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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING & 6367(Print),

, ISSN 0976 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October-December (2012), IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCET)

ISSN 0976 6367(Print) ISSN 0976 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October - December (2012), pp. 94-103 IAEME: Journal Impact Factor (2012): 3.9580 (Calculated by GISI)



R. Kavitha Research Scholar Dept. of Computer Science Christ University Karnataka India Dr. G. M. Nasira Assistant Professor Dept. of Computer Science Chikkam Govt. Arts College Tirupur, Tamil Nadu 641 602 India Dr. N. Nachamai Assistant Professor Dept. of Computer Science Christ University Bangalore-29, Bangalore-29, Karnataka India

ABSTRACT The advances in the field of communication network, Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) is became a very interesting and challenging area of Networks. Smart home system using wireless sensor network technology enrich human life and helps to take care of the very old people easier who lives alone. Smart Home is the integration of technology and services through home networking for better quality of living. The smart home system consists of three components: physical components, control system and communication system. In this paper, basic structure of a smart home system and a comparative analysis of different smart home system with its components are discussed. Key Words: Smart Home, ZigBee, Sensors. 1. INTRODUCTION The average age of people in India is on the rise. New challenges are arising to provide a safe and secure living environment for them. As per the survey done by S. Irudaya Rajan [1], by 2050, the world population will peak to three hundred million. In that population, more would be elder than younger. The situation arises; where elder people live alone without assistance really require constant monitoring. Figure 1 shows the raising percentage of elderly 60 and above from 2001 to 2051.


International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October-December (2012), IAEME
Percentage of Elderly during the year 2001 - 2051
20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 17.3 14.5 11.9 9.9 7.5 8.2 Percentage




2021 Year




Figure 1. Percentage of elderly 60 and above during the year 2001 2051

The smart home system provides an inviolable, safe sheltered and comfortable life like in an assisted living environment. It enhances traditional security and safety mechanism by using intelligent monitoring and access control. The structure of this paper is as follows. Section 2 describes basic structure of a wireless smart home and its components. In section 3 comparative analysis of different smart home system is discussed. The conclusion and future research direction are presented in section 4. 2. SMART HOME SYSTEM The basic structure of a smart home system is depicted in figure 2. The smart home integration consists of three major areas, first, the physical components (electronic devices sensors, actuators), second, the control system (artificial intelligence/expert system) and third, the communication system (wired/wireless network) which connects physical components and control system. The control system can access from home exterior through external home network like mobile network or Internet. In a smart home system the physical components sense the environment and pass to home control system through home sub networks and home network. Home control system takes the decision and passes the control information to the actuators through home network. For example, gas sensor detects the gas leakage in a smart home and passes this message to the home control system through ZigBee, a wireless network. Control system decides to switch off the gas valve and pass this to actuator, which will off/close the gas valve.


International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October-December (2012), IAEME

Home Network

Home Sub Network-1 Home External Network Home Control System

Home Sub Network-2

Wireless Network

Smart Devices/ Sensors

Wired/Wireless Network

Figure. 2 Basic Structure of a Smart Home System

2.1. Physical Components The role of physical components is very important. It measures and collects the information and shares with the control system through network. Sensors, microcontroller, actuator and smart devices are used as physical components. Different applications use different sensors. Table 1 lists the sensing property, sensing mode, and application of the sensors [2], [4]. Sensors observe the smart home residents interaction with objects such as doors, windows, keys, and all home appliances. It recognizes activity of daily living.
Table 1. Sensing property, modes and their applications Sensing mode Sensor Applications Pressure, Temperature, Health Safety, Energy Efficiency Light, Humidity, Flow Position, Angular, Velocity, Acceleration, Direction, Security, Location tracking, Falls detection Distance Security and health monitoring, Pool Solid, Liquids, Gases maintenance, Sprinkler efficiency Used to identify people and objects, Volume iButtons, Sound, Image control, Speech recognition, Context understanding

Sensing property Physical Properties Motion and Presences properties Biochemical Agents Others

2.2. Control System Control system receives the information from different sensors and classifies it for the different types of activities. For example, the data collected from the accelerometer sensor positioned on the body recognize actions that involve repetitive body motions like walking, running, etc. A number of machine learning models are used for activity recognition in smart home application [4]. Following are some example.

International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October-December (2012), IAEME

Nave Bayes Classifiers identify the activity that corresponds with the greatest probability to the set of sensor values observed. Decision trees - To learn logical description of the activities. The probabilistic sequence of sensor events are encoded using Markov models dynamic, Bayes networks and Conditional random fields. Temporal Reasoning with a rule based system or Neural Network with reinforcement learner or Fuzzy rules develop an automated decision-making and control techniques. 2.3. Communication System The communication system is use to share the information between physical components and control system in the smart home system. It can be wired or wireless communication. The widely used wireless technologies are Bluetooth, WiFi, WiMAX, and ZigBee [5]. Bluetooth is the first and popular low bandwidth wireless interface for the smart home. In the last few years the bandwidth requirement of the smart home has increased dramatically which introduces WiFi - a wireless local area networks technology based on the IEEE 802.11. It covers an entire house, and the data rate is reduced to 1 MB or below at the far distance. It consumes more power and provides low security. WiMAX provides wireless broadband access and it is alternative to the cable connection. Due to the low cost, low power consumption and easy integration into smart home control system ZigBee a wireless technology become a quite suitable for smart home environment. Comparison of above mentioned four wireless network technologies are shown in Table 2.
Protocol standard Bluetooth Wi-Fi WiMAX ZigBee 802.15.1 802.11b, 802.11g 802.16 802.15.4 Table 2. Comparison of wireless technologies Frequency Power Rate/bps Security band/Hz consumption 2.4G 2.4G/5G 2-11G 868/915M, 2.4G 1M 11-54M 70M 20-250K >10mW >10mW >10mW <10mW High Low Medium High Transmission distance 10m 200m 30Km 100m

3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF A SMART HOME SYSTEM The comparative analysis of a smart home system using wireless sensor network is done by classifying a study into two categories as communication system and control system. The literature on the communication system explains more about network part of a smart home. The literature on the control system explains more about the methods and procedures used for monitoring and control process of a control system in a smart home. Table 3 represent the analysis with two categories as communication system and control system. The communication system is further divided into routing algorithm and network based categories. The first category discusses about the routing algorithm, which is used in home (ZigBee) network of a smart home. Second category discusses about implementation of both internal and external home network.


International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October-December (2012), IAEME
Table 3. Comparative Analysis of Smart Home Systems
Group/ Parameter Objective Smart Devices /Sensors Used Home Network Control System Home external User GUI Network Controlling / Network Algorithm Jess / DMPR Disjoint Multipath Routing Future Enhancement


Smart Home Energy management System SHEMS [6]

Generic Sensor, Actuator


Information Extractor


To support location service

Development of node and the coordinator for smart home system [7] Develop a new intelligent home control system based on WSN [8] Proposed an improved routing algorithm combining ClusterTree and AODVjr [9] Monitoring of Elderly people at home [10]

Node, coordinator


C/S architecture based on socket communication mechanism of TCP/IP protocol


Improved routing Apply the algorithm whole system based on the in practice and Dijkstra test Algorithm LQIR Link Quality To support Indicator Location Based Based Routing algorithm for routing discovery and maintenance

Generic Sensor, Actuator




5 C O M M U N I C A T I O N S Y N S E T T E W M O R K B A S E D

IR, Temperature, Hygrometry

Support Vector Machine

Classification Algorithm

Improving a classification result using priori knowledge





14 C O N T R O L


WiMagnetic, fi(camaraMulti-sensor centric Convergence photo diode, control smart sensor network UMPC-Ultra Only technology Mobile microphone, system)Zig Wi-fi design using mobile mobile PC module with 3D device user monitoring motion, bee (sensordevice [11] modelling vibration control system Mobile health monitoring system Ring type HSDPA, WiGUI in using wearable ring- pulse sensor, Bluetooth Fi, Wimax, Smart type pulse monitor smart phone, GPRS phone sensor with smart ASUSP552W phone [12] Design and Virtual implementation of Light and ZigBee Wi-Fi _ _ Home GUI home automation Smoke sensor architecture [13] Dynamic intelligent Android Implementing User behavior Smart Classifier using home control system platform GSM, WiFi the proposed phone Analysis Database using Android phone network idea [14] Incorporate Sensor unit for more electric Monitoring In-House monitoring intelligent appliance, bed ZigBee Only monitoring In-home only software for elders [15] features like usage, water GUI positioning usage method Pulse sensor, Implementing EMixed Pressure Healthcare using WSN Internet Positioning sensor, fire WSN [16] Algorithm sensor Implementing a smart Temperature, home with digital Door lock gas, fire ZigBee Internet door lock as base LCD sensors station [17] Deployment of a activity-centered WSN in a living Temperature, ZigBee computing laboratory home Pressure, Light middleware Environment [18] Updating the Implement a smart Smoke, gas, system with home security system temperature, ZigBee Sending SMS GSM intelligent biosensor [19] home security Hybrid Algorithm Improved Prediction of user (Prediction Algorithm for interaction in Decision Tree Algorithm) short memory energy management method Day Type of first order smart home [20] Model, First markov model order Semi markov Mode


International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October-December (2012), IAEME
S Y S T E M Study of psychological characteristics of home user using multi agent system [21] Friendly SH energy mgmt. [22] Clustering algorithm for smart home events Improving an algorithm using pattern recognition


Multi agent System


Smart meter, Smart Switch


Grid based controller

Smart Field Multi-in-one Interactive Programmable smart meter terminal gate array The interface Jadex Agentof the agent Hieratical goal system with decompositionbuilding Goal Plan automation Hierarchy installations Optimize the Hydra Event performance of Management reading energy consumption Making this to assisted living Changing the for the elderly. weighting Using factors and for knowledge of adding and the user removing rules routines for prediction


To apply agent based system to control a smart home [23]

Thermal Sensor

Jadex-using BDI Agent


Smart devicesPlay Station, Plogg Hydra a Develop an energy Lamp, Coffee wireless efficient smart home Maker middleware frame smart meter system [24] work plugs



Develop a pro active, adaptive, fuzzy Light sensor home-control system [25]

Fuzzy control process

3.1. Communication System 3.1.1. Routing Algorithms D.M. Han and J.H. Lim proposed smart home energy management system-SHEMS [6]. This system divides and assigns various home network tasks to appropriate components. It can integrate diversified physical sensing information and control various consumer home devices such as lamps, gas valves, curtains, TV, and air conditioners with the support of active sensor networks having both sensor and actuator components. A personal area network based SHEMS consists of three software components, Sensing Infra gathers sensing data and provides this to the decision components, Context Aware a intelligent computing behaviour, Service Management a decision component adaptively selects the correct home services based on the current home state. A new routing protocol DMPR (Disjoint Multi Path based Routing) to improve the performance of the ZigBee sensor networks is also developed. Ming Xu, Longhua Ma, Feng Xia, Tengkai Yuan, Jixin Qian, and Meng Shao suggested [7] a star-mesh hybrid topology based smart sensor network architecture using general mobile devices to provide more efficient and valuable sensor network application and services. This architecture consists of four components, ZigBee network coordinator responsible for communication, ZigBee node composed of sensors and ZigBee wireless module, GPRS network transfer the gathered data to monitoring centre via the GPRS network and the Internet, Monitoring centre manage the data generated by all ZigBee network. An improved Dijkstra algorithm is presented and the performance is evaluated through simulation. C. Suh and Y.B. Ko put forwarded an intelligent home control system which divides and assigns various home network tasks to appropriate components[8]. With the support of active sensor networks, which is having sensor and actuator components, information are sensed and control various consumer home devices. A new routing protocol LQIR (Link Quality Indicator based Routing) is developed to improve the performance of active sensor networks.

International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October-December (2012), IAEME

Dexing Zhong, Wei Ji, Yongli Liu and Jiuqiang Han demonstrated a design of smart home network based on Zigbee wireless sensor network technology [9]. A more convenient and reliable wireless communication environment for Zigbee wireless network in the smart home system is achieved by using an improved routing algorithm, which is combination Cluster-Tree and AODVjr algorithms. 3.1.2. Network Based Anthony Fleury, Michel Vacher and Norbert Noury examined a SVM-Health Smart home [10] in a real flat, with Infra-Red Presence Sensors (location), door contacts (to control the use of some facilities), temperature and hygrometry sensor in the bathroom, and microphones (sound classification and speech recognition). The data collected from the various sensors, is then used to classify each temporal frame into one of the activities of daily living that was previously acquired (seven activities: hygiene, toilet use, eating, resting, sleeping, communication, and dressing/undressing). This is done by using Support Vector Machines. Bonhyun Koo Kyusuk Han James J. Park and Taeshik Shon implemented [11] the design and implementation of the wireless sensor node and the coordinator based on ZigBee technology. A monitoring system is built by using the GPRS network. An improved routing algorithm based on the Dijkstra algorithm is presented to support multi-hop communications. Yu-Chi Wu, Pei-Fan Chen, and Zhi-Huang Hu presented a mobile health monitoring system with the integration of a wearable ring-type pulse monitoring sensor with a smart phone [12]. Through Bluetooth measurements are transmitted to the smart phone where user can monitor own pulse or temperature. Measured data are transmitted to a remote server through the mobile communication of the smart phone, such as SDPA, Wi-Fi, WiMax, GPRS, etc. The remote server also tracks the position of the monitored person in real time. Khusvinder Gill, Shuang-Hua Yang, Fang Yao, and Xin Lu implemented a ZigBee based virtual home automation system and Wi-Fi network which integrated through a common home gateway [13]. The home gateway provides a simple and flexible user interface and remote access to the home system. Jiali Bian, Dengke Fan, and Junming Zhang proposed a new type of intelligent home control system [14], using Android Phone which can act as a temporary home gateway instead of default gateway. An intelligent control system also constructed based on user behaviour analysis. To achieve energy savings and reduce cost they made the system to automatically shut down the unused device. Anuroop Gaddam, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay, and Gourab Sen Gupta deliberate and test the performance of the smart home monitoring system using zigbee radio frequency (RF) communication [15]. Few highly accurate inexpensive smart sensors are used to develop a typical in-house home monitoring for elder care application. Hairong Yan, Hongwei Huo, Youzhi Xu, and Mikael Gidlund recommended a wireless sensor network application for 24 hour constant monitoring [16] without disturbing daily activities of elderly people. A mixed positioning algorithm is also proposed to determine the location, where the elderly person is. This helps the system to determine the persons activities and further to make decisions about his/her health status. This system provides two types of basic needs: identify abnormal events and emergency alarms to doctor


International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October-December (2012), IAEME

through auto call, SMS and e-mail and day-to-day requirement such as taking of medicine, turn off water heater and so on. Yong Tae, Park Pranesh Sthapit, and Jae-Young Pyun designed a smart digital door lock system for home automation [17]. This system consists, network of sensor nodes and actuators with digital door lock as base station. A door lock system consists of RFID reader for user authentication; touch LCD, motor module for opening and closing of he door, sensor modules for detecting the condition inside the house, communication module, and control module for controlling other modules. Advantage of this system is, it can be easily installed immediately as per necessity without any prerequisite additional infrastructures. Dipak Surie, Olivier Laguionie, Thomas Pederson implemented a smart home to keep track of every day object and their state changes produced based on the users interaction with them[18]. A ZigBee communication protocol based wireless sensor networking of 42 everyday objects embedded with 81 simple state change sensors of eight sensor types in a living laboratory smart home environment is implemented. Syam Krishna, J.Ravindra designed a remote home security system based on ZigBee [19]. It consists of microcontroller based wireless sensor network center node with GSM module, data collecting node, device control node and mobile phone. This system send alaram signal to WSN center node when ever the ubnormal situation arise. The center node send alarm short message to the users through the GSM module and GSM network immediately. Similarly the user can also control the various devices connected with device control unit through SMS. 3. 2. Control System Kaibin Bao, and Florian Allerding discussed about the prediction of user interactions within a real world scenario of energy management for a smart home [20]. To address the challenge of balancing energy demand and generation, external signals, reflecting the low voltage grids state, are used. Two prediction algorithms to estimate the future behaviour of the smart home are presented: The Day Type Model and a probabilistic approach based on a first order Semi Markov Model. Some experimental results with real world data of the KIT smart home are presented. M. R. Alam, M. B. I. Reaz, M. A. Mohd Ali, S. A. Samad, F. H. Hashim, M.K. Hamzah, have an idea to study the psychological characteristics of home user [21]. People follow some specific patterns in their life style. Inhabitant activity classification plays a vital role to predict smart home events. This paper proposed a multiagent system to track the user for task isolation. The system is composed of cooperative agents, which works by sharing local views of individual agents. An algorithm is derived based on opposite entity state extraction for activity classification. The algorithm clusters the smart home events by isolating opposite status of home appliance. Result shows that the proposed algorithm can successfully identify inhabitant activities of various lengths. Yong Zhao, Wanxing Sheng, Junping Sun, Weijun Shi build up the friendly smart home energy system [22] which is composed of smart meter, smart socket/switch, grid friendly appliance controller, smart interactive terminal and other smart devices. Then it respectively elaborates and analyses their main functions, and gives their design block diagrams. Then they look into the future of home energy system and also introduce the ZigBee communication technology and its smart energy profile, and give a few typical transactions based on the ZigBee Smart Energy profile.

International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October-December (2012), IAEME

Christian Reinisch and Wolfgang Kastner developed [23] a smart home control system with an agent characteristic such as goal drivenness, robustness and learning capable behaviour complement. They describe the complete process from selection of the most suited agent approach for smart homes to detailing the transition from system specification to implementation. Marco Jahn, Marc Jentsch, Christian R. Prause, Ferry Pramudianto, Amro Al-Akkad, and Rene Reiners evolve a novel smart home system with integration of energy efficiency features [24]. The smart home application is built on top of Hydra, a middleware framework that facilitates the intelligent communication of heterogeneous embedded devices through an overlay P2P network. Common devices available in private households and integrate wireless power metering plugs to gain access to energy consumption data are interconnected. These data are used for monitoring and analyzing consumed energy on device level in near realtime. The combination of both, a technically sophisticated smart home application and at the same time transparent, intuitive user interfaces showing information regarding the energy usage e.g. energy price, energy source, standby consumption has the potential to bring the vision of the energy efficient smart home within reach. Antti-Matti Vainio, Miika Valtonen, and Jukka Vanhala make out an idea to change the environment, which always conforms, to the users desires and needs [25]. The environment actuators are controlled proactively, so that the system can always anticipate the users requirements. In this way, the user would not need to bother with equipment control. 4. CONCLUSION Smart home system is used to monitor object/human remotely. Different kinds of sensors like temperature, gas, light, ect., are used in smart home. Recommended home network is ZigBee IEEE 802.15.4 because of its low power consumption. Internet, GSM, Mobile Network are use as an external home access network. Using embedded concept any device can be used as a gateway. Digital lock is used as a gateway. Smart phone can play dynamic roll as gateway as well as external home network. People who are elderly or disabled benefit the most from a smart home system. These systems help people those who are less mobile, or in delicate health, the opportunity to be independent, rather than staying in an assisted living facility. In this paper, the comparative study of different smart home system has been discussed. Since the smart home systems are application specific, no particular system can be considered better than other. Future perspectives of this work are focused towards developing an energy efficient smart home system. 5. REFERENCES
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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October-December (2012), IAEME 5. Wei LIU, Yuhua YAN, "Application of ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network in Smart Home System", IJACT: International Journal of Advancements in Computing Technology, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 154 - 160, 2011. 6. D.M. Han, J.H. Lim Design and Implementation of Smart Home Energy Management Systems based on ZigBee, IEEE, 2010. 7. Ming Xu, Longhua Ma, Feng Xia, Tengkai Yuan, Jixin Qian, Meng Shao, Design and Implementation of a Wireless Sensor Network for Smart Homes, 2008. 8. C. Suh and Y.-B. Ko: Design and Implementation of Intelligent Home Control Systems based on Active Sensor Networks, IEEE, 2008 9. Dexing Zhong, Wei Ji, Yongli Liu, Jiuqiang Han, An Improved Routing Algorithm of Zigbee Wireless Sensor Network for Smart Home System, 5th International Conference on Automation, Robotics and Applications, , Wellington, New Zealand, 2011. 10. Anthony Fleury, Michel Vacher and Norbert Noury, SVM-Based Multi-Modal Classification of Activities of Daily Living in Health Smart Homes: Sensors, Algorithms and First Experimental Results, IEEE transation on Information Technology in Biomedicine, pp. 274 - 283, 2010. 11. Bonhyun Koo, Kyusuk Han, James Jong Hyuk Park, Taeshik Shon, Design and implementation of a wireless sensor network architecture using smart mobile devices, Springer Science Business Media, 2011. 12. Yu-Chi Wu, Pei-Fan Chen, Zhi-Huang Hu, A mobile health monitoring system using RFID ring-type pulse sensor , Eighth IEEE International Conference on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, 2009. 13. Khusvinder Gill, Shuang-Hua Yang, Fang Yao, and Xin Lu, A ZigBee-Based Home Automation System, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 55, No. 2, 2009. 14. Jiali Bian, Dengke Fan, Junming Zhang, The new Intelligent Home Control System Based on the Dynamic and Intelligent Gateway, Proceedings of IEEE IC-BNMT,2011. 15. Anuroop Gaddam, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay, Gourab Sen Gupta, Trial & Experimentation Of A Smart Home Monitoring System For Elderly, IEEE, 2011. 16. Hairong Yan, Hongwei Huo, Youzhi Xu, Mikael Gidlund, Wireless Sensor Network Based E-Health System Implementation and Experimental Results, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 56, No. 4, 2010. 17. Yong Tae, Park Pranesh Sthapit, Jae-Young Pyun, Smart Digital Door Lock for the Home Automation, IEEE, 2009. 18. Dipak Surie, Olivier Laguionie, Thomas Pederson, Wireless Sensor Networking of Everyday Objects in a Smart Home Environment, IEEE, 2008. 19. Syam Krishna, J.Ravindra, Design And Implementation Of Remote Home Security System Based on WSNs And GSM Technology, International Journal Of Engineering Science & Advanced Technology, Vol.2, pp. 139-142, 2012. 20. Kaibin Bao, Florian Allerding, User Behavior Prediction for Energy Management in Smart Homes, Eighth International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery, pp.1335-1339, 2011. 21. M. R. Alam, M. B. I. Reaz, M. A. Mohd Ali, S. A. Samad, F. H. Hashim, M.K. Hamzah, Human Activity Classification for Smart Home:A Multiagent Approach, ISIEA -2010, pp. 35, 2010. 22. Yong Zhao, Wanxing Sheng, Junping Sun, Weijun Shi, Research and Thinking of Friendly Smart HomeEnergy System Based on Smart Power, IEEE, 2011. 23. Christian Reinisch, Wolfgang Kastner, Agent based Control in the Smart Home, IEEE , 2011. 24. Marco Jahn, Marc Jentsch, Christian R. Prause, Ferry Pramudianto, Amro Al-Akkad, Rene Reiners, The Energy Aware Smart Home, IEEE, 2010. 25. Antti-Matti Vainio, Miika Valtonen, Jukka Vanhala, Proactive Fuzzy Control and Adaptation Methods for Smart Homes, IEEE, 2008.