefpmG
ckcw
H u
dk cf u
kd yf gaomfvnf; atmifjrifjcif;odYk ra&mufEidk yf J a*:&D\vufcsujf zifh usq;Hk &avonf/ owif;udk
Muif&mawmf oH,w
k r zd &k m;Mu;D Mum;&avaomf ,rkeH mjrpfxo
J Ykd ckeq
f if;ojzifh rdru
d ,
kd u
f kd tqk;H pD&ifomG ;avonf/

ukwfbG'defESifhbwfwD,mcdv*sD
rl[rufa*:&DESifhAkdvfrSL;rsm;jzpfMuaom ukwfbG'deftJbwfESifhbwfwD,mcdv*sDwkdYonf ,lyDe,fodkY vm
a&mufcg Am&mPoDjynf&h iS f bk&ifZ,csE& ESit
hf w
D m0rnfaom ppfajrjyif aMumufrufz,
G af umif;aom ppfyMJG u;D
udk qifETJ&avonf/ ppfyGJMuD; Z,csE&rif;usqkH;ojzifh cEma<u&avonf/

ppf&IH;&jcif;taMumif;
a'vD&iS b
f &k if jyw
d &DG mZfrif; usq;Hk avjy[
D al omowif;udk Z,csE& rif;Mum;avaomf e,fpyfoYdk r0ifrD
uyif wifMuKd wku
d cf u
dk v
f adk ompdw&f aSd vonf/ od&Yk mwGif rif;Mu;D onf rnforYdk nfyHk ckc&H rnfukd &mZm*k&jk zpf
aom [dELykPm;rsm;ESifhwkdifyifav&m ykPm;ynm&Sdrsm;u odkYrdefYqkdavonf/
]]jrwfaomrif;Mu;D ? igwkYd [dEL t,l0g'tm;jzifh ow0grsm;tm; owfjzwfro
I nf r[mygyMu;D wpfcjk zpf
[dEL w&m;ESiq
hf efu
Y siaf vonf/ tu,f toifrif;Mu;D onf rlqvifwEYdk iS phf pfcif;jyKd icf t
hJ ?hH rsm;pGmukeaf omvl?
wd&pmefwo
Ykd nf aoaMuysupf ;D jcif;odYk a&muf&ukev
f w/YH xko
d aYkd &mufcahJ omf toifrif;Mu;D onf raumif;aom
tukokdvftrIudk usL;vGef&ma&mufonfjzpf igwdkY\t&SifqGm&u ESpfjcdKufrnfr[kwf/ igwkdYonf qGm&
&Siaf wmftvdt
k wkid ;f jA[mjynfrq
S if;oufvmaom vlrsK;d jzpf igwdt
Yk ay:okYd usa&mufvwaYH om 'kut
pkukd
qGm&t&Siu
f wm;qD;vdrrhf nf/ xkaYd Mumifh "g;vSH av; paom vufeufwjYdk zifh rckcb
H J cE=D onf;cHjcif;wnf;
[laom vufeufjzifh ckcH&ef}}tMuHay;Muavonf/}}
&Sib
f &k ifonfvnf; ykPm ;wk\
Yd pum;udk vku
d ef mjy;D onfu
h m cEv
D ufeufjzifh ckcH aH vonf/ ,lyeD ,ftv,f
ydik ;f odx
Yk d rlqvifwo
Ydk nf wHcg;r&Sd "g;r&Sb
d J rdrw
d idk ;f jynfuo
hJ Ykd ab;&efuif;rJph mG 0ifa&mufMuav&m ppfvrf;us&m
wpfavQmufv;Hk &Sd Ak'a usmif;cef;rsm;ESi[
hf Ed L ausmif;uefrsm;udzk suq
f ;D jcif;? &[ef;? ykPm ;paom olawmfaumif;
wkt
Yd m; &ufpufpmG owfjzwfjcif;? oGirf al csmrGwf Ekxw
G if ,f&,
G f unmr,fwt
Ydk m; twif;t"r apmfum;jcif;
ponfwkdYudk jyKMuav&m rsm;pGmyifepfemqkH;&IH;cJhavonf/ uJhodkY bmomw&m;tay: apmfum;ykHudk Mum;&
42

aomtcg Z,csE& rif;Mu;D rSm a'gotrsurf ;D vQu


H o
hJ x
Ykd u
G jf y;D vQif onf;cHjcif;wnf;[laom cEv
D ufeufukd y,fpeG Yf
aemufygppfonfawmftaygif;jcH&Hvsuf tDwm0ppfajrjyif aoG;acsmif;pD;ppfyGJMuD;udk qifETJ&avawmhonf/
xkduJhodkY ol&owd&SdpGmjzifh wkdufckdufygaomfvnf; tiftm;MuD;rm;vSaom rl[rufa*:&D\ppfwyfukd racsrIef;
Ekdif&um; ppf&IH;jcif;odkYa&muf&avonf/ axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaomppfonfawmfwkdYonfvnf; aoaMuysufpD;
&avonf[\
l / Z,csE& rif;ESiahf emufygppfonfawmfukd atmifjrifcjhJ y;D aom ppfonfwo
Ydk nfvnf; Am&mPoDjrKd U
wGif;odkY wpf[kefwnf; 0ifa&mufvmjyD;vQif MuD;us,faombk&m;&Sdckd;ausmif;MuD;ESifhykPm;rsm;tm; owfjzwfMu
av&m t<uif;r& ysupf ;D &avonf[\
l / Am&mPoDwpfjrKd Uvk;H 15-&ufwidk w
f idk f rD;Mu;D w[ke;f [ke;f awmufaecJh
avonf/ qGm&bk&m;\tvkad wmfus vljzpfvm&aomykPm ;wko
Yd nfvnf; qGm&bk&m;udk wrf;wvsuEf iS yhf if
rlqvifrsm;\"m;oefvsufrsm;wGif toufygoGm;&avonf/ uka#uk#mruaom b@mrsm;udkvnf; vk,uf
oGm;Muavonf/ xkdYaemuf bk&m;&Sifudk,fawmfjrwfMuD; "rpMumw&m;OD;udk a[mawmfrl&m rd*'g0kefawmodkY
ppfcsv
D mjy;D vQif rsm;pGmukeaf om ausmif;? apwDyx
k ;dk rsm;? bk&m;&ky?f bk&m; avmif;&kyrf sm;? ewforD;&kyrf sm;udv
k nf;
zsufqD;csKd;zhJjyD;vQif &[ef;awmfaygif; 1600-wkdYudkvnf; owfjzwfypfavonf/ xkdpOftcgu rd*'g0kefawm
ausmif; 45-ausmif;? apwDMuD;i,f 52-qlESifhur|mef;w&m;rsm;yGm;rsm;&m vkdPf*laygif; 30-cefY&Sdavonf/
,lyeD ,f wpfcv
k ;Hk rS &Siv
f &l [ef;wko
Yd nf trsm;tm;jzifh ae&modYk vma&mufynmoifMum;&ojzifh trnfemr
ausmaf pmxifay:vsu&f adS vonf/ jrwfpmG bk&m; y&deAd m efpv
H eG af wmfro
l nfrpS rlqvifwYdk usL;ausm0f ifa&muf
zsufqD;cJhaom c&pf 12-&mpkxd pmoHayoH wnHnHESifh&SdcJhavonf/

rd*'g0keftaMumif;
Ak'& iS af wmfb&k m;\vufxufawmftcgu odywe odw
Yk nf;r[kwf rd*'g,ac:aom rd*'g0keaf wmukd
,cktcg qm&femxf(om&emx)[lac:onf/ xkad e&monf ,cktcg tdE,
d jynf ,lyeD ,f&dS Am&mPoDjrKd UMu;D rS
7-rkdifcefY uGma0;avonf/ bk&m;zl;om;wkdYonf xkdae&mudk jrif;&xm;jzifhvnf;aumif;? armfawmfum;jzifh
vnf;aumif;? rD;&xm;jzihv
f nf;aumif; oGm;a&mufEidk af vonf/ Xmeum; Ak'& iS af wmfb&k m; "rpMumw&m;OD;
ukd a[mMum;awmfr&l ma'ojzpfjcif;aMumifh urmay:&Sd Ak'b
mom0iftaygif;wkt
Yd zkYd tjrwfq;Hk aom t0dZ[dw
XmeMuD;wpfck jzpfavonf/

qm&emxf
rd*'g0keaf wmMu;D \taMumif; twKyw
rd sm;udk rzwf&rI D yxra&S;OD;pGm tb,faMumifh rd*'g0keaf wmudk
qm&femxf(om&emx)[k ac:wGif&onfukd odxm;&efvkdayonf/ qm&femxfac:aompum;udk ouw
ESifhygVdpmaywkdYwGif rawGU&Sd&acs/ pum;onf wpf&Ha&mtcgu o&*Femxac:aom orifrif;\trnfrS
ajymif;vJvm[efwo
l nf/ orifrif;\0wKrmS txl;pdw0f ifpm;zG,af umif;vSojzifh vk&d if;udk aemufwiG af z:jy
ayrnf/

odywe
ygVdusrf;rsm;t&qkdygrl ae&mudk rd*'g,[lvnf;aumif;? odywe[lvnf;aumif;? okdYwnf;
r[kwf ]]odywe rd*'ga,}}[lvnf;aumif; a&;om;ac:a0:Muavonf/ odywe(ouw&DoQdywe)
[laompum;\t"dyg ,frmS &aoh&[ef;wk\
Yd ae&m[kqv
dk o
dk nf/ ygVdbmom ]]ywe}}[laompum;onf usjcif;
teuf? aejcif;teufudka[m\/ jrefrmjynf&Sd &[ef;&Sifvlynm&SdwkdYonf 'kwd,teufudkom ,lMuukefonf/
odkY&mwGif w&kwfbkef;MuD; zm[D,efurlum;]]yapuAk'gt&Sifwpfpkonf aumif;uif y&dedAmefjyKMuavojzifh
olwkdY\&kyftavmif;wkdYrSm ae&modkY a<uusvmonfukd tpGJjyK ywe=usjcif;teufudk ,lxm;avonf/
xkaYd Mumifh zm[D,ef\tvkt
d m;jzifh odyweyapuAk'g wk\
Yd us&m[kqv
dk o
dk nf/ okv
Yd Qif q&mtrsK;d rsK;d wku
Yd
rnfoyYdk if tuGu
J t
JG jym;jym; bmomjyefqMdk uapumrl odyweae&monf oriftaygif;wk\
Yd aysmjf rL;usupf m;&m
ESifh&aoh&[ef;taygif;wkdY\w&m;udk tm;xkwfae&mrsm;yg0ifaom us,fjyefYaom awmMuD;wpfawm jzpfcJh&
43

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


ayrnf/

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

rd*'g,
]]rd*'g,}}[laompum;\t"dyg ,frmS oriftaygif;wk\
Yd usupf m;&mawm (Deer Park) [kqv
dk o
dk nf/
oriftaygif;wkdY\usufpm;&mawm[kyif wkduf&kdufbmomjyef&aomfvnf; pifppfrSmrlum; oriftrSL;&Sdaom
wd&pmeftaygif;wkdY\usufpm;&mawm[k qkdvkd onf/ wpf&Ha&mtcgu Am&mPoDjynfh&Sifbk&ifrif;jrwfonf
if;awm&Sd oriftaygif;wkt
Yd m; ab;rJch iG jhf yKxm;onfukd taMumif;jyK acar rd*'ga, [lvnf; ac:a0:
orkwfMuavonf/ pum;rSm ,kwd&SdvS\/ Oyrmtm;jzifh jy&rnfqkdygu vuf&SdAm&mPoD r[m&m*smac:
apmfbGm;vnf; ol\ae&m? &mre*&rS reD;ra0;aomt&yfwGif oriftaygif;wkdYtm; ab;rJhay;xm;aom
ae&mwpfck&Sd\/ xkdae&m&Sd orifrsm;ukd rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,mufukdrS zrf;,lypfcwfrIudk cGifhrjyKjcif;aMumifh
&maygif;rsm;pGmaom orifwu
Ydk dk vlwidk ;f vlwidk ;f awGUjrifEidk af vonf/ u&kPm&Siw
f pfO;D jzpfol apmfbmG ;Mu;D onf
,ckuJhokdY tjypfuif;rJhaom wd&pmefrsm;tm; ab;rJhcGifhjyKxm;jcif;rSm a&S;Am&mPoDrif;wdkY\xkH;wrf;pOfvmudk
&kdaoav;pm;aomaMumifh jzpfonfqkd\/

edaj*m"rd*Zmwf
[la0qif\'dik ,
f m&Dpmtkyw
f iG f a&;om;xm;aom edaj*m"rd*Zmwfawmfudk tusO;f tm;jzifh a&;om;
az:jy&ayOD;tHh/
]]wpf&aH &mtcgu rd*'g0keaf wm jrwfpmG bk&m;tavmif;awmfEiS hf a'0'wftavmif;wko
Yd nf orifrif;
rsm;jzpfMuukeo
f wwf/ awmMu;D \tv,f&Sad om ajruGuMf u;D wpfcw
k iG f orifaygif; 500-pDyg0ifaom oriftyk f
ESpftkyfonf &SdMuukefowwf/ xkdESpftkyfaom oriftaygif;wdkYtm; tavmif;awmfESpfyg;wkdYonf wpftkyfpD
toD;oD;cGaJ 0 tkycf sKyMf uavonf/ Am&mPoDjynfudk tpk;d &aomrif;Mu;D onf wpfaeYaomtcg awmupm;
&eftvkiYd mS if;awmodYk a&S;&Ivmavonf/ xkt
d cg bk&m;tavmif;awmf orifrif;onf bk&iftem;odcYk sO;f uyf
avQmufxm;avonfum;...
]]jrwfaomrif;MuD;? t&Sifrif;MuD;onf om,mpGmjzifh trJvkdufEkdifap&ef awmMuD;\ae&mtESHYtjym;ukd
rD;&IdUjcif;aMumifhvnf;aumif;? jrm;aygif;rsm;pGmwkdYjzifh t&rf;ypfcwfrIaMumifhvnf;aumif; uREkfyfwkdY\aemufyg
orifrsm;wkrYd mS aoaMuysupf ;D &avonf/ olwo
Ydk nf aerxGurf u
D yif aoaMu&avaomaMumifh olw\
Ydk tom;
rsm;onf t&Sifrif;MuD;twGuf vwfqwfaom tom;rsm;rjzpfEkdifyg/ t&Sifrif;MuD;onf vwfqwfaumif;rGef
aomtom;rsm;udk pm;aomufokH;aqmif&ygapjcif;tvkdYiSm uREkfyfwkdYonf aeYpOf aeYwkdif; orifwpfaumifpD
tcsdefrDqufoygtHh/ odkYrSomvQif uREkfyfwkdY\toufrSmvnf; ykdrdkMumjrifhpGm ae&ygtHh/}} &Sifbk&ifonfvnf;
pum;ukd oabmusawmfrlojzifh rdrd,mOfjzifh jrdKUodkYjyefoGm;avonf/ xkdtcgrSp aeYpOfaeYwkdif; orif
wpfaumifpD owfjzwfum qufoawmfrl&avonf/
a'0'wfykdifaom oriftkyf ukd,f0ef&ifhrmaejyD;aom orifrwpfaumif &Sd\/ ao&rnfhtvSnfhum;
if;orifrtay:okYd a&mufvsu&f jdS y/D xdt
k cg orifru olr\t&Siaf '0'wftavmif;awmftm; avQmufxm;
oHawmfO;D wifavonfrmS ]]t&Si?f uRerf \aotvSno
hf nf ,cktcg rvG{J uefa&mufaejyrD eS af omfvnf; avmu
Mu;D \avukrd S r&SL&Iu
d &f ao;aom uRerf om;i,f\tvSnu
hf m; rusa&mufao;yg/ xkaYd Mumifh uRerf tpm; tjcm;
wpfaumifux
kd nfah y;apcsiyf gonf? uRerf uav;arG;zGm;jy;D aomtcgrSomvQif ESpu
f ,
kd pf vk;H ukt
d yfEiS ;f yg&ap&Si}f }
a'0'wftavmif;onf a'goMuD;pGmjzifh jyefvnfajymMum;onfum; ]]oifh0rf;AkdufxJ&Sd uav;oli,f
onf tb,fwefzkd;&Sdoenf;}}
orifru 0rf;enf;pzG,f jyefvnfavQmufxm;onfum; ]]tkd&Sif? avmuMuD;\tvif;a&mifukd wpfcg
wpf&pH zl;rQ rjrifz;l ao;aom 0rf;Aku
d x
f u
J oli,fudk owfjzwf&ef t&Sit
hf m; oem;pdwrf &Syd gavm}}a'0'wfum;
olr\avQmufxm;csufukd em;raxmifacs/
44

xdaYk emuf olronf wjcm;oriftyk Mf u;D \t&Sio


f cifjzpfol bk&m;tavmif;awmforiftm; tqk;H pGeaf om
avQmufxm;jcif;jzifh avQmufxm;avonf/ xkt
d cg bk&m;tavmif;awmfu jyefMum;rdeq
Yf adk wmfro
l nfum; ]]orifr?
oifavQmufxm;aompum;onf txl;yif 0rf;enf;pzG,f aumif;vSayonf/ xkaYd Mumifh igonfyifvQif oift
h pm;
aoyGJ0ifayawmhtHh}}
xko
d aYkd jymqkjd y;D orifrif;onfvnf; Am&mPoDjrKd U&Sd &mZeef;awmfoo
Ykd mG ;jy;D vQif om;owform;wkt
Yd m;
vnfpif;ay;jcif;jzifh towfcHavonf/ vrf;roGm;vmvsuf&SdMuukefaom vltaygif;wkdYonfvnf; tkwftkwf
uRwu
f Rwf jzpfjy;D vQif orifrif;onf jrKd Uokv
Yd mowwf[
l us,af vmifpmG ajymqku
d m orifrif;tm; Munf&h &I ef
bk&ifheef;awmf0 wkd;usdwfvsuf&Sdavonf/
&Sifbk&ifonf pum;udk Mum;umrQjzifh r,kHMunfEkdifao;aomfvnf; wHcg;rSL;u [kwfrSefaMumif;ukd
oHawmfO;D wifawmhrS ,kMH unfavonf/ bk&ifrif;jrwfonf orifrif;tm; a&SUawmfarSmufoaYkd c:jy;D vQif tb,f
aMumifh vm&oenf;[k ar;jref;awmfrlavonf/ orifrif;onfvnf; taMumif;pkHudk jyefvnfavQmufxm;
awmfrlavonf/
&Sib
f &k ifonfvnf; tvGeu
f &kPmoufav&um;]]tkd orifrif;? oifEiS ihf gonf um,ud,
k cf Emcsi;f yif
uGaJ pumrl pdwo
f abmcsi;f um; twlwyl ifjzpfavonf/ xkYd aMumifh oifwo
Ydk nf ightm; orifwpfaumifuspD
qufo&ef rvkdawmhjyD/ igonfvnf; rokH;aqmifawmhjyD/ oifwkdYae&mukdvnf; igbk&ifrif;jrwfonf ab;rJh
aexkdifcGifhjyKygjyD/ oifwdkYtm;vkH; ab;rJhpGmjzifh csrf;omMuukefownf;}} tcsKdUaomq&mwdkYurl wpf&Hwpfcg
wke;f u qm&emxfac:aom *sKid ;f bk&m;&Scd ;dk ausmif;Mu;D wpfausmif;&Scd o
hJ nfukd tpGjJ yK ]]qm&emxf}}rnfonf[\
l /
txufyg 0wKt& acar rd*'ga, [kac:wGiaf vonf/ xkjYd yif ouwbmom o&*F-orif? emxt&Si?f ocif? rif;? o&*Femx-orifrif;[k ac:avonf/ pum;ukd tpGjJ yK qm&emxf(om&emx)[k jzpf
vm[efvuPm &daS vonf/

ausmufcEDapwD
rd*'g0kefodkY oGm;a&mufzl;ajrmfMuaomolwkdYonf yxra&S;OD;pGm ausmufcEDapwDMuD;udk zl;ajrmfMu&ay
vdrfhrnf/ apwDMuD;udk bk&m;&Siftm; yO0*DaemifnDigOD;wdkYu yxrOD;pGm qD;MudKaomae&mwGif wnfxm;
avonf/ apwDMu;D rSm ,ckwidk f txift&Sm;&Sad eao;aom "arcapwDxuf ri,faom apwDwpfqyl ifjzpf
onf/ okaYd omfrq
l vifwv
Ykd ufcsuaf Mumifh ,ckum; ysupf ;D ,k,
d iG ;f vsu&f adS vjy/D apwDtay:qk;H wGif arQmpf ifwpf
ckudk a'vD&Sifyodtubm;rif;u c&pf 1588-ckESpfwGif aqmufvkyfxm;cJhavonf/ arQmfpifMuD;tay:rS
oGm;a&mufMunf&h rI nfqydk gu MunfE;l om,mzG,af umif;aomrd*'g0keaf wmMu;D \obm0tajctaeudk &Si;f vif;
jywfom;pGm jrifEkdifavonf/ apwDrSm rlqvif? [dELpaom rolawmfrif;wkdY\zsufqD;rIaMumifh ,cktcg
ysufpD;,kd,Gif;vsuf&Sdaeavonf/

wl;azmfxm;aom taqmufttkHrsm;
upf w k d ; \ausmif ; awmf /
/ausmufcEDapwDawmfMuD;ukd zl;ajrmfcJhjyD;aombk&m;zl;om;wkdYonf
ajrmufbuf&Sd ausmufpmbufXmerS wl;azmfxm;aomae&modkY jzwful;Mu&rnf/ xkdodkYjzwfausmfcJhonf&Sdaomf
M. No. VI [ka&;om;xm;aomupfw;dk \ausmif;awmfMu;D okYd a&mufvr
d rhf nf/ upfw;dk ausmif;awmf[ak c:&jcif;
rSm upfwkd;u aqmufvkyfvSL'ef;aomaMumifhr[kwf/ upfwkd;rnfaom ausmufpmbufqkdif&mt&m&SdwpfOD;u
wl;azmfay:xGuv
f maom ausmif;awmfukd upfw;dk ausmif;[kac:avonf/ ausmif;awmfMu;D um; tkwaf usmif;
jrpfrQom use&f adS yawmhonf/ tcef;tm;jzifh 28-cef;&S
d wpfzuftw
k ef &H rH S tjcm;wpfzuftw
k ef &H x
H d ayaygif;
107-aycefu
Y s,jf yefaY vonf/ ausmif;awmfMu;D udk 0ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
dk o
f rl q
l vifwo
Ydk nf rD; paomvufeuf
jzifh zsuq
f ;D ypfavaomaMumifh ,ckvuf&t
dS ajctaeodYk usa&muf&avonf/ rnforYkd nfyHk zsuq
f ;D cJah Mumif;udk
tqkdyg upfwkd;\tpD&ifcHpmwGif zwfMunhfyg/
45

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


"r & mZd u apwD /
/bk&m;zl;om;wkdY eEd,ol<u,faqmufvkyfvSL'gef;cJhaom ausmif;awmfMuD;xJodkYr0ifrD
"r&mZduapwDawmfMu;D wnf&mjzpfaom yef;ckt
H 0dik ;f Mu;D wpfcu
k dk awGU&Sd &ayvdrrhf nf/ xkyd ef;ckaH wmft0dik ;f Mu;D rSm
,ck&adS eaom "arcapwDavmufyif &Sad vonf/ bk&m;zl;om;wko
Yd nf ajrykMH u;D ozG,jf zpfaeaom apwDawmfMu;D
\tkwfyef;ckHrSwpfyg; "r&mZduapwDMuD;\rnfonfhtpdwftykdif;ukdrSvnf; zl;jrif&rnfr[kwfawmhay/ tb,f
aMumifh apwDMu;D rSm ,ckvt
dk ajctaersK;d odq
Yk u
dk af &muf&onf[rl u
l m; tdE,
d jynftESt
YH jym;wGif awGUMuKcH pH m;
cJ&h aom ysupf ;D jcif;'Pf&mukd "r&mZduapwDMu;D vnf; rvGeq
f efEidk jf cif;aMumifh jzpfonf/ rlqvifwYdk 0ifa&muf
zsuq
f ;D cJah om c&pf 12-&mpkavmufrmS apwDMu;D onf vk;H 0ysupf ;D jcif;odYk ra&mufcahJ o;acs/ "arcapwDuo
hJ yYkd if
tawmftwifh <uif;usef&pfavonf/
okdYaomf tdEd,jynfwGif ausmufpmbufXmeukd rwnfaxmifrD 1794-ckESpfwGif cspfqiftrnf&Sdaom
Am&mPoDapmfbGm;MuD;\ trwfwpfOD;jzpfol *s*wfqifonf Am&mPoDNrdKU*s*wf-*ef;Zrnfaom ae&m&Sd t
aqmuftt
Hk csKUd wGif tok;H jyK&ef apwDMu;D udk t<uif;r&NzKzd suMf upOf olwo
Ydk nf tDwmvsaH usmufjzifh jyKvyk f
xm;aom "mwfawmfMuKww
f pfcEk iS "hf mwfawmftcsKUd udk &&Sad vonf/ xk"d mwfawmfrsm;rSm bk&m; okw
Yd nf;r[kwf
&[Em"mwfawmfEpS cf k wpfcck jk zpf&rnf[k a'0jyv
d 0gvdqif[rnfaom oD[Vdk yf nm&SMd u;D wpfO;D u ,lqavonf/
Ak'b
mom0ifwt
Ydk wGuf trGet
f jrwfq;Hk aom"mwfawmfrsm;udk [dEL wko
Yd nf olw\
Ykd xk;H wrf;pOfvmt& **Fgjrpfxo
J Ykd
MuKwEf iS w
hf uG arQmcsav&um; a&SUacwfA'k b
momwkYd tjrwfwEk;d Xmyemxm;cJah om "mwfawmfrsm;rSm ,aeYtxd
uG,af ysmuf&avawmhownf;/ ae&m&Sd wjcm;rsm;pGmaomtaqmufttkw
H u
Ydk v
kd nf; olwo
Ydk nf enf;twkid ;f
zsu,
f t
l ok;H jyKMuav&m rsm;pGmyif epfemqk;H &I;H jcif;odaYk &muf&avonf/ apwDr&S &Sad om ausmufpmwpfcsyw
f iG f
pxd&ygvESifh0oEygv[l trnfESpfckxkd;xm;onfudk awGU&Sd&jcif;jzifh xkdyk*KdvfwkdYonfyif apwD'g,umrsm;
jzpfav[ef vuPm&Sdonf/
bk&m;zl;om;wkdYonf "r&mZduapwDysufMuD;udk zl;ajrmfoHa0*,ljyD; a&SUodkY 5-ukdufrQvSrf;oGm;cJhygu
Mu;D us,cf rf;em; xkxnfMu;D rm;aom tkwef &H MH u;D rsm;jzifah qmufvyk x
f m;aom taqmufttkMH u;D wpfco
k Ykd a&muf
&Sv
d rd rfh nf/ xkt
d aqmufttkMH u;D rSm rlv*Eu#k w
D u
kd Mf u;D yif jzpfonf/ (r[maAm"dtoif;Mu;D rS aqmufvyk x
f m;
aom rlv*Eu#k u
D rkd qkv
d )dk taqmufttkMH u;D onfomvQif rd*'g0keaf wm&Sd taqmufttkrH sm;teuf a&S;tus
qkH;jzpfavonf/ wjcm;taqmufttkHrsm;rSm taqmufttkHaemufrS ay:aygufvmaom taqmufttkH
rsm;omjzpfavonf/ wku
d Mf u;D rSm Ak'& iS af wmfb&k m;twGuf oD;oefaY exkid o
f w
D if;ok;H &mjzpfavonf/ ae&m
wGif bk&m;&Sif yxrqkH;0gqkdawmfrlcJhavonf/
wkdufMuD;\vuf,mbufwGif taomutrSwfwHqdyfygaom ausmufvuf&rf;MuD;jzifhum&Hxm;aom
wku
d cf ef;i,fuav;wpfc&k o
dS nf/ wku
d cf ef;i,fuav;\tv,fwiG f ausmufapwDi,fwpfq&l o
dS nf/ a&S;acwf
tcgwke;f u xkad pwDi,fuav;\tay:xyfukd ausmufx;D Mu;D jzifrh ;dk xm;avonf/ ,cktcg ausmufx;D Mu;D rSm
jywku
d Mf u;D xJoaYkd &mufaeavonf/ apwDi,fuav;udk usyw
f nf;usO;f ajrmif;aom tcef;i,fuav;xJwiG f
tb,faMumifh xnfx
h m;cJah Mumif;udk rnforl Q rajymEkid af cs/ wcsKUd aom ynm&Srd sm;u apwDi,frmS "r&mZdu
apwDawmfMu;D rS t&efapwDawmfwpfq[
l k ,lqMuonf/ tcsKUd url oD;jcm;pGmwnfxm;aomapwD[,
k q
l Muonf/
pum;ESpf&yfpvkH;rSm ,kwd&SdvSayonf/ taMumif;qkdrlum; "r&mZduapwDMuD;ESifh*Euk#DwkdufMum;wGif&Sdjcif;
aMumifh jzpfonf/
tvGeaf &S;usaom rlv*Eu#k w
D u
dk Mf u;D rSm tvGet
Yf vGef ESpyf &dap'Mumanmif;cJjh yjD zpfjcif;aMumifh ajrMu;D
atmufwGif jrKyfvsuf&Sdavonf/ ,ck awGUjrif&aomm wkdufMuD;um; xkdwkdufa[mif;tay:wGif xyfaqmuf
xm;aomwku
d jf zpfonf/ xl;jcm;aomoauFwrSm tvGeaf &S;usaom tkwef &H aH tmufyikd ;f &St
d w
k cf syrf sm;rSm tay:
tkwfcsyfrsm;xuf okH;ykHwpfykHcefY i,favonf/ tcsKdUaom taqmufttkHrsm;ESifhapwDi,fuav;rsm;um; ajr
Mu;D xJyif jrK yv
f su&f adS o;onf[k ,lq&ayonf/ tokq
Yd rdk l jrefrmykid f "romvmMum;ESihf tqkyd gwku
d Mf u;D Mum;
us&mae&mtcsKdUrS tkwfausmuftptersm;udk awGUjrif&jcif;aMumifh jzpfonf/
aomuausmuf p mwk d i f / /azmfjyygwku
d Mf u;D rS taemufbuf 2-udu
k cf eft
Y uGmwGif oHvuf&rf;Mu;D jzifh um&Hxm;
aom taomuausmufwidk Mf u;D wpfc&k \
dS / ausmufwidk Mf u;D ukd omoemh'g,um oD&"d rmaomurif;Mu;D onf
c&pfray:rD tESpf 250-avmufu pku
d x
f cl ahJ vonf/ ae&mudyk if tcsKUd aomynm&Sw
d u
Ydk "rpMumw&m;OD;udk
46

a[mMum;&m Xme[k,lqMuavonf/ ausmufwkdifwGif a&;xkd;xm;aom ausmufpmrlum; taMumif;


ESiphf yfvsO;f rnforYkd Qryg&Sjd cif;aMumifh ud,
k yf idk
f Pfjziho
f m a0zefa&;om;&ayrnf/ oD&"d rmaomurif;Mu;D onf
jrwfpmG bk&m;&Siu
f ,
kd af wmfjrwfMu;D udk arG;zGm;&ma'ojzpfaom vkred OD ,smOf&dS xkad rG;zGm;aomae&m ausmufwidk f
Mu;D wpfwidk f pku
d x
f x
l m;cJah vonf/ wpfpw
Hk pfcak omtaMumif;aMumifh ausmufwidk f twdtvif; urn;f rxk;d cJh
apumrlvnf; txufygausmufpmwkid Ef iS Ehf idI ;f ,SOMf unfrh nfqydk gu ausmufwidk af e&mudv
k nf; "rpMumw&m;
OD;udk a[m&mt&yf[k ,lq&ayrnf/ tcsKUd aomynm&Sw
d u
Ydk rlv*Eu#k w
D u
dk &f monfyifvQif "rpMumw&m;OD;udk
a[mMum;awmfr&l mt&yf[k qkMd uuke\
f / tcsKUd url "arcapwDawmfMu;D \wnf&mudyk if "rpMumw&m;udk a[m&m
t&yf[k,lqMuonf/ tcsKdUynm&SifwkdYum; "r&mZduapwDae&mudkyif &nfrSef;cJhMuonf/ taomurif;w&m;
Mu;D onf ta&;Mu;D aomae&mrsm; axmifaygif;rsm;pGmukeaf om ausmufwidk w
f u
Ydk kd pku
d x
f cl yhJ gvsuEf iS hf tb,f
aMumifh ae&mwGif rpku
d x
f b
l aJ eawmhtehH nf;/ xdaYk Mumifh ae&mudyk if "rpMumokwu
f kd a[mMum;awmfr&l m
t0dZ[dwt&yfMuD;[k rSwf,ltyfayownf;/
,cktcg ausmufwidk Mf u;D rSm tydik ;f ykid ;f usK;d yJv
h su&f adS v&m wpfyikd ;f rSm 8-aycefY &S
d 7-aycef&Y adS om
tjcm;wpfyidk ;f rSm ajrMu;D xJoYkd jrK yv
f su&f adS vonf/ ausmufwidk Mf u;D rSm tDwmvsaH usmufuo
hJ t
Ykd a&mifwzdwzf w
d f
awmufvsuf&Sd&m rnfonfhausmuf[kyiftrnfay;&ef cJ,Of;avonf/ tcsKdUaomynm&SdwkdYu oGef;vkyfaom
ausmuf[kqkdMuukefonf/ ausmufwkdifMuD;\xdyf0rSm 2-ayESifh9-vufr&Sdonf/ w&kwfbkef;MuD;[la0qifonf
tdE,
d jynfoYkd bk&m;zl;a&mufcphJ Ofu ajrMu;D rStxufoYkd ay 70-jrifah om ausmufwidk Mf u;D \ yuwdtajctae
udk jrifcJh&onf[l\/ ausmufwkdifMuD;ay:wGif jcaohFokH;yGifhqkdif wyfqifxm; if;jcaohFrsm;atmufwGif "r
pMumwHqdyfrsm;jzifh xkvkyfxm;avonf/ if;jcaohF&kyfMuD;rSm ,cktcg jywkdufMuD;xJ odrf;qnf;xm;onf/
"rpMumwHqyd af wmfuu
kd m; tdE,
d tpd;k &\Ekid if aH wmftvHwiG f tok;H jyKxm;onfuakd wGUjrif&ojzifh txl;0rf;om
rd\/ Ak'0g'vTrf;rkd;&mjzpfaom uREkfyfwkdYEkdifiHum; xkduJhodkYtokH;rjyKMuonfrSm {&mr0rf;enf;p&mMuD;yif jzpf
ayonf/
ausmufwkdifMuD;udk rkd[mrufa*:&DtrSL;&Sdaom &kyfwkawmfcsKd;zJhzsufqD;orm;wkdYu 0ifa&mufzsufqD;
ojzifh ,ckuJhodkY tykdif;ydkif;usKd;yJhjcif;odkY a&muf&avonf/ jcaohFokH;yGifhqkdifMuD;rSm xkdolwkdY\vufcsufaMumifh
rysupf ;D cJb
h J vGwu
f se&f pfco
hJ nfrmS txl;yif uHaumif;axmufronf[k qk&d ayrnf/ xkjd caoh&F yk Mf u;D rSm ausmuf
pmbufXmerS wl;azmf&&Sdonfxd ajrMuD;xJ jrKyfaecJhavonf/ ausmufwkdifMuD;rsKd;udk urmh,Ofaus;vdrm
a&;udk a&S;OD;pGm &&Scd ahJ om taomurif;Mwm;Mu;D vufxufuyif pku
d x
f cl ahJ pumrl ynmPftjrif&u
dS ek af om
tdEd,om;wkdYum; ,aeYtxd *kPf,lvsufyif&Sdao;\/
eE d , m&mrausmif ; awmf M uD ; / /Zdewtp&Sad omusr;f *efww
Ydk iG f xif&mS ;vsu&f adS o;aom eE,
d ol<u,faqmuf
vkyfvSL'gef;cJhaom eEd,m&mrausmif;awmfMuD;rSm jrefrmykdif"romvmESifh*Euk#DtMum;wGif &Sdavonf/
ausmif;awmfMuD;udk ausmufpmbufXmerS (Main temple) [ktrnfay;xm;onf/ ausmif;awmfMu;D udk ausmuf
tkwfwkdYjzifh a&maESmum aqmufvkyfxm;onfhausmufudk atmufucH if;tay:rStkwfjzifh aqmufvkyfxm;
avonf/ okdYausmufESifhtkwf&Sdaeonfudk jrif&jcif;jzifh yXrOD;pGm aqmufvkyfcJhaom eEd,ol<u,fausmif;
Mu;D rSm ausmufoufoufjzifjh zpfav&m ESpv
f Mumanmif; if;ausmif;Mu;D a[mif;EGr;f ,k,
d iG ;f vmaomtcg tkwjf zifh
wpfzef aemuf'g,umrsm;u aqmufvkyfvSL'gef;cJhaMumif;udk aumif;pGmodEkdifavonf/ ausmif;awmfMuD;
tjyifbuftw
k ef &H rH sm;rSm 10-aycef&Y adS vonf/ tvGecf idk cf ahH om taqmufttkMH u;D rsm;jzpf &eforl q
l vifrif;
wkdYuom rzsufqD;cJhqkdygu urmESifhtwlomvQif ysufpD;jcif;odkY a&mufEkdifp&m&Sdonf/
"r p MuZd e 0d [ m&
m&/
/eE,
d ausmif;awmfMu;D rS ajrmufbufoaYkd jcvSr;f tenf;i,fvrS ;f oGm;rnfqydk gu bk&m;
zl;om;wkYdonf ukrm&a'0Drdzk&m;MuD;\aumif;rIawmfjzpfaom "rpMuZde0d[m&ac:"rm&kHausmif;awmfMuD;odkY
a&muf&v
dS rd rhf nf/ ynm&Srd sm;uxifjrif,q
l MuonfrmS rdz&k m;Mu;D onf ausmif;awmfMu;D udk a&S;a[mif;'uP
d
tdEd,wGif aqmufvkyfcJhaom ausmif;rsm;ykHtwkdif; aqmufvkyfcJh[ef vuPm&Sdonf [l\/ todkYqkdrl
ausmif;awmfMuD;udk wl;azmf&mrS xGufvmaomypnf;rsm;rSm awmiftdEd,okH;ypnf;rsm;om jzpfonfqkd\/
ausmif;rSxGufay:aom ausmufpmwpfcsyfwGif zwf&I&onfrSm ukrm&a'0Drdzk&m;MuD;onf omoemawmfukd
tvGeMf unfnKd vo
S jzifh om0wjd ynf aZw0efausmif;awmfwiG f oDwif;ok;H Muukeaf om oHCmawmft&Sijf rwfwYdk
47

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


tvkiYd mS teD;tem;&Sd &GmtcsKUd rS&&St
d yfaom tcGeb
f @mawmfudk vSL'gef;awmfral vonf[\
l / ausmif;awmf
Mu;D \yko
H Pmefukd rnforYdk nfy[
Hk k ajymEkid af vmufp&m bmwpfcrk S txift&Sm;r&Sad wmhjy/D odaYk omf orHwvif;
ESit
hf w
k ef &H H t<uif;tuserf sm;uom a&S;acwfu Mu;D us,yf u
Hk kd uREyfk w
f t
Ydk m; jyovsu&f o
dS nf/ ausmif;awmf
MuD;onf rd*'g0kef&Sd wjcm;ausmif;rsm;teuf aemuftusqkH;aomausmif;jzpf c&pf1194-ckESpftwGif; ysuf
pD;&avonf/ ukrm&a'0Drdzk&m;MuD;\Muif&mawmfpE*kwrif;um; [dELbmomudk ,kHMunfolwpfOD;jzpfonf/
odkYaomf rdzk&m;MuD;\,kHMunfrIwGif rnfokdYrS csKyfcs,fjcif;r&SdcJhay/ tcsKdUaom&mZ0ifq&mwkdYu ukrm&a'0Dqkd
onfrSm umodu&mZfwkdif; (Kanouj) jynfh&Sifbk&ifa*g0dE&csE&\ Muif&mawmfjzpf ausmif;awmfMuD;udk
c&pf1136-ckESpfwGif aqmufvkyfvSL'gef;cJhaMumif;ESifh a&;om;Mujyefavonf/ uREkfyf\xifjrifcsufrSm ukrm&
a'0Drdzk&m;MuD;onf [dkufj'bwfe,f&Sd t*sEmvkdPf*lMuD;udkygaqmufvkyfvSL'gef;cJhao;&m xkdae&mwGif ukrm&
a'0Drdzk&m;MuD;\aumif;rIawmf[k a&;om;xm;onfrSwpfyg; pkHvifpGmazmfjyxm;aom ausmufpmudk rawGU&Sd&
acs/ odaYk omf &mZ0ifq&mwku
Yd xkv
d P
dk *f Ml u;D rSm pE*w
k r if;vufxufu[ka&;om;xm;jcif;aMumifh ukrm&a'0D
rdzk&m;MuD;rSm trSefpifppf riff;MuD;\rdzk&m;om jzpfwef&monf/

ajratmufpBuawmfMuD;
bk&m;zl;om;wkdYonf ausmif;awmfMuD;\taemufbufodkY oGm;rnfqkdygu ajratmufpBuawmfMuD;
wpfcu
k kd awGU&vdrrhf nf/ pBur mS tvsm;ay 70ESihf teH 6-ay? tjrifh 8-aycef&Y adS vonf/ pBua wmfMu;D
udk tay:uausmufcsyfrsm;jzifh rkd;xm;avonf/ pBuawmfMuD;taMumif;ESifhpyfvsOf; ausmufpmbufXme
rS ,lqxm;onfrSm orx0dyemw&m;ESifharGUavsmfavh&SdMuukefaom (&[ef;awmfwkdYonf)if;wkdYvkdvm;tyf
aom psmefw&m; r*fw&m;wku
Yd kd tjrefaygufapjcif;iSm ajratmufpBux
w
J iG f avQmufjcif;tm;jzifh tm;xkwf
cJhMuwef&monf[l\/ tcsKdUrlum; ukrm&a'0Drdzk&m;MuD;\ausmif;awmfwGif oDwif;okH;aexkdifMuukefaom oH
CmawmfwkdYonf rdk;wGif;&moDrsm; a&tkdifMuD;odkY qif;&mvrf;jzpfonfqkd\/ pum;ESpf&yfwGif yxrpum;
onfomvQif ,kwd&SdEkdifayrnf/ tokdYqkdrl a&tkdifMuD;oGm;&efvrf;ukd ,ckuJhodkY ajratmufwGif vkyfrnfr[kwf
ay/ oHCmawmft&SifjrwfwkdY w&m;ukd tm;xkwf&m &ly o'paom tm&kHajcmufyg;wkdYudk 'Gg&(6)wefodkY r
a&mufapjcif;iSm (0g) umuG,fjcif;tvkdYiSm pBuMuD;udk aqmufvkyfay;cJhwef&monf/
tjcm;ausmif ; awmf r sm;/
/ukrm&a'0Drzd &k m;Mu;D \ausmif;awmfrS ta&SUbuf edrahf omajrjyifwiG f ausmif;
rsm; &Sad o;\/ if;ausmif;rsm;\&mZ0ifuu
kd m; uREyfk w
f Ykd rnforYdk nfy[
Hk k rod&acs/ ausmufpmbufXmerSvnf;
txl;wvnf az:jyjcif;r&S/d ausmif;awmfrsm;rS awmifbufoYkd vSnx
hf u
G rf nfqydk gu &Snv
f sm;aom tcef;
aqmifMu;D \ab;ESpzf ufwiG f apwDi,fuav;aygif; rsm;pGmyg0ifaom A[k&d af usmif;awmfMu;D wpfcv
k nf; &Sad o;
\/ ausmif;awmfMu;D ukd tcsKUd u qGr;f pm;ausmif;? tcsKUd u 0wfausmif;[k ,lqMuonf/ uREyfk \
f xifjrifcsuf
rSm 0wfausmif;awmfMuD;omjzpf&rnf/ taMumif;qkdaomf ajrmufjrm;pGmaom apwDi,fwkdYudk wpfzufwpfwef;
pDwnfxm;jy;D tv,fa[mvfMu;D rSmvnf; ayaygif;200-ausmcf efY &Snv
f sm;jcif;aMumifh jzpfonf/ qGr;f pm;ausmif;
ukd rnfonfhenf;ESifhrS ae&m aqmufxm;EkdifcJhrnf r[kwfay/

"arcapwDMuD;
0wfausmif;MuD;udk zl;ajrmfcJhjyD;aom bk&m;zl;om;wkdYonf awmifbufpl;pl;&Sd "arcapwDawmfMuD;udk zl;
jrif&ayOD;rnf/ a&S;ynm&Sdrsm;ESifhausmufpmbufqkdif&m t&m&Sdrsm;u apwDMuD;ae&mudk rnfonfhae&m[k
tckdiftrmqkdxm;jcif; r&Sday/ r[maAm"dtoif; pux&DcsKyf a'0jyd,url xdkapwDawmfMuD;ae&mwGif bk&m;
&Sifonf araw,stavmif;awmftm; Asm'dyfay;awmfrlavonfqkd\/ apwDMuD;rSm tvkH;t&yf MuD;rm;jrifh
pGefYjcif;aMumifh a0;vGef;aomt&yfa'orsm;uyif zl;jrifEkdifavonf/ apwDMuD;udk ausmufjzifh aqmufvkyf
xm;&m tjrifh 104-aycefY&Sdavonf/ apwDMuD;ykHESifhEIdif;,SOfjyp&mum; uREkfyfa&mufzl;oavmufaom oD
[kdVf jrefrmjynfESifhtdEd,jynfwkdYwGif rnfonfhae&mrSmrS rawGU&Sd&acs/
48

a&S;acwfumv apwDawmfMu;D \ywf0ef;usiaf usmufcsy?f ausmufw;Hk wkw


Yd iG f &kyv
f ;Hk ? &kyjf ym;rsm; xkxm;
onf[l\/ ,cktcg jywkdufMuD;xJwGif xnfhxm;aom &kyfjym;awmfMuD;wpfckudk xkdapwDMuD;tjyifbufrS uyf
xm;cJhavonf/ odkYaomf &kyfjym;awmfMuD;ukd [la0qifawGU&SdcJhpOf a&T&kyfjym;omjzpfonf[l\/ rlqvif0if
a&mufzsuq
f ;D olwo
Ydk nf xkad &Tjym;Mu;D udk ,laqmifomG ;cJ
h [dEL tcsKUd u wjcm;aomXmerS ausmuf&yk jf ym;awmf
wpfqu
l kd xkad e&mwGif tpm;xk;d xm;[ef vuPm&So
d nf/ apwDawmfMu;D \ta&SUawmifbufrsuEf mS rS ausmuf
csyftcsKdUudk xkwf,l&&Sdonf/ uREkfyfaz:jycJhjyD;aom *s*wfqifonfyif xkdausmufrsm;udk xkwf,lavonf[k
trsm;,lqMuonf/
odaYk omfvnf; tvGet
Yf vGecf idk cf ahH om y&dabm*Mu;D rkYd vk;H 0ysupf ;D jcif;odYk ra&mufcEhJ idk /f xkjYd yif rlqvif
rsm; 0ifa&mufzsufqD;cJhpOfuvnf; ckdifrmaom apwDMuD;udk wjcm;aomtaqmufttkHrsm;uJhodkY tqkH;b0
odYk a&mufonfxd rzsuq
f ;D cJEh idk /f wcsKUd aom ynm&Sw
d u
Ydk rl xdak pwDMu;D udk zsuq
f ;D cJah om &efow
l o
Ykd nf a&T&yk f
wkawmfMuD;wpfqlESifhXmyemwkdufxJrS tzkd;te*xkdufwefaom ypnf;rsm;udk ,laqmifoGm;aMumif;ESifha&;om;
Muonf/ rd*'g0kefawmodkY bk&m;zl;oGm;vkdolwkdYonf a&S;a[mif;taqmufttkHrsm;teuf tenf;i,f csKdU,Gif;
vsuf&Sdaeaom apwDMuD;udkomvQif txift&Sm; zl;ajrmfp&m jzpfawmhonf/
apwDawmfMuD;rSwpfzef ,ckacwf taqmufttkHrsm; jzpfMuaom rlv*Euk#D0d[m&? r[maAm"d
pmMunfhwkduf? bD&vm"romvmwkdYodkY oGm;a&mufEkdifonf/

rd*'g0kefysufpD;qkwf,kwf&ykH
rd*'g0keaf wm&Sd taqmufttkrH sm; ysupf ;D qkw,
f w
k cf &hJ ykrH mS c&pf(6)&mpkavmufu rD[&d ukvmtrnf
&Sad om [ke;f vlrsK;d wpfO;D onf ae&m&Sd taqmufttkrH sm;udk zsuq
f ;D ypfavonf/ odaYk omfvnf; rMumrD jyef
vnfxlaxmifojzifh jyD;pD;jcif;odkY a&mufavonf[l [la0qif\pmtkyfwGif a&;om;xm;avonf/ [kef;vl
rsKd;wkdYonf rnfokdYrnfykH zsufqD;cJhaMumif;udkum; ra&;om;cJhojzifh rod&acs/ [la0qif a&muf&SdcJhjyD;onfrS
ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmwkdifatmif ausmif;taMumif;ESifhpyfvsOf; rnfokdYrSrod&acs/ pnfpnfyifyif &SdaecJh[ef
vuPm&Sdonf/
c&pf 10-&mpkodkYa&mufvwfaomf ae&mawmfrSm wpfpwpfp qkwf,kwfvmavonf/ ausmif;awmf&m
xJrS wl;azmf &&Sdaom bk&m;wpfql\yvifwGif b*Fvm;jynf r[Dygvvufxufjzpfaom 1029-ckESpfwGif
pwdvygvESifh0oEygvrnfaomyk*KdvfwkdYonf ausmif;MuD;rsm;udk jyefvnfjyifqifoGm;aMumif;ESifhausmuf
urnf;xkd;xm;cJhonfudk awGU&Sd&\/ aemuf jA[PykPm;wkdYonf rd*'g0kefawmudk twif;t"rodrf;,ljyD;
vQif olwu
Ydk ;kd uG,af om ewf&yk ?f vdi&f yk rf sm; xkxm;cJah vonf/ xkaYd emuf c&pf 11-&mpkavmufwiG f plvwef
r[mruf-*gZeDonf jyif;xefpGm zsufqD;oGm;jyefavonf/ xkdYaemuf wpfzef c&pf 12-&mpkavmufrSm rkd[m
rufa*:&D\ppfAv
dk rf LS ;Mu;D wpfa,mufjzpfol *sief &,fuw
k b
f 'G ed o
f nf emvefrxlEidk af tmif zsuq
f ;D ypfav&um;
Ak'&mZ0ifwGif us,fjyefYaomu@udk odrf;ydkufcJhaom rd*'g0kefrSm vuf&SdtajctaeodkY qkdufa&muf&avawmh
onf/ xkad omtcgrSp Ak'b
mom0if olawmfpiftaygif;wkrYd mS rd*'g0keaf wmudk pGev
Yf w
T &f avonfrmS ,aeY
txdjzpfawmhonf/ oHCmawmfaygif;rsm;pGmwkdYrSm olwdkY\vufcsufjzifh toufESifhcEm tkd;pm;uGJcJh&onfom
ruao;bJ toufESifhusef&SdcJhaom oHCmawmfwkdYrSmvnf; wdAuf edaygvfESifhtdEd,jynfawmifydkif;odkY wdrf;
a&SmifoGm;&avonf/

rd*g'0keu
f dk rlqvifrsm; zsuq
f ;D ykH
Am&mPoDNrdKUwGif; aomif;usef;arTaESmufcJhjyD;aom rlqvifppfonfawmfwkdYonfvnf; jrwfpGmbk&m;
&Sif\"rpMumw&m;OD;ukd a[mawmfrl&m rd*'g0kefawmodkY wpf[kefwnf; csDwufvmjyD;vQif ausmif; apwD
paom taqmufttkHwkdYudk &uf&ufpufpuf pwifzsufqD;avawmhonf/ if;wkdY\zsufqD;rIaMumifh ausmif;?
apwD? ykx;dk paom taqmufttkw
H rYkd mS vuf&t
dS ajctaeodYk a&muf&avonf/
(A Guide to Buddhist ruins of Sarnath, By Daya Ram Sahni, M.A, Director General of Archaeo-

49

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


logy in India). Page No.5
The monastic settlement of Sarnath continued in use until the end of the 12th century when it was
devastated in 1194 A.D, By Mohammed Ghory when his general Qutb-ud-din defeated Jaya Chandra,
the raja of Benares, and destroyed a large number of temples and images.

rpwm',m&mrf&S[eDtrf? at\rd*'g0kefvrf;nTefac:aompmtkyf pmrsufESm 5-wGif a&;om;xm;


onfrSm]]rd*'g0kef&Sd ausmif;awmfrsm;udk c&pf 12-&mpk ukefcgeD;jzpfaom 1194-ckESpftxd qufvuftokH;jyK
cJhavonf/ if;ESpfwGif rdk[mrufa*:&D\AkdvfrSL;MuD;wpfOD;jzpfol ukwfbG'defonf Am&mPoD&Sifbk&if bk&if
Z,csE&rif;tm; owfjzwf rsm;pGmukefaom apwDrsm;? ausmif;rsm;ESifh&kyfwkawmfrsm;udk zsufqD;ypfonfhwkdif
atmif jzpfavonf/
(qkdvkd&if;rSm Z,csE&rif;usqkH;jyD;aemuf rlqvifwkdY zsufqD;ypfaom taqmufttkHaygif;rsm;pGmwkdY
wGif rd*'g0keftaqmufttkHrsm;vnf; yg0ifavonf[kqkdvkd\/)
It has been stated above that the final destruction of Sarnath Buildings was presumably the work
of Mohammed Ghory and the condition of the remains that have been unearthed shows clearly that their
overthrow was due to a violent catastrophe accompained with thunder and fire.

t"dyg,f/
/xkdtaMumif;ESifhpyfvsOf; od&Sd&onfrSm rd*'g0kef&Sdausmif;awmfMuD;rsm; t<uif;r&
ysufpD;&jcif;rSm rkd[mrufa*:&D\vufcsufaMumifhjzpfonf/ rlqvifwkYd\rD;paom vufeufwkYdjzihf aMumufruf
pzG,f zsuq
f ;D cJah Mumif;udk ,ckay:vsu&f adS om taqmufttkH t<uif;tuserf sm;u xif&mS ;pGm az:jyxm;av
onf/
Major Kitto's excavations gave ample proof of the fact that the monastery had been destroyed by
a great fire applied by the hands of hostile invaders. The conflagration was "So sudden and rapid as to
force the monks to abandon their very food", for the explorer found "the remains of ready-made wheaten
cakes in a small recess". I myself found in the two cells referred to above several earthen pots containing
remnants of cooked rice.

t"dyg,f/
/]]ar*smupfwkd;u a&;om;az:jyonfrSm usL;ausmf0ifa&muf wkdufckdufaom &efolwdkYonf
ausmif;awmfMu;D udk rD;&IUd pifppfraoG zsucf ahJ vonf/ &kww
f &uf avmifuRr;f vmaom rD;Mu;D \t&Sed af Mumifh
&[ef;awmfrsm;rSm pm;aeaom tpm;tpmudkyif pGefYvTwf&avonf/ oGm;a&muf&SmazGolwkdYonf *sKHjzifhjyKvkyf
xm;aom udwrf ek rYf sm;ukd tcef;i,fuav;rsm;wGif awGU&S&d avonf/ xkt
d cef;i,f 2-cef;xJ uREyfk u
f ,
kd w
f idk f
csufxm;aomxrif;rsm;yg0ifaom ajrtkd;uav;rsm;udk awGU&Sd&ao;\/}}
(History of Benares by Prof. A. H. Altekar, M.A,L.L.B., D.Litt).
Page No.23
The prosperity of Benares was destined to come soon to an end. King Jaya Chandra, who was
ruling Kananj at the time of the invasion of Mohammed Ghory, was unable to drive back the invaders
Kanauj was conquerd by Mohammed in 1193. We are told that a thousand temples of Benares were destroyed and Masjid were built over their sites....and 1,400 camels were required to carry the plunder.

t"dyg,frSm/ /]]Am&mPoDjynfMuD;\ csrf;om<u,f0rIonf rMumrDyif ysufpD;&ef uHMurmzefwD;ay;av


awmhonf/ rkd[mrufa*:&Donf umodu&mZfwkdif; Am&mPoDNrdKUukd wkdufckdufpOfu bk&ifZ,csE&rSm usL;
ausmf0ifa&muf wkdufckdufolwkdYudk rwGef;vSefEkdifav&um; 1193-ckESpfwGif a*:&Donf umodu&mZfwkdif;ukd
50

atmifjrifavawmhonf/ uREkfyfwkdY Mum;zl;oavmufrSm olonf Am&mPoDNrdKU&Sd rsm;pGmaom apwD? ykxdk;rsm;


udk zsuq
f ;D if;ae&mrsm;wGif AvDausmif;rsm; aqmufvyk Mf uayawmhonf/ wku
d cf u
kd v
f ,
k uf&aom ypn;f
rsm;udk ukvm;tkyfaygif; 1400-ESifho,faqmifoGm;avonf/}}
odv
Yk Qif q&mtrsK;d rsK;d wkYd a&;om;Muonfudk axmufcsi
hf Am&mPoDNrKd UESirhf *d 'g0keaf wm&Sd taqmuf
ttkHwkdYrSm rlqvifwkdY\vufcsufaMumifh ysufpD;&avaMumif; xif&Sm;avonf/ rd*'g0kefawmudk rlqvifwkdY
onf 2-Mudrfwkdifwkdif 0ifa&mufwkdufcdkufavawmhonf/ if;wkdYrSm r[mruf*gZeDESifhr[mrufa*:&DwkdY jzpfav
onf/ yxr0ifa&mufwkdufcdkufcJholum; t<uif;rJhrzsufqD;cJhacs/ tenf;i,frQom zsufqD; ypnf;rsm;ESifh
bk&m;b@mawmfrsm;udk vk,loGm;ayonf/
aemufxyfzsuq
f ;D ol a*:&DonfomvQif emvefrxlEidk af tmif zsuq
f ;D ypfavonf/ &[ef;awmfrsm;rSm
qGrf;pm;aeqJwGif towfcHMu&&Smavonf/
(Natabats History of India) ac:pmtkyw
f iG f bke;f awmfMu;D rsm;tm; ppfom;rsm;[k txifrmS ;jcif;aMumifh
owfypfavonf[l\/ pum;rSm ,kwdr&Sd/ tu,f Xme&Sd &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; ppfom;rsm;[k txif
rSm;avonfjzpftHh/ wjcm;ae&m&Sd oHCmawmfwkdYrSm vGwfp&mtaMumif;&Sdonf/ wjcm;Xme&Sd &[ef;awmfwkdYrSm
vnf; uHMurmESifhqkHpnf;Mu&avaomaMumifh if;pum;rSm ,kwdr&SdEkdif/ wu,fhapwemESifhowfjcif;om
jzpfavonf/ ukvm;tkyfaygif; 1400ESifh,laqmifoGm;aom b@mawmfrsm;rSm rd*'g0kefawm&Sd ausmif;awmf
rsm;rS trsm;qkH;yg0ifayonf/
&efolrlqvifrif;wkdY zsufqD;ypfcJhaom rd*'g0keftaqmufttkHwkdYrSm c&pf 12-&mpkrSp 17-&mpkxd
ajrMuD;xJ jrKyfvsuf&SdcJhaomfvnf; ywf0ef;usif&Sd &yfol&Gmom;rsm;onf xkdtaqmufttkHrsm;rS ypnf;wkdYudk
rnfonfhtcgrS xkwf,ltokH;rjyKcJhacs/ &mZ0ifwpfcgajymif; t*FvdyfvufxufodkY a&mufvwfaomf ruifZD
qko
d l ausmufpm0efMu;D onf c&pf 1815-ckEpS w
f iG f ae&mudk pwifw;l azmfavonf/ wpfzef qmtvufZEm;
umeif*efonf c&pf 1845-ckESpfwGif qufvufwl;azmfjyefavonf/ xkdyk*KdvfMuD; wl;azmfcJhpOfu &&SdcJhaom
ypnf;tcsKdUudk rd*'g0kefjywkduf odrf;qnf;xm; tcsKdUukdrl umvuwm;jywkdufMuD;odkY ydkYavonf/ odkYwl;
azmfaomtcg ausmuftkwfrsm;pGmwkdYudk Am&mPoDNrdKUodkY ,laqmifjyD;vQif uGdif;aumvdrf? 0&kemjrpf&Sd 'Gefuif
wHwm;blwm&kpH onfwu
Ydk kd aqmufvyk Mf uavonf/ 0&kemjrpf&dS a&umwHwidk ;f Mu;D ukv
d yk &f mvnf; bk&m;&kyyf mG ;
awmf wpfzufygaom ausmufpmaygif; 48-csyfESifhyef;ykyef;EG,fygaom ausmufcsyfaygif;rsm;pGmwkdYudk tokH;jyK
avonf/ ,ck uREkfyfwkdYacwfrSmyif uJhodkY tokH;csMuonfudk awGU&jcif;jzifh a&S;urnfa&GUrnfrQ tokH;cscJh
jyDenf;qkdwmudk awG;qp&mMuD;wpfckyif jzpfavonf/
rlqvifwYdk zsuq
f ;D jcif;aMumifh jyKd ysu?f usK;d yJv
h su&f adS om &kyw
f ak wmfrsm;? oydwu
f ?JG tk;d uG?J tk;d jcrf;rsm;
udk ,cktcg ausmufpmbufXmerS aqmufvyk x
f m;aom jywku
d x
f w
J iG f uREyfk w
f Ykd zl;jrifMu&onf/ xdjk ywku
d x
f J
tmaomuausmufpmwkid rf S ausmufjcaoh&F yk f ok;H yGiq
hf idk Mf u;D vnf;&S\
d / ausmufpmrsm;vnf; &S\
d / us,jf yefY
vsuf om,memaysmfzG,f&Sdaom ausmif;awmfMuD;rsm;um; tkwfeH&HMuD;rsm;? orHwvif;rsm;jzifh jydKvsuf&Sdav&m
vma&mufz;l ajrmfMuol Ak'b
mom0if olawmfpifwidk ;f a&S;acwfukd jyefvnf wovGr;f qGw&f avonf/ Xme
udk zl;jrif&olwkdif; uREkfyfwkdYoEmef x<uavh&Sdaom aomuwnf;[laom 'DvIdif;MuD;udk oHa0*w&m;jzifhum
qD;&ayownf;/
(From the report of a tour in the Gorakhpur District, By A.C.L.Cirlcyle in 1875-1876 and 18761877. Pages 62-63)
Kushinagar Temple
............In the inner doorway of the temple itself I made an interesting discovery, In two hollows on
each side at the lower part of the temple, I found the acient cupshaped iron pivots hinges. I found some
fragments of back charred wood which showed that the door had been destroyed by fire; and as numerous bones and various charred substances were found in the outer chamber as well as in both doorways.
It was evident that Buddhism had been destroyed by fire and sword.

rpwmuvdwf\ *dk&wfyl'dpMwdwf c&D;pOfpmtkyf pmrsufESm 62? 63wGif a&;om;xm;onfrSm51

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

ukodem&kHausmif;awmf
]]ukodem&kHbk&m;ausmif;awmfMuD;\twGif;wHcg;bufwGif uREkfyfonf pdwf0ifpm;zG,f&mwpfckudk awGU
&S&d ayonf/ ausmif;awmfMu;D \atmufwcH g; 2-bufwiG f tacgif;Mu;D 2-ck&adS vonf/ xkt
d acgif;rsm;xJ a&S;
a[mif;wHcg;rsm;wGif wyfqifcJhaom a&S;a[mif;ykHpH&Sdaom oHywmrsm;ESifhrD;aoG;tptersm;udk awGU&Sd&\/ xkdY
jyif rsm;pGmaom t&kd;rsm;ESifhrD;avmifuRrf;xm;aom t&m0wKrsm;udkvnf; tjyif&SdwHcg;0MuD;ESpfzufpvkH;wGif
awGU&S&d ao;\/ xdo
k aYkd wGU&S&d aom rD;aoG;rsm;? vl&;dk rsm;ESiahf vmifuRr;f xm;aomt&m0wKrsm;udk awGU&S&d jcif;jzifh
ausmif;awmfMuD;udk rD;&IdUzsufqD;avaMumif; xif&Sm;avonf/ Ak'bmomudk rD;ESifh"m;vufeufwkdYu tpwkH;
atmif zsufqD;ypfavownf;}}/
txufygpum;&yfrsm;t& ukoed m&kaH usmif;? apwD? ykx;dk rsm;udk rD;paom vufeufwjYdk zifh zsuq
f ;D av
aomaMumifh ysufpD;&aMumif; xif&Sm;avonf/ tb,folonf zsufqD;avoenf;[laom vufonfudk azmf
xkw&f ef vkad yonf/ xdo
k u
l m; r[mrufuw
k b
f 'G ed t
f b
J wf jzpfonf/ olonf c&pf 1197-ckEpS w
f iG f atmuf('f)
ESiw
hf &[kwef ,ftygt0ifjzpfaom ukoed m&kb
H ufoYkd csw
D ufwu
dk cf u
dk af v&m wpfvtwGi;f odr;f ydu
k rf ad vonf/
xdka&mtcgu ukodem&kHXme ausmif;MuD;i,faygif; 30? apwD 8-qlESifhoHCmawmfaygif; 300-cefY aexkdifoD
wif;ok;H Muavonf/ xdo
k o
l nf ausmif;&So
d C
H mawmfwt
Ydk m; 0g0gjriforQ vku
d v
f o
H wfjzwfavaomf &[ef;awmf
t&SifjrwfwkYdrSm bk&m;y&dedAmefjyK&m*lMuD;xJodkY 0ifajy;Muavonf/ xkdodkY0ifajy;aom&[ef;awmfwkdYtm; tjyif
bufrS wHcg;rsm;ukdydwfum rD;&IdUowfav&m oHCmawmft&SifjrwfwdkYrSm rD;ykHMuD;xJ wAkef;Akef;vJum aoyGJ
0ifMu&&Smavonf/ rpwmuvdwf wl;azmf&&Sdonfqkdaom t&kd;rsm;um; xkd&[ef;awmfrsm;t&SifjrwfwkdY\
t&k;d rsm;yifjzpfonf/ rpwmuvdwu
f ukoed m&kzH suq
f ;D ypfov
l ufonfukd xkwaf zmfra&;om;aomfvnf; r[m
aAm"dtoif;MuD;\pux&DcsKyfMuD; a'0jyd,url ukodem&kHudk zsufqD;olwdkYrSm rlqvifrsm;jzpfonf[k if;\
(Buddhist Shrines in India) ac:pmtkyw
f iG f a&;om;xm;avonf/ xkaYd Mumifh jrwfpmG bk&m;&Siu
f ,
kd af wmfjrwfMu;D
y&dedAmefjyK&mXmeMuD;wpfckyifjzpfaomfvnf; rlqvifwkdYpufuGif;rS rvGwfuif;Ekdifojzifh odkYjzpf&ygwum;[k
oHa0*,lMuygukef/
,cktxift&Sm; awGUjrif&aom taqmufttkHrsm;rS ausmif;awmfysufMuD;rsm;? apwDMuD;wpfql? y&d
edAmefvkdPf*lMuD;wpfck? rmx*l0ac:bk&m;wpfqlESifhawaZm"mwfavmifuRrf;&m ukef;awmfay:&Sd apwDawmfMuD;
wkdYjzpfonf/

om0wd
om0wdNrdKUawmfrSm yaoe'Daumovrif;MuD;\xD;eef;pkduf&m NrdKUawmfMuD;jzpf xkdacwfu vlOD;a&
7-uka#rQaexkdifMuavonf/ Ak'&Sifawmfbk&m;onf 18-0gumvywfvkH; oDwif;okH;awmfrlcJhaom ae&mjzpf
jcif;aMumifh Ak'bmomusrf;*efwkdY tvGefxifay:avonf/ om0wdjynfwGif xif&Sm;cJhaom taqmufttkH
MuD;rsm;um; temxydPfolaX;MuD;\aumif;rIawmfjzpfaom aZw0efausmif;awmfMuD; rd*g&rmwmbGJUxl;cH0dom
cg'g,dumrMuD;\aumif;rIawmf ykAm&kHausmif;awmfMuD;ESifhyaoe'Daumovrif;MuD;\eef;awmfrsm;jzpfonf/
rQausmfapmxifay:cJhaom om0wdjynfMuD;onf c&pfokH;&mtwGif; qkwf,kwf tdrfajc 200-rQom <uif;
usefjyD;vQif c&pf 6-&mpktwGif;usaom qmquFrif;vufxufwGif vkH;0ysufpD;oGm;&avonf/ rlqvifrsm;
zsufqD;csdefum; r&SdawmhjyD/ ,cktcg NrdKU\ta&SUbufrsufESmudk tpD&0wDjrpfa&pm;jcif;aMumifh rkdif0uf
cefY a&xJusomG ;avjy/D xkNd rKd U&Sd aZw0efausmif;awmfMu;D udk ausmufpmbufXmeuwl;azmf&mwGif ausmif;awmf
Mu;D ESiw
hf uG *Eu#k w
D u
dk af v;vk;H anmifapmif;awmfMu;D wpfck ay:xGuu
f ek o
f nf/ t&Sio
f m&dyw
k & m\"mwfawmf
apwDwpfq?l tmeEmaAm"dyifawmfEiS ahf &wGi;f ? a&uefrsm;vnf; ay:xGuu
f ek \
f / ,ckomG ;a&mufz;l ajrmfvo
kd w
l rYdk mS
tajctaeudkom jrif&awmhrnfjzpf a&S;acwfukd tm&kHjyKom zl;ajrmfMuygukef/
rlqvifwo
Ydk nf tdE,
d jynfwpf0ef;&Sd omoemawmfukd tESt
YH jym; &ufpufpmG zsuq
f ;D Muavonf/ xkd
okdYzsufqD;onfukd ca&aphwGif;us odEkdifzkdY&mum; rvG,fvSay/ &mZ0ifynmESifhtoufarG;jrLMuaom y&dkzuf
52

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

Bihar and Orissa District Gazetters(Patna)


By L.S.S.O., Malley, I.C.S., Page No.20
The Mohammed Conquest
The Buddhism of Magadha was finally swept away by the Mohammed invasion under Bakhityar
Khilji. In 1197, the capital, Bihar was seized by a small number of two hundred horse men, who rushed the
postern gate and sacked the twon. The slaughter of the "shaven headed Brahmins" as the Mohammed
chronicle called the Buddhist monks, was so complete that when the victor searched for someone capable
of explaining the contents of the monastic libraries, not a living man could be found who was able to do so,
"It was discovery," it was said, "that the whole place and city was a place of study" * A similar fate befell
the other Buddhist institution, against which the combined intolerance and rapacity of the invaders were
directed. The monasteries were sacked and monks slain. Many of the temples were idols were broken
and trodden underfoot. Those monks who escaped from the sword fled to Tibet, Nepal and southern
India, and Buddhism as a popular religion in Bihar, its last abode in northern India was finally destroyed.
Thence forward Patna passed under the Mohammedan rule.

rpwmrmav\bD[mESifhMo&dp*ZufwD,m pmrsufESm eHygwf 20-

r[mar'ifrsm; yg#vdjynfukd Ekid ef if;jcif;


t"dyg,f/
/]]rm*"wkdif; Ak'omoemawmfonf bwfwD,mcdv*sD trSL;&Sdaom r[mar'ifrsm;
0ifa&mufwkdufckdufjcif;aMumifh ysufpD;jcif;odkY a&muf&avonf/ olwkdYonf c&pf 1197-ckESpfwGif r*"wkdif;?
yg#vdyw
k Nf rKd UawmfMu;D ukd jrif;pD;ppfom; 200-rQjzifh NrKd UwHcg;Mu;D rS 0ifa&mufum odr;f ydu
k af vonf/ r[mar'if
rSwfwrf;rsm;wGif Ak'bmombkef;MuD;rsm;[k ac:qkdxm;aom OD;jynf;acgif;wkH;ykPm;(r[m,me&[ef;udk qkdvkd
onf/)udk tpaysmufatmif owfjzwfMuav&m ausmif;awmfrsm;&Sd yd#uwfwu
dk rf sm;wGif yg0ifaomtaMumif;
t&mrsm;udk ajymjyjcif;iSm pGrf;aqmifEkdifaomolrsm;udk &SmazGygaomfvnf; &[ef;awmfwpfyg;ukdrSvnf; rawGU
&awmhacs/ taMumif;ESifhpyfvsOf; uREkfyfwkdY od&Sd&oavmufrSm NrdKUawmfMuD;wpfckvkH;onf ynmoifMum;
&m XmeMuD;jzpfavonf/ csDwufwkdufcdkufolwkdY\a'got[kefaMumifh wjcm;aom Ak'bmomtaqmufttkHwkdY
onfvnf; txufygysupf ;D jcif;uHMurmESihf awGUMuKcH pH m;&avonf/ olwo
Ydk nf ausmif;rsm;wku
Yd kd odr;f ydu
k jf cif;?
&[ef;awmfrsm;tm; &ufpufpmG owfjzwfjcif;? apwDyx
k ;dk rsm;udk &ufpufMurf;MuKwpf mG zsuq
f ;D acsreI ;f jcif;? a&
wGufjcif;iSm rpGrf;Ekdifaom &kyfwkawmfrsm;tm; &kdufcsKd;jcif;? ajcESifheif;jcif;ponfwkdYudk jyKvkyfav&um; "m;
ab;rS vGwfajrmufMu&Smaom &[ef;awmfwkdYrSm wdAuf? edaygvfESifhtdEd,jynfawmifydkif;odkY xGufajy;Muav
onf/ ajrmufydkif;tdEd, aemufqkH;wnf&SdcJh bD[mac:r*"e,fwGif EkdifiHawmfbmomjzpfcJhzl;aom Ak'bm
omonf aemufqkH;ysufpD;jcif;odkYa&muf&avonf/ ,if;onfhtcgrSp y#em(yg#vdykwf)jynfonf r[mar
'ifwkdY tkyfcsKyfjcif;udk cH&avonf/}}
txufyg 0ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
dk f zsuq
f ;D rIwiG f taomurif;w&m;Mu;D \aumif;rIawmfrsm;jzpfaom r[m
apwD? taomum&kHausmif; paom taqmufttkHaygif;rsm;pGm yg0ifysufpD;&avonf/ ,ck uREkfyfwkdYoGm;
a&mufMunfh&Iaomtcg arm&d,NrdKUawmfjzpfaom yg#vdykwfNrdKU&mMuD;udk txift&Sm; rawGU&awmhacs/ a&S;
a[mif; yg#vdykwfjynfonf ,ck&Sdaeaom yg#emNrdKU\atmuf 24-aycefYwGif jrKyfvsuf&Sdonf[k ausmufpm
bufXmerS ,lqxm;avonf/ yg#empDwDta&SUbuf zmvkH0ufavmufwGif apwDMuD;wpfqlukd awGU&\/ if;
apwDMuD;\txufydkif;udk rlqvifwkdYu jzdKzsufjyD;vQif AvDwkdufMuD;wpfck aqmufvkyfxm;avonf/

0d[m&NrdKUac: bD[mNrdKUomoem
Page No. 202
(Bihar town)...........At the Mohammedan conquest, the city was sacked, the monastery burnt,

53

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

qmMu;D wko
Yd nfyifvQif ukepf ifatmifrodMuacs/ xdaYk Mumifh uREyfk o
f nf &SmazGpak qmif;&&St
d yfaom tud;k tum;
rsm;jzifh odoavmufukd a&;om;&ayonf/

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

burnt, and the monks slain by Bhakhliar Khilji; But Bihar was the place of residence of the Mohammedan
governors until 1541.
Page No. 230
In all directions are seed Mohammedan tombs, the smaller of brick. Larger or square and curved
stones taken from ruined Buddhist or Brahmanical Buildings.

t"dyg,f/
/]]r[mar'ifwkdYonf bD[mNrdKUudk atmifjrifpOf ausmif;awmfrsm;udk vk,ufzsufqD;jyD;vQif
bwfw,
D mcdv*so
D nf &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; owfjzwfypfavonf/ odaYk omf bD[mNrKd Uonf c&pf 1541-ESpw
f idk f
atmif r[mar'ifbk&ifcHrsm; tqufquf &kH;pkdufoGm;aomae&mjzpfonf/ (rSwfcsuf-AD,mNrdKUukd rlqvifwkdY
odrf;ykdufpOfu ausmif;ueftaqmufttkHrsm;udkom zsufqD;cJh wjcm;taqmufttkHrsm;udk rzsufqD;cJhacs/)
pmrsuEf mS 203]]bD[mNrKd U\ae&mwumwGif rlqvift&d;k *lMu;D rsm;udk awGUjrif&avonf/ xdt
k &d;k *lrsm;
wGifyg0ifaom tkwftMuD;ti,f av;axmifhrsm;ESifhyef;ykyef;EG,frsm; xkxm;aom ausmufrsm;udk Ak'bmom
odkYwnf;r[kwf [dELbmom0ifwkdY\taqmufttkHysufrsm;rS ,lMuavonf}}
Page No.204
...........In the centre of the dargah or towon of Kadir Kumaish, which is modern date, but it is
composed almost entirely of the remains of the ancient Vihara while its pavement is made up of ancient
Chaityas and Pillars.........and a little to the east of this place is the dargah of Makhdum Shah Ahmed
Chara mosh with an ancient gateway, eleven feet high and seven broad, which tradition says, once served
X as the entrance to great vihara in the old town.

pmrsufESm 204 t"dyg,frSm ]]bD[mNrdKUteD;&Sd um'Dulrpfac:rlqvifwpfOD;\t&kd;*ludk a&S;a[mif;Ak'bmom


ausmif;apwDrsm;rS <uif;useaf eaom ypn;f rsm;jzifh aqmufvyk x
f m;\/ xk*d o
l o
Ydk mG ;&mvrf;rSmrlum; apwDysu?f
ausmufwkdifysufwdkYrS ypnf;rsm;yg0ifavonf/ ae&mrS a&SUbufcyfvSrf;vSrf;ae&mwGif tjrifhtm;jzifh 11ay? tus,ftm;jzifh 7-ay&Sdaom *dwfaygufwHcg;MuD;wpfckESifhrku'rf&Smta[mruf&Sm&armpf\ocsKif;wpfck
&Sdjyefao;\/ if;wHcg;rMuD;\&mZ0ifrSm a&S;ya0oPDtcg Ak'bmomausmif;awmfMuD;odkY 0if0wHcg;aygufMuD;
jzpfonf[l\/}}
rSwfcsuf/
/ae&mum; *kwr if;rsm;vufxufwiG f pnfyifcahJ om aygwduoHCm&mrjzpfonf/ ausmif;
awmfMuD;onf c&pf 700-ESifh800avmufwGif oHCmawmfaygif; 1000-cefY oDwif;okH;aexkdifcJhavonf/
Xmeonfvnf; rlqvifwYdk vufcsuaf Mumifh tErd b0odq
Yk u
dk af &muf&aMumif; az:jyyg,kwrd sm;jzifh vkaH vmuf
ayjyD/

wDvm[&GmtaMumif;
Report Archaeological Survey of India
Vol.VIII By Sarat Chandra Dass
TELARHA
A village in the extreme south-west of Bihar subdivision, situated 13 miles south-east of Masaurhi
railway station on a narrow trip of land between the Katter and Sona, two branches of Phalgu river. Telar
-ha has been identified with Tailadhaka, the first place visited by Hiuen Tsiang in the seven century on his
journey south from Patna. It contained a great monastery, a magnificent pile of building in which were four
courtyards with numerous arcades and pavillions, lofty tower and pagoda. Here 1000 monks devoted
themselves to study and learned from distant countries flocked to its halls. The site of this splendid structure is now marked by a number of mounds, one of whcih called Bulandi or high mound, is literally covered
with Mohammedan graves. To the east of the village is a large mosque with a plat-form composed almost
entirely of pillars and stones quarried from the ancient Buddhist buildings. The ancient name of the place,

54

Tailadhaka, is found in written characters of the Pala time (800-1200)in an inscription on one of the stones
now used as lintel over the door. The Singi Masjid or stone mosque as it is popularly called, was built on
the site of Buddhist temple and nearly all the graves dug round it have yielded either figure, pillars, or
portion of cornices and moulding. The Musalmans of Telarlia refuge to bury their relations in any tomb
from which any idolatrous images or carving has been turned up, for this reason a grave has sometimes to
be dug three or four time over. Outside the door of the mosque is a second enclosure containing the dargah
or tomb, of Saiyid Yusuf Ekbal, a Mohammedan saint who lived in Telarha about 250 years ago. He and
his six brothers are greatly revered by Musalmans of neighbourhood. The tombs of the brothers are to be
found at the villages of Miawan, Man daj, Abdalpur. Frtepur. Pabalpur and Bibipur. Both mosque and
dargah stand on a high mound which apparently is in the site of some Buddhist building. Some remarkably
fine Buddhistic sculptures have been found in the village.

t"dyg,f/
/wD[mv&Gmonf zmvm*ljrpfqG,fESpfckjzpfaom uwmESifhqkHemjrpfMum;wGif wnf&Sdaom rql
&Dbw
l mrS 13-rkid u
f mG a0;aom bD[mqyf'0D ZH e,f\awmifbuftqk;H wGif wnf&adS vonf/ w&kwb
f ek ;f awmfMu;D
[la0qifonf c&pf(7)&mpkavmufu yg#vdyw
k Nf rKd Uawmf\'uP
d a'oodYk a&muf&cdS ahJ om c&D;pOfwiG f yxrqk;H
a&muf&SdcJhaomae&mjzpf trnfudk awvm"u[k a&;rSwfxm;cJhavonf/ xdkae&mwGif MuD;us,fcHhnm;aom
ausmif;awmfMuD;wpfckESifh0if;jcH (4)ck&Sdavonf/ xkdausmif;awmfMuD;wGif a[mvfac:aom cef;raqmifMuD;rsm;?
aexGufaqmifrsm;? jrifhrm;aom arQmfpifMuD;rsm;ESifhapwDrsm;pGm yg0ifavonf/ xkdausmif;awmfMuD; oHCm
wpfaxmifavmuf aexkid o
f w
D if;ok;H Muonft
h jyif a0;vHaom Ekid if w
H umrS ynm&SMd u;D wko
Yd nfvnf; vma&muf
pk&kH;Mu&avonf[l\/ ausmif;awmfMuD;udk ajruwkwfMuD;rsm;jzifh zkdYxm;av&m wpfckaomajrykHukd blvED
okw
Yd nf;r[kwf jrifah omawmify[
Ykd ak c:onf/ ajrykrH sm;um; r[mar'ifw\
Ydk ocsKi ;f &myifjzpfavonf/ &Gm\
ta&SUbufwGifvnf; a&SUAk'bmom taqmufttkHrsm;rS wl;azmf&&Sdaom ausmufwkdifausmufwkH;rsm; tvkH;pkH
yg0ifaom AvDMu;D wpfv;Hk &Sad o;\/ xkAd vDMu;D \wHcg;xkw?f ausmufcsyw
f iG yf g&Sad om ausmufpmtu&mrSm c&pf
8-&mpkrS 12-&mpktMum;jzpfaom ygvacwfu tu&mrsm;jzpf awvmau[k a&;om;xm;onfuakd wGU&S&d \/
qH*rD *spaf c:aom ausmufAvDMu;D udv
k nf; ausmif;awmf&m aqmufvyk x
f m;onf/ AvDMu;D \xuf0ef;usif
vljrK y&f ef wl;azmfMuav&m &kyyf mG ;awmfrsm;? ausmufwidk rf sm; yef;MuKd ;yef;EG,x
f iG ;f vkyx
f m;aom ausmufcsyrf sm;udk
awGU&S&d avonf/ xkad e&m&Srd q
l vifwo
Ydk nf rdrw
d \
Ydk aqGrsK;d wdukd vlrsm;ylaZmfcx
H u
dk af om &kyyf mG ;awmf ponf
ay:xGuaf om xko
d csK i;f wGif jrK yEf MHS u&ef jiif;y,favonf/ t&m0wKrsm; ay:xGujf cif;aMumifh wGi;f wpfwiG ;f udk
3-4Murd rf u wl;azmfMuavonf/ az:jyygAvDMu;D \tjyifbuf 0if;jcMH u;D xJ tESpf 250-avmufu xDvm[&Gm
wGif aexkid o
f mG ;aom q,dw,
f q
l w
G t
f ubmvf\t&k;d *lMu;D wpfck &Sad o;\/ ol\tpfukd ajcmufa,mufwu
Ydk kd
teD;tem;&Sd rlqvifrsm;u txl;&kad oMu\/ ol\tpfurkd sm;t&k;d *lwu
Ydk dk rD,0ef? ref'pf? t'gyl&?f zmawyk&?f
yg&mbmyl&?f bDbyD &l &f mG wkw
Yd iG f awGU&S&d avonf/ ,lpw
G t
f ubmvf\t&k;d *lEiS Afh vDMu;D rSm jrifrh m;aom awmifuek ;f
ay:wGif wnf&\
dS / xkjYd yif wDvm[&GmrS vSyoyg,faom &kyw
f ak wmftcsKUd vnf; ay:xGuu
f ek \
f /
rSwfcsuf/
/wDvm[&Gm&Sd awvm"uausmif;MuD;onf omoemawmfukefqkH;vkeD;tcgwGif emvE
wuokdvfMuD;xufyif ykdrkdpnfumm;cJhavonf/ ausmif;? apwDpaomtaqmufttkHwkdYonf xkdausmif;awmf
MuD;\tjyifbufrS 0dkif;&Hvsuf&Sd&m txl;wvnf yPm&cJhavonf/ ae&monfvnf; rlqvifwkdY\"m;? rD;
paom vufeuf'Pfudk rcHEkdifojzifh az:jyygtajctaeodkY a&muf&avonf/

&mZN*Kd[f
Page No. 228
The Rajgir has been occupied at different time by Mohammedans, by whom Buddhist structures
were pulled down to furnish materials for tomb.

pmrsufESm eHygwf 228-t"dyg,frSm ]]&mZN*Kd[fNrdKUudk r[mar'ifwkdYonf tMudrfMudrfwkdufckdufodrf;ydkuf


55

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


cJ
h if;olwo
Ydk nf Ak'b
momtaqmufttkrH sm;udk t&k;d *lrsm; jyKvyk &f ef NzKzd sucf sMuavownf;}} bk&m;vuf
xuftcgu twGi;f 9-uka#? tjyif 9-uka#rQaom vlO;D a&udk vufcEH idk af om a0blv? a0bm&? od*v
d ?d
yP0? *dZs u#k [
f q
k t
dk yfaom awmifMu;D ig;vk;H wk\
Yd cHwyfMu;D ozG,f umqD;xm;jcif;aMumifh obm0tusq;Hk aom
NrdKUawmfMuD; &mZN*Kd[fum; rlqvifwkdY\txyfxyftzefzef 0ifa&mufzsufqD;ypfrIaMumifh ,cktcg awmMuD;
aovm[dr0EmuJhodkY jcKHEG,ftxyfxyf &pfywfzkH;tkyfvsuf &Sdavonf/ &mZN*Kd[fNrdKUonf c&pf 1197-ck
ESpw
f iG f r[mrufa*:&D\vufaxmufAv
dk rf LS ;wpfa,mufjzpfol tuw,
d m&k'ed -f r[mrufbif\zsuq
f ;D rIaMumifh
aemufqkH; ysufpD;jcif;odkY a&muf&avonf[k qGm&Djyq'f\tdEd,&mZ0ifopf 164-pmrsufESmwGif zwf&I&
avonf/
Ikhtiyaruddin Muhammad Bin conquered Bihar (1197)with only 2000 soldiers and destroyed the
Buddhist temples and Libraries at Rajgir.

t"dyg,frSm ]]tuwd,m&k'defrl[rbifonf ppfom;taygif; 2000-ESifh1197-ckESpfwGif bD[me,fukd


odrf;ydkufav&m &mZN*Kd[fNrdKU&Sd ausmif;awmfrsm;ESifhyd#uwfwkdufrsm;ukd zsufqD;ypfavonf}}/
txufyg om"ut& rlqvifrsm; zsufqD;jcif;aMumifh ysufpD;av&aMumif; xif&Sm;ygaomfvnf; xkd
rwkid rf u
D yif rsm;pGmqkw,
f w
k v
f su&f adS vonf[\
l / c&pf 250-avmufwiG f NrKd Uawmfa[mif; &mZN*K[
d w
f iG f wku
d ?f
tdrf ponf vkH;0jywfpJcJh tZmwowfNrdKUawmfjzpfaom &mZN*Kd[fom tdrfajc 400-avmuf&Sdonfqkd\/
,cktcg &mZN*Kd[fNrdKU\xuf0ef;usift&yfrsm;wGif a&S;a[mif;tkwfausmufwkdYjzifh aqmufvkyfxm;aom AvD
MuD;i,fwkdYudk awGUjrif&avonf/ if;tkwfausmufrsm;udk a0VK0efausmif;awmfpaom &mZN*Kd[fNrdKUwGif;NrdKUjyif
&Sd ausmif;awmfwkdYrS ,lavonf/ [kwf r[kwfqkdwmudk xkdAvDrsm; eH&H&Sdausmufpmygaom ausmufcsyfrsm;u
oufaocHxm;avonf/ xkdYjyif ydyvd*l[mac: t&Sifr[muyukd,fawmfjrwfMuD; psmef0ifpm;awmfrlcJhaom
vkP
d *f Ml u;D tay:vnf; rlqvift&k;d *l 5-ck&adS vaom vkP
d *f Ml u;D tay:vnf; rlqvift&k;d *l 5-ck&adS vao;
\/ teD;tem;aeol ukvm;rsm;xHrS uREkfyfod&Sd&ao;onfrSm a0VK0efausmif;awmfMuD; ,ckuJhodkY tkwfjym;
tkwfcsyfrsm; enf;yg;ae&jcif;rSm rlqvifwkdYonf tvkd&Sdwkdif; tokH;jyKMu&ef ,laqmifoGm;MuavaomaMumifh
jzpfonfqkd\/

emvE
Ak'& iS af wmfb&k m;\ vufxufawmftcgu emVu&Gm ,ck emvEac:aomae&monf Ak'* ,m rd*'g
0kefpaom ae&mwkdYuJhodkY t0dZ[dwXme r[kwfjim;vnf; c&pf 1-&mpkavmufup urmausmfAk'omoemh
wuokdvfMuD;wpfck wnf&SdcJhjcif;aMumifh urmwpfcGifrSm ay:xifcJhavonf/
emvEXmeonf bD[m,dwf&xm;vkdif;i,fay:&Sd ]]b&m*Gef}}ac:aom&Gm\teD;wGif wnf&Sdavonf/
xkdXmeonf &xm;vrf;qkH;&m &mZN*Kd[fNrdKUESifh 4-rkdifuGma0; yg#em(yg#vdykwf)NrdKUrS 55-rkdifcefYa0;uGmav
onf/ emvEXmeokYd oGm;vko
d w
l o
Ydk nf ta&SUtdE,
d &xm;vrf;ay:&Sd buw,
D myl&f blwmrSqif; az:jyyg
vdwaf &;vfa0;ac:&xm;i,fuav;jzifh oGm;a&muf&avonf/ odaYk omf &mZN*K[
d Nf rKd UodYk a&S;OD;pGm oGm;jy;D rS wzef
tqkdyg&xm;i,fuav;jzifh emvEodkY oGm;a&muf&ef taumif;qkH;jzpfayonf/

(1)
(2)
(3)

emvEwGif atmufygpdwf0ifpm;zG,f&mrsm;udk awGU&Sd&onf/


apwDMuD;rsm;wkdYonf ausmif;awmfMuD;rsm;a&SUrsufESm pDwef;vsuf&Sdjcif;/
ausmif;awmfMu;D rsm;ESi,
fh el AD mpwDtaqmifrsm;wko
Yd nf jrifah om uke;f awmfay: nDnn
D mnm&Sad ejcif;/
emvE,leDAmpwDMuD;rS wl;azmf &orQaom t&m0wKrsm;udk crf;em;MuD;us,faom jywkdufMuD;wpfck
xJ xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufxm;ojzifh bk&m;zl;om;wkdYtzkdY txl;auseyfpzG,fjzpfjcif;/
56

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

emvEwuokdvfMuD;udk ausmufpm0efrif;MuD; blcseef[mrDvwefonf b&m*Gefac:&Gm\teD; wl;


azmf &&SdcJhavonf/ blcseef[mrDvwefxuf a&SUusaom ausmufpm0efrif;MuD; umeif*efonf ausmif;
awmf&mudk wl;azmf tenf;i,fcefY ay:xGufcJhaomfvnf; rnfonfhae&m[kyif trnfrrSnfhcJhEkdif/ blcseefrD
[mvwefurl ausmif;awmfysufMuD;xJrS &&SdcJhaom tudk;tum; ausmufpmrsm;ygonfhtwkdif; emvEwu
okdvfMuD;jzpfaMumif;ESifhwpfxpfcs tpD&ifcHpmukd qkdif&modkYwifoGif;cJhavonf/
emvEausmif;awmfMuD;um; pwk&ef;wpfrkdifcefY us,f0ef; xkdwpfrkdifcefY&Sdaomae&mudk tjyifbufrS
ckdifcHhaom tkwfwHwkdif;MuD;rsm;jzifh um&Hxm;vsufxm;&m oGm;a&mufzl;ajrmfolwkdif; cyfvSrf;vSrf;uyif jrifEkdif
avonf/ &Sad eaom taqmufttkrH sm;rSm apwDwef;Mu;D ESiw
hf pfzufrS ausmif;awmfMu;D rsm; pDwef;vsu&f o
dS nf/
if;ae&mrsm;\ wpfzufwGifum; aumvdyfausmif;MuD;rsm;ESifhpwk'domZ&yfMuD;rsm; &Sdavonf/ taqmuf
ttkHrsm;teuf wcsKdUwav taqmufttkHwkdYrSm txyfaygif;rsm;pGm&Sdojzifh tvGefyifjrifhrm;vSayonf/ xkdY
jyif taqmufttkHa[mif;MuD;rsm;tay: tMudrfaygif;rsm;pGm xyfrHaqmufvkyfcJhaom taqmufttkHrsm;udk
vnf; awGU&Sd&avonf/ odkY&mwGif a&S;tusqkH;aom taqmufttkHrsm;um; ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm Mumanmif;av
jyDjzpfaomaMumifh ajrxJ jrKyfvsuf&Sdavonf/
bk&m;zl;om;wkdYonf vuf0Jbuf*dwfaygufMuD;rS p0ifcJhonf&Sdaomf yxra&SUOD;pGm ausmif;awmfeHygwf
1- if;\vuf,mbuf&Sd eHygwf 4-5ausmif;awmfMuD;rsm;odkY a&mufvdrfhrnf/ ausmif;awmfeHygwf 1-ywf0ef;
usif cHhnm;aomausmufwkdifMuD;rsm;&Sdonf/ ausmif;awmfMuD;\tay:xyfodkY cdkifrmus,fjyefYoyf&yfvSaom
avSum;MuD;rsm;jzifh wufoGm;jyD;vQif tay:qkH;rS Munfhrnfqkdygu txl;0rf;ajrmufpzG,f 0rf;vnf;enf;pzG,f
jzpfaom ausmif;awmftysuftpD;rsm;\tajctaeudk aumif;pGm jrif&avonf/
ausmif;awmfMuD;\ywf0ef;usif &Sdaeaom apwDMuD;i,faygif;rsm;pGmwkdYrS rif;olaX; ol<u,fwkdY\
tqifhqifhvSL'gef;xm;cJhaom aumif;rIawmfrsm;jzpfonf/ xkdtxJwGif *kwacwfrSvmaom taqmufttkHwkdY
rSm tvSqkH; tckdifrmqkH;jzpfonf/ ausmif;awmfMuD;\ta&SUajrmufbufwGif&Sdaom opfom;vkdPf*lMuD;txJ
t0avmudawqGm&ac:aom bk&m;avmif;&kyfwkawmfwpfql&Sdonf/ &kyfwkawmfMuD;rSm emvEausmif;
awmfMuD;xJ&Sd &kyfwkawmfrsm;teuf tMuD;qkH;aom &kyfwkawmfjzpfonf/
&kyfwkawmfMuD;\ta&SUawmifbufvnf; wuokdvfMuD;wGifyxra&S;OD;pGm]]y&ifpDy,f}} (Principal) jzpfco
hJ l em*Zkeac: r[m,mefbek ;f awmfMu;D \t&kyv
f nf; &S\
d / ausmif;awmfMu;D &Sd taqmufttkrH sm;
ESi&hf yk yf mG ;awmfrsm;taMumif;udk tus,0f w
d m &tm;jzifh a&;om;&ef rvG,v
f aS y/ xkaYd Mumifh tusO;f oacFyrQom
a&;om;Ekdifayrnf/
ausmif;awmfMuD;rS ta&SUbufpl;pl;ae&mwGif tcef; 9-cef;yg0ifaom ausmif;awmfMuD;wpfaqmif
&Sdao;\/ ausmif;awmfMuD;okdY ajrmufbuf*dwfaygufrS 0if&avonf/ ausmif;awmfMuD;odkY 0ifa&mufzl;
ajrmfolwkdYonf tjyif0&efwmtcef;em;wGif pDwef;um pdkufxlxm;aom ausmufwkdifMuD;rsm;udk awGU&Sd&ayvdrfh
rnf/ ausmif;awmfMuD;rSm rlqvifwkdY\rD;'PfaMumifh ysufpD;jcif;odkY a&muf&av&m ,ckwkdifatmif avmif
uRr;f xm;aom t&m0wKrsm;udk awGUjrif&avonf/ ausmif;awmfMu;D udk c&pf 815? 854-ckEpS jf zpfaomygv
rif;vufxuf *s0gESifhokrw&muRef;&Sif bk&ifAvykMwa'0onf oHwrefwpfOD;tm; apvTwf aqmufvkyf
vSL'gef;cJhavonf/
ausmif;awmfMu;D ESiq
hf ufpyfvsuf a[mvfac:aomcef;raqmifwpfcv
k nf; &Sad o;\/ if;cef;raqmif
wGif q&mrsm;aexkdif&mESifhausmif;om;rsm;aexkdif&m[l ESpfrsKd;ESpfpm; cGJjcm;xm;avonf/ cef;rMuD;\
taemufajrmufbufaxmifh a&wGif;MuD;wpfckudk awGU&Sd&avonf/
ausmif;awmfMuD;udk wl;azmf&mwGif &Spfyg;oDvudk ausmufurnf;xkd;xm;aom ausmufcsyfrsm;ESifh
&kyfyGm;awmfaygif;rsm;pGm ay:xGufaMumif;ESifhemvEvrf;nTefac: pmtkyf rpwmataCmqfu a&;om;xm;
avonf/ if;t&m0wKrsm;udk ,cktcg jywkdufMuD;xJ odrf;qnf;xm;\/
ausmif;awmf 4-5-6wku
Yd kd wpfcEk iS w
hf pfck tkwef &H rH sm;jzifh qufpyfvsuf aqmufvyk x
f m;avonf/
ausmif;rsm;\ykHrSm ,ckacwf jrefrmjynf&Sd rnfonfhausmif;rsm;ESifhrS EIdif;,SOfp&m r&Sdacs/ tvsm;wpfzufvQif
57

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

apwDrsm;ESifhausmif;awmfMuD;rsm;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


9-cef;ESifhteHtm;jzifh 4-cef;pD&Sdavonf/ oHCmawmfaygif; wpfausmif;vQif 100-cefYavmufaexkdifEkdifvdrfh
rnf[k cefrY eS ;f &avonf/ ausmif;awmfMu;D rsm;udk c&pf 413-jzpfaom *kwr if;rsm; vufxuf aqmufvyk f
cJhavonf/
ausmif;awmfrsm;rS ta&SUajrmufbufwiG f ae&meHygwf 7-ESi2hf -wk&Yd adS vonf/ ausmif;awmfrsm;\
tjyifbufrS cdkifcHhaom tkwfeH&HMuD;rsm;jzihf um&Hxm; xkdtkwfeH&Htay:u ykxkd;i,faygif; 211-qlcefYwnf
aqmufxm;avonf/ eHygwf 8-9-10-11-ae&mwkdYum; ynmoifMum;&m aumvdyfaqmifMuD;rsm;om jzpf
ausmif;om;aygif; 10000-cefq
Y efEY idk rf nf[k cefrY eS ;f &avonf/ emvEausmif;awmfMu;D um; az:jycJjh y;D onfh
twkdif; c&pf 1-&mpkrSp rlqvifwkdY0ifa&mufzsufqD;cJhaom 12-&mpkxd urmausmf ,leDAmpwDMuD;b0ESifh
wnf&SdcJhjcif;aMumifh rif;pdk;&mZmrsm;ESifholaX;ol<u,ftqufqufwkdY\aumif;rIawmfrsm;jzpfMuaom ausmif;
apwDykxkd;wkdYrSm rnfrnfrQ[k a&wGufjcif;iSm rwwfEkdifavmufatmif rsm;jym;vSayonf/
w&kwb
f &k m;zl;om; ,efacsmif\rSww
f rf;rS od&o
dS nfrmS c&pf 6-&mpkavmufp Ak'b
momonf tdE,
d
jynf odoo
d momMu;D qkw,
f w
k v
f su&f adS omfvnf; emvE,el AD mpwDMu;D um; tvGepf nfum;vsu&f adS o;onf/
taMumif;qkdrl rif;pOfrif;quf wuokdvfMuD;\ynma&;ukd tm;ay;ulnD&aomaMumifh jzpfavonf/
,leDAmpwDMuD;\tusKd;tvkdYiSm &Gmaygif; 100-rS aumufcH&&Sdtyfaom b@mawmfudk tokH;jyKavonf[l
\/ w&kwjf ynf rGe*f v
dk ;D ,m;jynfwrYkd S vma&mufynmoifMum;Muaom ausmif;om;wkt
Yd m; aea&;xkid af &; ynm
oifMum;a&;p&dww
f u
Ydk kd tcvGwaf y;xm;avonf/ tdE,
d jynfwiG f ynm*kP&f nftcReq
f ;Hk aomolonf ,leD
AmpwDMuD;odkY vma&mufum y&kdzufqmvkyf&avonf/
ausmif;awmfMuD;udk ]]Ak'omoemwuokdvf}}[kyif ac:a0:Muapumrl tjcm;bmomrS pmaywkdYudk
vnf; txl;ojzifh *&kpu
dk u
f m oifMum;ay;avonf/ tcsi;f csi;f aqG;aEG;wkid yf ifjcif;? ynmoifMum;jcif;wku
Yd kd
aeYa&mnOfhyg tcgra&G; cGifhjyKxm;avonf/

emvE&mZ0if
uREkfyfa&;om;cJhonfhtwkdif; emvEonf t0dZ[dwXmexJwGif ryg0ifapumrl Ak'bmomESifhwjcm;
bmomrsm;\pmayusr;f *efwu
Ydk kd avhvmusurf w
S Mf u&m urmausm,
f el AD mpwDMu;D wpfck jzpfavonf/ vuf,m
awmf&Hom&dykw&mudk,fawmfjrwfMuD;onf &GmteD;rSmyif rD;&I;oefYpifzGm;jrifawmfrlavonf/ jrwfpGmbk&m;
&Sif udk,fawmfjrwfMuD;onfvnf; &mZN*Kd[fNrdKUrS <ua&mufawmfrljyD;vQif tMudrfaygif;rsm;pGm w&m;a'oem
awmfukd xkwjf yefred q
Yf adk [mMum;awmfrcl ahJ vonf/ r*"wkid ;f &Sib
f &k ifrsm;\avnif;cH&mjzpfaom O,smOfawmf
MuD;wpfckrSm ausmif;awmfMuD;ESifhreD;ra0;aomae&mwGif &SdcJhavonf/ emvEausmif;awmfMuD;rSm bk&m;&Sif
\vufxufawmftcgu txl;tm;jzifh *kPfxifay:jcif;r&SdcJhaomfvnf; y&dkzufqmq&mMuD;wkdY\oifMum;jyo
rI uRrf;usifvdrmjcif;aMumifhvnf;aumif;? urmt&yf&yfrS ausmif;om;aygif;rsm;pGm vma&mufynmoifMum;
&jcif;aMumihfvnf;aumif;? c&pf 1-&mpkrSp urmwpfcGifrSm ausmfMum;vmavawmhonf/
wjcm;aom Ak'Xmersm;rSmuJhodkY oD&d"rmaomurif;MuD;onf ausmif;yk&0PfxJ cefYnm;MuD;us,f
aom ausmif;awmfMu;D wpfaqmifEiS o
hf m&dyw
k & mapwDawmfwpfqu
l v
kd nf; aqmufvyk v
f LS 'gef;cJah vonf/ w&m
emxac:q&mMuD;wpfOD;u a&;om;xm;aom &mZ0ifwGifum; emvEausmif;awmfMuD;udk rnfonfhckESpfu
aqmufvkyfwnfaxmifcJhonf[k wpfxpfcs rajymEkdifaomfvnf; c&pf 1-&mpktpavmufu jzpfwef&monf
qk\
d / taMumif;qkad omf ausmif;awmfMu;D udk ,leAD mpwDtjzpf tok;H csco
hJ nfrmS c&pf 2-&mpktpavmufu
jzpf r[m,mef*kdPf;udk wnfaxmifcJhol em*Zkeonf a&S;OD;pGm ausmif;tkyfMuD;jzpfcJhavonfqkd\/
*kwr if;wko
Yd nf Ak'b
mom0ifrsm; r[kwMf uaomfvnf; Ak'o
moemhwuov
kd Mf u;D udk axmufy&hH av
onf/ trsm;qkH;axmufyHhcJholrsm;rSm 0dMumrm'dMuHrif;jzpf olonf ynma&;udk txl;0goemygaomrif;wpf
yg;jzpfonf/ [la0qif\pmtkyrf S od&&dS onfrmS olonf oHCmawmfrsm; aexkid o
f w
D if;ok;H &eftvkiYd mS ausmif;
awmfMuD;wpfaqmifudk aqmufvkyfvSL'gef;cJhonf[l\/ olUaemuf pkd;pHMuukefaom Ak'*kw? wuxm*x*kw?
bmv'dMw? ukrm&*kwpaom rif;wdkYonfvnf; ausmif;awmfMuD;ESifhaygif;pyfvsuf ausmif;aygif;rsm;pGmwkdY
ukd aqmufvkyfvSL'gef;cJhao;onf[l\/ [la0qif a&muf&SdcJhaom c&pfESpf 7-&mpkwGif ,leDAmpDwDMuD;ukd
58

oDvb'rnfaom r[m,mef&[ef;awmfwpfyg; tkycf sKyaf vonf/ [la0qifonf a[wk0Zd m (pdwyf nm)? o'g
0dZm(o'gynm)? pdupm0dZm(aq;ynm)paom ynmwkdYudk ckepfESpfwkdifwkdif oif,loGm;avonf/
xkjYd yif c&pf(8)&mpkavmufwiG f r*"wkid ;f udk pk;d pHawmfral om bk&ifa'0ygvrif;onf emvEwuov
dk f
Mu;D \ynma&;twGuf &Gm 5-&Gmudk tydik pf m;ay;cJo
h nf[\
l / [oQ0'eoDvm'dMwrif;Mwm;Mu;D vufxufawmf
tcgu teD;tem;&Sd &Gmaygif; 100-wku
Yd kd wuov
kd Mf u;D odYk tydik pf m;ay;vSLcJah v&m &Gmaevltaygif;wdo
Yk nf
vnf; qef? Ek?Yd axmywf? [if;oD;[if;&Gupf aom ypn;f wkjYd zifh axmufyMhH uavonf[\
l /

urmausmfuxdursm;
emvEwuov
dk Mf u;D rS xGuaf om ynm&Syd *k K v
d w
f rYkd mS (1)tbd"rmq&m? (2) Asmu&Pq&m? (3) pdwf
ynmyg&*lrsm;? (4) aq;ynmq&m? (5) euwaf A'ifq&mrsm; tp&So
d jzifh urmausmyf nm&SMd u;D wku
Yd kd arG;xkwf
cJah vonf/ xkq
d &mMu;D wkYd a&;om;pD&ifcahJ om usr;f wku
Yd m; ,aeYtxd uREyfk w
f t
Ydk zkYd txl;avhvmoifMum;zG,f
&m jzpfavonf/ r[m,mefomoemonf wpfurmvkH;okdYvkdvkd ysHUESHYvsuf&Sdaomfvnf; r[m,meftbd"rmukd
um; wuokdvfMuD;uom jynfhpkHaygufajrmuf yg&*lwpfa,mufjzpfatmif oifMum;ay;Ekdifavonf/ emvE
wuokdvfMuD;udk xifay:atmif aqmif&GufcJhaom yk*Kdvfrsm;rSm atmufygurmausmfuxdursm;yif jzpfav
onf/
em*Zkeac: r[m,mefomoemudk a&S;OD;pGm wnfaxmiforl mS wuov
kd Mf u;D yxrqk;H ausmif;tkyf
MuD;jzpfcJhavonf/ t&d,a'0ac: ynm&SdMuD;rSm rZsdrduaumvdyfwGif uxdurSL;jzpf tod*Fac:yk*KdvfrSm
a,m*gpm&ausmif;wGif tawmfqkH;aom uxdujzpfonf/ 0gokAEKtrnf&Sdaom yk*KdvfrSm euwfaA'ifynm
rsm;twGuf txl;uxduwpfa,muf jzpfonf/ aemuf 'DCem*grnfaom uxduq&monf pdwa A'aum
vdyu
f kd wnfaxmifcahJ vonf/ olonf em*ZkeuJo
h Ykd awmifyikd ;f tdE,
d om;jzpfavonf/ xkaYd emuf ausmif;tkyf
Mu;D rSm oDvb'ac:aom "rygvyifjzpfavonf/ xkyd *k K v
d o
f nf emvEwuov
dk Mf u;D ausmif;tkyMf u;D jzpfae
pOf [la0qifESifh*&dwfausmif;om;aygif;rsm;pGmwkdYonf vma&mufynmoifMum;avonf[l\/ xkdYaemuf "r
&uw
d trnf&aSd om urmausmt
f bd"rmq&mMu;D onf qufvuftyk cf sKyjf yefav&m uREyfk af z:jycJah om ukrm &D
vb'ac: [dELykPm; tbd"rmq&mMuD;wpfa,muf ay:aygufvmcJhojzifh "r&udwESifhtMudrfaygif;rsm;pGm
0g'jydKifcJhMuavonf/ aemufqkH; xkdykPm;onf "r&udwxH qkH;&IH;jcif;odkY a&mufav&um; r*"wkdif;MuD;rS
xGufcGmoGm;&avonf/ aemuf oE&udwrnfaom r[m,mefbkef;MuD;u qufvuftkyfcsKyfavonf/
yk*Kdvfonf wdAuf&Sifbk&if\yifhzdwfcsuft& wdAufjynfodkY<uoGm;jyD;vQif r[m,mefyd#uwfawmf
rsm;udk wdAufbmomjzifh jyefqkda&;om;cJhjyD; c&pf 762-ckESpfwGif emvEwuokdvfMuD;txJ tedpa&muf
oGm;avonf/ olaY emuf qufvuf tkycf sKyo
f rl mS y'kror0trnf&
dS olonfvnf; wdAufjynfoYkd ud,
k w
f idk f
<ujref;awmfrjl y;D vQif vm;rm;omoemawmfukd wnfaxmifxm;cJah vonf/ ,ck wdAufjynf vm;rm;omoem
awmfonf wpfckwnf;aom *kdPf;tjzpfjzifh pnfum;vsuf&Sdavonf/
az:jyyg yk*K v
d w
f \
Ydk oDv*kP?f orm"d*P
k ?f ynm*kPw
f aYdk Mumifh emvEwuov
dk Mf u;D rSm [dak cwfwek ;f
u urmwpfcGifrSm pmwifcJh&onfomru ,ckacwf&mZ0ifq&mwkdYuvnf; (Ancient Oxford) a&S;a[mif;
atmufpzkdY'f[k trnf*kPfxl;ay;um a&;om;Mu&avonf/
Bihar and Orissa District Gazetter
by L.S.S.O Malley, I. C.S
Page No.28
The monastery of Nalanda, the Oxford as it has been called Buddhist India, was the centre from
which the Buddhist philosophy and teaching were diffused over southern India; and it continued to be a
great Buddhist University till the Mohammedan conquest.

t"dyg,f/
/]]tdE,
d jynfwiG f atmufpzk'Yd b
f UJG xl;ukd &&Scd jhJ y;D aom emvE,el AD mpDwMD u;D onf tbd"rmynm
udk oif,l&mXmeESifhawmifbuftdEd,odkY ynmjzefYa0&mXmeMuD;jzpf r[mar'ifrsm; 0ifa&mufwkdufckduf
59

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

atmifjrifonfhwkdifatmif Ak'wuokdvfMuD;tjzpfjzifh qufvuftokH;jyKcJh[ef vuPm&Sdonf/}}


Page No. 219
Naland, Site No.1............Indicating that from time to time as the monastery was destroyed by
fire. New structure were erected on the ruins of the old.
(Note, unmistakable trace of burning are evident and in the places charcoal is lying even now)

t"dyg,f/
/emvEausmif;awmf&m eHygwf 1-onf rD;&IdU cPcPzsufqD;cHcJh& ysufpD;aeaom t
aqmufttkHa[mif;ay:u taqmufttkHopfrsm; aqmufvkyfcJhaMumif;udk nTefjyxm;avonf/
rSwfcsuf/
/rrSm;Ekdifavmufaom oufaoom"urSm ,ckwkdif rD;aoG;rsm; &Sdaejcif;yifjzpfonf/
(Buddhist Shrines in India by Deva Priya Valisinba)
Page No. 154
Whatever a fame place may win for itself, it cannot escapes from the working of law of Anicca
which is a cardinal doctrine of Buddhism. Nalanda too came within this enexorable law. By about 8th
century. Nanlanda bagan to decline partly as a result of the vasi political and other changes that were taking
place in India. At the same time there was a revival movement among. Hindu who were able to proudce
philosophers of the rank of Sankra charya.

rpwma'0jyd, 0gvdqif[\Ak'pfwf&S&deftif tdEd,ac:pmtkyf pmrsufESm 154-wGif a&;om;xm;


onfrmS atmufyguJo
h Ykd t"dyg ,f&onf/
]]tMuift&yfonf rnfa&GUrnfrQyif ausmMf um;atmifjrifrI &Sad pumrl xkt
d &yfonf Ak'w
&m;awmft&
tedpp ufuiG ;f Mu;D rS rvGwu
f if;Ekid af y/ emvE,el AD mpDwMD u;D onfvnf; rNraJ om vuPm&S
d oabmw&m;
odkYqkdufa&muf&avonf/ tdEd,jynfwGif EkdifiHa&;ESifhwjcm; trsKd;rsKd;aom tajctaersm; ajymif;vGJvsuf&SdcJh
aom c&pf 8-&mpkavmufrSm emvE,leDAmpDwDonf ododomomMuD; qkwf,kwfvmavonf/ xdktcsdefyif
vQif [dELvlrsKd;rsm;txJrS tbd"rm*kPfxl;ESifhxGufay:vmaom qHMumus&,onfvnf; if;wkdYudk;uG,f&m
[dELbmomudk tjydKiftqkdif wnfaxmifjyefavonf/}}
The final blow was delivered by the Mohammedan invaders who were no respectors of the other
forms of religion. They not only drove away or killed the monks but also it a point to set fire to the
monasteries, thus destroying even the sites of Buddhistic importance. Minhaj, a Moslen hisorian, gives an
account of Bhakhtiar Khilji's conquest. It was latter who invaded Magadha and destroyed the last vestiges
of Buddhism. Tara Nath, a Tibetian historian say, "The Turks conquered the whole of Magadha and
destroyed many monasteries; at Nalanda they did much damage and monks fled abroad.

t"dyg,f/
/aemufqkH;ysufpD;&jcif;rSm wjcm;bmomudk vkH;0r,kHMunfrvkdvm;aom rlqvifusL;ausmf0if
a&mufwu
dk cf u
dk o
f w
l \
Ydk zsuq
f ;D rIaMumifh jzpfonf/ olwo
Ydk nf &[ef;awmfrsm;tm; owfypfonfomru ausmif;
awmfrsm;udkvnf; rD;&IdUypfavao;\/ xkdYjyif Ak'bmomwkdY\ta&;MuD;aom usrf;*efrsm;ESifhwjcm;t&m0wKrsm;
ukdvnf; zsufqD;ypfavonf/ rif[m(*s)trnf&Sdaom rlqvif&mZ0ifq&mMuD;wpfOD;u bwfwD,mcdv*sD\
taMumif;udk a&;om;az:jy&mwGif]]olonf r*"wkdif;udk aemufqkH;0ifa&mufwkdufcdkufoljzpf Ak'bmomwkdY\trSwftom;rsm;jzpfaom
t&m0wKrsm;udk zsufqD;ypfavonf/ w&memxrnfaom wdAuf&mZ0ifq&mMuD;u a&;om;xm;jyefonfrSm
wl&uDvlrsKd;wkdYonf r*"wkdif;wpfckvkH;udk odrf;ydkuf ausmif;aygif;rsm;pGmwkdYudk zsufqD;ypfavonf/ emvE
rlum; tajrmuftjrm;zsufqD;cJhonf/ &[ef;awmfwkdYrSm ae&mtESHYtjym;odkY xGufajy;Mu&avonf}}
uJo
h Ykd taMumif;wkaYd Mumifh emvEwuov
kd Mf u;D rSm vuf&t
dS ajctaeodYk usa&muf&avonf/ emvE
ausmif;awmfMu;D onf ,ckvdk ysucf &hJ jcif;aMumifh Ak'b
mom0ifwt
Ykd zko
Yd m epfemqk;H &I;H cJ&h avonfr[kw/f [dEL
60

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'
taygif;wkdYtzkdYrSmvnf; ynma&; a&aomufjrpfMuD; jywfoGm;onfESifhwl&um; epfemqkH;&IH;&onfomwnf;/

Ak'&Sifawmfbk&m;onf r,fawmfrdewfom;trSL;xm;aom ewfa'0gaygif; xyfavmif;oacsFwkdYtm;


wkow
d mewfjynf 0gwGi;f ok;H vumvywfv;Hk tbd"rma'oemawmfukd a[mMum;awmfrjl y;D 0guRwv
f Qif vlU
jynfodkY<uqif;awmfrlav&m ouFNrdKUrSyif qif;oufawmfrlavonf/ xkdYjyif oD&d0'\om;awmfjzpfaom
araw,stavmif;awmfuv
kd nf; ae&mrSmyif arG;zGm;awmfral vonf/ Xmeonf awmifyikd ;f tdE,
d Ak'b
mom
0ifwkdYtzdkY rnfodkYyif ta&;rMuD;[k ,lqapumrl r[m,mef*kdPf;om;wkdYonf ae&mawmfukd tjrwfwEkd;
apmifha&SmufcJhavonf/ Ak'0ifusrf;rsm;t& Xmeonfvnf; bk&m;&SiftqlqlwkdY\rpGefYaumif; rpGefYxkduf
rpGefYtyfaom t0dZ[dwXmeMuD;wpfck jzpfavonf/
a&S;a[mif;ouFonf ta&SUtdEd,&xm;vrf;ay:&Sd &kdukd[mb'fESifhz&kumb'fNrdKUtMum;&Sd ycem
blwmrS 5-rkdifa0;aom AqEdyl&f&Gm\teD;wGif wnf&Sdavonf/ XmeodkY 5-rkdifrQoma0;aom rkdwmblwmrS
vnf; oGm;a&mufEidk o
f nf/ toGm;tvm vrf;c&D;rSm armfawmfum; vefcsm;ponf r&&SEd idk jf cif;aMumifh tqkyd g
blwmrS 5-rkid w
f idk af tmif uke;f aMumif;avQmuf&avonf/ xkXd me wnf;ck&d ef ausmif;-Z&yfponfwYdk r&Sjd cif;
aMumifh bk&m;zl;om;wkdYonf &xm;blwmyif pcef;csum csufjyKwfpm;aomufjyD;rS oGm;&avonf/
bk&m;zl;om;wko
Yd nf t<uif;r& ysupf ;D aeaom taqmufttkrH sm;udk zl;jrif&ayvdrrhf nf/ AqE&d mG ol
&Gmom;wkdYonf xkdae&mrsm;rSm tkwfausmif;wdkYudk tvkd&Sdoa&GU,ljyD;vQif tdrfrsm;aqmufvkyfxm;Muavonf/
xkAd qE&d mG uav;rSm tdE,
d jynf&dS wjcm;aom &Gmrsm;uJo
h Ykd ajrnufjzifh tdrrf sm;udk aqmufvyk jf cif;rjyKbJ xl;
uJpGm tkwfausmufwkdYjzifh aqmufvkyfxm;onfudk tuJcwfMunfhvQif xkdypnf;rsm;rSm ausmif;apwDwkYdrS jzpf
aMumif;udk jiif;qefEidk pf &mr&Sad cs/ XmewGif wjcm;aomXmersm;avmuf xl;xl;qef;qef; Munf&h pI &mr&Sad wmh
jyD/ ausmufwkdifMuD;wpfckESifh ausmufqpf&kyfwpfcktjyif ajrMuD;xJrS tenf;i,fcefY ay:aeaom ausmif;ysuf
rsm;om &Sdawmhonf/
ausmif;awmfMu;D rsm; ysupf ;D cJ&h ykt
H aMumif;ESiphf yfvsO;f uREyfk o
f nf txl;MuKd ;yrf;um &SmazGygaomf
vnf; rnfonfph mtkyrf mS rS txift&Sm;rawGU&S&d acs/ odaYk omf c&pf 1183-ckEpS w
f iG f Z,csE& rif;onf ykPm ;wkYd
\pum;udk vdu
k ef mvsuf t0dZ[dwXmeMu;D udk xGew
f ;Hk jzifh xGeyf pfavonf[\
l / xkad &mtcgu ay:xGucf ahJ om
ausmuftw
k f tusK;d tyJt
h ptersm;udk pkyx
Hk m;cJah v&m ,cktcg wmwrH&;kd Mu;D ozG,jf zpfvsu&f adS vonf [l\/
(umeif*ef\tqkd)
zsufqD;rIonf ,cifu &efolrsm;\vufcsufaMumifh ysufpD;cJhjyD;onfhaemuf tenf;i,fcefY <uif;
useaf eaom taqmufttkw
H u
Ydk kd tkwaf usmufwt
Ydk vkiYd mS xGe&f av[efw\
l / odaYk omf XmeMu;D ukd zsuq
f ;D
olwkdYrSm rlqvifwkdYyif jzpfayvdrfhrnf/

qHcsD
qDcsDXmeonf [dkacwftdEd,? yef;csDyef;ykq&mMuD;wkdY\vufpvufersm;udk qef;Mu,fpGm jrifEkdifaom
Xmewpfcjk zpfonf/ XmewGif taomuvufxufu aqmufvyk cf ahJ om apwDMu;D rsm;? bk&m;&Scd ;dk ausmif;rsm;?
yef;MudK;yef;EG,frsm;xkxm;aom ausmuf*dwfaygufMuD;rsm;wkdYyg0ifavonf/ qHcsDXmeonf a'vDESifhbkHabNrdKU
odYk oGm;&m *s-D tkid -f yD-tm&f (G.I.P.R) &xm;vrf;ay:wGif &Sad vonf/ Xmeonf bd;k ygvfapmfbmG ;Mu;D ykid ef ,f
xJwiG f &Sad vonf/ pmyd&Yk xm;Mu;D onf blwmwGif &yfavhr&Sad cs/ odaYk omf txufwef;pD;c&D;onfwu
Ydk bk&m;
zl;qif;vkdaMumif; qkdif&m*wfAkdvftm; taMumif;Mum;ygu &xm;udk t&yfckdif;apvdrfhrnf/ odkYr[kwfygu a&SU
wGi&f adS om (Bhilsa) NrdKUodkYygoGm;jyD; if;rSwpfzef a0;vHpGm jyef ukef;aMumif;avQmufMu&ayvdrfhrnf/
ausmif;paom taqmufttkyH suw
f o
Ydk nf awmifuek ;f i,fwpfc\
k &kyv
f ;Hk ay:pGmjzifh wnf&adS eavonf/
&xm;blwmrS wpfzmvkcH efo
Y m a0;ojzifh Munf
h jrifEifdk af vonf/ taqmufttkt
H m;vk;H wku
Yd kd ausmufww
H idk ;f
MuD;jzifh vuf,m&pfywfvsuf xm;avonf/ ,cktcg bdkygvftpkd;&onf xkdae&mwGif bk&m;zl;om;wkdYonf
61

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

ouFe*kd&f

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

wnf;ckdEkdif&ef Z&yfMuD;wpfckudk aqmufvkyfxm;ojzifh wpf&ufvQif vlwpfa,muftwGuf aiGwpfusyfay;um


wnf;ckdEkdifonf/

pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;aom ae&mrsm;
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

taomu ausmufvuf&ef;Mu;D um&Hxm; vSyaom yef;MuKd ; yef;EG,rf sm;jzifh wefqmqifxm;aom


ausmuf*dwfaygufMuD;av;ayguf&Sdaom apwDMuD;/
om&dykw&mESifharm*vmef"mwfawmfrsm; &&Sd&mapwDMuD; (trSwf-2)
apwDeHygwf-3
apwDeHygwf-4
pBujrifhay:&Sdaom taomuausmufwkdifrsm;/
ausmif;awmfESifhbk&m;&Sdckd;ausmif;awmfMuD;rsm;/

apwDrMu;D

(Great Stupa)

apwDMu;D udk Mu;D rm;aom awmifypl mwpfcak y:wGif wnfaqmufxm;jzifh vSyoyf&yfvaS om awmif
buf&Sd avSum;MuD;ESpfcku aumif;pGmwufa&mufzl;ajrmfEkdifonf/ awmifylpmuav;wpfckvkH;udk taomu
ausmufvuf&ef;MuD;jzifh 0ef;&Hxm;avonf/ apwDMuD;ESifhausmufvuf&ef;rsm;udk ]]usLem}}ac:aomausmuf
rsm;jzifh aqmufvkyfxm;avonf/ ta&mifwzdefYzdefY awmufyvsuf&Sd&m apwDMuD;taetxm;ESifhausmufvuf
&ef;rsm;aeykHrSm txl;wvnf yPm&vSayonf/ apwDESifhausmufvuf&ef;rsm;rSm wpfa,mufwnf;aom yef;
&efq&m\vufpjzpf[efwo
l nf/ obm0tusq;Hk tvSq;Hk tajctaeudk ta&SUawmifbufrS aumif;pGmjrifEidk f
avonf/
xkdapwDMuD;ESifhausmufvuf&ef;MuD;rsm;udk taomurif;w&m;MuD;\aumif;rIawmfrsm;[k trsm;tm;
jzifh,kHMunfMuonf/ odkY&mwGif uREkfyfod&oavmufrSm ]]a&S;usaom Ak'bmom0ifrif;wkdYonf ae&mwGif
apwDi,fudk tkwfjzifhwnfaqmufxm;cJh taomurif;MuD;onf if;tkwfapwDi,fukdrsKd;jyD; ,ckvuf&SdapwD
Mu;D udk wnfaqmufcahJ vonf}}[l\/ rlvblwjzpfaom apwDMu;D rSm taomurif;Mwm;\aumif;rIawmfr[kwf
apumrlvnf; Xmeonf taomurif;MuD;\aumif;rIawmfaygif;rsm;pGm yg0ifaeaomaMumifh ausmfapmxif
&Sm;cJhonfudkum; jiif;qefEkdifp&m r&Sdacs/ ausmufvuf&ef;rsm;rSmvnf; taomuykHtwkdif;csnf;omjzpfonf/
*dwfaygufMuD;rsm;rSmrlum; taomu'DZkdif;rsKd;ESifhvkH;0rwljcif;aMumifh aemufrS aqmufvkyfcJhonf[k ,lqEkdif
p&m&Sdonf/ wpf&Ha&mtcgu apwDMuD;udk ta&mifwifcJh[efwlonf/ todkYqkdrl ,ckxd wcsKdUwavaom
ausmufcsyfwkdYwGif arS;rSdefaomta&mifrsm;udk awGU&Sd&ao;\/ apwDMuD;\tvkH;rSm ay-120cefY&Sd tjrifhtm;
jzifh 54-aycefY&Sdavonf/

om&dykw&mESifharm*vmef"mwfawmfrsm;udk &&Sd&mapwDysuf
apwDMuD;rS ta&SUajrmufbufwGif apwDi,fwpfql&Sdavonf/ xkdapwDi,frS tvGeftzkd;xkdufwef
aom om&dykw&mESifharm*vmefudk,fawmfjrwfMuD;\"mwfawmfrsm;udk &&Sdavonf/ "mwfawmfMuD;rsm;udk
rnfonft
h csed ?f rnfonfu
h mvu ae&modYk ,laqmifvmcJo
h nfuu
dk m; ckid v
f aHk om tud;k tum;jyp&mwpfpHk
wpfckrQ r&Sdacs/ odkYaomf OD;pGmyxr apwDi,fwpfqludk wnfaqmufcJhpOfumvjzpfaom Ak'acwfuyif jzpf
aumif;jzpfayvdr/hf qmtvufZEm;eif*efEiS u
hf ywed t
f uf(z)pDrq
J ,fwo
Ydk nf ausmufaowmMu;D 2-vk;H jzifx
h nfh
xm;aom "mwfawmfrsm;udk wl;azmf&&Scd ahJ vonf/ xk"d mwfawmfMu;D rsm;udk 0dw&kd ,
d ESit
hf v
J b
f wfjywku
d Mf u;D xJ
wGif ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm xnfhxm;cJhjyD; if;ae&m jyefvnfXmyem&ef tdEd,tpkd;&rif;wkdY\awmif;cHcsuft&
r[maAm"dtoif;MuD;odkY ay;tyfcJhavonf/ apwDodkY0ifa&muf&ef *dwfaygufwpfaygufom &Sd\/ xkd*dwf
aygufwGif Ak'0ifudk &kyfjym;rsm;xkvkyfxm;avonf/ odkYaomf &kyfjym;awmfrsm;avmuf oyf&yfjcif;r&Sday/ a&S;
acwfvw
l \
Ydk rsupf jd zifu
h m; tvSq;Hk toyf&yfq;Hk yif jzpfayvdrrhf nf/ apwDtrSwf -2 (Stupa Marked No.2)
62

apwDonfvnf; om&dykw&mESifharm*vmefukd,fawmfjrwfMuD;wkdY\"mwfawmfrsm;udk &&Sd&mapwDuJhokdYyif t


a&;Mu;D aom apwDMu;D wpfqjl zpfayonf/ taMumif;qkad omf taomurif;Mu;D vufxufawmftcgu urmt&yf
&yfodkY omoemjyKoGm;a&mufawmfrlcJhaom &[Emt&SifjrwfwkdY\"mwfawmfrsm;udk &&Sdjcif;aMumifhjzpfonf/
apwDMuD;rS tjcm;taqmufttkHrsm;ae&mESifh udkufaygif; 100-cefY a0;aomae&mwGif wnf&Sdaeavonf/
,cktcg *Refrm&S,f(vf)ac:aom ausmufpm0efMuD;u xkdae&mudk oD;oefYapmifha&Smufxm;avonf/
apwDESifhuREkfyfa&S;OD;pGmazmfjycJhaom apwDrMuD;rSm ykHoPmeftm;jzifhvnf;aumif;? tvkH;t&yftm;
jzifhvnf;aumif; rnfokYdrS uGmjcm;rIr&Sday/ odkY&mwGif 0ifayguf*dwfMuD; r&Sdjcif;onfomvQif xl;jcm;rIjzpfay
onf/ qmumeif*efonf apwDMu;D udk wl;azmfavaomf Xmyemwku
d Mf u;D xJrS tvsm;tm;jzifh 11-vufr? t
eHtm;jzifh 9-vufrcG&J adS om oJausmufMuKww
f pfcx
k w
J iG f atmuftrnfyg yk*K v
d w
f \
Ydk "mwfawmfrsm;udk &&Sad v
onf[l\/
(1) uy*kw
(2) 0dpDok0dZmw
(3) rZsrax&
(4) [&dwykMwax&f
(5) r[m0de,ax&f
(6) ty*d&ax&f
(7) aum'deDykwax&f
(8) aumodudykwax&f
(9) a*gwdykMwmax&f
(10)arm*vdykwax&f wkdYjzpfonf/
yk*KdvfwkdYonf omoemhrsKd;aphrsm;udk urmt&yf&yfodkY oGm;a&mufpdkufysKd;cJhMuavaMumif;ESifhausmuf
pmrsm; awGU&S&d avonf/ txufyg trnfww
Ydk iG f tcsKUd aomtrnfwrYdk mS r[m0ifusr;f r&Sjd cif;aMumifrh [kwf
[k rqkdEkdif/ ausmufpmonfomvQif ckdifvkHaomoufaoMuD;wpfckjzpfjcif;aMumifh uREkfyfwkdYrSm rnfodkYrs a0zef
&ef rvkad wmhay/ "mwfawmfrsm;um; ,cktcg rnfonfah e&mwGif &Sad eonfukd rod&&dS acs/ aysmufu,
G v
f suf
&Sad vonf/ tus,u
f o
kd v
d rdk l (Sir Marshalls A Guide to Sanchi) ac:pmtkyu
f dk zwf&MI uyg/

taomuausmufwkdifESifhtjcm;ausmufwkdifrsm;
qHcsXD me pdu
k x
f x
l m;aom ausmufwidk rf sm;rSm wjcm;Xme&Sad usmufwidk rf sm;ESiv
hf ;Hk 0rwlonfudk awGU
&S&d avonf/ todq
Yk rdk l Xme&Sd ausmufwidk rf sm;rSm trsm;tm;jzifh *kwa cwfrv
S maom ausmufwidk rf sm;jzpf
taomuvufxufrv
S maom ausmufwidk rf sm;xuf acwfro
D nf[k qk&d ayrnf/ ,ckwidk &f adS o;aom ausmuf
wkdifi,frsm;txJwGif ausmufwkdifMuD;(4)wkdifrSm a<ua&mifwrQawmufyjyD;vQif wjcm;ausmufrsm;\tpfrMuD;
rsm;ozG,f jzpfaeavonf/ apwDrMuD;\awmifbuf*dwfaygufem;wGif taomurif;MuD;onf jrifhrm;aom
ausmufwidk Mf u;D wpfcu
k kd pdu
k x
f x
l m;cJah vonf/ odaYk omfvnf; xkad usmufwidk Mf u;D \yuwdtajctaeudu
k m; ,ck
tcg uREkfyfwdkY rawGU&Sd&awmhacs/ ESpfydkif;usKd;vsuf&Sd&m wpfydkif;udk teD;&Sdajrydkif&SifwpfOD;u MuHMudwfpuf\
atmufcHckH vkyf&ef ,lxm;avjyD/ ausmufwkdifMuD;onf axmifvsuf&SdcJhpOfu tjrifhtm;jzifh 42-ay&Sdav
onf/ wjcm;ausmufwkdifrsm;uJhodkY tqifhqifhrxm;yJ ajrMuD;rS txuftqkH;xd wpfwkH;wnf;aomausmufjzpf
onf/ ausmufwkdifMuD;tay:rSm&SdcJhaom jcaoFh&kyfMuD;um; jywkdufxJrSma&mufaeavonf/ xkda&GUxkdrQ&Snfvsm;
aomausmufwidk Mf u;D udk tb,fae&mrS&&S
d tb,fuo
hJ rYkd ysupf ;D atmif ae&modYk aqmif,cl MhJ uonfudk cs;D rGr;f
p&mMu;D wpfcyk if/ ta&SUbufrmS &Sad eaom ausmufwidk Mf u;D uku
d m; qk*H acwfrv
S maom ausmufwidk [
f k qkMd uuke\
f /
ausmufwkdifrSm tajrmifh&Spfajrmifh&Sdjcif;aMumifh taomuacwfrS vmaomausmufwkdifrsm;ESifh vkH;0uGmjcm;
avonf/ atmufccH MHk u;D rSm 6-ajrm if&h
dS txufq;Hk wGif acgif;avmif;yko
H Pmefwyfqifjy;D vQif wd&pmef&yk rf sm;
xkvkyfxm;avonf/ xkdt&kyfrsm;um; ,cktcg rxif&Sm;awmhay/
63

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


azmfjyyg ausmufwidk rf sm;ESiu
hf yfvsuf tjcm;ausmufwidk v
f nf; &Sad o;\/ ausmufwidk rf mS tjrif2h 2ay? 6-vufr&Sdavonf/ ,ckum; tydkif;ykdif; usKd;yJhvsuf&Sdonf/ ta&miftqif;tm;jzifh c&rf;a&mifoPmef
&Sd wzdwfzdwfawmufyvsuf&Sdavonf/ ausmufwkdifudk *kwacwfu 0ZD&ygedrnfaom 'g,umwpfOD;u
vSL'gef;cJhonf[l\/ apwDrMuD;\ajrmufbuf*dwfem;wGif tjcm;ausmufwkdifwpfck&Sdao;\/ ausmufwkdifMuD;
rSm wjcm;ausmufwidk x
f uf tvk;H Mu;D aomfvnf; tjrift
h m;jzifh 9-ayrQom &Sad vonf/ ausmufwidk rf mS vnf;
*kwa cwfuvmaom ausmufwidk [
f k ,lqMuavonf/ 0ZD&yged'g,um\ausmufwidk t
f eD;rSm 0ZD&ygedrnfaom
bk&m;avmif;&kyfwpf&kyf wl;azmf&&Sdavonf[k umeif*efq&mMuD;u qkd\/ 0ZD&ygedbk&m;avmif;&kyfwkawmf
udk rdrdESifhtrnfwlojzifh rdrd\ausmufwkdifteD;rSmyif wnfxm;udk;uG,fav[ef vuPm&Sdonf/
ausmufwidk rf sm;rSwpfyg; rsm;pGmukeaf om ausmif;awmfrsm;ESi0hf wfausmif;awmfrsm;vnf; &Sad o;onf/
xkad usmif;awmfrsm;rSm tcsKUd ajrxJwiG f jrK yv
f suyf if&adS o; tcsKUd vnf; ay:vsu&f o
dS nf/ ausmif;awmfMu;D rsm;
\ tajctaeudk b,fob
Ykd ,fyo
Hk Pmef&o
dS nf[k uREyfk w
f rYdk cefrY eS ;f Ekid af wmhay/ odaYk omf qHcsaD e&monf Ak'
acwfu trSeyf if pnfyifcahJ Mumif;udu
k m; rnforl qkd axmufc&H ayrnf/ tcsKUd aom&mZ0ifq&mwku
Yd Xme
onf r[m,mewkdY yg0gvTrf;rkd;cJhaom *kwacwfu rxif&Sm;cJh[k a&;om;cJhMuonf/ xdkq&mwkdYum; r[m0if
paom usrf;rsm;udk zwfzl;ykHray:acs/

qHcsD\twdwf&mZ0if
Ak'b
momusr;f *efrsm;wGif Ak'b
&k m;&Sio
f nf Xmeodv
Yk nf;aumif;? XmeteD;tem;odv
Yk nf;aumif;
udk,fawmfwkdif <ua&mufawmfrlcJhaMumif; ryg&Sdonfhtjyif Ak'bmom0ifwkdYonfvnf; Xmeudk jrifhjrwfaom
Xmetjzpfjzifh ,lqMu[efrwlacs/ rnfoyYdk ifjzpfapumrl om&dyw
k & mESiahf rm*vmefu,
kd af wmfjrwfMu;D wd\
Yk "mwf
awmfrsm;udk ae&mod,
Yk al qmifum XmyemcJo
h nfukd od&&dS jcif;jzifh a&S;tcgwpfyg;u Xmeonf Ak'b
mom
0ifwt
Ydk zkYd ta&;Mu;D aom XmeMu;D wpfcjk zpfcyhJ aHk y:onf/ xkrd w
S pfyg; taomurif;Mwm;Mu;D ud,
k w
f idk f XmewGif
rsm;pGmukefaomausmif;apwD ausmufwkdifponfwkdYudk aqmufvkyfcJhjcif;onfvnf; ta&;MuD;aomXmewpfck
jzpfaMumif; oufaocHxm;ayonf/ r[m0ifusrf; Xmeudk apwD,*D&d[kac:xm;vsufESifh tb,fhaMumifh
qDHcsD[laom trnfodkYajymif;vTJvmonfudkum; uREkfyfrajymEkdif/
taomurif;MuD; EkysKdpOft&G,fu ae&mtygt0ifjzpfaom OaZeDjynfwGif bk&ifcHjzpf ESpfaygif;
rsm;pGm aexkdifapmifha&Smufzl;avonf/ rif;Mwm;MuD;bk&ifcHjzpfpOf a0'dua'0Drdzk&m;MuD;ESifhae&mrSmyif
pkvsm;&pfywfvufxyfawmfral vonf/ a0'dua'0D[lonfum; oD[kdVfuRef;MuD; Ak'omoemrsKd;aphudk yGJOD;
xGupf u
dk yf sK;d cJo
h l r[dEa x&fEiS o
hf CFrw
d m ax&Dw\
Ydk rdcifMu;D yif jzpfonf/ r[dEa x&focifonf oD[Vkd u
f Re;f odYk
omoemjyKrxGufrD Xme&Sdeef;awmfru MuD;us,fcrf;em;vSaom r,fawmfrdzk&m;MuD;\aumif;rIawmfausmif;
awmfMuD; wpf0gqkdzl;avonf/

qHcsDysufpD;&ykH
qHcsDXmeonf &efolygvrif;wkdY\vufcsufaMumifh ysufpD;cJh&aom c&pf 11-&mpkxd rmv0gjynfom;
Ak'bmomrsm;\pk&kH;0wfjyK&m XmeMuD;wpfcktjzpfjzifh wnf&SdcJhavonf/ tb,faMumifh ysufpD;cJh&avonfukd
um; uREkfyf tus,fa0zefa&;om;jcif;iSm rpGrf;Ekdifacs/ ausmufpm0efrsm;ESifh&mZ0ifq&mrsm;aomfrSvnf; rod
&SMd uojzifh rnfonfph mtkyx
f rJ mS rS taMumif;ESiphf yfvsO;f rzwf&&I acs/ odaYk omf (Architectural Survey of
Central India) ac:pmtkyw
f iG u
f m; odakY &;om;xm;avonf/
]]apwDawmfMuD;udk Ak'bmomtm; yPmrtm;jzifh zsufpD;cJhol &mZyk&SrdMwonf c&pfray:rD2-&mpk
avmufu zsupf ;D avonf/ odaYk omf xuf0ef;usi&f dS Ak'b
momwku
Yd jyefvnfxal xmifojzifh jy;D pD;jcif;odaYk &muf
vmavonf/ if;aemuf pHMumusm&,\zsufpD;rIaMumifh tenf;i,f csKdU,Gif;cJh&avonf/ rlqvif0ifa&muf
zsufpD;olwkdYum; Xmeukd zsufpD;cJhykHray:acs/
a'0jyd,url apwDMuD;onf wjcm;ae&m&Sd taqmufttkHwkdYavmuf rysufpD;yJ usef&Sd&pfjcif;rSm
64

ywf0ef;usift&yfrS awmcsKHrsm;zkH;uG,fxm;jcif;aMumifh jzpfonfqkd\/ umeif*ef\bDvqmwkdYyf (Bhilsa Top)


ac:pmtkyfum;]]qHMumusm&,vufxufuyif csKUd ,Gi;f aeaom taqmufttkrH sm;udk Xmyemazmuform; (Treasure
hunter)wkdYonf a&TaiGtp&Sdaom 0wKypnf;rsm;tvkdYiSm azmufxGif;,lMuavonf[l\}}
uJo
h Ykd q&mtrsK;d rsK;d wd\
Yk a&;om;nTejf yMuonfukd axmuf&jI cif;jzifh qHcsXD meudk [dEL wko
Yd mvQif zsuf
qD;avonf[k a&;om;ygrl if;[dELwkdYonf todkYvQif jiif;qefEkdifygrnfenf;/

wuov
kd jf ynf

(Taxila)
wuodkvfjynf (0g) wuodkvfNrdKUudk Ak'bmomusrf;*eftapmifapmifwkdYu jrifhjrwfaom bmoma&;
Xmewpfc[
k k todtrSwrf jyKapumrl a&S;ya0oPDtcgwke;f u tdE,
d jynfwiG f wpfcw
k nf;aom ynma&;qdyf
urf;NrdKUMuD;jzpfjcif;aMumifh urmuyif todtrSwfjyKcJh&avonf/ Ak'usrf;*efwkdYwGif rsm;aomtm;jzifh rif;nD
rif;om;[lorQwkdYonf wuodkvf,leDAmpwDMuD; oGm;a&mufynmoifMum;&avaMumif; zwfzl;Muayvdrfhrnf/
,ckacwfwiG f bdvyfjyef? tar&duefjynfjyefausmif;om;wko
Yd nf txl;*kP&f b
dS o
d uJo
h Ykd ,if;acwftcguvnf;
wuokdvfjyefausmif;om;wkdYrSmom *kPf&Sdavonf/ Ak'bmomusrf;*efrsm;rSm xifay:ausmfMum;cJhaom yao
e'Daumovrif;MuD;ESifhZD0uq&mMuD;wkdYrSm wuokdvf,leDAmpwDrS 'D*&D&jyD;aomyk*KdvfwkdYyif jzpfonf/
wuodkvfjynfonf taemufajrmufe,f&Sd &m0gvmyif'DNrdKUESifhrkdif 20-a0;aomae&mwGif &Sdavonf/
xkdae&mwGif wuokdvfblwm[l &xm;blwmwpfck&Sdavonf/ bk&m;zl;om;wkdYonf xkdblwmrSysufpD;vsuf&Sd
aom taqmufttkHwkdYudk aumif;pGm MunfhjrifEkdifavonf/ a'vDNrdKUrS wuodkvfjynfwkdifatmif rkdifaygif;
497-rkdifa0; taemufajrmufe,foGm; &xm;MuD;jzifh oGm;a&mufEkdifavonf/ c&D;onfwkdYonf yD-'AvsL-'D
u aqmufvkyfxm;aom AkdvfwJwGif usoifhaomtzkd;tcudk ay;wnf;ckdEkdifonf/
wuokdvfjynf taqmufttkHrsm; tvGefrsm;jym;us,fjyefYvSojzifh aphpkHatmif a0zefa&;om;rnfqkd
ygu oD;jcm;pmtkyfwpftkyfjzpfEkdifayrnf/ xkdYaMumifh uREkfyfwkdYonf pmzwfy&dowfMuD;\tusKd;pD;yGm;tvkdYiSm
qm*Refrm&S,f\wuokdvfvrf;nTefpmtkyfudk rSDjirf;jyK tusOf;tm;jzifh azmfjy&aytHh/ xkdodkYazmjfy&mwGif Ak'
bmomESifhoufqkdif&m taqmufttkHaygif;rsm;pGm yg0ifaomae&mrsm;udk atmufygtwkdif; rSwfom;xm;&ay
rnf/
(1) csD&fwkdyfac:aom ]]"r&mZdu}}apwDMuD;/
(2) *D&dawmifMum;xJ&Sd ausmif;awmfMuD;rsm;/
(3) xkdawmif\ajrmufbuf&Sd ESmarmif;zsm;&Sd ulemvapwDESifhausmif;awmf/
(4) rkd[&m-rkd&m'k&Sdaom ae&m&Sd ausmif;awmfrsm;ESifhapwDrsm;/
(5) ydyvdac:aom ae&m&Sdausmif;awmfrsm;ESifhapwDrsm;/
(6) *sLvD,Hac:aomae&m&Sd ausmif;awmfrsm;ESifhapwDrsm;/
(7) ajrmufbufawmifMum;&Sd b'yk&fac:aom ae&m&Sd Ak'txddrf;trSwftaqmufttkHMuD;rsm;/
(8) vmbfcsufac:aom Ak'bmomtaqmufttkHrsm;/
(9) AvmapwDawmfMuD;
txufyg taqmufttkHwkdYonf wuodkvfjynfwGif txl;rSwfom;zG,f&mrsm; jzpfavonf/
1/ csD & yf w k d Y y f a c: "r & mZd u apwD a wmf M uD ;
csD&yfwkdYyfac:aom "r&mZduapwDawmfMuD;rSm wef&Hemvac:awmifwef;ay:wGif&Sdavonf/ fapwD
Mu;D udk wjcm;apwDi,faygif;rsm;pGmwku
Yd 0ef;&Hapmifah &Smufxm;avonf/ apwDMu;D udk qm-umeif*efEiS q
hf m*Refrm&S,fwkdYonf tpdk;&trdefY& wl;azmfcJhavonf/ apwDMuD;ukd *Em&wkdif;yef;&Hq&mMuD;wkdYu ta&SUESifh
taemufEkdifiHq&mwkdY\yef;&Hoabmyg0ifa&maESmvsuf aqmufvkyfxm;avonf/ apwDawmfMuD;udk rmMurf;
aomausmufrsm;jzihf aqmufvyk x
f m; &ifjyifawmfuu
kd m; rSeu
f o
hJ Ykd awmufyaomta&mif&adS om ausmufrsm;
jzifh cif;xm;avonf/ apwDukd wl;azmfcphJ Ofu rif;tqufqufwo
Ydk ;Hk pGcJ ahJ om '*Fg;rsm;pGmwkx
Yd u
G af y:vmav
onf/ ,cktcg if;'*Fg;rsm;udk jywkdufMuD;xJ odkrSD;xm;avonf/
65

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


"r&mZduapwDawmfMuD;udk zl;ajrmfjyD;aemuf bk&m;zl;om;wkdYonf a&wGuf r&Ekdifavmufatmifrsm;
jym;vSaom apwDi,frsm;ESihf ausmif;awmfMu;D rsm;udk us,jf yefn
Y n
D maom ajrjyifwnfaqmufxm;onfuakd wGU
&Sd&ayvdrfhrnf/ xkdapwDrsm;teuf tuf(pf) 5- s-5 trSwfa&;om;xm;aom apwDonf ta&;MuD;aom t
aqmufttkHwpfckjzpfavonf/ taMumif;qkdaomf apwDMuD;rS tzkd;te*xkdufwefvSaom bk&m;"mwfawmf
rsm;udk a&TMuKwfESifhwuG wl;azmf&&Sdavonf/ c&pf 75-ckESpfavmufu XmyemcJhaMumif;ESifhc&kdpwDtu&mjzifh
a&;xk;d xm;aom ausmufpmudv
k nf; &&Sad vonf/ a&TMuKwEf iS w
hf uGaom "mwfawmfrsm;udk tdE,
d bk&ifccH sKyf
avm'f0vif*&efonf rd*'g0kef&Sd rlv*Euk#D0d[m&wkdufMuD;xJ Xmyemap&ef 1931-ckESpfwGif r[maAm"d
toif;MuD;odkY ay;tyfcJhavonf/ xkdYjyif tuf(pf) 8-trSwf&Sdaom apwDi,fwpfqlrSmvnf; a&TMuKwfESifhwuG
aom"mwfawmftcsKdUudk wl;azmf&&Sdjyefavonf/ "mwfawmfrsm;udk avmh'fcsefpzkdY'fonf 1917-azaz:0g&Dv
wGif oD[kdVfuRef; uEDNrdKU&Sd "mwfawmfwkdufMuD;odkY ay;tyfcJhavonf/
2/ *D&dawmifMum;&Sd ausmif;awmfrsm;
rm*v*D&dawmifajc&if;&Sd cl&rfjymcsmESifhcl&rf*g*sm&frnfaom &GmESpfckMum;wGif oD;oefYaomawmifMum;
wpfck&Sdavonf/ ae&m rsm;pGmukefaom taqmufttkHysufwkdYudk wl;azmf&&Sdjyefavonf/ ae&mwGif
ESpfywfvkH;wokefokefpD;oG,fusaeaom a&wHcGefMuD;wpfck&Sdjcif;aMumifh t&d,mtaygif;olawmfaumif;wdkYtzkdY
w&m;udk tm;xkwf&ef taumif;qkH;jzpfavonf/
ae&m&Sd taqmufttkrH sm;udk tusO;f tm;jzifh cGjJ cm;&rnfqydk gu ausmif;awmfrsm;? apwDrsm;tjyif
&efolwkdYab;'PfrS ykef;a&Smifaexkdif&mjzpfaom ykH;usif;MuD;rsm;&Sdavonf/ yxrqkH;awGU&aom ausmif;awmf
MuD;rSm ay 120-ESifhteHay 60-rQus,fjyefYavonf/ ausmif;awmfMuD;\teD;wGif pwk&ef; 62-ayESifhtjrifh
15-ay&Sd apwDMu;D wpfqv
l nf; &Sad vonf/ wjcm;ausmif;awmfrsm;um; rk;d wGi;f tcg awmifay:rS wpf[ek w
f nf;
pD;qif;vmaom jrpfa&rsm;pm;rIaMumifh t<uif;r&ysufpD;vsuf &Sdavonf/ ae&mrS a&S;wuokdvftif*sifeD
,mq&mMuD;wkdY\ vuf&mrsm;jzpfaom Ak'&kyfwkawmfrsm;? yef;MudK;yef;EG,frsm; xkvkyfxm;aom ausmufwkH;
ausmufcsyfrsm;? bk&m;avmif;&kyfrsm; ponfwkdYxGufay:vmavonf/
3/ ul e mvapwD E S i f h a usmif ; awmf
ulemvapwDawmfonf [moDt,fvf (Hathial) rnfaom awmifuek ;f ay:wGif wnf&
dS if;ae&mrS
obm0usvaS om [&kad rvDac:awmifMum;udk aumif;pGmMunf&h
I jrifEidk af vonf/ w&kwb
f ek ;f awmfMu;D [la0
qifonf ae&modkYa&mufcJhaMumif;ESifha&;om;xm;avonf/ [la0qif\rSwfwrf;xJwGif apwDawmfonf
tjrift
h m;jzifh ay 100-&Sad vonf[\
l / rsm;pGmukeaf om rsurf jrifwo
Ydk nf apwDawmfjrwftxHwiG f rsupf d
jrifygapaMumif; vma&mufqak wmif;Muavonf[\
l / apwDawmfMu;D udk oD&"d rmaomurif;Mu;D onf ol\
rsufrjrifaom om;awmfwpfyg;jzpfol ulemv\trnfjzifh wnfxm;cJhavonf/ wnfxm;&jcif;\taMumif;
um; odw
Yk nf;/
]]w&Ha&mtcg wd&uw
d rnfaom oD&"d rmaomurif;Mu;D \,kwrf maomrdz&k m;wpfyg;onf ulemv
rnfaom rif;om;i,fukd azmufjyefaompdwjf zifh cspjf rwfE;dk tyfonfjzpf if;rif;om;i,fEiS ahf ysmyf g;&ef trsKd ;
rsKd;aomy&d,m,fwkdYjzifh aoG;aqmifjzm;a,mif;avaomf rif;om;i,fonf zcifrif;MuD;\Muif&mawmfwpfOD;jzpf
ol rdaxG;awmfwd&udwm\tvkdodkY rvkdufvkdojzifh jyif;xefpGm jiif;y,favonf/ xkdodkYjiif;y,favaom
aMumifh rdrdtMuHtpnf txrajrmufav&um; rdzk&m;MuD;onf a'gotrsufacsmif;acsmif;xGufjyD;vQif rif;w
&m;Mu;D \vufrw
S t
f wkukd trdeaYf wmfpmay:rSm a&;xk;d jy;D oumv rif;om;i,f\rsuv
f ;Hk udk xGuaf pavonf/
rif;om;i,fonfvnf; zcifrif;MuD;\trdefYtppftrSef[k xifjcif;aMumifh rjiif;qef0Hhav&um; oabmMunf
jzLpGmjzifh txGufcH&avonf/ tuef;b0odkYusa&muf&&Smaom rif;om;i,fonf &GmpOfvSnfhNrdKUpOfavQmuf
awmif;&rf;jcif;jzifh rdr\
d ZD0w
d ad `Eu
kd arG;jrL&avonf/ ulemvrif;om;uef;uav;\toHwu
Ydk m; u&0duif u
S f
rif; wGefusL;aomtoHuJhodkY txl;ESpfvkdzG,f&Sd\/ wpfaeYaomtcg rif;om;i,fonf NrdKUpOfavQmufawmif;
&rf;avaomf ol\zcif taomueef;awmfMu;D odaYk &mufavojzifh o'g&k"H mwfukd rjywfaomtm&kjH zifh em;axmif
66

rdaom rif;Mu;D rSm rsm;pGmyif ESpo


f uf&iT v
f ef;av&um; rif;om;i,fukd a&SUawmfarSmufo0Ykd ifapavonf/ rif;
om;i,fonfvnf; tusK;d taMumif; Okt
H vk;H pku
H kd avQmufxm;oHawmfO;D wifav&m rif;Mu;D rSm awmufavmif
aoma'gorD;&Sdefudk rcsKyfwnf;Ekdifojzifh rdzk&m;,kwftm; owfap[laomtrdefYudk &kwfw&uf csrSwfvkdufav
onf/ od&Yk mwGif rif;om;i,fu xko
d rYkd jyKvyk &f ef awmif;yefavQmufxm;avaomaMumifh rdz&k m;rSm toufab;
rS csrf;om&avonfhtjyif rif;om;i,fvnf; rsufpdjyefjrifavonf[l\}}
txdrf;trSwfjzifh taomurif;MuD;onf ae&m ulemvtrnfjzifh apwDwnfawmfrlavonf/
,cktcg apwDMu;D rSm t<uif;r&ysupf ;D vsuf &Sad v&um; wxpfcscefrY eS ;f &efyif cJ,Of;vSayonf/ apwD
teD;wGif ausmufwkdifusKd;tcsKdUESifh*Em&wkdif; yef;&efq&mMuD;wkdY\vuf&majc&mrsm;jzpfaom yef;MudK;yef;EG,f
rsm; yg0ifaom ausmufwkH;ausmufcsyftcsKdUudk &&Sdavonf/ ulemvapwD\ajrmufbufwGif ausmif;awmf&m
MuD;rsm; &Sdao;\/ odkY&mwGif trnfray;Ekdifawmhay/
4/ rk d [ &mrk d & m'l t aqmuf t tk H
taemufajrmufe,f&dS rsm;pGmaom taqmufttkw
H w
Ydk iG f rk[
d &mrk&d m'ltaqmufttk?H ydyv
mtaqmuf
ttkH? *sLvD,HtaqmufttkHwkdYrSm taooyfqkH;? tvSqkH;aom *Em&wkdif;vuform;wkdY\vuf&mrsm;jzpfav
onf/
rkd[&m-rkd&m'l taqmufttkHwkdYonf qD&qkwfNrdKU\ta&SUawmifbuf wpfrkdifceYftuGmwGif wnf&Sd
avonf/ ae&m apwDMuD;wpfqlESifhausmif;awmfMuD;wpfaqmif&Sdavonf/ apwDMuD;rSm ykHoPmeftm;jzifh
wjcm;aom apwDwu
Ydk o
hJ yYkd if jzpfaomfvnf; apwDi,faygif;rsm;pGm0ef;&Hxm;jcif;ESiahf tmufyef;ckrH o
S nf txuf
iSurf suef m;wkid af tmif bk&m;&ky?f bk&m;avmif;&ky?f ewf&yk rf sm;udk apwDausmufcsyrf sm;ay:wGif xkvyk x
f m;jcif;
onfyif txl;tqef;jzpfayonf/ tcsKdUaom &mZ0ifq&mrsm;u a&;om;xm;MuonfrSm ]]apwDudk wnf
aqmufcahJ om yef;&Hq&mrsm;rSm *&dwjf ynfrjS zpf Ak'b
mom0ifw\
Ydk oabmusukd aqmufvyk af y;cJ[
h efwo
l nf
qkd\}}/ bk&m;avmif;&kyfrsm; t0wfwefqmrsm;udk teDt0g trnf;paom ta&mifrsKd;pkHwkdY rGef;jc,fxm;cJhav
onf[l\/
wjcm;apwDrmS azmfjyyg apwDxuf tenf;i,fom i,f ykpH rH mS um; twkid ;f yif jzpfavonf/
txufyg apwDMuD;rsm;ESifhuyfvsuf&Sdaom ausmif;awmfMuD;rSm oHCmaygif;rsm;pGm pk&kH;&mcef;raqmif
MuD;ESifhwuG tcef;aygif; 27-cef;rQyg0ifavonf/ txyftm;jzifh 2-xyfjzpfonf/ tcef;\eH&Hausmufjym;
vnf; t&kyfrsKd;pkHxkxm;jyefavonf/ ausmif;awmfMuD;&Sd tcef;eHygwf(3)rSm tvGefoyg,fawmfrlaom &kyf
yGm;awmfwpfqludk awGU&Sdavonf/
5/ yd y v mtaqmuf t tk H r sm;
rk[
d &m rk&d m'ltaqmufttkrH sm;rS qufvufoGm;cJah omf bk&m;zlom;wko
Yd nf taqmufttko
H pfwpf
ckudk awGU&Sdvdrfhrnf/ taqmufttkHrSm rkd[&m-rkd&m'ltaqmufttkHwkdYxufi,f ulqefacwfrS[k cefYrSef;
&avonf/ taqmufttkHrsm;udk wl;azmf&mwGif rsm;pGmaomykxkd;i,fwkdY ay:xGufvmavonf[l\/
6/ *sLvD , H t aqmuf t tk H r sm;
*sLvD,HtaqmufttkHrsm;odkYa&muf&efrSm rdk[&mrkd&m'lrS ta&SUajrmufbufodkY wpfrkdifcefYavQmufoGm;
&avonf/ taqmufttkHrsm;rSm ay 300-cefYjrifhaom awmifay:wGifwnf&Sdavonf/ ausmufpmbufXme
rS ae&mudk txl;*&kpkdufum wl;azmfxm;avonf/
ae&m ausmif;awmfMuD;ESpfaqmifESifhapwDaygif; rsm;pGm&Sdavonf/ taqmufttkHrsm;rSm c&pf
2-&mpkavmufjzpf &efow
l rYdk ;D &IUd zsuq
f ;D ypfcahJ om tptersm;udk ,cktcg aumif;pGmawGUjrif&avonf/ t&H
apwDi,faygif;rsm;pGmwkdYjzifh *Em&wkdif;\usufoa&ukdaqmifcJhaom apwDMuD;rSm awmifxdyf0if;MuD;xJwGif &Sd
avonf/ apwDukd wl;azmfcphJ Of c&kpd wDtu&mjzifh tvSL&Si'f g,umrsm;\trnfudk a&;xk;d xm;aomausmuf
csyfaygif;rsm;pGmudk &&Sdavonf/ apwDi,ftenf;i,fcefY edrfhaomawmifeHab; ausmif;wpfaqmif&Sd\/
67

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


ausmif;awmfodkY 0if0rkcfaqmifwGif t*Fawjzifh oGef;vkyfxm;aomt&kyfrsKd;pkH&Sd\/ t&kyfrsm;teuf tcsKdU
aomt&kyw
f u
Ydk kd ,cktcg jywku
d Mf u;D xJwiG f xnfx
h m;avonf/
ausmif;awmfMu;D rS &&Sad om t&m0wKrsm;teuf wpfpw
d rf Qr;D avmifuRr;f xm;aom bm(&)csf (Birch)
ac:opfom;ay:wGif jA[Dtu&mjzifh a&;xkd;xm;aompmrSm txl;tqef;jzpfonf/ pmrSm ouwbmomjzifh
"ry'ygVdtcsKdUudk a&;om;xm;[efwl\/ opfom;wGif a&;xkd;xm;aompmrsKd;udk ae&mrSmom awGU&\/ w
jcm;ae&mwkdYum; ausmufrSmom a&;xkd;xm;Muonf/ opfom;rSm rsm;pGmysufpD;aejyDjzpfaomaMumifh a&;
xkd;xm;aompmukd zwfr&awmhay/
7/ b'gvf y l & f
ab&m&Gm\teD;wGif b'gvfyl&fwkdayrnfaomapwDMuD;wpfql &Sdao;\/ apwDrSm ulemvapwDESifh
wpfykHpHwnf;jzpfavonf/ XmyemazmufxGif;orm;wkdY\zsufqD;rIaMumifh rsm;pGmysufpD;,kd,Gif;vsuf&Sdonf/ ap
wDMu;D rSm tjrift
h m;jzifh ay 20-cef&Y o
dS nf/ apwDEiS w
hf pfqufwnf; ausmif;awmfMu;D wpfaqmifvnf; &Sad o;
onf/ *sLvD,HtaqmufttkHrsm;avmufum; rxif&Sm;vSacs/
8/ vmvf t aqmuf t tk H r sm;
*g[D-qm,m'efrnfaom &GmokYd oGm;&mvrf;wGif vmvfcsuaf c:aom taqmufttkrH sm;pGm &Sad vao;
\/ ae&mwGif c&pf 5-&mpkavmufu apwDrsm;ESifhausmif;awmfrsm; &Sdavonf/
9/ Av m apwD M uD ;
AvmapwDMu;D onf wuov
dk jf ynfrS 5-rkid af 0;aom qm&'gawmifwef;ay:wGif &Sad vonf/ tvGeMf u;D
rm;ay:vGiaf om apwDBu;D jzpfjcif;aMumifh ta0;uyifjrif&avonf/ [la0qif\rSww
f rf;rS od&&dS onfrmS jrwf
pGmbk&m;tavmif;awmfonf EkpOfb0u rdrd\OD;acgif;awmfudk qmavmifrGwfodyfaom usm;wpfaumiftm;
ae&mwGif ay;vSLcJhzl;ojzifh taomurif;MuD;onf xkdtxdrf;trSwfjzifh apwDudk wnfxm;cJhavonf[l
\/
apwDMu;D rSm ulvmeapwDEiS yhf pHk t
H m;jzifh wl\/ vufpvuferSmum; ydrk o
dk yf&yfvaS yonf/ apwD
MuD;\xuf0ef;usif ausmif;awmfMuD;wpfaqmifESifhapwDaygif;rsm;pGm&Sd\/ [la0qif\rSwfwrf;rS od&Sd&onfrSm
ausmif;awmfMuD;onf okwEduausmif;udk wnfaxmifcJhol ukrm&v'rnfaom r[m,mebkef;MuD;\tbd
"rmusrf;pmrsm;udk a&;&mXmejzpfonf qkd\/
az:jyyg taqmufttkrH sm;rSwpfyg; rsm;pGmaom taqmufttkMH u;D i,fwv
Ydk nf; &Sad o;\/ tus,u
f kd
odvrdk l "John Marshall's Guide to Taxila" ac:pmtkyu
f kd zwf&MI uyguke/f

wuokdvf&mZ0if
a&S;ya0oPDumvor,u wuokdvfjynfMuD;rSm ynm*kPf&nfcRefjcif;aMumifh urmwpfcGifrSm ay:
vGifcJhonfr[kwfao;/ taemufEkdifiHodkY oGm;a&mufum ul;oef;a&mif;0,fMuaom ukefonfrsm;ESifhtaemuf
EkdifiHrS usL;ausmf0ifa&muf wkdufckdufvmaomppfonfawmfwkdYonfvnf; wHcg;0ozG,fjzpfaom NrdKUawmfMuD;
rSyif jzwfoef;oGm;vm&jcif;aMumifh ykdrkdxif&Sm;ao;onfomwnf;/ wpf&Ha&mtcgu vlpnfum; ypnf;Opm
tvGef<u,f0cJhaom wuodkvfNrdKUMuD;um; usL;ausmf0ifa&mufwkdufckdufolwdkY\zsufqD;rIaMumifh ausmufykHtkwf
ykHtwdom usefaeawmh\/
wuodkvfjynfonf Ak'bmomusrf;*efrsm;wGif xif&Sm;bdouJhodkY ouwusrf;*efwkdY tvm;wlxif
&Sm;avonf/ ouwbmomjzifh pD&ifa&;om;xm;aom r[mbm&wusr;f Mu;D wGif wuov
dk jf ynfonf Z,arZ,
rif;MuD;\&mZXmeDjzpfaMumif; rif;nDrif;om;[lorQwkdY pk&kH;ynmoifMum;&mt&yfjzpfaMumif;ESifh a&;om;xm;
jyefavonf/
c&pf 3-&mpkavmufu tdE,
jynfukd 0ifa&mufwu
dk cf ahJ om *&dwpf pfoMl u;D tvufZEm;onf wuov
dk f
NrdKUMuD;udk a&S;OD;pGm odrf;ydkufrd NrdKUawmfMuD;\vrf;[lorQwkdYudk ausmufcsyfrsm;jzifh cif;xm;cJhjyefavaom
68

aMumifyh rdk
dk wifw
h ,fvmavonf/ xkpd Oftcgwke;f u wuov
dk jf ynf&h iS rf mS trt
D rnf&
dS tvufZEm;\vuf
atmufodkY usa&muf&onfjzpfvifhupm; NrdKUawmfrsm;udk vSyaocsmatmif cif;usif;jyD;onhfaemuf jynfvnf
tyfESif;avonf[l\/ tvufZEm;\zsufqD;rIaMumifh *Em&wkdif; NrdKUjyEkdifiHtcsKdUrSm ysufpD;&avaomfvnf;
wuokdvfNrdKUum; vkH;0rysufpD;/ *&d? yef;&H? yef;yk? yef;csDpaom ynmrsm;udkyif &xm;avonf/
*&dppfAkdvfMuD;tm; pE*kwrif;MuD;onf oufpGefYMudK;yrf;wkdufcdkufav&m ppf&IH;jcif;okdY a&mufavojzifh
rdrXd meD*&dwjf ynfoYkd jyef&avonf/ if;aemuf pE*w
k r if;Mu;D onf wuov
dk Nf rKd Uudk rdryd u
dk ef ufxo
J Ykd aygif;pyf
,lavonf/ om;awmfAEd L om&rif;vufxufwiG f wuov
dk jf ynfojl ynfom;wko
Yd nf vGwv
f yfa&;ppfyMJG u;D udq
k if
EGjJ cif;jzifh awmfveS Mf uavonf/ xkaYd Mumifh om;awmftaomurif;om;i,ftm; olyek w
f u
Ydk kd ESrd ef if;apavojzifh
jird ;f at;rIudk jyefvnf&&Sad vonf/ taomurif;om;i,fu,
kd w
f idk f ESpt
f enf;i,fcefaY vmuf bk&ifct
H jzpfjzifh
tkyfcsKyfcJhavonf/ xkdYjyif pE*kwrif;MuD;vufxufawmfu twkdifyifcHtrwfMuD;Zeu(ouwrSm psmeus)
ykPm;MuD;\arG;zGm;&mZmwdonfvnf; wuokdvfjynfomvQif jzpf\/
arm&d,rif;qufjywfjyD;onfhaemuf wuokdvfjynfrSm quvlrsKd;wkdY\vufatmufodkY usa&mufcJh&jyef
avonf/ c&pf 60-ESi6hf 4-ckEpS w
f iG f ulqefvrl sK;d wko
Yd nf wuov
kd jf ynfMu;D odYk 0ifa&muford ;f yku
d jf yefavonf/
ulqefrif;MuD;onf Ak'bmomukd ouf0if,kHMunfoljzpfjcif;aMumifh olUacwfwGif Ak'bmomESifhoufqkdif&m t
aqmufttkHaygif;rsm;pGmwkdYudk wnfaxmifxm;cJhavonf/ taomurif;MuD; ewf&GmpHjyD;onfhaemuf omoem
jrwfMuD;tm; wu,fwrf;axmufyHhcJholrSm ued&Surif;MuD;yif jzpfavonf/ wuokdvfjynfoljynfom;wkdYonf
aygif;oif;qufqHrIt&mwGif txl;uRrf;usifvdrmjcif;aMumifh ulqefvlrsKd;wkdYomru *&dwfvlrsKd;ESifhquvlrsKd;
aygif;rsm;pGmwkdYudk Ak'bmomodkY qGJoGif;cJhavonf[l\/
Ekid if jH cm;rS 0ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
dk o
f l taygif;wkw
Yd iG f [ke;f jzL (White Huns) vlrsK;d wko
Yd nfomvQif Ak'b
m
omudk rvkdvm;aomvlrsKd;jzpfavonf/ ,kwfrmaom[kef;jzLvlrsKd;wpfpkwkdYonf ynma&;wGif a&uefMuD;o
zG,fjzpfaom wuokdvfXmeMuD;udk zsufqD;ypfavonf/ xkda&mtcgrSp tdEd,jynfMuD;\ynmwnf;[laom
&wemokdufMuD;\wnf&mjzpfaom wuokdvfjynfMuD;rSm ododomomMuD;qkwf,kwf&avonf/ [kef;jzLvlrsKd;wkdY
onf c&pf 450-jynfhESpfwGif 0ifa&mufzsufqD;avonf/
zm[D,efonf c&pf 440-jynfhESpfwGif wuokdvfNrdKUodkYa&muf&SdcJh [la0qifrSm c&pf 7-&mpkavmuf
wGif a&muf&cdS ahJ vonf/ zm[D,efum; MuufysrH uspnfum;vSaom wuov
dk Nf rKd UMu;D udk jrifz;l oGm;\/ [la0qif
um; ysupf ;D ,k,
d iG ;f vsu&f adS om ausmif;paom taqmufttkw
H u
Ydk kd jrifomG ;&avonf/ odaYk omf taemufajrmuf
e,f\omoemawmfukd ed*kH;csKyfzsufqD;olwkdYrSm rkda*gvfrif;(rlqvif)rif;wkdYomjzpfaMumif;ESifh a'0jyd,\
(Buddhist shrines India by Deva Priya Valisinlha) ac:pmtkyw
f iG f a&;om;xm;avonf/
Buddhism disappeared altogether from north-western India after Moghul invasion and today we
have only these wonderful ruins to speak of it's golden day.

t"dyg,f/
/rdak *gvfrif;wd\
Yk usL;ausm0f ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
dk jf y;D onfah emuf taemufajrmufe,f&dS Ak'
omoemawmfrmS aysmufu,
G o
f mG ;&avonf/ ,cktcgrSmrlum; a&S;vGeaf vjy;D aom a&TacwfMu;D \taMumif;udk
ajymjyp&m tHhzG,fcref;xl;qef;aom taqmufttkHysufrsm;om usefvsuf&Sdavawmhonf/
a0zefjycJjh y;D onft
h wkid ;f rolawmfrif;wk\
Yd tqufquf zsuq
f ;D rIaMumifh Ak'o
moemawmfMu;D rSm ,ck
uJhodkY tEdrb0odkYusa&muf&avonf/ odkYr[kwfygu rnfonfhenf;ESifhrS uG,faysmufEkdifrnf r[kwfay/ a&S;
a&S;aom 'ge&Sit
f aygif;olawmfaumif;wk\
Yd aumif;rIawmfrsm;jzpfaom aZw0ef? emvE? eE,
d mrpaomausmif;
apwDtaqmufttkw
H u
Ydk m; txl;yif oyf&yfvaS yonf/ ckid cf v
hH aS yonf/ tu,f rolawmfrif;wku
Yd om r
zsufqD;cJhqkdygu urmESifhomtwl ysufpD;&ayrnf/ urmxuftvsif ysufpD;Ekdifrnf rxifaMumif;/

[dELonf omoemtiftm;udk ,kwfaponf


Ak'omoemawmfudk zsufqD;cJhaom vlrsKd;um; [dELESifhrlqvifvlrsKd;wkdYyif jzpfavonf/ [dELwkdYonf
jrwfpGmbk&m; y&dedAmefpHvGefawmfrljyD;rS omoemawmfudk apmfum;cJhonfr[kwfao;/ Ak'bk&m;&Sifvufxuf
awmftcguyif omoemawmfMuD;udk tMudrfaygif;rsm;pGm apmfum;cJhykHudk usrf;*eftapmifapmifwkdYwGif zwf&I&
69

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


avonf/ oD&"d rmaomurif;Mu;D aemufyikd ;f omoemawmfukd ud,
k x
f v
d ufa&muf zsuq
f ;D cJo
h rl mS vnf; [dEL
jAm[PrsK;d EG,jf zpfaom yk&rS Md wyifjzpfonf/ xdaYk emufwpfzef orkj'*kw? qquFm? qMumus&,? ukrm&Dvbw
trSL;&Sad om yk*K v
d w
f o
Ydk nfvnf; [dEL vlrsK;d rsm;yifjzpfavonf/ olwo
Ydk nf tdE,
jynfMu;D wGif vlxb
k momjzpf
cJhaom(0g)trsm;qkH;aom vlOD;a&&Sdaom Ak'omoemawmftm; tiftm;qkwf,kwfatmif zsufqD;Muavonf/
if;wkYdzsufqD;jcif;aMumifh vkH;0epfjrKyfroGm;EkdifcJh[kqkd&apumrlvnf; tvGefYtvGeftiftm;MuD;rm;vSaom om
oemawmfMuD;rSm toufukefvkeD; vlrrmwrQ tiftm;qkwf,kwf&avonf/

t<uif;r&zsufqD;ol rlqvif
az:jycJjh y;D onht
f wkid ;f [dEL onf bk&m;&Siv
f ufxufawmfrpS omoemawmfudk enf;trsK;d rsK;d jzifzh suf
qD;cJhaomfvnf; omoemawmfMuD;um; vkH;0repfjrKyfEkdifcJhaMumif;? odkYaomf wpfaeY 5-Mudrf taemufbufodkY
a&SU&I &dSckd;jcif;jzifh tvmocif\EIwfuygXfawmfudk cH,lvsuf&SdaomolwdkYrSm omoempm;ykd;aumifMuD;rsm;jzpf
avonf/ if;vlrsKd;rsm;txJrS rl[rufa*:&D? rkd[mruf *gZeD? rkd[mrufukwfbG'def? rkd[mrufbwfwD,mcDv
*sDESifhtduwd,m&kwf'defwkdYonf tMuD;qkH;aom vufonfMuD;rsm;jzpfaMumif;udk uREkfyfaz:jycJhjyD;aom &mZ0if
tudk;tum;rsm;udk zwf&Ijcif;jzifhodEkdifayjyD/ tu,f yk*dKvfrsm;uom rzsufqD;cJhqkdygu ,aeYtxd Ak'
omoemwnf&Sdae&ayOD;rnf/ xkdolwkYd\udk,fcsif;pmw&m;uif;rJhpGmjzifh igwkdY\omoemawmfudk &rf;cJhMurf;cJh
,kwrf mcJjh cif;aMumifh urmay:wGif tat;jrqk;H aom zk;d a&Tvrif;Mu;D xuf tqt&mtaxmiftaomif;tode;f
ru at;jrvSpGmaom Ak'omoemhvrif;MuD;rSm vkH;pkHuG,fycJh&avawmhonf/ um; 0rf;enf;aMuuGJp&mMuD;
yif jzpfawmhonf/

'eD,Xmeav;yg;
pwm&drmed tmeE o' ukvykw 'eD,med oHa0ZeD,med Xmemed/ uwrmed pwm&d/
(1)]]" wxm*awm Zmawm}}wd tmeE o' ukvykw
'eD, oHa0ZeD,H XmeH/
(2)]]" wxm*awm tEkw& H ormoarm" tbdorKa'g}}wd tmeE o' ukvykw
'eD,H oHa0
ZeD,H XmeH/
(3)]]" wxm*awe tEkw& H "rpuy0ww
d }}Ed tmeE o' ukvykw
'eD,H oHa0ZeD,H XmeH/
(4)]]" wxm*awm tEkyg'daoo edAme"gwk,m y&dedAKawm}}wd tmeE o' ukvykw 'eD,H
oHa0ZeD,H XmeH/
r[my&dedAmeokwfygVdawmf ESm-116(pwkoHa0ZeD,Xme)
t"d y g ,f
tdk tmeEm-MunfnKd jcif;? o'gw&m;ESijhf ynfph aHk om trsK;d aumif;om;tm; ynmrsupf jd zifh &Ijcif;iSmxku
d f
ukeaf om aMumufvefjY cif; oHa0*wku
Yd v
kd nf; jzpfapwwfaom 4-yg;aomt&yfXmewko
Yd nf &Su
d ek \
f / tb,f
4-yg;wkdY[lrlum;(1) tkd tmeEm? ]]t&yf jrwfpmG bk&m;udzk mG ;jrifawmfrjl y}D }[l MunfnKd jcif;? o'gw&m;ESijhf ynfph aHk om trsK;d
aumif;om;tm; ynmrsupf jd zifh &Ijcif;iSm xku
d af omaMumufvefjY cif; oHa0*ukd jzpfapwwfaom t&yfXmeonf
jzpf\/
(2)tkd tmeEm? ]]t&yf jrwfpmG bk&m;onf twkr&Sad om ormoarm"dPfukd xk;d xGi;f odawmfr\
l }}[l
MunfnKd jcif; o'gw&m;ESijhf ynfph aHk om trsK;d aumif;om;tm; ynmrsupf jd zifh &Ijcif;iSmxku
d af om aMumufvefY
jcif;oHa0*ukd jzpfapwwfaom t&yfXmeonf jzpf\/
(3) tkd tmeEm? ]]t&yf jrwfpmG bk&m;onf twkr&Sad om "rpMumw&m;awmfukd a[mMum;awmfral omtm;
jzifh jzpfapjyD}}[l MunfndKjcif;o'gw&m;ESifhjynfhpkHaom trsKd;aumif;om;tm; ynmrsufpdjzifh &Ijcif;iSmxkduf
aom aMumufvefYjcif;oHa0*udk jzpfapwwfaom t&yfXmeonf jzpf\/
(4) tkd tmeEm? ]]t&yf jrwfpGmbk&m;onf tEkyg'daooedAmef"mwfjzifh y&dedAmefjyKawmfrljyD}}[l Munf
70

ndKjcif;o'gw&m;ESifhjynfhpkHaom trsKd;aumif;om;tm; ynmrsufpdjzifh &Ijcif;iSmxdkufaom aMumufvefYjcif;


oHa0*udkjzpfapwwfaom t&yfXmeonf jzpf\/
tk.d ..tmeEm? MunfnKd jcif;o'gw&m;ESijhf ynfph aHk om &[ef;a,musmf ;wko
Yd nfvnf;aumif;? &[ef;rde;f r
wkdYonfvnf;aumif;? oDwif;onfa,musfm;wkdYonfvnf;aumif; oDwif;onfrdef;rwdkYonfvnf;aumif; t
&yf jrwfpGmbk&m;udk zGm;jrifawmfrlzl;\/
t&yf jrwfpmG bk&m;onf twkr&Sad om ormoarm"dPfukd xk;d xGi;f odjrifawmfrzl ;l \/ t
&yf jrwfpGmbk&m;onf twkr&Sdaom "rpMumw&m;awmfudk a[mMum;awmfrlzl;\/ t&yf jrwfpGmbk&m;
onf tEkyg'daooedAmef"mwfjzifh y&dedAmefjyKawmfrlzl;\}}[l toD;oD;vma&muf zl;ajrmfMuukefvwHU/
'eD,medukd okwfr[m0gt|uxm okwftzGifh 'eD,med-'e&[med? 'ewm,*EAm
ed[l zGifhjyxm;\/ 'em&[med=zl;ajrmfjcif;iSm xkdufukefaom/ 'ewm,=zl;ajrmfpdrfhaomiSm/ *EAmed=
oGm;tyfukefaom/ Xmemed=t&yfwkdYwnf;/ odkYvQif t|uxmq&mMuD;u zGifhjyawmfrljcif;aMumifh txufyg
vkrdeDXme? Ak'*,mXme? rd*'g0kefXmeESifhukodem&kHXmewkdYodkY Ak'bmom0ifolawmfpiftaygif;wkdYonf rcRwfr
vGJ tNr{J uef oGm;tyfa&muftyfonf rSe\
f /

Oa&myomoemorkdif;
aumif;cs;D Mobm usuo
f a&r*FvmtjzmjzmESijhf ynfph aHk wmfral om &Siaf wmfa*gwrjrwfA'k \
"rac:aom
w&m;awmfonf Oa&mytwGif;odkY csOf;eif;0ifa&muf Ak'Zif;[laom omreftrnfrQudk &&SdcJhonfrSm 19&mpktv,f rwkdifrDavmuf jzpfavonf/
yxrOD;pGm [m'Dac: ynm&SdMuD;wpfOD;onf vufpGJAk'0g'ac:pmtkyfuav;udk ygVdbmomrS t*Fvdyf
bmomodkYjyefqkda&;om;cJhaom ou&mZfrSm 1860-jynfhESpfjzpfonf/ if;aemuf rMumrD ruqpfrlvmonf
ta&SUwkdif;\t,ltqjzpfaom bmoma&;qkdif&mpmtkyfrsm;ukd jyefqkda&;om;cJhav&m xkdtxJwGif]]qJu&uf
bkuf(cf)atmfhzftD;pfwfac:pmtkyfrSm trGefjrwfqkH;aom Ak'0g'udk jyefqkda&;om;aom pmtkyfyifjzpfawmhonf/
1879-ckESpfwGif qmtD'GiftmEkdonf ]]at&Stvif;a&mif}}ac:pmtkyfudk a&;om;jyefav&m xkdpmtkyfrSm zwf&I
&olwkdif;tm; taumif;qkH;aom todPfudk zGifhay;EkdifcJhonf/ 1881-ckESpfwGif ygVdpmaytoif;MuD;\tzGJU
0ifwpfO;D jzpfol y&dzk ufqm wD'AvsL&kid af ';Apfonf az:jyygyk*K v
d w
f Ykd ysK;d xm;aom Ak'0 g'rsK;d aphut
kd jrefayguf
yGm;&ef MudK;pm;tm;xkwfaeavonf/

t,fvifbifeuf
at&Stvif;a&mifac:pmtkyfonf Ak'omoemhvrif;MuD;\tvif;a&mifukd rcHpm;Muukefaom(0g)c&pf
awmfbmomomvQif xGef;um; omoemhtrkdufwkdufMuD;jzpfaeaom Oa&mywkdufMuD;odkY wpfpwpfp ta&mif
[yfvsuf ay;&mwGif xkdtvif;a&mifuav;onf v,fvifbifeuf\todPfudkvnf; xGef;awmufapav
onf/ Ak'w
&m;awmf\tvif;a&mifudk &&Sjd y;D aom t,fvifbifeufonf usr;f *efrsm;ukd xkt
d cgrSp avhvm
oifMum;avawmhonf/ 19-&mpk ukefcgeD;avmufwGif olonf us,fjyefYaom tbd"rmw&m;udk wkd;wufavh
vmvk&d um; oD[Vkd u
f Re;f odYk vma&mufum rdr\
d c&pf,mef0g'D[al omb0ukd Ak'0 g'Db0okYd ul;ajymif;vku
d af v
onf/ 1920-ckESpfwGif olonf omoemjyK"rq&mtjzpf cefYxm;jcif;udkcH& taemufwkdif;odkYoGm; omo
emjyK&ef tcGit
hf cgMuKjH y[
D k qk;H jzwfvsuf Ak'b
momjrefrm&[ef;awmfabmifoYkd 0ifavonf/ xkt
d cgrSp o'g
w&m;aumif;vSaom jrefrmvlrsKd;rsm;ESifh a'gufwmtmeuf&kd;pf(wf)wkdY\tultnDjzifh t*FvefokdY omoemjyK
oGm;&ef pDpOfavonf/

Ak'bmompmtkyfqkdif
odkYaomfvnf; t*Fvefjynfrlum; omoemrsKd;aphtanmifhaygufum&SdESifhjyDjzpfavonf/ tm&f-a*s*suq
f ifonf 1906-ckEpS af vmufwiG f ]]taemufEidk if t
H wGuf bmomwpf&yftjzpf ud;k uG,x
f u
kd af om Ak'0 g'}}
71

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

ac:pmwrf;wpfck xkwfa0vsuf&Sdonf/ a'gufwm&kd;pfwfonf jrefrmjynfrS jyefa&mufvmaomtcg *sufqif


a*s-tm&f-ydef;wkdYESifhtwl Ak'bmompmtkyfqkdifMuD;wpfqkdifudk jAdwdoQjywkdufteD;&Sd AsL&Dvrf;? trSwf 14-zGifh
vSpfonf/

*&dwfjAdwdefESifhtkdif,mvefAk'bmomtoif;
rsm;rMumrD 1907-ckESpf Ekd0ifbmv vrf;pOfukd csay;olrsm;ESifhwjcm;pdwftm;xufoefolrsm;onf
]]*&dwfjAdwdefESifhtkdif,mvef Ak'bmomtoif;}}ukd wnfaxmifMuavonf/ if;toif;rS Ak'pf&D;AsL;ac: *sm
e,fuv
dk nf; xkwaf 0Muavonf/ toif;Mu;D y&kzd ufqm&kid af ';Apfu yxrOuX? y&dzk ufqm tD;-wD-r*f
qfu 'kw,
d OuX? uufywdet
f ,fvifu twGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpf toD;oD; aqmif&u
G Mf uavonf/
yxrqk;H vlxt
k pnf;ta0;odYk wufa&muf&ef Ak'b
mom0ifrsm;ESihf ygVd? ouwpmayrsm;udk pdw0f if
pm;olwkdYtm; zdwfrEujyKvkdufavonf/ uJhodkY ygVdESifhouwpmayrsm;ukd pdwf0ifpm;olrsm;udk pk&kH;&jcif;
onf Ak'0g'xJodkY ,kdpD;ap&ef taemufwkdif;om;wkdYtm; aoG;aqmifjcif; tusKd;aus;Zl;rsm;rnfrSm ,kHrSm;zG,f
r&Sdacs/

tmeEmaraw,s
tcsKdUaom t*Fvefjynfoljynfom;wkdYonf pmtkyfrsm;udk zwfjcif;tm;jzifhvnf;aumif;? toif;MuD;\
a[majymrIjzifhvnf;aumif; Ak'0g'ESifhywfoufaom todPfukd tawmftwef&vsuf&Sdaom xkdtodPf
wnf;[laomajruGufwGif aygufyGm;vsuf&Sdaom Ak'0g'wnf;[laom tanmufuav;udk xyfavmif;jyKpk&ef
om vkdvm;vsuf&Sdaeavonf/ 1908-ckESpf t*FvefodkY<ua&mufvm Ak'bmomrsKd;aphudk xyfrHpkdufysKd;cJhol
rSm bduKtmeEmaraw,syif jzpfavonf/ tmeEaraw,s,laqmifvmaom Ak'0g'rSm w&kwf? *syefESifh
wdAufjynfww
Ydk iG f ysUH ESv
YH su&f adS om r[m,meAk'b
momESijhf cm;em;aom taemufwidk ;f [de,me[ktodtrSwf
jyKxm;aom ax&0g'Ak'rsKd;aphyifjzpfonf/
tmeEmaraw,srSm &efukefNrdKU&Sd vlaygif;pkHAk'bmomtoif;MuD;\taxGaxG twGif;a&;rSL;jzpf ol
\'g,dumrMuD; rpufvSatmif(a':vSatmif)ESifhtwl {jyDv 27-&ufaeYwGif t*FvefjynfodkY<ua&mufvmav
onf/ jrefrmtrsKd;orD;MuD;a':vSatmif omoemjyKpmoifcef;twGuf ukefusrnfhp&dwfaiGudk &ufa&mpGmvSL
'gef;avonf/
odkYaomfvnf; omoemjyKjcif;onf taMumif; (3)csufaMumifh qkwf,kwf&avonf/ yxrtaMumif;
rSm tmeEmaraw,sonf ta&SUwkid ;f \trGejf rwfq;Hk aom w&m;awmfukd taemufwidk ;f odYk olu,
kd w
f idk ,
f al qmif
vm jyefYyGm;apaomfvnf; ol0wfqifxm;aom jrwfouFef;rSm taemufwkdif;om;wkdY\rsufpdESifhukd;&kd;um;&m;
EkdifvSjcif;? if;jyif taemufEkdifiH\&moDOwk'Pfudk vkHjcKHatmif rumuG,fEkdifaom ol\wpfbufapmif;0wf
&kHaom ouFef;ESifh0denf;odumyk'fawmfudk apmifhpnf;vGefvGef;jcif;wkdYonf t*FvefjynfwGif aqmif&Gufvsuf&Sd
aom ol\tvkyfudpudk tcuftcJESifhawGUMuKHapavonf/ odumyk'fawmfrSm tvGefta&;MuD;aom Oya'o
MuD;wpfckjzpfaomfvnf; c&D;oGm;aom*rdu&[ef;ESifhol\taemufwkdif;y&dowftMum;wGif tNrJtaESmifht,Suf
jzpfaeavonf/
'kwd,taMumif;rSm araw,sonf jrifhjrwfaom trlt&mrsKd;ESifhom,memaysmfzG,ftoHrsm;&Sdaomf
vnf; olUtm;vma&mufzl;ajrmfolrsm;tay: rsm;pGmESdyfuGyfjcif;ukd rjyKyJ olwpfyg;\pdwf"mwfudk qGJaqmifEkdif
avmufaom yD,0gpmpum;rsm;ud>k rufMum;&ef vkjd cif;ESiv
hf x
l t
k pnf;ta0;ukd cPcPzdwaf c: a[mMum;&ef
vkdjcif;wkdYyif jzpfavonf/
wwd,taMumif;rSm olonf ta&SUwkdif;t,ltqrsm;ESifh,Ofaus;vdrmrIwkdYukd ydkif;jcm;owfrSwfxm;
aomtcsddeftwGif; tusKd;xifvm&ef vkyfukdifaqmif&Guf&rnfht"duwm0efMuD;udk OD;xdyf&Gufxm;&aomfvnf;
usef;rmoefpGrf;rI csKdUwJhjcif;yif jzpfavonf/
72

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

*&dwfjAdwdefESifhtkdif,mvef Ak'bmomtoif;MuD;onf 1907-ckESpf 1921-ckESpfwkdifatmif a[majym


oifMum;jcif;rsm;? pm&Gufpmwrf;a0iSjcif;rsm;? tpnf;ta0;rsm;ESifhr*Zif;xkwfa0jcif;paom tvkyfrsm;jzifh
"r\enf;Oya'udk vkdvm;Muukefaom axmifaygif;rsm;pGmukefaom taemufwkdif;om;wkdY\todPfwnf;[l
aom tvif;a&mifukd wjznf;jznf; awmufyMunfvifapcJhaomfvnf; urmhvlxkMuD;qDokdY wrk[kwfjcif;ysHUESHY
oGm;Ekdif&efudkum; b,faomtcgrS raqmif&GufcJhEkdif/
toif;onf 'kw,
d urmppfMu;D twGi;f touf&iS af ecJah omfvnf; toif;\0dnmOfozG,jf zpfaom trI
aqmifyk*KdvfausmfwkdYrSm tedpoabmw&m;\aemufawmfyg;odkY vkdufygoGm;&jcif;onf toif;MuD;tm; tvGef
trif; xdckdufepfemapavawmhonf/
araw,st&Sifonfvnf; usef;rmoefpGrf;jcif; r&SdawmhjyDjzpf 1923-ckESpfwkdifatmif oDwif;okH;cJh
ygaomfvnf; toif;udpt
00ukd xrf;aqmif&m pdwo
f mG ;wkid ;f ud,
k rf ygEkid af wmhay/ olonf Munh&f rI w
S o
f m;
zG,faumif;aom]]t&d,maAm"d}}(0p'rfatmh(z)tm&[,)pmtkyfudk tvl;tvJESdyfpufvsuf&Sdaom a0'emESifh
ppfyGJqifum xkwfa0cJhavao;onf/ toif;MuD;\opm&SdvSaom twGif;a&;rSL;rpwmz&ifhpfabmvfpfESifht
xif&Sm;qkH;aom toif;om;ESpfOD;jzpfol y&dkzufqmrpfvfpfESifhy&dkzufqm&kdifa';ApfwkdYonf ocFg&w&m;MuD;\
pDru
H ed ;f t& wrvGeaf vmuokYd a&S;&Iuek &f um; toif;Mu;D rSm 0dnmPfjywfum aysmufu,
G &f &Smavawmhonf/

aemufvlwkdY\0D&d,
rnfoyYkd if jzpfapumrl omoemjyKvyk if ef; pdwt
f m;xufoefvsu&f adS om z&efppfyed ;f onf <uif;usef
aeao;aom toif;om;toif;olwkdYtm; pk&kH;jyD;vQif Ak'0g'udk rnfokdYavhvm&rnf[laom tcsuf 12-csuf
yg0ifaom tpDtpOfwpfcu
k kd vef'efNrKd U tufquqaf [m a[majymjyoavonf/ a[majymyGo
J Ykd wpfcsed f
wnf; y&dowf 200-avmuf wufa&mufcJhaomfvnf; 1923-ckESpf tkdwef&moDwGif usif;yaom a[majymyGJ
um; 12-a,mufrQomvQif wufa&mufawmhonf/ 1924-ck py&if;Owk olonf toif;\OuXwm0efukd cH
,ljyD;vQif tptqkH;wkdifatmif aqmif&Gufjcif;jzifh vef'efAk'bmomtoif;udk wnfaxmifEkdifjyD[laom *kPf
xl;0daooudk urmhAk'bmom0ifwkdYxHrS cH,lavonf/
aemufvwGif vuf&Sd vef'efAk'bmomtoif;MuD;\OuXjzpfol c&pfprwf[rfza&onf oD[dkVfqkdzD
toif;MuD;xJ Ak'0g'A[kdcsufwpfckudk zGifhvSpfcJh 1924-ckESpf Ekd0ifbmv 19-&ufaeYwGif xkdA[kd&fcsufudk
Ak'pfavm*sftjzpfodkY ajymif;vJvkdufavonf/ A[kdcsufMuD;onf t',moD[kdqkdzDtoif;MuD;\Ak'0g'ESifhqkdif
&m0w&m;ukd ausyGefpGm xrf;aqmif&avonf/ odkY&mwGif 0g'pnf;rsOf;udk oabmrusojzifh tdyfcsfyDbvuf
puD;ESifhume,ftkdvfaumufwkdYrSm cGJxGufcJhavonf/

tem*g&du "rygv
oD[kdVfom; OygoumMuD;wpfOD;jzpfol tem*g&du"rygvonf pufwifbmv t*FvefjynfodkYa&muf
&Sdvm avmh*sftoif;MuD;rS MuD;rSL;usif;yaom vlxktpnf;ta0;odkYwufa&mufavonf/ olYxH omoemjyK
pDru
H ed ;f wpfck ygvmavonf/ olonf ESpq
f ef;wGif tDvifac:t&yf&dS tdrw
f pfv;Hk wGif wnf;cdak exkid
f xdt
k rd f
yif 1891-ckEpS u
f tdE,
d jynfwiG f wnfaxmifxm;aom r[maAm"dtoif;Mu;D \t*FvefXmecGw
J pfcu
k kd 1926
-ckEpS f Zlvidk v
f wnfaxmifavonf/ xdak eYrpS toif;2-ckwo
Ydk nf taemufwidk ;f omoemawmfjyefyY mG ;ap
&ef &nfoefpdwfxm;vsuf twlwuG yl;aygif;aqmif&GufMuavonf/ tNrJoDwif;okH;awmfrlaom &[ef;awmf
wpfyg;onf Ak'0g'ESifhqkdifaom r&Sif;rvif;aom tcsuftvufrsm;ukd vma&mufar;jref;MuolwkdYtm; vG,f
ulpGm ajz&Sif;ay;jcif;jzifhvnf;aumif; jAdwdoQvlrsKd;tcsKdUtm; Ak'bk&m;\"rpufawmfatmufodkY ta&mufqGJ
aqmifcJhavonf/
acwfomoemjyKvyk if ef;wGif pHrwlatmif uRr;f usiaf omtodPfEiS jhf ynfph aHk om "rygvonf jAw
d ed f
jynfwiG f Ak'0 g'vkyif ef;udk aqmifaeoltm; rESpjf cKu
d o
f nft
h vm; jyif;xefpmG ESyd pf ufvaS om jAw
d ed u
f Re;f Mu;D \
73

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

toif;MuD; uG,faysmuf&jcif;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Ak'orkdif; (okdYr[kwf) trSwfw&'kdif,m&D


&moDOwk'PfaMumifh tiftm; ukefcef;jcif;okdY a&mufavonf/ ESpf&Snfvrsm; ae&onfESifhtrQusqkH;aom
usef;rma&;aMumifh ol\OD;aESmufESifhudk,fum,onf olUtm;awmfvSefpjyKvmavonf/ olonf jAdwd&SfAk'pfwf
ac:r*Zif;udk xkwaf 0jcif;? tDviftrd af wmf tpnf;ta0;usi;f yjcif;wku
Yd kd jyKvyk yf gao;\/ odaYk omf ol\use;f
rmrIonf olYtm; oD[kdVfokdYjyef&ef EkdifxufpD;eif; jyKvmavonf/
oD[Vdk u
f Re;f odYk a&mufjy;D aemufwpfEpS w
f iG f jyef &D*siyhf gwf(cf)teD; tdrw
f pftrd o
f Ykd Xmea&TUajymif;
Mum&Snpf mG aexkid &f ef Mu&H ,
G yf gaomfvnf; olt
Y m; t*Fvefjynfov
Ykd ma&mufonfukd vk;H 0rvkv
d m;aompy&if;
Owkonf oD[dkVfuRef;odkY jyefvnfarmif;xkwfvkdufjyefavonf/ xdkodkYyif armif;ESifjcif;udk cH&apumrl ol\
udk,fpm; vkyfukdifaqmif&GufMu&ef t&nftcsif;ESifhjynfhpkHaom bduK yD? 0ZD&mPtrSL;&Sdaom &[ef;awmf
(3)yg;tm; xm;ypfcJhavonf/

q&mawmf wkdufpl;
w&kwfjynf trGKdifausmif;MuD;\q&mawmfMuD;jzpfol omoemykdifOD;wkdufpl;onf taemufEkdifiHodkYa'o
pm&D<ua&mufvmavonf/ q&mawmfonf 1928-ckESpf? tkdwefOwkwGif t*FvefuRef;wGif a&muf&Sdvmav
onf/ q&mawmf\&nf&,
G cf surf mS Oa&mywku
d &f dS NrKd U[loa&GU Ak'b
momtoif;rsm;udk zGUJ pnf;wnfaxmifjy;D
vQif Ak'0g'ESifhqkdifaom pmayrsm;udk oifMum;ydkYcsay;&efjzpfonf/ vef'efNrdKU&Sd r[maAm"dtoif;ESifhavmh*sf
toif;wkdYu q&mawmftm; aomif;aomif;jzjz qD;MudKMuavonf/ t*FvefjynfwGif Ak'bmomtoif;tzGJU
rsm;&SEd iS jhf y;D [k od&adS wmfral omtcg csucf si;f yif jyifopfjynfoYkd xGucf mG oGm;avonf/ jyifopfjynf Ak'0 g'udk
pdwf0ifpm;olrsm;yg0ifaom qyf-aumfrwDwpfckudk zGJUpnf;wnfaxmifavonf/
q&mawmfwkdufpl; jyifopfodkY a&mufaepOf tem*g&du"rygv\wljzpfol ',ma[0g0d[m&aeonf
t*FvefuRef;okdY a&muf&Sdvm Ak'bmomausmif;om;rsm;tvkdYiSm a[mpw,fwpfckudk wnfaxmifavonf/
odkYaomf EkdifiHjcm;om; Ak'bmomausmif;om;ausmif;olwdkY\pdwf0ifpm;jcif;? axmufcHjcif;ukdum; b,faomt
cgrS r&&SdcJhacs/
jyifopfjynfwiG f tm;xkwaf qmif&u
G v
f su&f adS om OD;wku
d pf ;l \omoemjyKvyk if ef;rSm ydrk adk tmifjrifvsuf
&Sdonf/ tb,faMumifhqkdaomf Ak'0g' oifMum;em;vnfjyD;aom rsm;pGmaom yg&pfNrdKUolNrdKUom;rsm; EId;aqmf
jcif;atmifjrifrnfjzpfaom "Les Amis Bouddhisme" ac:toif;wpfcu
k kd jyKvyk zf efw;D xm;jcif;tm;jzifh rpfpD
avmifb&Donf toifhcif;xm;aom wHwm;udk avQmufoGm;&efomvkdawmhonf jzpfaomaMumifhwnf;/

ygVdusrf;&if;
Ak'0g'wnf;[laom tvif;a&mifonf c&pf0g'Dvrif;MuD; xGef;awmufvsuf&Sdaom Oa&mywkdufMuD;
odkY xGif;azmufum ta&mif[yfaejyDjzpfaomfvnf; Ak'0g'wnf&mjzpfaom ygVdusrf;&if;rsm;rSmum; t*Fvdyf
bmomjzifhvnf;aumif;? jyifopfbmomjzifhvnf;aumif;? *smrPDbmomjzifhvnf;aumif; jyefqkda&;om;jyD;r&Sd
ao;ay/ jyifopfjynfwGif omoemawmfjyefYyGm;a&;onf jyifopfbmomjzifh ygVdusrf;&if;rsm;&SdrS jzpfEkdifrnf[k
od&SdawmfrlaomOD;wkdufpl;onf tqkdygtoif;0ifwkdY\tultnDjzifh pwifjyefqkda&;om;avawmhonf/

*smrPDAk'bmom
*smrefAk'bmom xifay:ausmfapmaom yk*KdvfwpfOD;jzpfolrSm uG,fvGefol a'gufwmaygvf'gvfau
jzpf bmvifNrdKUteD; z&dkrefac: &yfuGuf&Sd ol\aetdrf reD;ra0;t&yfwGif *smrefAk'bmom0ifwkdYtvkdYiSm
0wfausmif;awmfMu;D wpfaqmifukd &ufa&mpGm vSL'gef;awmfrcl ahJ vonf/ *smref0g'rSm urmrS atmhEv
S ;Hk emaom
0g'yifjzpfapumrl bmomwGif rnfodkYrS taESmifht,Sufray;cJh/ vGwfvyfpGm udk;uG,fEkdifcGifh qnf;yl;EkdifcGifh&Sd
avonf/ xko
d v
Ykd w
G v
f yfciG ahf y;xm;jcif;rSm Ak'& iS af wmf\0g'onf *smreftbd"rmESiw
hf al om avmu"mwfynm
udkrsm;pGmtaxmuftyHh ay;EkdifaomaMumifhwnf;/
74

arC0wDq&mawmf OD;em&'

avmu"mwfynmESifhc&pfawmf0g'D xGef;um;&mjzpfaom Oa&mywkdufMuD;\ajray: Ak'0g'wnf;[l


aom rsKd;aphrGefukd ysKd;ay;cJhaom txufyg aus;Zl;&SifMuD;wdkY\vuf&majc&mrsm;um; ,cktcg aygufyGm;vsuf
&SdacsjyD/ Ak'0g'onf vlYavmuwpf&yfvkH;\wkd;wufpnfyifrI? ,Ofaus;vdrmrI? 'kp&dkufw&m;yaysmufrI ponf
wkdYudk zefwD;ay;Ekdifaom 0g'aumif;0g'rGefwpf&yf jzpfaMumif;ukd urmu axmufcHvkdufavjyD/ ,ckuJhodkY t
nTefYwvlvl oef;vsuf&Sdaom Ak'0g'awmfudk Oa&mywkduf xyfrHjyKpk&m uREkfyfwdkY jrefrmEkdifiHolEkdifiHom;wkdY
onf vspv
f sL&I xm;oifyh goavm/
arC0wD-OD;em&'
16-7-1951

jyD ; jyD /

75

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

aus;Zl;&Sifrsm;