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NAME
ID PROGRAMME LECTURERS NAME (circle one)
AP Dr Faiz Ahmad / AP Dr Othman Mamat / AP Dr Puteri Sri Melor

-------------- TEST 2 -----------SEMESTER JULY 2009


COURSE DAY,DATE TIME VENUE : MBB 1052 - INTRODUCTION TO MATERIALS SCIENCE : THURSDAY, 29th OCTOBER 2009 : 16.00 17.00 : MULTI PURPOSE HALL (MPH)

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES 1. Answer ALL questions in the space provided in this booklet. Show all steps clearly and neatly. Indicate clearly answers that are cancelled, if any. Lecture notes, books or any other written papers are strictly prohibited in the examination hall.

2. 3.

THIS PAPER CONSISTS OF SEVEN (7) PAGES INCLUDING THE COVER PAGE.

SECTION 1: ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS. (20 marks) (Circle the correct answer.) 1. The stress at which dislocations begin to slip and plastic deformation begins is called the A. tensile strength B. modulus of elasticity C. yield strength D. elongation

2.

When you design a part or select a material for a given application, you almost always want to be sure that the stress acting on the material during its service A. is above the tensile strength C. causes neither elastic nor plastic strain B. is below the yield strength

3.

Almost always, as the temperature increases, A. the ductility increase C. the modulus of elasticity increases B. the yield strength increase D. the tensile strength increases

4.

Hookes law only applies to A. the plastic portion of a stress-strain curve B. the elastic portion of a stress-strain curve

5.

Copper and nickel atoms have nearly the same atomic radius. Therefore we would expect that nickel will diffuse in copper via the A. interstitial mechanism B. vacancy mechanism.

6.

The diffusion coefficient D for a particular system A. increases as the temperature increases B. decreases as the temperature increases C. is a constant and is not affected by temperature

7.

We would expect that carbon atoms will diffuse at a faster rate in A. BCC iron B. FCC iron

8.

We would expect that cerium atoms to diffuse at a higher rate in A. aluminum, with a melting temperature of 660 C. B. nickel, with a melting temperature 1453 C.

9.

Which stage of the annealing of a cold worked metal causes strength and grain size to decrease? A. recovery B. solidification C. recrystallization D. grain growth

10.

Cold working typically (increases / decreases) the level of residual stresses within a material. 2

11.

Strain hardening occurs because the number of (point defects / dislocations / grain boundaries) is increased dramatically.

12.

The atoms in the crystal structures of ceramic materials generally are bonded by ionic or covalent bonding.

13.

In some ceramic materials such as mica, clay, and talc, strong sheets of the crystal structure are bonded to one another by Van der Waals bonds.

14.

Crystallization of polymers occurs (more / less) easily when the polymer is highly branched.

15.

Which of the following is NOT true for the degree of polymerization? A. Refers to the average number of repeat units in a polymer chain. B. Increasing the degree of polymerization increase the melting point. C. Increasing the degree of polymerization increases polymer strength. D. Increases if the amount of initiator increases.

16.

To minimize problems with room temperature creep, we would want to select a thermoplastic polymer which has a glass transition temperature (above / below) room temperature.

17.

Many continuous-fiber reinforced composite structures could also be defined as (particulate / laminar) composites.

18.

Pultrusion / filament winding / resin transfer moulding is a technique used to manufacture a fiber-reinforced composite product.

19.

A material that fails by cup-and-cone mode is most likely a (brittle / ductile / hard) material.

20.

If you would like to know the wear resistance of a metal, you would probably conduct (an impact / a hardness / a creep) test.

-END OF SECTION 1-

SECTION 2: ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS IN THE SPACE PROVIDED. (30 marks) 1(a). A cylindrical specimen of a steel alloy of 8.5 mm in diameter and 80 mm long is pulled in tension. The stress-strain behavior of the steel is represented in the FIGURE Q1a. Determine its elongation when a load of 65,250 N is applied. [5 marks]

Stress (MPa)

2000

2000

1000

Stress (MPa)

1000

| 0.005

| 0.010

Strain
| 0.000 0.020 | 0.040 | 0.060

Strain

FIGURE Q1a ANSWER: First it become necessary to compute the stress when a load of 65,250 N is applied as:

F F 65,250 N = = = 1150 MPa 2 2 A0 do 8.5 x10 3 m 2 2

3 marks

Referring to FIGURE Q1a, at this stress we are in the elastic region on the stress-strain curve, which corresponds to a strain of 0.0054 (approx.). from the definition of strain we are now able to determine the get the elongation, as

l = l o = (0.0054)(80mm) = 0.43mm

2 marks

1(b). A force of 100,000 N is applied to a 10 mm x 20 mm iron bar having a yield strength of 400 MPa and a tensile strength of 480 MPa. Determine: (i) Whether the bar will plastically deform. Justify your answer. ANSWER: First determine the stress acting on the wire: Stress = F/A = 100,000 N / (10 mm)(20 mm) = 500 N/mm2 = 500 MPa. 1 mark [3 marks]

(i) Because stress acting on the wire is greater than the yield strength of 400 MPa, the wire will plastically deform. 2 marks [2 marks]

(ii) Whether the bar will experience necking. Justify your answer. ANSWER:

(ii) Because stress acting on the wire is greater than the tensile strength of 480 MPa, the wire will also neck. 2 marks

1(c). A three-point bend test is performed on a block of silicon carbide that is 10 cm long, 1.5 cm wide, and 0.6 cm thick and is resting on two supports 7.5 cm apart. The sample breaks when a deflection of 0.09 mm is recorded. The flexural modulus for silicon carbide is 480 GPa. Assume that no plastic deformation occurs. Given: F = Calculate: (i) The force that caused the fracture. ANSWER: [3 marks]

3F f L 2 wh 2

, EF =

F f L3 4 wh 3

(i ) The force F required to produce a deflection of 0.09 mm is Ff =

3 marks

( E F )(4 wh 3 d ) (480,000 MPa)(4)(15mm)(6mm) 3 (0.09mm) = = 1327 N 75mm L3

(ii) The flexural strength. ANSWER:

[2 marks]

(ii ) Flexural strength , F =

(3F f )( L ) 2 wh
2

(3)(1327 N )(75mm) = 276 MPa ( 2)(15mm)(6mm) 2


2 marks

2.

6-kg of an austenite containing 0.45 wt% C is cooled below 727C. Using the iron- iron carbide phase diagram as shown in FIGURE Q2, answer the following questions.

FIGURE Q2 a. What are the phases present at this temperature and the weight of each phase? [6 marks] Answer: Just below 727C, the phases present are ferrite and Fe3C cementite. For :

weight. fraction.of . =

6.70 0.45 6.25 = = 0.936 i.e. 0.936 x6kg = 5.616kg 6.70 0.022 6.678

For Fe3C:

weight. fraction.of .Fe 3 C =

0.45 0.022 0.428 = = 0.064 i.e. 0.064 x6kg = 0.384kg 6.70 0.022 6.678

b.

Sketch the microstructures of pearlite and spherodite. [5 marks]

Answer: Cementite, Fe3C

Pearlite:

Spherodite:

ferrite c. Write the eutectic and eutectoid reactions for an iron-iron carbide system. [4 marks] Answer:

Eutectic reaction:

L + Fe3C

Eutectoid reaction:

+ Fe3C

-END OF SECTION 2-END OF PAPER