Environmental Statement for a Wind Turbine Dunbar Community Energy Company

Prepared by: Telephone: Email: Issued to: Contact address: Telephone Date of issue:

Graeme Crawford 0131 555 4745 Graeme.Crawford@locogen.com Iain Waugh, Dunbar Community Energy Company 16 West Port, Dunbar, EH42 1BU 01368 864465 31/10/2012

Version 1.1

Date 09/11/2012

Purpose of amendment Final Planning Submission

Environmental Statement – Dunbar Community Wind Turbine

Table of Contents
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 4 The Wind Turbine Proposal ....................................................................................... 9 Planning & Environmental Policy .............................................................................. 15 Work to Date on Development ................................................................................ 25 Landscape & Visual ................................................................................................ 31 Hydrology ............................................................................................................. 90 Socioeconomic ...................................................................................................... 96 Cultural Heritage .................................................................................................. 103 Ecology ............................................................................................................... 113

10. Shadow Flicker ..................................................................................................... 114 11. Noise .................................................................................................................. 116 12. Telecommunications ............................................................................................. 121 13. Aviation .............................................................................................................. 123 14. Public Safety ........................................................................................................ 124 15. Summary & Impacts in Context .............................................................................. 126

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Abbreviations
AGL AOD AGLV ASL ATC BAA CAA CO2 EIA GHG HGDL HGV HBT IPCC kW kWh LCA LCT LPA LVIA MOD MW NATS NSA Ofcom RSPB SINC SNH SPA SSSI ZTV Above Ground Level Above Ordnance Datum Area of Great Landscape Value Above Sea Level Air Traffic Control British Airports Authority Civil Aviation Authority Carbon dioxide Environmental Impact Assessment Greenhouse Gas Historic Gardens and Designed Landscapes Heavy Goods Vehicle Height to Blade Tip Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change Kilowatt (a unit of power) Kilowatt-hour (a unit of energy generation) Landscape Character Assessment Landscape Character Type Local Planning Authority Landscape and Visual impact Assessment Ministry of Defence Megawatt National Air Traffic Services National Scenic Areas Office of Communications Royal Society for the Protection of Birds Site of Importance for Nature Conservation Scottish Natural Heritage Special Protection Area Site of Special Scientific Interest Zone of Theoretical Visibility

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1.

Introduction

This Environmental Statement describes and quantifies the potential environmental and social impacts associated with the construction, operation and decommissioning of a wind turbine for Dunbar Community Energy Company (DCEC). It also provides further information on the proposed development, its compliance with planning policy and the reasons for development. It is to be read alongside the formal planning application submitted to East Lothian Council. The remainder of this introductory chapter provides background information on the site and the drivers that led to the proposed development being put forward.

1.1.

Background

DCEC is a trading subsidiary of Sustaining Dunbar formed in 2011 to investigate and develop the potential for renewable energy projects to generate funds for the community of Ward 7 in East Lothian. Funding will be made available to activities/projects that compliment the charitable aims of Sustaining Dunbar by supporting the locale of the Dunbar, West Barns and East Linton Ward of East Lothian. DCEC have agreed a suitable location with a local farmer to site a wind turbine. The turbine will be located at Cocklaw Hill, near to the existing Aikengall Wind Farm. A map of the proposed site is shown in Figure 1 below; the land ownership boundary is shown in blue.

Figure 1: Turbine location at Cocklaw Hill The three core drivers for the applicant to develop wind energy at the site: 1. Local community financial benefit 2. Diversification of local farm business 3. Carbon reduction These drivers are discussed further in the sections below.

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1.1.1.

Community Benefit

The wind turbine will be wholly owned locally by Dunbar Community Energy Company (DCEC). The key aim of the Dunbar Community Energy Project is to provide a direct and considerable financial return to local communities within the Dunbar and District area. It is estimated that approximately £4 million would be generated over the first 20 years of the project. If the turbine was to gain consent and become operational, DCEC will provide access to funding through an application process. The grants scheme will be open to voluntary/nonprofit making organisations and community initiatives primarily based in the Dunbar, West Barns and East Linton ward of East Lothian. The allocation of grants will be determined by the Sustaining Dunbar board and representatives of the wider community as outlined in the Disbursement process (attached within appendices). As part of this process activities and projects that complement the Dunbar 2025 Local Resilience Action Plan 1 (attached within appendices) will be encouraged to sustain and create local jobs. The action plan focuses on five main areas.   Food - Sustaining Dunbar want to ensure that anyone can access land to grow some of their own food. Projects will be encouraged that promote local produce. Energy – The outreach energy advice service, run by Sustaining Dunbar, already provides fee home energy advice. It is considered that revenue generated by the wind turbine could help to fund the implementation of energy efficiency measures. Transport – Projects will be funded that promote sustainable transport such as the construction/maintenance of cycle routes, improved pedestrian access, community minibus services etc. Health – Projects will be funded that promote healthy eating and social and leisure activities. Enterprise, Skills and Education – Funding will be made available for practical skills training courses and local businesses

 

As stated the funds will be distributed through an application process, illustrated in Figure 2 below. Applications under £500 will be assessed by the Development Officer and the Sustaining Dunbar Board. Applications over £500 will be assessed by a Project Evaluation Group (PEG) prior to being presented to the board for approval. The board will always discuss each application. This ensures that there will be a fully transparent system where two discreet teams look at each application for over £500. In the event that the PEG and the Sustaining Dunbar Board do not agree on an application, the decision is balloted to all members of Sustaining Dunbar.

1

http://www.scribd.com/doc/71442230/Sustaining-Dunbar-2025-Local-Resilience-Action-Plan

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Figure 2: Disbursement process for project funds Further information on the disbursement procedure is included within the Appendices of the Environmental Statement. 1.1.2.

Farm Diversification

The development of a wind turbine at Cocklaw farm would provide an additional sustainable source of income for Cocklaw farm. Recent concerns have been raised over the sustainability of the current farming business as the single farm payment scheme ends in 2013. This has prompted the farmer to explore alternative sources of income to support their ongoing farming business. The potential to tie in with a local community project was considered to be a good opportunity. The development would be under the ownership of Dunbar Community Energy Company (DCEC). A rental agreement will be entered into between Douglas McReath, the farmer, and DCEC for the turbine area, and a proportion of the gross revenue would be payable to the farmer in the form of rent. A single wind turbine, such as the one proposed, will provide the farmer with a sustainable source of additional income over the 25-30 years of expected operation. The development will also have a minimal footprint and therefore allow for the continuation of current farming practices for the majority of the field in question. 1.1.3.

Carbon Reduction

In addition to the above local benefits, the development will be also be an additional step towards Scotland becoming a low carbon economy and reducing the impact of climate change. It is now generally accepted that there is an important requirement to reduce the emission of harmful Greenhouse Gases (GHG’s) – specifically carbon dioxide (CO2) – in order to mitigate the worst impacts of human-induced global climate change. To this end there are Global and National targets in place that address this requirement for a move to a low carbon way of life. The UK has signed up to targets to reduce total CO2 emissions. Over and above the terms laid out in the UK, Scotland has set further ambitious targets (revised in September 2010). Around 20% of the UK’s CO2 emissions are caused by the production of electricity from conventional burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas). Therefore the increased development of renewable energy technologies - such as wind energy – is a key part of the strategy to meet the UK’s legal requirements. To this end a number of National and Regional targets have been set out

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for the increased provision of electricity from renewable sources and these are summarised for Scotland and the UK in Table 1 below.
Scotland CO2 emissions reduction targets by 2020
2

UK 34% 20% >100 TWh 40% ~15-19 GW 3.4 GW

42% 80% 36 TWh 50% ~7.5 GW 2.56 GW

% of electricity demand to be met by renewable technologies by 20203 Estimated renewable electricity generation required to be meet target Expected proportion of the above to be met by onshore wind Equivalent GW capacity required from onshore wind to meet this target Actual onshore installed capacity as of February 2011

Table 1: Overview of energy related CO2 emission reduction targets From the above table it can be seen that Scotland and the UK are a considerable way from achieving the scale of on-shore wind development considered necessary to meet their targets. The annual CO2 saving would be approximately 785 tonnes4, with 19,600 tonnes offset over the conservative 25 year life of the turbine. This proposed development will therefore be a positive step towards meeting these Scottish and UK targets.

1.2.

Remainder of the Document

This Environmental Statement is divided into separate sections. Each chapter describes the subject being addressed, summarises relevant background and guidance documentation, states the relevance to the proposed development, and discusses the methodologies used in the assessment. The results of each impact assessment are then presented and, where appropriate, mitigation measures are suggested. A brief overview of each chapter is provided below: 2. The wind turbine proposal – A description of the proposed development including, turbine description, site layout, access, grid connection, delivery routes etc. 3. Planning and environmental policy context – An introduction and overview of the national, regional and local planning legislation relevant to the project. 4. Work to date on wind energy development – This chapter outlines the development works completed prior to this planning submission. 5. Landscape and visual – This section uses ZTVs, photomontages and wireframe analysis to demonstrate and assess the landscape and visual impacts associated with the proposed development. 6. Hydrology – Provides a description of the hydrological and the hydrogeological features surrounding the site and the expected impact of the development. 7. Socioeconomic – Provides a description of the activity of the local economy and tourism and the expected impacts of the wind development on these areas.

2 3

From 1990 levels

The Scottish Government have recently made a new pledge to aim for 100% renewable electricity by 2020. Stated in the 2020 Routemap for Renewable Energy - http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/917/0118802.pdf 4 To calculate the CO2 offset from generation a figure of 0.539 kg of CO2 per kWh of renewable electricity exported to grid was utilised as per current Carbon Trust conversion factors for exported electricity. Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine 7

8. Cultural heritage – An assessment of the effects of the wind development on the setting of cultural sites in the area such as listed buildings and scheduled ancient monuments. 9. Ecology – A description of the flora and fauna within the surrounding region of the turbines and the expected impact of development on the above. 10.Shadow flicker – Industry software has been used to identify dwellings which may be subject to the effect of shadow flicker. The exact times and durations are calculated and mitigation measures are suggested. 11.Noise – A detailed noise assessment was carried out to assess the effect of turbine noise on the nearest residential dwellings. 12.Telecommunications – Relevant industry bodies have been contacted to assess any potential impact on communication and television signals and infrastructure. 13.Aviation – Desk based assessment has been carried out to assess the potential impact on aviation. 14.Public safety – Planning guidelines are used to assess the extent of public safety issues associated with the proposed development. 15.Summary of impacts in context – Provides a brief overview of the findings for each of the studies completed and the considered level of combined impact.

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2.

The Wind Turbine Proposal

This section provides an overview of the preferred location of the turbine at the site given the existing constraints and the available space within the surrounding area. A single turbine was deemed suitable for this site to ensure maximum utilisation of the wind resource whilst ensuring minimal adverse impacts.

2.1.

Site Selection

The primary criteria to consider for the feasible installation of a wind turbine are as follows: Distance from residential buildings – It is important to maximise the distance between the turbine and nearby residential dwellings to mitigate potential issues such as noise, shadow flicker and a loss of visual amenity. A suitable residential exclusion zone for this scale of turbine is normally considered to be 500m but in the proposed location the nearest residential dwellings are over 1,200m from the turbine. Avoidance of key environmental areas – In choosing the most suitable location, efforts were made to avoid environmentally sensitive areas. The site does not lie within or adjacent to any Special Area of Conservation (SAC), Special Protection Area (SPA), Natural Heritage Area (NHA), Special Site of Scientific Interest (SSSI), or National Conservation Area (NCA). Suitable set back from distribution lines – At this time a conservative set back distance of fall-over distance plus 10% has been included from transmission and distribution lines and this should mitigate any concerns from Scottish Power (the Distribution Network Operators) as to the potential for adverse impacts. Reduction in extent of landscape and visual impact – It was accepted through discussions with East Lothian Council that the proposed development be assessed using photomontages from a number of pre-selected vantage point locations. The scale and location of the turbine has been chosen so that adverse impacts on the landscape and local visual amenity are minimised. Available wind resource – In order to utilise the available wind resource, a suitable tower height and rotor diameter has be selected in order to achieve a sufficient level of generation. Access to site – Efforts will be made to minimise the necessary civil works. It is considered that the existing access to the site is of a suitable construction although will require repairs prior to construction. Avoidance of culturally sensitive areas – The disturbance of archaeological or historical sites, including stone walls and ruins of interest has been avoided through turbine siting and sizing Clearance from public roads and railway lines – The required clearance distance for turbines from public roads is dependent on the Local Planning Authority (LPA) but a conservative distance of the height to blade tip plus 10% was used to ensure minimal public health and safety issues

When examining the above criteria, the key concerns were to maximise the distance from residential properties and minimise visual impact whilst still ensuring sufficient available resource by siting the turbine at the highest feasible point.

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2.2.

Site Layout

The proposed position of the turbine is within and area of improved grassland on the summit of Cocklaw Hill. The development will include the following components.   Wind turbine – The preferred turbine is discussed in further detail in Section 2.3 below. Foundation – For the chosen turbine the foundation will be a square structure with expected dimensions of 8.3 x 8.3 m. Once constructed this structure will be backfilled so that only the tower base will be visible. Transformer building – it is proposed that the required turbine transformer is either located within the base of the tower (preferred option) or alternatively in a small building located next to the base of the tower with the necessary Switchgear and protection equipment. Access Road – There will be a requirement for a small section of new access track that will spur off the existing road to the site. There will also be a requirement for altering sections of the local road leading up to site in order to allow for the delivery of the turbine components. Construction compound – There will be a requirement for the construction of a temporary hardstanding area for the assembly of the crane and rotor. This would measure an estimated 20m x 30m with an adjacent area for lay down of turbine components Underground cable - The 11kV cable connecting the turbine to a suitable grid connection point will be buried to minimise visual impacts. The point of connection is yet to be finalised by Scottish Power. Wind monitoring mast – A 40m temporary wind monitoring mast will be installed on site prior to the turbine construction. It is expected that this will be operational for 18 months.

The proposed layout of the construction components is illustrated in Drawing DNB004 in the appendices. From the above information it can be seen that the turbine works will take place within the landowner’s boundary of ownership. The requirement for ancillary structures will be minimal with limited additional new permanent structures required alongside the turbine. The only visible aspects of the development once construction is complete will be the retained dedicated access road, turbine and substation building. The next sections discuss the various components of the development in further detail.

2.3.

Turbine Specification

The proposed turbine for development is a medium scale turbine with a capacity of up to 500kW. At this time the candidate model is the RRB47. The final choice of turbine may differ but would not increase in size from what is proposed or vary significantly in design (e.g. all turbine options are 3 bladed upwind models as used in commercial wind farms) or operational parameters (noise, rotational speed, etc). The outline technical specifications for the RRB47 are provided in Figure 3 below alongside a photograph of an operational turbine.

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RRB47
Rated Capacity Status IEC Wind Class Proposed Tower Height Rotor diameter Distance from ground to blade tip IEC Maximum Rotational Speed Operational turbine life 500 kW New II 33.2 m 47 m 56.3 m 26 rpm 20 -25 years

Figure 3: Technical specifications and photograph of the proposed turbine option

2.4.

Transport to Site

It is intended that the wind turbine components will be delivered to site from a suitable port on the east coast from where they will be loaded onto road vehicles. The access road requirement for a turbine of the scale proposed is provided in Table 2 below. The longest single load will be the blades themselves which are each 23 m in length, while the tower will be delivered in two sections of approximately 16 m. Consideration
Useful width of carriageway Clearance width Clearance height Radius of curve, external Incline with loose surface

Requirement
4m 5m 4.1 m 21.5m 8%

Table 2: Access considerations for the proposed scale of wind turbine The existing infrastructure of the access route required further assessment. A Swept Path Analysis and transport assessment has been carried out by Mott MacDonald Ltd and has concluded that the existing access to site is suitable for the transportation of the turbine components. If consented, a construction program will be submitted to the East Lothian Council Roads Department for their approval.

2.5.

Construction Compound

The construction hardstanding area comprises a suitable area for the required cranes to be erected and utilised. There will also be levelled assembly area to allow for the set down of components, construction of the rotor blade assembly and for general installation works. An area of hardstanding of 30 m x 20 m (600m 2) will be required for the safe operation of the main mobile crane and the tailing crane. This area will be filled with crushed stone and/or aggregate of a maximum depth of approximately 750 mm. The hardstanding area and lay down area will be reinstated post construction through covering with original topsoil and reseeding to promote the re-growth of grass. This will allow the majority of the construction

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area to return to its original land use. A drawing of the construction area is shown in Drawing DNB004.

2.6.

Access Road

To ensure safe delivery of the turbine components and installation vehicles there will be a requirement to provide approximately 40 m of new dedicated access road. The new access road will be constructed to resemble the existing tracks where possible so the visual impact of the development will be minimal. The new track will run in a south east to North West direction and will follow the line of an existing field boundary. There will be a constant useable width of 4 m and a load bearing capacity capable of handling the abnormal load vehicles required for delivering the turbine components and installation equipment. The minimal requirement for new dedicated access track will be constructed over what is currently improved farmland, so there will be no loss of high value habitat associated with this additional construction requirement. An example of the access road specification is provided in Figure 4 below. It is expected that the hardstanding materials for the access road will be provided from local quarries.

Figure 4: Access track construction

2.7.

Turbine Foundations

The turbine foundations consist of square reinforced concrete base footing and a circular pedestal. The majority of the foundation will be below ground level with only the foundation ring and circular pedestal visible. The standard raft foundations comprises of a reinforced concrete plinth with approximate dimensions of 8.3 x 8.3 m and total depth of 2m.

2.8.

Grid Connection

The electricity generated by the turbine will be exported onto the national grid for subsequent sale as part of a long term power purchase contract. Scottish Power is currently undertaking an assessment of preferred grid connection options for the development. Once a suitable connection point has been identified an 11kV connection will be constructed between the turbine location to the grid connection point. There is an assumption that underground cabling will be favoured to minimise the visual impact of the project but this will require further consultation with Scottish Power

2.9.

Substation Building

There is a potential requirement for a transformer and switchgear housing for the turbine to be located in a small building next to the turbine. Depending on the exact model of turbine procured it may be necessary to house the transformer, switch gear and additional protection equipment in a separate kiosk enclosure. In this instance a single ancillary unit would be
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erected at the base of the turbine. The approximate dimensions of the transformer housing are provided in Table 3 below.
Length Breadth Height 4.0 m 4.0 m 2.0 m

Table 3: Likely transformer kiosk dimensions

2.10. Wind Monitoring Mast
A temporary 40m wind monitoring mast will be erected adjacent to the turbine location. The mast will be a tubular structure supported by guy wires as shown in the diagram in Figure 5 below. The mast will be required to assess the wind resource at the site in order to achieve project finance for the turbine construction. The mast will be operational for approximately 18 months.

Figure 5: Diagram of temporary wind monitoring mast (not to scale)

2.11. Construction Programme
The construction work will be carried out in three phases. During the first phase a soil study will be conducted to determine the foundation design. During the second phase, the civil works will be carried out. This includes the laying of electrical cable and construction of the
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construction compound. The foundations will also be completed and left to cure for a period of at least 28 days. During the third phase, the turbine will be delivered, erected and commissioned prior to the necessary reinstatement works being completed. The phased construction process is shown in more detail in Table 4 below. Construction
Phase 1

Works carried out
Soil investigation survey Turbine foundation design Construct access track Cable trenching and laying Prepare turbine base Prepare transformer kiosk base

Approximate duration
2 days on site (36 days for survey results and foundation design)

Phase 2

Install turbine insert & rebars Concrete pour to base Lay turbine external earth mat Install transformer HV jointing at TX and Gen sw/gear Cranes on site Delivery of turbine components Lay out and fit blades to cone Delivery of tower sections

21 days on site (28 days for concrete curing)

Phase 3

Erect Turbine tower/nacelle/blades Internal tower wiring External LV wiring and connecting Site reinstatement Commission turbine and handover

12 days

Table 4: Phased construction program This phased construction process should be considered as an indicative program for the construction of the turbine. Further details and appropriate construction method statements will be provided on consent to satisfy any planning conditions.

2.12. Decommissioning
On reaching the end of its operational life (30 years), and if no agreed turbine replacement is consented, the proposed turbine will be decommissioned, dismantled and removed leaving no visible trace of the development. The site will be completely restored to agricultural land and there would be no lasting implications on the land usage/character. The foundation will be broken down and removed in accordance with requirements. The cables will be de-energised or removed. A decommissioning program will be agreed with East Lothian Council prior to the commencement of decommissioning works.

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3.

Planning & Environmental Policy

Scientific evidence is clear that most of the observed global warming since the mid-20th century is linked to the increased emissions of greenhouse gases. This warming will continue unabated if present levels of anthropogenic emissions continue or, worse, expand without control. Climate change policy and renewable energy policy are vital tools in combating global warming. EU and Government policies identify the development of renewable energy, including wind energy, as a primary strategy in implementing national energy policy. To follow is a review of the policies and legislation, at international, European and at national level which relate to the proposed development at Cocklaw Hill. National planning policy is provided in the form of national planning policy guidelines (NPPG) and Scottish Planning Policy (SPP) documentation. These documents are produced by the Scottish Government to provide a nation-wide planning policy. Local councils produce local planning documentation from the national guidelines in the form of their Local Plan, Structure Plan and Development Plan.

3.1.

Global Policy

The burning of fossil fuels results in the release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2). These gases contribute to the process of climate change. The following policies provide a summary of global policy relating to the current effects of climate change and the policies which aim to avoid and reduce it. 3.1.1.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the leading body for the assessment of climate change, established by the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Meteorological Organisation to provide the world with a clear scientific view on the current state of climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic consequences. The IPCC is a scientific body. It reviews and assesses the most recent scientific, technical and socio-economic information produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change. The main activity of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is to provide regular Assessment Reports of the state of knowledge on climate change. The Fourth Assessment Report was released in 2007. The IPCC is now beginning the process towards preparing the Fifth Assessment Report which is due to be finalised in 2014. Some of the findings of the Fourth Assessment Report included the following:     unmitigated climate change would, in the long term, be likely to exceed the capacity of natural, managed and human systems to adapt a wide range of mitigation options are currently available or projected to be available by 2030 in all sectors some planning adaptation of human activities is occurring now but more extensive adaptation is required to reduce vulnerability to climate change many impacts can be reduced, delayed or avoided by mitigation; delayed emissions reductions significantly constrain the opportunities to achieve lower stabilisation levels and increase the risk of more severe climate change impacts decisions about macro-economic and other policies that seem unrelated to climate change can significantly affect emissions

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In the past sixteen years a number of international conferences have been held in relation to the issue of climate change, in particular Kyoto (1997) and subsequent UN conferences. Kyoto Protocol Following the World Summit Conference held in Kyoto, Japan in 1997, nations which signed the Protocol agreed to take actions to control, reduce or limit their emissions of the six main greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride). The Kyoto Protocol (1997) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1992 (UNFCCC) imposes legally binding targets to be achieved in the period 2008 - 2012:     5 % overall reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases in developed countries 8 % reduction below 1990 levels within the EU The United Kingdom’s contribution is a limit of 12.5 % above 1990 levels by 2008-2012. This implies an 8 % reduction in CO2 emissions over this time period countries not fulfilling their obligations will be forced to purchase carbon credits on an open market from compliant countries

3.2.
3.2.1.

European Union Renewable Energy Policy
EU Directive on the Promotion of the Use of Energy from Renewable Sources

An EU Directive (2009/28/EC) on the Use of Energy from Renewable Sources came into force on 23 April 2009. It establishes the rules for achieving 20 % of EU energy consumption from renewable sources by 20205. Other measures introduced at the same time aim to ensure a 20 % cut in greenhouse gas emissions by 2020, and a 20% reduction in energy consumption through energy efficiency and demand reduction - the EU’s 20:20:20 plan. The Renewables Directive recognises the need to promote renewable energy sources and technologies which will have a positive impact on:       security of energy supply regional and local development opportunities rural development export prospects social cohesion employment opportunities

Under an EU “burden sharing” arrangement, the UK’s overall national target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final consumption of energy in 2020 is 15 %

5

Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directive 2001/77/EC and 2003/30EC Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine 16

(increased from 1.3 % in 2005)6. The promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources is therefore an extremely important component in the UK achieving its mandatory target.

3.3.

UK and National Renewable Energy Policy

The UK Government has set a target to cut the UK’s carbon dioxide emissions 60% by about 2050. The UK Government’s Energy White Paper, published in May 2007, concludes that if the UK is to achieve a reduction in carbon emissions of that order, then renewables will need to contribute at least 30-40% of our electricity generation and possibly more. The UK Government has therefore set a target of supplying 20% of electricity from renewables by 2020. The Scottish Government have currently set out targets of generating 100% of Scotland’s energy from renewable sources by 2020. The majority of this is likely to come from wind power.

3.4.

Scottish Planning Policy (SPP) 2010

Scottish Planning Policy (SPP) is the statement of the Scottish Government's policy on nationally important land use planning matters. It sets out the Scottish Government's view of planning; the core principles for the operation of the system; statutory guidance on sustainable development and planning; concise subject planning policies; and expectations of the intended outcomes. With regard to renewable energy the SPP states that 'the commitment to increase the amount of electricity generated from renewable sources is a vital part of the response to climate change' and confirms that the [then] current target for 50% of Scotland's electricity to be generated from renewable sources by 2020 is not a cap (paragraph 182). Following publication of the SPP Scotland's renewable electricity target for the next decade was increased from 50% to 80% by First Minister Alex Salmond in September 2010. The Scottish Government has calculated that significantly higher levels of renewables could be deployed by 2020 with little change to the current policy, planning or regulation framework in Scotland. A separate study for industry body Scottish Renewables, also published in September 2010 reported similar conclusions. In 2011 a new document was published by the Scottish Government, the '2020 Routemap for Renewable Energy in Scotland' that provides further detail on how a 100% renewable electricity generation target will be achieved. It is therefore an update and extension to the Scottish Renewables Action Plan 2009. Within the Routemap publication there is also a new target of 500 MW community and locally-owned renewable energy schemes by 2020. This target aims to allow communities and rural businesses to take advantage of the significant revenue streams that can accrue from onshore wind within the Feed in Tariff. This is with the aim of generating local revenue and sustaining local economies. As a wholly community owned development the DCEco project is an exemplar project of how to return FiT revenue to the host community for reinvestment in a sustainable local economy. Within Scottish Planning Policy development plans are required to guide development to appropriate locations and should:

6

Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Promotion of the Use of Energy from Renewable Sources, 2008/0016 (COD), Council of the European Union, Brussels, December 2008 Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine 17

'support all scales of development associated with the generation of energy and heat from renewable sources, ensuring that an area's renewable energy potential is realised and optimised in a way that takes account of relevant economic, social, environmental and transport issues and maximises benefits.' (paragraph 184). Specifically for wind developments (paragraph 187) the SPP sets out criteria that will be considered in deciding applications:         landscape and visual impact, effects on the natural heritage and historic environment, contribution of the development to renewable energy targets, effect on the local and national economy and tourism and recreation interests, benefits and dis-benefits for communities, aviation and telecommunications, noise and shadow flicker; and cumulative impact.

Within this Policy it is summarised that: 'The design and location of any wind farm development should reflect the scale and character of the landscape. The location of turbines should be considered carefully to ensure that the landscape and visual impact is minimised.' The sensitive positioning of the proposed turbine has been a key consideration through development and it is considered that the landscape and visual impacts have been successfully minimised.

3.5.

Regional and Local Planning Policy

In order to clarify planning guidance and legislation, local authorities have produced documents which provide information on their interpretation of national planning guidance and how it applies at a regional or local level. Documents relating to development in the East Lothian area, relevant to the DCEC wind energy project, include the following: 3.5.1.

Edinburgh and the Lothians Structure Plan 2015

The Edinburgh and the Lothians Structure Plan sets out the long-term vision for the development of land in Edinburgh and the Lothians. The structure plan provides the broad framework for local plans, which contain more detailed and site-specific policies. Local plans are required by law to conform with the structure plan. The structure plan and the local plan together comprise the statutory development plan which is the basis for determining all planning applications. With regards to renewable energy developments, the structure plan states: “The development of renewable energy resources will be supported where this can be achieved in an environmentally acceptable manner. Local plans should set out the specific criteria against which renewable energy developments will be assessed, including cumulative impact. They should also consider whether it is appropriate to define broad areas of search, or specific sites, suitable for wind or other renewable energy developments.”

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3.5.2.

East Lothian Local Plan (2008)

The East Lothian Local Plan explains the Council’s approach to the development and use of land within the area. Together with the Edinburgh & the Lothians Structure plan 2015 it forms the statutory development plan for East Lothian. The main functions of the local plan are:     to apply national and regional planning policies to stimulate and encourage appropriate development to protect the environment from inappropriate development to provide a detailed basis for the determination of planning applications. Section 25 of the Town & Country Planning (Scotland) Act 1997 indicates that decisions on planning applications should be made in accordance with the development plan unless material considerations indicate otherwise To show how those who have an interest in the area are affected by, or can contribute to, the implementation of the plan

With regard to planning policy that is relevant to the proposed turbine development, the Local states: “The Council is supportive of Government policy to secure greater energy generation from renewable sources. The benefits will be weighed against the impact on the local environment and features of interest.” In relation to specific policy relating to the development, Policy NRG3 states the following: “...proposals for individual turbines or wind farms and associated access tracks and transmission lines will be supported where: 1. They would not change the existing landscape character in an unacceptable way 2. They would not have an unacceptable visual impact on landscape or townscape including the impact on distinctive public views, landmark buildings or natural features, or routes; 3. They would not have an unacceptable impact from noise at any noise sensitive property including the gardens of such properties however large; the Council will refer to guidelines in PAN45 and PAN56 or successor guidance; 4. There would be no demonstrable nuisance from a shadow flicker effect; 5. They would have no unacceptable adverse impacts on hydrogeology or hydrology 6. Alternative, better, sites are not available; and 7. There are no unacceptable cumulative impacts “ 3.5.3.

Supplementary Landscape Capacity Study for Smaller Wind Turbines (Draft 2011)

The aim of this study is to determine the capacity of the East Lothian lowland landscapes and the Lammermuir fringe to accommodate smaller turbines than those considered in the previous 2005 study. The study is based on the landscape character areas used for the landscape and visual sensitivity assessment in the 2005 study and indicates where different development typologies can be accommodated. Four principal development typologies are considered as follows:
Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine 19

   

Typology A: Turbines between 65m and 120m high Typology B: Single turbines between >42m and <65m high Typology C: Turbines between 20m and up to and including 42m high Typology D: Turbines between 12m and <20m high

The guidance shows that the proposed DCEC development is situated outwith these development typology areas, as is illustrated in Figure 6 below. It should be noted that there are no areas within East Lothian identified as Typology A or B areas, which refers to the scale of turbine being proposed at Cocklaw Hill. It is considered that through a detailed Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment, it can be demonstrated that the impact of the turbine will be minimal.

Figure 6: Proposed DCEC turbine outwith Typology A – D areas Specific Local Plan Policies relating to this development are detailed below. Structure Plan Policy ENV 1A: International Natural Heritage Designations
A development which would have an adverse effect on the conservation interests for which a Natura 2000 area has been designated should only be permitted where:   there is no alternative solution; and there are imperative reasons of over-riding public interest, including those of a social or economic nature

Where a priority habitat or species (as defined in Article 1 of The Habitats Directive) would be affected, prior consultation with the European Commission is required unless the development is necessary for public health or safety reasons. Local plans should include policies and, where appropriate, proposals for their protection and enhancement.

Structure Plan Policy ENV 1B: Natural Heritage Designations

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Development which would affect national designations, including Sites of Special Scientific Interest not designated as international sites, will only be permitted where it can be demonstrated that:   the objectives of designation and overall integrity of the site will not be compromised; or any significant adverse effects on the qualities for which the area has been designated are clearly outweighed by social or economic benefits of national importance.

Local plans should include policies &, where appropriate, proposals for their protection and enhancement.

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Structure Plan Policy ENV 1C: International and Natural Historic or Built Environment Designations
Development which would harm the character, appearance and setting of the following designated built or cultural heritage sites, and/or the specific features which justify their designation, should be resisted.      World Heritage Sites Listed Buildings Scheduled Ancient Monuments Royal Parks Sites listed in the Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes

Local plans should include policies, and where appropriate proposals for their protection and enhancement

Structure Plan Policy ENV 1D: Regional and Local Natural and Built Environment Interests
built environmental interest, or their settings, will only be permitted where it can be demonstrated that: a, The objectives and overall integrity of the designated area will not be compromised; or b, The social or economic benefits to be gained from the proposed development outweigh the conservation or other interest of the site.              Conservation Areas Areas of Great Landscape Value or other local landscape designations defined in local plans Pentland Hills Regional Park Country Parks Defined core and local path networks Local Nature Reserves Regionally Important Geological and Geomorphological Features Sites of archaeological interest Designated Wildlife Sites Peatland Prime agricultural land Water supply catchment areas Areas of significant open space within urban areas

Local plans should define the extent of these interests and include policies and where appropriate proposals, for their protection and enhancement

Structure Plan Policy ENV 1 F: Environmental or Biodiversity Assessments
Development proposals that would affect any designated natural heritage site, protected priority habitat or species or other important non-statutory locations will require an appropriate level of environmental or biodiversity assessment. Where development is permitted, proposals must include measures for mitigation and, where appropriate, enhancement to reduce any adverse impact and/or to provide for sustainable habitat replacement.

Table 5: Edinburgh and Lothians Structure Plan policies relating to development Policy NH1a: Internationally protected areas
Development which would have an adverse effect on the conservation interest of a Natura 2000 area (including proposed SPAs or SACs) or a Ramsar site will only be permitted in the following circumstances: a) there are no alternative solutions; and b) there are imperative reasons of over-riding public interest, including those of a social or economic nature.

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Where a priority habitat or species (as defined in Article 1 of the Habitats Directive) would be affected, prior consultation with the European Commission is required unless the development is necessary for public health or safety reasons.

Policy NH1b: Sites of Special Scientific Interest
Development affecting SSSI’s will only be permitted where it can be demonstrated that: a) the objectives of designation and overall integrity of the site will not be compromised; or b) any significant adverse effects on the qualities for which the area has been designated are clearly outweighed by social, economic or environmental benefits of national importance; and c) there are no alternative solutions

Policy NH2: Wildlife and Geological areas
Where damaging development is permitted which affects any designated site of natural heritage value, wherever possible appropriate mitigating measures must be provided to enhance and safeguard the remaining interest.

Policy NH3: Important Local Biodiversity sites
Development which harms a Scottish Wildlife Trust Site or a Listed Wildlife Site (shown on the Scottish Wildlife Trust sites map), a Regionally Important Geological or Geomorphological Site, or a site containing a Priority Habitat or a significant population of Priority Species (as listed in the East Lothian Biodiversity Action Plan), will only be permitted where; 1. any harm to the natural heritage interest is outweighed by the public benefits of the development; and 2. no suitable alternative sites are available.

Policy NH4: Areas of Great Landscape Value
Development that harms the landscape character and appearance of Areas of Great Landscape Value will not be permitted.

Policy NH6: Watercourses and Wetlands
There is a general presumption against any engineering works on watercourses in view of the potential impact on the ecology and amenity of an area. Developers should be aware of SEPA’s requirements under the Water Framework Directive.

Table 6: Local plan policies regarding biodiversity and natural heritage Policy ENV7: Scheduled Monuments and Archaeological sites
(1) Where a proposed development might affect any site or area included in the East Lothian Sites and Monuments Record (of known or suspected archaeological interest), the developer must first undertake and make available to the Planning Authority a professional archaeological assessment and, if necessary, a field evaluation. (2) Development that would harm a site of archaeological interest or its setting, particularly a Scheduled Monument, will not be permitted. The only exception to this will be situations where archaeological advice concludes that the significance of the remains is not sufficient to justify their physical preservation in situ when weighed against other material considerations, including the benefits of the proposed development. In such situations, the developer must make proper provision for the excavation, recording, and analysis of the archaeological remains in advance of the commencement of development, any subsequent postexcavation work and the publication of the results. Appropriate conditions may be applied to any planning permission to achieve this. (3) Where it is feasible within a proposed development to accommodate, preserve and enhance archaeological features or their setting, public access to and interpretation

Policy ENV8: Gardens and Designed Landscapes
Development that would harm the conservation objectives of areas included within “The inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes” will not be permitted

Table 7: Local plan policies regarding built and historic environment

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Policy NRG3 – Wind Turbines
Subject to consistency with other plan policies, proposals for individual turbines or wind farms and associated access tracks and transmission lines will be supported where 1. they would not change the existing landscape character in an unacceptable way; 2. they would not have an unacceptable visual impact on landscape or townscape including the impact on distinctive public views, landmark buildings or natural features, or routes; 3. they would not have an unacceptable impact from noise at any noise sensitive property including the gardens of such properties however large; the Council will refer to guidelines in PAN45 and PAN56 or successor guidance; 4. there would be no demonstrable nuisance from a shadow flicker effect; 5. they would have no unacceptable adverse impacts on hydrogeology or hydrology; 6. alternative, better, sites are not available; and 7. there are no unacceptable cumulative impacts. In assessing all proposals the Council will have regard to the findings and recommendations of the Landscape Capacity Study for Wind Turbine Development in East Lothian (May 2005).

Policy NRG4: Wind Power Sites – Restorations
Prior to the determination of a planning application the planning authority will require wind turbine developers and landowners to enter into a legal agreement to secure removal of the turbines and associated infrastructure and restoration of the site once electricity generation has ceased.

Policy NRG5: Edinburgh Airport Safeguarding Zone
All planning applications for wind turbine developments within the Edinburgh Airport Safeguarding Zone as identified on the proposals map will be notified to the operators of Edinburgh Airport for their observations and their response considered before determining the application.

Table 8: Local plan policies regarding energy, waste and infrastructure

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4.

Work to Date on Development

This section provides an outline of the works completed to date relating to the proposed wind turbine development.

4.1.

Requirement for Environmental Assessment

Under the Town and Country planning act (Scotland) 1997, planned developments above a certain scale or activity require consent from the Local Planning Authority (LPA). For more significant developments this may require the inclusion of supporting Environmental documentation to address the full extent, and potential mitigation, of those environmental impacts considered by the LPA to be relevant to the project. Major planned developments are often required to complete a full Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), a systematic process of quantifying those environmental concerns related to the proposed project. The most relevant and up to date document outlining the requirement for an EIA is the Environmental Impact Assessment (Scotland) Regulations 1999. An EIA must be carried out if the particular development is likely to give rise to significant environmental effects. A request for a screening opinion was made to East Lothian Council, the relevant Local Planning Authority (LPA) for the development area. The response 7 stated that the proposed development will require the completion of a full EIA. The screening study was carried out on the basis of a 74m turbine.

4.2.

Alternatives to Development

This section sets out the main reasons for choosing the technology, proposed site and scale of development. It also outlines how the current design was selected. 4.2.1.

Alternative Technologies

The development of local renewable energy technologies was highlighted as a key area for investment by DCEco and this community renewable model is strongly supported by the Scottish Government. DCECo therefore examined the potential development of several differing renewable technologies. The goal being to reduce the energy related carbon emissions of the local area and providing a sustainable and provide a significant source of sustainable income to provide financial support wider community aspirations. DCECo considered the potential of several renewable methods of energy generation to provide an additional source of community revenue. Their findings are summarised in Table 9 below and are based on them approaching suitable third party landowners or large energy consumers.

7

Response from Jean Squires – Letter dated 21st February 2012. 25

Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine

Technology

Local available resource

Technology cost per kW installed

Community financial return

Conclusions Despite the reduced incentive levels the returns on this technology are reasonable (although lower than for a well sited commercial wind turbine). With lower planning issues and operational costs this was a reasonable option. Only an option for offsetting domestic demand as no major heat demand in area. Not considered further. Community biomass projects have historically been difficult to progress. The complication of sourcing a sustainable and reliable source of biomass fuel is a key issue and the area has less low cost biomass fuel sources (e.g. woodchip from forestry) than other regions. Similar operational issues to biomass heating but much higher project costs makes this a difficult proposition. A number of potentially suitable sites found. In addition the reliability and limited warranty of smaller options increases project risk through turbine life. Provides a good financial return and warranties reduces operational risk More difficult to find suitable locations, in addition the development cost is greater and development timescale much longer. Finally a larger development may not be in keeping with goals of ensuring project is seen as being an acceptable scale.

Solar Photovoltaic (>50kW)

Poor – Average

£1,500 £2,000

Larger 'commercial' developments have had incentives significantly reduced.

Solar Thermal

Poor Average

N/a

Limited demand for hot water (domestic only)

Biomass Heating

Average

£500 £1,000

Good returns are available if can provide heat to a large heat consumer. District heating considered to be too problematic given generally dispersed population. Significantly higher capital costs and minimum workable scale of development means projects may be difficult to finance. A reasonable return may be achievable but planning and legal costs could be disproportionally high. Export electricity to grid. <1.5MW achieves best return under FiT

Biomass Combined Heat and Power (CHP)

Average

>£2,000

Wind (Micro scale) <50kW Wind (small to medium scale)

Average Good

£2,000 £5,000

Good

£1,500 £2,000

Wind (large scale) >1,500kW

Good

£1,500

A small wind farm would provide the largest financial return.

Table 9: Comparison of differing technology development options Opportunities to develop solar PV and wind technologies were therefore progressed by DCEco.

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4.2.2.

Solar Opportunities

DCEco's investigated a number of sites to host community owned PV arrays. One of the most promising options identified was Dunbar Leisure pool but the project was subsequently taken forward by East Lothian Council. A larger ground mounted solar park was also investigated but concerns regarding the security of operational sites and the reduction in FiT incentive levels for larger schemes meant this was not progressed further. 4.2.3.

Wind Opportunities

DCEco actively searched for community wind development sites within the Ward 7 area. Figure 7 below shows the areas within Ward 7 considered suitable for Typology C wind developments 8 as detailed within the Council’s Landscape Capacity study. These areas were deemed unsuitable for the development of a community turbine due to lack of landowner interest, poor wind resource, proximity to residential areas and the potential for negative landscape and visual impacts.

Figure 7: Typology C areas within Ward 7 (shown yellow) In addition to identifying these new sites DCEco also repeatedly attempted to secure a community wind turbine within the nearest commercial wind farms of Aikengall and Crystal Rig. There was however no sustained interest in this model from the developers of these sites. The search for new sites initially involved contacting landowners of sites identified as being potentially suitable to request their cooperation in 'hosting' a community owned wind turbine. This focused on sites that would be able to accept a small to medium scale turbine (>50kW in

8

Turbines between 20m and 42m in height

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27

capacity but ideally 500kW and above). There was also a contact form put on the DCEco website for any individual who may have had a suitable site to get in contact. DCEco approached seven separate landowners during this process. There were limited responses from those landowners approached and of the potential sites it was felt that Cocklaw farm offered the best opportunity for development. This conclusion was based on the following considerations:  Strong landowner interest - From the start of the project Douglas McCreath has proved open to hosting a community project and has provided significant support in progressing the project. Available wind resource - The site offered a superior wind resource which would maximise the renewable generation from any turbine. Existing civil and electrical infrastructure - The existing access road ensures that construction costs, and the embedded carbon associated with new roads etc, are minimised. In addition the existing grid connection to the adjacent mast could potentially be utilised. Reduced impact on neighbouring properties - A key requirement for DCEC was to maximise the distance from individual dwellings. In this way a potentially significant impact (visual amenity, noise etc) upon individuals or a small cluster of dwellings would not be considered to be outweighed by the wider benefit to the community. At >1.2km from the nearest residential property it was considered to be of suitable distance to avoid any negative effects. Open nature of site - A larger scale of turbine on the lower coastal terrain of Ward 7 was generally considered likely to give rise to more significant landscape and visual impacts. The more upland landscape of the site was considered able to absorb a reasonable scale of development. In addition, from the majority of surrounding views the site is already compromised by the existing masts

 

For the above reasons it was felt that the proposed development offered the community the chance to develop a turbine that would provide a substantial source if sustainable income over its life. 4.2.4.

Alternative Wind Development Options at Cocklaw

When assessing the options in developing commercial scale wind energy at Cocklaw, the range of options considered feasible were examined in detail. A table providing a summary of small and medium scale wind turbine options is provided in Table 10 below. From this table the following conclusions can be made. The generation capability for a smaller scale turbine (<500kW) would be significantly lower than the proposed turbine given the smaller swept area and generally older technologies utilised in the design of the turbine. This reduces the environmental benefit of development and also leads to a poorer level of return. The level of operational risk is also much higher for the smaller turbine options with shorter warranty periods and a reduced level of operational monitoring. Micro and small scale turbines typically have a 2-5 year operational warranty, unlike commercial wind turbines that can have 10-15 year extended warranties. This dramatically increases investor confidence in commercial scales of wind technology and ensures long term renewable energy benefits are realised. The proposed turbine will be of a typical modern design, incorporating a tubular tower and three blades attached to a nacelle. The current candidate turbine has a rated power output capacity of up to 500kW. When assessing the potential scales of development it is vital that the turbine is capable of providing a good financial return and would be eligible for project
Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine 28

finance from the bank. Table 10 below provides an overview of the turbine options assessed, level of generation and relevant considerations. Estimated average wind speed Gross Annual generation

Turbine

Dimensions
30m hub

Conclusions

50 kW Endurance

20m rotor diameter 40m to tip 37m hub

7.0 m/s

218 MWh

Design of turbine not suitable for high site wind speeds Limited warranty increases project risk through turbine life High capital cost for relatively low generation Seen to compromise scale and renewable generation best between maximising energy be

 7.2 m/s 311 MWh   7.1 m/s 1,676 MWh

100 kW Northwind

21m rotor diameter 47.5m to tip 33m hub

500 kW RRB 47

47m rotor diameter 56.3m to tip

 40m hub 500 kW EWT 54m rotor diameter 67m to top 7.3 m/s 2,182 MWh  

Significant level of generation however Larger diameter of nacelle may lead to transport issues Scale of turbine considered unsuitable with regards to surrounding landscape and sensitive visual receptors. Significant level of generation Best available warranty and operational safety Scale of turbine considered unsuitable with regards to surrounding landscape and sensitive visual receptors.

 50m hub 800 kW Enercon E48 48m rotor diameter 74m to tip 7.6 m/s 2,669 MWh  

Table 10: Comparison of differing turbine development options From the above table it can be seen that there are strong reasons for progressing with the proposed scale of development at the site. After assessing a number of alternative turbine locations on Cocklaw hill the proposed layout to the north west of the landownership was considered most suitable as it lead to the best comparison with the existing mast, minimised the extent of visual impacts on nearby settlements and avoided potential issues with telecoms links.

4.3.
4.3.1.

Initial Development & Screening Work
Feasibility Study

DCEC identified Cocklaw Hill as a potential location to site their turbine and commissioned Locogen Ltd to assess the technical and environmental constraints at the site and also provide financial analysis for a number of turbine options.

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Various constraints associated with the site were identified and examined in detail as part of the feasibility assessment. Locations of houses, telecommunication links, ecologically sensitive areas, noise sensitive areas and visually sensitive areas were noted. Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS), separation distances were applied to these constraints to identify the optimum turbine location. Different sizes of turbine were examined, relating both to height, electrical capacity and noise impact. Based on this assessment, it was concluded that the proposed turbine position is the most suitable location within the landowner’s boundary of ownership. The feasibility study concluded that a single medium scale wind turbine of 500 – 800 kW capacity would be technically viable for the site at Cocklaw Hill. 4.3.2.

Screening

A screening opinion was originally provided from East Lothian Council for a single wind turbine at Cocklaw Hill with a height to blade tip of 74m, this was considered as a “worst case option”. Feedback from the Council stated that a wind turbine of this scale and location could have a significant visual impact over a wide area of East Lothian. Particular concerns were also raised regarding the conservation areas of Oldhamstocks, Innerwick and Lammermuir AGLV. It was confirmed that a full Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) would be required to submit a planning application. Other stakeholder responses included:  Telecoms – 4 companies operating telecoms links were identified within the area. No objection has been raised from either company regarding the turbine, however further consultation will be required for any alterations to the site layout. Cultural Heritage – Historic Scotland offered no objection to the development but stated that further assessment will be required for nearby Scheduled Ancient Monuments. Natural Heritage – No response from SNH received

 4.3.3.

Further Design Iterations

Considering the feedback received from the planning department, it was decided that a change in design would be necessary. It was important to determine a location for the turbine where the landscape and visual impact of the turbine would be kept to a minimum whilst no other environmental/technical issues would be raised. For example, repositioning the turbine to the eastern edge of the land ownership boundary was not considered due to the potential for interference with telecommunications and potential ecological impacts. A reduction in scale was considered necessary in order to reduce the visual impact on surrounding sensitive areas, particularly the Oldhamstocks Conservation Area to the South East. Several design iterations were assessed through a Zone of Theoretical Visibility (ZTV) analysis and showed that a scale reduction of 25 – 30% would be necessary to avoid significant visual impacts on nearby sensitive areas. An assessment of turbine models that were technically viable for the site showed that the RRB47 turbine (tip height 56.3m) would be suitable for the DCEC project. The turbine model provides a significant reduction in landscape and visual impacts in comparison to the original turbine proposal, yet is still seen to provide a good commercial opportunity.

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5.

Landscape & Visual

Locogen commissioned Douglas Harman, a chartered landscape architect, to undertake a landscape and visual impact assessment (LVIA) of the proposed wind turbine development. This chapter details the results of this assessment.

5.1.

Introduction

This chapter considers the landscape and visual effects of the proposed development through a process of LVIA, based on a 25 km study area. It identifies the baseline against which the effects of the proposals are assessed, and concentrates on predicting the likely effects of the proposed development during the operational phase. The scheme design, including any mitigation measures incorporated to minimise adverse effects, is informed by the findings of the baseline studies. Effects on features identified as important to the landscape quality, or effects on the landscape character of the site and its setting are assessed. Although interrelated, effects on views of the site and its setting, and visual amenity, are assessed separately. Landscape impacts are on the fabric, character and quality of the landscape. They are concerned with:    Landscape components; Landscape character – regional and local distinctiveness; and Special interests e.g. designations, conservation sites, cultural associations.

Visual impacts are the effects on people of the changes in available views through intrusion or obstruction and whether important opportunities to enjoy views may be improved or reduced. The objectives of the assessment are to:     Describe and evaluate the landscape and visual amenity of the site and surrounding area which may be affected by the proposed development; Identify and assess the significance of any effects on landscape or visual amenity, associated with the design, operation and restoration of the proposed development; Identify mitigation measures which will be implemented in order to avoid, reduce or remedy adverse effects; and Describe any enhancements of the landscape or visual amenity incorporated into the proposals.

The findings of the LVIA are presented in the following sections: 5.1.1.   

Baseline Description
Planning policy context: a summary of the main national, regional and local landscape related policies relevant to the proposed development; Baseline study: a description of the landscape and visual resource of the study area conducted through desk study and site survey; and Design optimisation and mitigation strategy: a summary of the design process in response to landscape and visual issues.

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5.1.2. 

Impact Assessment
Landscape effects: assessment of the potential residual effects upon the landscape resource and the perception of the landscape resource, landscape character areas and designated landscapes; Visual effects: assessment of potential residual effects on people of the changes in available views through intrusion or obstruction and whether important opportunities to enjoy views may be improved or reduced; Cumulative Landscape and Visual effects: assessment of the potential residual effects arising from the proposed development in conjunction with built/consented wind farms within the study area and those at planning application stage; and Summary and Conclusions.

 5.1.3.

Appendix

Methodology: a description of the methods and associated guidance used to inform the assessment process. 5.1.4.

Summary of proposed development

The proposed development will consist of the following elements (a detailed description of the proposed development can be found in Chapter 2 of this Supporting Environmental Document):   Wind turbine – The proposed turbine is 32.8 m to hub height, has a rotor diameter of 47 m and is 56.3 m to blade tip; Foundation – For the chosen turbine the foundation will be a square structure with expected dimensions of 8.3m x 8.3m. Once constructed this structure will be backfilled so that only the tower base will be visible; Transformer kiosk – it is proposed that the required turbine transformer is either located within the base of the tower (preferred option) or alternatively in a small kiosk located next to the base of the tower with the necessary switchgear and protection equipment; Access road – the construction of a dedicated access road to the proposed wind turbine totalling 41 m in length; Construction compound – the construction of a temporary hardstanding area for the assembly of the crane and rotor. This would measure an approximate area of 20 x 30m with an adjacent area for lay down of turbine components; and Underground cable – an 11 kV cable connecting the turbine to a suitable grid connection point will be undergrounded to minimise visual impacts. The point of connection is yet to be finalised.

 

Overall, the additional structures associated with development are considered to have a minor and not significant additional impact on the landscape or visual amenity within the area. Therefore, the remainder of this study will focus on the visual and landscape effect of the presence and operation of the proposed wind turbine during the operational phase. In addition to the operational phase, there is also the requirement to assess the effect of the construction phase and decommissioning phases. Any effects associated with these stages will consist of short term additional visual effects for those areas nearest the site. The type of visual effect will include the presence of install cranes and other plant machinery. For those
Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine 32

residents in close proximity and with direct views of the site during the construction and decommissioning phases, significant visual effects are predicted. However, the very short term nature of these effects means that they have not warranted further discussion within this chapter.

5.2.

Policy Context

The policy context of the proposed development is fully described in Chapter 3 of this Supporting Environmental Document. The specific policies relevant to landscape within Scottish Planning Policy and the adopted policies of the planning authority are listed in paragraphs 5.2.1 to 5.2.5. 5.2.1.

Scottish Planning Policy

At a national level, policy guidance as set out in Scottish Planning Policy (SPP) identifies a range of important landuse planning matters to be taken into account in the provision of renewable energy development. With regard to landscape and visual considerations, this states: “127. Different landscapes will have a different capacity to accommodate new development, and the siting and design of development should be informed by local landscape character.” and “131. Landscapes and the natural heritage are sensitive to inappropriate development and planning authorities should ensure that potential effects, including the cumulative effect of incremental changes, are considered when preparing development plans and deciding planning applications. While the protection of the landscape and natural heritage may sometimes impose constraints on development, with careful planning and design the potential for conflict can be minimised and the potential for enhancement maximised. However there will be occasions where the sensitivity of the site or the nature or scale of the proposed development is such that the development should not be permitted. Statutory natural heritage designations are important considerations where they are directly or indirectly affected by a development proposal. However, designation does not necessarily imply a prohibition on development.” and “187. Planning authorities should support the development of wind farms in locations where the technology can operate efficiently and environmental and cumulative impacts can be satisfactorily addressed. Development plans should provide a clear indication of the potential for development of wind farms of all scales, and should set out the criteria that will be considered in deciding applications for all wind farm developments including extensions. The criteria will vary depending on the scale of development and its relationship to the characteristics of the surrounding area, but are likely to include:         landscape and visual impact, effects on the natural heritage and historic environment, contribution of the development to renewable energy generation targets, effect on the local and national economy and tourism and recreation interests, benefits and dis-benefits for communities, aviation and telecommunications, noise and shadow flicker, and cumulative impact.
33

Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine

The design and location of any wind farm development should reflect the scale and character of the landscape. The location of turbines should be considered carefully to ensure that the landscape and visual impact is minimised.” and “188. When considering cumulative impact, planning authorities should take account of existing wind farms, those which have permission and valid applications for wind farms which have not been determined. Decisions should not be unreasonably delayed because other schemes in the area are at a less advanced stage in the application process. The weight that planning authorities attach to undetermined applications should reflect their position in the application process. Cumulative impact will largely relate to the scale and proximity of further development. The factors that will be taken into account when considering cumulative impact should be set out in the development plan or supplementary guidance.” and “189. Planning authorities should set out in the development plan a spatial framework for onshore wind farms of over 20 megawatts generating capacity. Authorities may incorporate wind farms of less than 20 megawatts generating capacity in their spatial framework if considered appropriate. Planning authorities should continue to determine applications for wind farms while local policies are being updated. The spatial framework should identify:  areas requiring significant protection because they are designated for their national or international landscape or natural heritage value, are designated as green belt or are areas where the cumulative impact of existing and consented wind farms limits further development, areas with potential constraints where proposals will be considered on their individual merits against identified criteria, and areas of search where appropriate proposals are likely to be supported subject to detailed consideration against identified criteria. Spatial frameworks should not be used to put in place a sequential approach to determining applications which requires applicants proposing development outwith an area of search to show that there is no capacity within areas of search.”

  

and “190. When identifying areas with potential constraints on wind farm development, planning authorities should consider the following:      the historic environment, areas designated for their regional and local landscape or natural heritage value, tourism and recreation interests, likely impacts on communities, including long term and significant impact on amenity, impact on aviation and defence interests, particularly airport and aerodrome operation, flight activity, tactical training areas, aviation and defence radar and seismological recording, and impact on broadcasting installations, particularly maintaining transmission links.

A separation distance of up to 2 km between areas of search and the edge of cities, towns and villages is recommended to guide developments to the most appropriate sites and to reduce visual impact, but decisions on individual developments should take into account specific local circumstances and geography. Development plans should recognise that the existence of these constraints on wind farm development does not impose a blanket restriction on development, and should be clear on the extent of constraints and the factors that should be satisfactorily
Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine 34

addressed to enable development to take place. Planning authorities should not impose additional zones of protection around areas designated for their landscape or natural heritage value.” and “191. Having identified areas requiring significant protection and other potential constraints on wind farm development, planning authorities should identify areas of search where there are no significant constraints on development. Within these areas of search, sites may be constrained by:    other natural heritage interests, including habitats of high nature conservation value, project viability, including wind speed, site access, ground suitability and other environmental factors, and grid capacity.

Existing and approved grid capacity should be maximised wherever possible. However, grid constraints should not be used as a development constraint where renewable energy potential exists.” 5.2.2.

Onshore wind turbines planning guidance (August 2011)

PAN 45 (Renewable Energy Technologies and Annex 2 Spatial Frameworks and Supplementary Planning Guidance for Wind Farms) has been replaced with web based renewables advice. For the Typical Planning Considerations in Determining Planning Applications for Onshore Wind Turbines, this states: “Landscape Impact: Wind turbines can impact upon the landscape by virtue of their number, size or layout, how they impact on the skyline, their design and colour, any land form change, access tracks and ancillary components anemometers, substations and power lines. The ability of the landscape to absorb development often depends largely on features of landscape character such as landform, ridges, hills, valleys, and vegetation. This can also be influenced by careful siting and the skills of the designer. Different layouts of turbines may be more or less suited to particular landscape types and the physical form and /or colour of turbines may also be relevant. Selecting an appropriate route for access, considering landform change, surfacing and vegetation can also influence to what extent proposals are integrated into the landscape setting. In considering wind farm visibility it should be noted that in some locations and clear weather, turbines may be visible over long distances, though this will depend on elevation, the angle of the sun and other factors. It is important to emphasise, however, that visibility and distance do not follow a linear relationship. Factors including the backcloth (or skyline) against which turbines are seen, turbine colour and typical weather conditions require careful consideration. As more areas of search are taken up and as more sites are proposed within or near sensitive landscapes, landscape protection and designing appropriate mitigation through conditions and/or legal agreements, will become a more routine consideration alongside maximising the potential of wind energy. In relation to landscape impact, a cautious approach is necessary in relation to particular landscapes which are rare or valued, such as National Scenic Areas and National Parks. Landscape Assessment: Analysis of landscape impact normally requires the preparation of a zone of theoretical visibility map, to show where the windfarm may be seen from, a viewpoint analysis based on key viewpoints throughout the surrounding area, computer modelling and photo or video montages.

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SNH is the Scottish Government national agency and statutory advisor on landscape matters. Their guidance is expected to be followed in the first instance in respect of landscape character appraisal, landscape and visual impact analysis and wind farm design. SNH and its partners have carried out a comprehensive national programme of Landscape Character Assessment which will assist in identifying landscape characteristics that are particularly sensitive to wind farm development. There is also a range of guidance available from SNH which can help in the design, visualisation and assessment of impacts within the landscape. Any supplementary information used to deliver local solutions to local problems must not conflict with national standards and must be a proportionate and reasonable burden on the applicant.” 5.2.3.

Edinburgh & Lothians Structure Plan (2004)

The Edinburgh & Lothians Structure Plan provides the high level vision for the Lothian area. Approved in 2004 and covering the whole region, it is a strategic document which sets the context for the more detailed Local Plans up until 2015. The Scottish Ministers in 2008 designated the Edinburgh and South East Scotland Strategic Development Planning Authority; comprising City of Edinburgh, East Lothian, Midlothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian Councils (SESplan). The role of SESplan is to produce a strategic Development Plan which will supersede the councils' existing Structure Plans in due course. However, the following policies within the Edinburgh & Lothians Structure Plan remain material considerations for the proposed development: Policy ENV 1B: National Natural Heritage Designations “Development which would affect national designations, including Sites of Special Scientific Interest not designated as international sites, will only be permitted where it can be demonstrated that: a) the objectives of designation and overall integrity of the site will not be compromised; or b) any significant adverse effects on the qualities for which the area has been designated are clearly outweighed by social or economic benefits of national importance. Local plans should include policies and, where appropriate, proposals for their protection and enhancement.” Policy ENV 1C: International and National Historic or Built Environment Designations “Development which would harm the character, appearance and setting of the following designated built or cultural heritage sites, and/or the specific features which justify their designation, should be resisted.      World Heritage Sites Listed Buildings Scheduled Ancient Monuments Royal Parks Sites listed in the Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes

Local plans should include policies, and where appropriate proposals for their protection and enhancement.”

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Policy ENV 1D: Regional and Local Natural and Built Environment Interests “Development affecting the following regional or local areas of natural heritage and built environmental interest, or their settings, will only be permitted where it can be demonstrated that: a) The objectives and overall integrity of the designated area will not be compromised; or b) The social or economic benefits to be gained from the proposed development outweigh the conservation or other interest of the site.              Conservation Areas Areas of Great Landscape Value or other local landscape designations defined in local plans Pentland Hills Regional Park Country Parks Defined core and local path networks Local Nature Reserves Regionally Important Geological and Geomorphological Features Sites of archaeological interest Designated Wildlife Sites Peatland Prime agricultural land Water supply catchment areas Areas of significant open space within urban areas

Local plans should define the extent of these interests and include policies and where appropriate proposals, for their protection and enhancement.” Policy ENV 4: Landscape “Local plans should take account of landscape designations in accordance with new guidance produced by Scottish Natural Heritage.” Policy ENV 6: Renewable Energy “The development of renewable energy resources will be supported where this can be achieved in an environmentally acceptable manner. Local plans should set out the specific criteria against which renewable energy developments will be assessed, including cumulative impact. They should also consider whether it is appropriate to define broad areas of search, or specific sites, suitable for wind or other renewable energy developments.” 5.2.4.

East Lothian Local Plan (2008)

The following policies within the East Lothian Plan are important considerations in helping to ensure the proposed development is acceptable in landscape terms:

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Policy NRG3: Wind Turbines “Subject to consistency with other plan policies, proposals for individual turbines or wind farms and associated access tracks and transmission lines will be supported where: 1. they would not change the existing landscape character in an unacceptable way; 2. they would not have an unacceptable visual impact on landscape or townscape including the impact on distinctive public views, landmark buildings or natural features, or routes; 3. they would not have an unacceptable impact from noise at any noise sensitive property including the gardens of such properties however large; the Council will refer to guidelines in PAN45 and PAN56 or successor guidance; 4. there would be no demonstrable nuisance from a shadow flicker effect; 5. they would have no unacceptable adverse impacts on hydrogeology or hydrology; 6. alternative, better, sites are not available; and 7. there are no unacceptable cumulative impacts. In assessing all proposals the Council will have regard to the findings and recommendations of the Landscape Capacity Study for Wind Turbine Development in East Lothian (May 2005).” Policy NRG4: Wind Turbines – Restoration “Prior to the determination of a planning application the planning authority will require wind turbine developers and landowners to enter into a legal agreement to secure the removal of the turbines and associated infrastructure and restoration of the site once electricity generation has ceased.” Policy DC1: Development in the Countryside and Undeveloped Coast (Extract) “Development, including changes of use, will be acceptable in principle within the countryside and undeveloped coast where it is directly related to agriculture, horticulture, forestry and countryside recreation. Other business use will also be acceptable where it is of an appropriate scale and character for its proposed location in the countryside, it can be suitably serviced and accessed and there is no significant traffic or other environmental impacts. Development will also be acceptable in principle in the following circumstances: (a) Having regard to its nature and scale, new development must be integrated into the landscape, reflect its character and quality of place, and be compatible with its surroundings; (b) New development must be sited so as to minimise visual intrusion and landscape impact within the open countryside or undeveloped coast, for example, by locating as part of an existing group of buildings, woodland or other well-contained setting, and by respecting and making use of the setting provided by landform or existing landscape features; (c) The proposal must have no significant adverse impact on nearby uses; (d) The proposed development must minimise the loss of prime agricultural land; (e) Account must be taken of the design policy framework contained in the local plan (refer to Chapter 13); (f) Suitable access and infrastructure is or can be made available;
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(g) Where an existing building is demolished, any proposals for a replacement building will be treated as new build and considered as such against Policy DC1.” Policy NH4: Areas of Great Landscape Value “Development that harms the landscape character and appearance of Areas of Great Landscape Value will not be permitted.” Policy ENV3: Listed Buildings “(1) The external or internal alteration of a Listed Building will only be permitted where it does not harm the architectural or historic character of the building; (2) The demolition of a Listed Building will not be permitted unless there are overriding environmental or practical reasons. It must be satisfactorily demonstrated that every effort has been made to continue the present use or to find a suitable new use; (3) New development that harms the setting of a Listed Building will not be permitted.” Policy ENV7: Scheduled Monuments and Archaeological Sites “(1) Where a proposed development might affect any site or area included in the East Lothian Sites and Monuments Record (of known or suspected archaeological interest), the developer must first undertake and make available to the Planning Authority a professional archaeological assessment and, if necessary, a field evaluation. (2) Development that would harm a site of archaeological interest or its setting, particularly a Scheduled Monument, will not be permitted. The only exception to this will be situations where archaeological advice concludes that the significance of the remains is not sufficient to justify their physical preservation in situ when weighed against other material considerations, including the benefits of the proposed development. In such situations, the developer must make proper provision for the excavation, recording, and analysis of the archaeological remains in advance of the commencement of development, any subsequent post-excavation work and the publication of the results. Appropriate conditions may be applied to any planning permission to achieve this. (3) Where it is feasible within a proposed development to accommodate, preserve and enhance archaeological features or their setting, public access to and interpretation of these features will be expected.” Policy ENV8: Gardens and Designed Landscapes “Development that would harm the conservation objectives of areas included within ‘The Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes’ will not be permitted.” 5.2.5.

Planning Guidance for the Location and Design of Wind Turbines in the Lowland Areas of East Lothian (2010)

East Lothian Council have produced Planning Guidance to provide potential applications for smaller and medium size turbines with guidance on the range of issues which should be considered when preparing wind turbine proposals and to indicate the matters which will be considered by the Council when assessing these applications. The key considerations relevant to this application are:  “Wind turbine development must not harm the landscape setting of settlements, important public views of these settlements and prominent public views from these settlements to the surrounding countryside;

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Wind turbines have the potential for significant landscape and visual impacts. Such developments will only be supported where the overall integrity and setting of key public views to and from landmark features, both natural and man-made, will not be compromised. Developments which would harm the character, appearance and setting of significant natural landscape features, landmark buildings and structures will be resisted; Turbines must be sited and designed so that they relate to their setting; that any adverse effects on visual amenity and landscape are minimised and that areas which are valued for their landscapes and scenery are protected; The Council will assess the impact of all wind turbine proposals on the landscape character of the rural landscape, potential impact on views, how they integrate into the rural landscape and the extent to which they affect the character and sense of place of the local area; Green Belt views, skylines and the elements which make up these views will be protected from inappropriate wind turbine development; Wind turbine developments which would harm the character, appearance and setting of sites listed in the Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes will be resisted; Turbine developments that harm the landscape character and appearance of AGLV or require the removal of trees and hedgerows to the detriment of landscape character will be resisted; While wind turbines are a new form of development in the countryside, they will be supported where they are environmentally acceptable. Having regard to their inevitable prominence, wind turbine proposals must be acceptable in terms of scale and character for their proposed location and must be well integrated into the landscape, reflect its character and quality of place and be compatible with its surroundings; The capacity of the rural landscape to absorb wind turbines is a key consideration. Locating smaller turbines near groupings of existing structures such as agricultural buildings or silos may allow for a better integration into the landscape as long as the setting and scale of buildings and structures is not compromised; Expansive, open areas, with few prominent existing features, may have a greater capacity to accommodate larger turbines without appearing out of scale with their surroundings. However the visual impact of a turbine development on views of significant natural and manmade features in the landscape will require careful consideration. The Council will resist any development which will have a detrimental impact on views of or the landscape setting of significant natural features, buildings and structures in the landscape; Turbines must not appear incongruous or dominate the local landscape when viewed from a range of public places. They must be capable of being accommodated within an open landscape without detriment to landscape character. They must not result in a change of landscape character from a predominantly agricultural landscape to one that is a landscape dominated by wind turbines: cumulative impact will be a particular issue here; The Council will resist any proposed turbine development which is out of scale and incongruous within its landscape setting and detrimental to the existing landscape character of coastal areas; Development proposals which would have a detrimental impact on views out across the Firth of Forth, [including views of the Forth Islands] and views along the coastline will not be supported;
40

  

Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine

Proposals which would result in a clutter of visual features in the coastal landscape e.g. with power lines, large buildings, chimneys and structures will be resisted as will locations which would result in the visual or physical coalescence of settlements, or industrial buildings; and The landscape setting and views of significant buildings and structures in the coastal landscape will be protected.”

Further guidance on the capacity of the East Lothian landscape to accommodate a range of single turbine developments is set out in ‘East Lothian Supplementary Landscape Capacity Study for Smaller Wind Turbines (2011)’. A summary of this in relation to the proposed development is set out in section 5.3.3.

5.3.

Baseline results

The baseline study records the existing landscape and visual resources against which the effect of the proposed development can be assessed. It describes the site, its setting and its main features and examines the existing landscape elements, their character, condition, quality and sensitivity to wind energy developments. 5.3.1.

The site and surrounding landscape

The proposed wind turbine is located near the summit of Cocklaw Hill, East Lothian, approximately 1.4km to the North-West of Cocklaw and 8km to the south east of Dunbar. The site comprises several improved pastoral fields and two arable fields. A predominantly coniferous plantation is also present approximately 550m to the east of the proposed turbine location. Field boundaries are defined by fences with no hedgerows present. The nearest buildings within the study area are at Cocklaw farm to the south east. The base of the northern slope of Blackcastle Hill is bounded by Thurston Mains Burn, Aikengall Water to the west and Oldhamstocks Burn to the south. The wider surrounding landscape is characterised by a series of winding lanes and small villages set within undulating hills with small incised wooded valleys. The village of Innerwick lies 2 km north of the proposed turbine location, Oldhamstocks 2.2 km to the east and the coastal town of Dunbar approximately 7 km to the north-west. The A1 passes to the north of the site along the coastal corridor. There is also significant large scale wind farm development on the Lammermuir Hills to the south-west of the site. Views from the upper part of the site are generally open and long range towards the coast and shorter range to the south, curtailed by the Lammermuir Hills. Views from the lower parts of the site are predominantly open although coniferous shelter belts restrict views in places. Views towards the site are open from the surrounding hills to the south. From the north, the pattern of wooded valleys restricts views in places although the coastal corridor has a prevailing open character. Landscape designations There are no National Scenic Areas or National Parks within the study area. Other designations within the study area include Gardens and Designed Landscapes (GDLs), Areas of Great Landscape Value (AGLVs), Special Landscape Areas (SLAs) and Country Parks. These designations are illustrated in Drawings DNB007 and listed in Table 11. Gardens and Designed Landscapes

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Within the study area, there are twenty seven GDLs. Due to their national importance, GDLs are assessed as having a high sensitivity to change and are protected through Policy ENV8 of the of the East Lothian Local Plan (2008).

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Local landscape designations In East Lothian, local landscape designations are represented by Areas of Great Landscape Value (AGLVs) and Special Landscape Areas (SLAs) within Scottish Borders. Within the study area, there are five AGLVs and SLAs in total. Due to their regional importance, the designation is assessed as having a medium to high sensitivity to change and is protected through Policy NH4 of the East Lothian Local Plan (2008). Country Parks There is also one Country Park within the study area. Country Parks have similar qualities to Regional Parks although they are generally smaller in size, located close to cities and towns and are managed mainly for public enjoyment. As a local recreational designation, Country Parks are considered to be of a medium sensitivity to change and are protected through policy ENV 1D of the Edinburgh & Lothians Structure Plan (2004). To focus the assessment of effects, the qualities of the landscape designations within 15 km from the proposed development are set out in Table 11 below. The designations outwith 15 km and outside of the ZTV have also been identified. A number of other features of cultural importance were noted within the study area and these individual features are dealt with in more detail in Chapter 8. Landscape Designation Within 0-15 km
A large area of open upland, representative of the moorlands and valleys of the northern Borders and East Lothian. Despite its managed nature, it retains remote and wild qualities. Within the plateau, there is little visual diversity aside from the mottled patchwork resulting from muirburn, and views often present a seemingly endless succession of moorland ridges. The extent and uninterrupted openness of the landscape lend scenic value and the Lammermuir skyline provides the backdrop to East Lothian and helps define its character. Dunglass was one of Scotland's finest examples of the late 18th century picturesque style of landscape design, and although many of the core features have been lost, the basic structure can still be recognised. Views out to the North Sea are obtainable, particularly from high points. The gorges, with their woods, rocks and water were seen as significant sublime features in the picturesque landscape design developed in the 18th & 19th centuries. The woodlands and bridges remain today as important features in the local landscape. The present house, the Church, stables and sundial stand within maintained lawns which are ornamented by specimen conifers. The surrounding landscape is largely in agricultural use. Characterised by its proximity to the Firth of Forth, it is a diverse coastline of shallow tidal bays, low rocky cliffs and long sandy beaches. Policy woodlands are a feature against the coast and on the edge of settlements, which are strongly related to the coastal edge and have a distinct architectural integrity. The Firth, Bass Rock, distant Isle of May and Fife to the North form a striking backdrop to this character area.

Description

Distance (km)

Sensitivity to change

Lammermuirs AGLV/SLA

0 km

med-high

Dunglass GDL

3.7

High

Coastal Areas AGLV

4.4

med-high

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Landscape Designation

Description
A remarkable example of late 17th / early 18th century, extensive formal landscape associated with the Battle of Dunbar. The designed landscape is built around a series of axial views, radiating out from The Wilderness: north-west to the Bass Rock and Dunbar Church, westwards to North Berwick Law and southwest to Traprain Law (Dunpinder Law). Along the Brox Burn there are views out northwards to the Isle of May and views from Sloe Bigging Tower over to the Bass Rock. From the South Lodge there are wide views over Doon Hill, the site of the Battle of Dunbar. A linear SLA which extends along the east coast of the Scottish Borders Council area. Its northern extent is at Dunglass Mains on the border with East Lothian Council and its southern extent is at Catcairn Bushes, around 2 km north of the English border. With an area of 19.7 km2, the landscape has an undulating topography with steep coastal edges and cliffs. Land cover comprises agricultural fields and settlement is formed by scattered farmsteads and the small town of Eyemouth. Access is via minor roads and footpaths. The area includes the viewpoint and visitor centre of St Abb’s Head. John Muir Country Park covers some of the most spectacular East Lothian. From the Castle Ruins in Dunbar, to the Peffer Burn six kilometres to the north, the Park includes the Cliff Top Trail, with fine views of the sea and the historic Bass Rock; the long sandy sweep of Belhaven Bay; the River Tyne estuary; and extensive areas of grassland, salt-marsh and woodland. An attractive garden of special botanical interest. There are few views from within the garden to the surrounding 19th and early 20th century private housing. Views out to the Bass Rock can be gained from high points. The tree canopy, boundary wall, lodge and arch across the entrance gates are of some scenic significance from the A1087. Outstanding in every category, the landscape at Tyninghame still has its 18th century structure, within which you can see 19th century development and the particularly fine 20th century gardens. The surrounding landscape is mainly farmed and many of the fields are protected by small woodland shelterbelts or hedgerows. There are long views south to the Lammermuir Hills and panoramic views north-east across the estuary to the rocky promontory of Dunbar. Traprain Law is a prominent hill at 221 m AOD with an associated hill fort, set within a flat surrounding lowland landscape. The rugged northern slopes of the hill provide a strong contrast with the surrounding lowlying agricultural plain with a rich diversity of landform and vegetation found along the lower slopes. There are panoramic views across the surrounding lowland landscape and across the Firth of Forth.

Distance (km)

Sensitivity to change

Broxmouth Park GDL

5.4

High

Berwickshire Coast SLA

7.0

med-high

John Muir Country Park

8.4

Medium

Belhaven House GDL

8.4

High

Tyninghame GDL

12.2

High

Trapain Law AGLV

12.4

med-high

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Landscape Designation Within 15-35 km
Duns Castle GDL Garleton Hills and Laws AGLV Balgone House GDL Leuchie GDL Dirleton Castle GDL Archerfield GDL Luffness GDL

Description

Distance (km)

Sensitivity to change

16.2 km 17 .5 km 17.6 km 17.9 km 23.6 km 23.7 km 24.9 km

high medium to high high high high high high

Outwith ZTV
Biel GDL Whittingehame GDL Whitchester GDL Yester House GDL Houndwood House GDL Stevenson House GDL St Mary's Pleasance GDL Wedderburn GDL Marchmont GDL Pilmuir GDL Ayton Castle GDL Grey Walls (High Walls) GDL Edrom Nurseries GDL Lennoxlove GDL Manderston GDL Netherbyres GDL Gosford House GDL

Table 11: Landscape Designations 5.3.2.

Landscape character

The landscape character of the study area has been mapped and described using the following landscape character assessments (see Drawing DNB009):   The Lothians Landscape Character Assessment (No. 91) (SNH, 1998); and The Borders Landscape Character Assessment (No. 112).

The site is located within the Lowland Hills and Valleys landscape character type (LCT) with a further twenty eight LCTs within the 25 km study area. Table 12 identifies the key characteristics and features of each LCT and their associated sensitivity to wind energy for those within 15 km of the proposed development.

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LCT

Landscape character

Sensitivity to wind energy

Within 15 km
  Upland Fringe       a rolling landscape of rounded hills and valleys with landform and woodlands providing containment sharp contrast in landform between smooth upland slopes and steep sided deans close affinity with north sea coast, including fine open views significant areas of ancient oak woodlands emphasise the enclosure experienced within tightly incised valleys. fields enclosed by stone walls and beech hedges with deciduous woodland and gorse scrub colonising steep valley sides. distinctive character of dense rural road network, including local features such as fords and bridges extensive undulating upland plateau of broad ridges, rounded hills and valleys covered with heather/grass moorland and occasional forestry 'wild land' quality derived from high degree of perceived naturalness of land cover, and relative lack of fragmentation by roads, settlements and other urban features rich heritage of natural and archaeological features distinctive visual qualities including grandeur of scale and unobstructed, long distance views the steep spurs and gullies of the northern edge of Lammer Law are dramatic in views from East Lothian heather moorland covers the smooth sweeping rounded hills and narrow valleys of this area successive broad summits give a strong sense of expansiveness and openness dominant arable land cover, with distinctive large scale field pattern diversity of coastal scenery and habitats rich historical heritage major estate woodlands and other landscape features prominent views of distinctive igneous outcrops extensive views attractive coastal settlements high visual sensitivity of immediate coastal zone strongly rolling terrain interrupted by narrow, deeply-incised stream valleys coastline formed by high, near vertical cliffs carved into strongly-folded resistant sedimentary rocks land cover dominated by arable and pastoral fields of varying size gorse and other scrub common on steep slopes and exposed locations field boundaries of mature thorn hedges with occasional hedgerow trees on lower ground major towns sited at the coast in sheltered folds and valleys med-high med-high med-high high

 Upland Hills        Coastal Margin        Coastal Farmland    

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LCT

Landscape character
  medium scale pastoral valley with flat floor enclosed by upland fringe pastures, often with rough grassland and moorland covered hills above smooth large scale landform modified in places by bluffs and moraine on valley floor, scree slopes or rock outcrops on valley sides narrow, often wooded tributary side valleys broadleaf woodlands and scrub on bluff slopes and scattered trees along river banks, occasional coniferous plantations and shelterbelts on valley sides valley floor pastures enclosed by drystone dykes with occasional hedgerows, interspersed with occasional patches of scrub, coarse grass and rushes scattered villages, farmsteads and mansion houses with policy woodlands expansive flat to gently rolling plateau sloping steeply to rugged cliffs at the coast, punctuated by occasional knowes and rock outcrops open land cover of rushes and coarse grassland in flatter areas heather moorland on upper slopes, scattered gorse and locally prominent coniferous plantations widely dispersed farmsteads along minor roads an unusual landscape with a barren, exposed character and dramatic open views over the cliff tops to the north sea large scale smooth landform characterised by gentle, sweeping slopes simple pattern of very large arable and pasture fields emphasised by contrasting coniferous shelterbelts and plantations fields divided by drystone dykes or fences widely dispersed farmsteads and small villages linked by a grid-like minor road network an open, exposed landscape with a simple, uniform character small scale, intimate, enclosed character deeply-incised river channels with frequent cliffs and steep slopes heavily wooded valley floors and lower valley sides contrasting open rolling slopes at higher levels above rivers typically steep, cone or dome-shaped hills, frequently of volcanic or igneous rock diverse surrounding landform types, ranging from smooth undulations to strongly elongated ridges and hollows land cover dominated by permanent pasture locally frequent woodland cover low to medium settlement density rich in visual contrasts, with individual hills as dominant focal points of views core of productive arable landscape strong field pattern reinforced by abundant shelterbelts subtle variations in topography provide varying degrees of visual sensitivity rich archaeological heritage of buried prehistoric settlement (evident in cropmarks) extensive outward views from higher ground

Sensitivity to wind energy

Pastoral Upland Fringe Valley

 

high

   Coastal Moorland      Platform Farmland    Wooded Upland Fringe Valley      Grassland with Hills       Lowland Plains   

high

medium

high

medium

med-high

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LCT

Landscape character

Sensitivity to wind energy

Within 15-25 km
Rolling Lowland Margin LCT Lowland Hills and Ridges LCT medium high

Outwith ZTV
Coastal Valley LCT Lowland with Drumlins LCT Upland Valley with Farmland LCT Lowland River Valley LCT Plateau Grassland LCT Upland Fringe Moorland LCT Rolling Farmland LCT

Table 12: Landscape Character 5.3.3.

Landscape Capacity

The capacity of the landscape is an important strategic consideration in determining the acceptability of the proposed development. East Lothian Council have published ‘East Lothian Supplementary Landscape Capacity Study for Smaller Wind Turbines (2011)’. This sets out the capacity of the East Lothian lowland landscapes and the Lammermuir Fringe to accommodate smaller turbines than those considered in an earlier capacity study for larger scale developments undertaken in 2005. The proposed turbine is located in the East Lammermuir Fringe landscape character area which relates to the Upland Fringe LCT as described in section 5.3.2 of this report. Eastern Lammermuir Fringe LCA - capacity for development Within this study, the development is classed as ‘Typology B’ (which is for turbines between 42 m and up to and including 65 m high) and the site is located in an area of ‘no scope to locate turbines of this size’. For the landscape character area in which the proposed development is located, a ‘summary of sensitivity’, ‘opportunities & constraints’ and ‘guidance for development’ are provided: Summary of sensitivity “Larger development typologies would conflict with the often complex rolling landform of small hills and strongly contained narrow valleys found within this character area. The diverse land cover pattern and distinctly rural character of this landscape would also be diminished by larger turbines and they could exacerbate the visual clutter associated with pylons and masts in the eastern part of this area. In some areas, there would be cumulative landscape and visual impacts with existing windfarm development in the adjacent East Lammermuir Plateau character area. While views from this character area are often restricted by landform, extensive and dramatic views from more elevated footpaths, hill tops and also occasionally from elevated roads at the transition with the adjacent East Lammermuir Plateau are a feature and larger turbines would impinge on the foreground of these views.

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All development typologies would be visually prominent if sited on the broader topped hills adjacent to the Eastern Coastal Margin landscape character area. There would be a High sensitivity to Typologies A and B and a Medium to high sensitivity to Typology C. There would be reduced sensitivity to smaller turbines below 20 m height due to their ability to fit with the scale of larger buildings and woodlands. However, the complex landform and intricately patterned woodlands and other designed landscape features found in parts of this character area would be sensitive even to these small turbines. Overall sensitivity would be Medium to low to typology D. Constraints  The complex rolling landform, intimate narrow valleys and the dramatic landform of the steep-sided Lothian Edge and pattern of distinctive knolly hills against the scarp of the Lammermuir Hills; Visually prominent hill tops seen from key transport routes such as the A1, the East Coast railway and settlements; Small scale settlements and designed landscapes within the adjacent Whittingehame Valley which would be particularly sensitive to larger turbines; and Cumulative landscape and visual effects with existing windfarm developments within the adjacent Lammermuir Hills and with existing transmission lines within parts of this landscape.

  

Opportunities  Broader, lower hill slopes with a more open character away from sensitive hill tops.

Guidance on development There is no capacity to accommodate larger development Typologies A and B (turbines over 42 m high) within this landscape due to the significant adverse landscape and visual effects likely to occur across a wide range of sensitivity criteria. There is some limited scope to locate Typology C (turbines between 20 m and up to and including 42 m high) within this character area. Turbines should be sited on less complex broader hill slopes away from more complex rolling landform. Turbines should avoid eastern hill tops which are highly visible from the A1 and where they would be likely to incur significant cumulative effects with existing masts, transmission lines and the large turbines of the Crystal Rig windfarm. The distinctive band of small ‘foothills’ against the edge of the Central Lammermuir Plateau character area (these commonly featuring hill forts of archaeological interest) should also be avoided. Cumulative effects could also potentially arise close to the transition with the East Lammermuir Plateau where the turbines of Crystal Rig are clearly visible and the steep slopes of the Lothian Edge and Monynut Edge should be avoided with turbines instead being located on hill slopes (set down from more prominent hill tops) where a degree of ‘back-cloth’ from rising slopes would reduce visual impact in views from roads and settlement to the north. There is increased scope to site small turbines below 20 m high within this character area. These should be sited where they can be clearly associated with existing built development, farms or other settlement to minimise visual clutter within this landscape. All turbines should be sited to avoid significant intrusion on the setting of settlements of Spott, Oldhamstocks and Innerwick and also settlements such as Stenton and Garvald within the adjoining Whittingehame Valley landscape character area. The designed landscapes of Whittingehame and Biel are also highly sensitive to intrusion, particularly from larger turbines located on the steep slopes which provide a backdrop to these richly patterned policies in
Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine 49

views from Traprain Law and elevated roads to the north. Small turbines and turbines towards the lower height band of Typology C (below 30 m) are likely to minimise impacts on settlements and designed landscapes. Special care is needed to ensure that only well-designed turbines are used in this sensitive landscape with limits on the range of designs used in order to minimise cumulative landscape and visual effects.” Summary of capacity The findings of the ‘East Lothian Supplementary Landscape Capacity Study for Smaller Wind Turbines’ (2011) conclude that at the proposed scale, there is no scope for development due to the ‘high’ sensitivity of the landscape. The study notes that landscapes with a ‘high’ sensitivity score will ‘present major landscape and visual constraints to the specific development typology assessed, with significant adverse impacts likely to occur in relation to the majority of key sensitivity criteria’. Although the landscape capacity study provides a robust assessment of capacity at the strategic scale, this does not necessarily preclude development at the proposed location. It is the role of this LVIA to identify the nature and extent of any significant effects. Therefore, taking into account the apparent sensitivities of the Eastern Lammermuir Fringe LCA, this LVIA will be concluded with a detailed analysis of the findings of the assessment against the sensitivities identified in the ‘East Lothian Supplementary Landscape Capacity Study for Smaller Wind Turbines (2011)’ and the key considerations as set out in the ‘Planning Guidance for the Location and Design of Wind Turbines in the Lowland Areas of East Lothian’ (2010). 5.3.4.

Individual dwellings and settlements

Within 5 km from the proposed turbine, the landscape is relatively well settled to the east, west and north of the site with a pattern of scattered dwellings and small villages concentrated along valley bottoms, including the villages of Oldhamstocks and Innerwick which include Conservation Areas. To the east and west of the site, the wider study area is also well relatively settled and includes a number of coastal towns and villages including Dunbar, North Berwick and Eyemouth. Within the southern part of the study area, settlement is less frequent, particularly across the Lammermuir Hills. Receptor
Thurston Mains Cocklaw Elmscleugh Innerwick Easter Pinkerton Skateraw Little Pinkerton Stottencluegh Old Branxton Oldhamstocks Thornton Crowhill Woodhall

Approx. distance (km)
1.23 1.80 1.91 2.01 3.86 3.75 4.69 2.03 2.14 2.47 2.74 2.93 3.01

Sensitivity
high high high high high high high high high high high high high

Clusters & Villages & Towns within 0-5 km

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50

Receptor
The Brunt Ferneylea Birnieknowes Thorntonloch Hoprig Bilsdean Villages and Towns within 5-15 km Cockburnspath Spott Dunbar West Barns Stenton Abbey St Bathans Granthouse East Linton Longformacus Towns within 15-25 km Haddington Duns North Berwick Eyemouth

Approx. distance (km)
3.48 3.65 3.98 3.99 4.23 4.73

Sensitivity
high high high high high high

5.3 5.6 6.6 8.3 9.6 10.9 11.1 13.3 14.6 18.9 19.0 20.0 23.0

high high high high high high high high high high high high high

Table 13: Residential Receptors Table 13 summarises the residential receptors and their associated sensitivity within 25 km of the proposed development. It should be noted that individual dwellings have not been assessed as this is beyond the scope of this assessment. However, a general outline of the effect on individual properties within 5 km of the site is summarised in section 5.6. Receptor
Thurston Mains Cocklaw Elmscleugh Innerwick Easter Pinkerton Skateraw Little Pinkerton Stottencluegh Old Branxton Oldhamstocks

Approx. distance (km)
1.23 1.80 1.91 2.01 3.86 3.75 4.69 2.03 2.14 2.47

Sensitivity
high high high high high high high high high high
51

Clusters & Villages & Towns within 0-5 km

Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine

Receptor
Thornton Crowhill Woodhall The Brunt Ferneylea Birnieknowes Thorntonloch Hoprig Bilsdean Villages and Towns within 5-15 km Cockburnspath Spott Dunbar West Barns Stenton Abbey St Bathans Granthouse East Linton Longformacus Towns within 15-25 km Haddington Duns North Berwick Eyemouth

Approx. distance (km)
2.74 2.93 3.01 3.48 3.65 3.98 3.99 4.23 4.73

Sensitivity
high high high high high high high high high

5.3 5.6 6.6 8.3 9.6 10.9 11.1 13.3 14.6 18.9 19.0 20.0 23.0

high high high high high high high high high high high high high

Table 13: Residential Receptors 5.3.5.

Main roads

Within the study area, there is a relatively busy network of main roads, important for tourism, primarily concentrated along the coastal corridor. This includes the A1, A1107, A1087, A199, A198, A6112, A6105, A6093 and the A6137. There is also a good network of secondary and local roads across the study area. All these routes are judged as having a Medium sensitivity to change, expect the A1 which given the importance of the route for tourism traffic, is assessed as Medium to High. 5.3.6.

Recreational routes

Parts of the the Berwickshire Coastal Path, John Muir Way, Sothern Upland Way and National and Cycle Route (NCR) 76 are within the study area. Due to their national recreational importance, these routes are judged to have a high sensitivity to change.

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52

5.3.7.

Viewpoints

The following viewpoints (see Table 14) have been agreed with East Lothian Council as a basis for further investigation of visual effects on the associated receptors (see Drawing DNB032). VP Location Landscape Distance (km) Landscape Character Type
Upland Fringes

Visual

Sensitivity

Receptor(s)
residents local road users local road users residents local road users residents local road users local road users

Sensitivity
high medium medium high medium high medium medium

1. Oldhamstocks 2. Local road close to Oldhamstocks 3. Thurston Manor

2.3

high

2.7

Coastal Margins

med-high

2.6

Coastal Margins

med-high

4. Ferneylea

3.5

Coastal Farmland

med-high

5. A1 Thurston Manor turnoff

3.5

Coastal Margins

med-high

6. Monynut Edge

3.6

Upland Hills

med-high

walkers residents main road users

med-high high med-high high med-high high high med high medium med-high medium medium

7. A1 at Torness

3.9

Coastal Margins

med-high

8. A1 Oldhamstocks turnoff 9. Dunglass 10. Cockburnspath 11. Doon Hill

4.2

Coastal Margins

med-high

residents main road users

4.8 5.3 5.2

Coastal Farmland Coastal Farmland Upland Fringes

med-high med-high high

visitors to church & Dunglass GDL residents walkers residents

12. Halls

6.5

Upland Fringes

med-high

local road users walkers

13. Ecclaw Hill 14. Dunbar

6.0 7.2

Platform Farmland Coastal Margins

medium med-high

local road users local road users

Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine

53

15. A1107 close to Old Cambus 16. A198 over river Tyne 17. Traprain Law

9.8

Coastal Moorland

high

main road users NCR users walkers along John Muir Way local road users

med-high high high medium med-high

12.5 14.0

Coastal Margins Lowland Plains

med-high med-high

walkers

Table 14: Agreed Viewpoints 5.3.8.

Existing, consented and proposed developments

The following schemes outlined in Table 15 below have been identified as the baseline scenario to further investigate the cumulative landscape and visual impacts of the proposed development. These are illustrated in Drawing DNB019. ID Location Turbines Tip (m) Status Distance (km)

Within 15 km 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Woodhall Farm Aikengall Farm Wollands Farm Ferneylea Wester Dodd Dryburn Bridge Hoprigshiels Neuk Farm Crystal Rig III Crystal Rig I & II Luckieshiel Farm Bullshehill South Belton Belhaven Fruit Farm Quixswood Belhaven Trout Blackburn Rig Farm Old Townhead Forthview (Ruchlaw Mains) Penmanshiel Wind Farm Old Cambus Blakerstone Hill Moor House Farmhouse Brockholes 1 16 1 2 22 3 3 2 11 85 1 1 2 2 14 2 1 1 1 15 1 2 2 3 47 125 53 71 125 100 125 110 100-125 100-125 48.5 100 37 37 126.5 37 48.7 54 48.5 100 66 54 77.9 79 Consented (Appeal) Operational Scoping Consented (Appeal) Pending Pending (Appeal) Approved Pending Scoping Operational Pending Scoping Pending Pending Pending Pending Scoping Pending (Appeal) Operational Pending Scoping Approved Scoping Approved 2.5 2.7 3 3.3 3.3 4.1 4.2 5.3 3.8 5.4 7.1 7.3 8 8.4 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.2 10 10.2 10.2 11.4 12.4 12.8

Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine

54

ID
25 26 27 28 29 30

Location
Drone Hill Monashee Farm Dowlaw Carfrae Black Hill Berran Cairndinnis

Turbines
22 6 2 1 21 2

Tip (m)
125 119 30.3 34.2 78 37

Status
Approved Pending Approved Approved Operational Pending

Distance (km)
13.1 13.4 14.1 14.6 14.9 14.9

Within 15-25 km 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 Newlands Blackhouse Lumsdaine Falla Knowe Farm Over Hailes Castlemains Farmhouse Markle Mains Farm Sunnyside Farm Greenburn Farm Reston Fallago Rig Crosslaw farm Stonelaws Farm Townhead Buskin Farm Lintlaw Cedar Cottage (II) Cedar Cottage Pressmains Farm Bogan Green Abbey Mains Black Mains Greenvale Alemill Farm Brunta Hill Wind Farm Howden Farm Fenton Barns Horn Burn Marvingston Farmhouse Alderston Mains Nethermains Whiterig 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 1 48 2 3 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 9 1 3 10 1 1 1 2 35 70 30.3 45.9 46 47 47 45.9 54 110-125 30.3 37 41.7 30.3 30.3 34.4 66.79 60.98 34.2 34.2 126 130 33 126.5 32 30 115 47 34 31.9 45 Scoping (Inactive) Approved Approved Pending Pending Approved Pending Pending Approved Approved Approved Pending Pending Approved Approved Pending Pending Approved Pending Pending Scoping Scoping Pending Pending Approved Approved Scoping Pending Operational Approved Pending 15.2 15.3 15.6 15.6 15.9 16 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.5 16.6 16.7 16.8 17 17.8 18.2 18.2 18.3 18.3 18.5 20.7 20.8 21.1 22 22.3 22.4 22.4 22.4 22.5 23.2 24.5

Table 15: Wind farm developments included in the Cumulative Assessment
Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine 55

5.4.

Design Optimisation & Mitigation

The design of a wind development is driven by the key objective of positioning turbines so that they capture the maximum energy possible within a suitable area determined by environmental and technical constraints. These key constraints to site design which need to be taken into account during the design process include:          5.4.1. landscape character and visual amenity; proximity to noise sensitive receptors; presence of ornithology; presence of protected habitats and species; presence of watercourses; ground conditions and topography; presence of cultural heritage features; key recreational and tourist routes; and presence of power lines and telecommunication links.

Design iterations

Original proposal A screening opinion was originally provided from East Lothian Council for a single wind turbine with a height to blade tip of 74m at Cocklaw Hill, on the western boundary of the land ownership boundary, approximately 600m to the South of the TV mast. Feedback from East Lothian Council stated that a wind turbine of this scale at this location could have a significant impact over a wide area of East Lothian. It was considered that the turbine would be seen to “spill over” the Lammermuir Edge should it be located on the plateau and such a development would be seen as unusual for the area. Particular concerns were also raised regarding the potential effects on the Conservation Areas of Oldhamstocks and Innerwick and on the Lammermuir AGLV designation. Current proposal Considering these issues, it was decided that a reduction in turbine height and a different location would be required to help mitigate any potential significant landscape and visual effects. A reduction in scale was considered necessary in order to reduce the visual impact on surrounding sensitive areas, particularly the Oldhamstocks Conservation Area. Several design iterations were assessed through a ZTV analysis which indicated that a scale reduction of 25 – 30% would be necessary in order to avoid significant visual effects on nearby sensitive receptors. The current proposal at 56.3m to tip is a 17.7m reduction on the original proposal. Taking into account other technical considerations and the need to limit the ZTV as far as possible, the proposed turbine location has been moved to the north-western part of the site, near to the two transmitter masts. In addition to avoiding any potential significant effects on Oldhamstocks and Innerwick, the turbine would be viewed in close association with the existing masts but still with a balanced degree of separation between these elements. This would help to mitigate any landscape effects on the surrounding landscape by positioning the turbine next to a cluster of other vertical elements. Furthermore, by moving the location
Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine 56

further north, this would increase the degree of separation from other wind energy developments to the south and help mitigate issues of visual confusion and coalescence.

5.5.

Impact Assessment

This section provides an assessment of the likely landscape and visual effects arising from the proposed development during the operational phase, having taken account of the mitigation measures described above. This is presented through separate assessments of landscape effects, visual effects and cumulative effects and informed through a detailed viewpoint assessment. 5.5.1.

Landscape resources

The extent of the proposed development is shown on Drawing DNB002. Approximately 41 m of new track will be constructed. Overall, there will be permanent loss of around 230 m2 of improved pasture for the turbine base and new access track. The land will remain to be grazed. There will be no loss of any distinctive landscape features, such as trees, walls or hedges. Given the very limited nature of the disturbance, it is anticipated that the proposed development will have no more than a minor effect upon the physical fabric of the landscape. 5.5.2.

Viewpoint Assessment

Table 16 provides a summary of the viewpoint assessment from the seventeen agreed locations. The photomontages (Drawings DNB034-085) have been prepared by combining a wireframe of the view with the photograph of the existing view and rendering the image using a model of the proposed wind turbines, also generated electronically. The resulting images should be viewed at a distance as recommended on each montage to most closely replicate the view that will be obtained from the viewpoint. At each viewpoint, a detailed assessment was undertaken to identify any landscape and visual effects that are also used to inform the general assessment of landscape and visual effects. Where any significant effects have been identified, these have been discussed in more detail in section 5.5.3. It should be noted that every effort has been made to provide clear views of the turbine although due to intervening vegetation, clear views were not always available. Where this is the case, these VPs have been retained to demonstrate the limited effect of the proposed development.

Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine

57

Landscape Distance (km) Magnitude of Change VP Location

Visual Magnitude of Change

Receptor(s)

Landscape Character Type

Significant

Sensitivity

1.

2.3

Upland Fringes

high

Negligible: very little perceptible change to the containment provided by the nearby hill with a very small introduction of movement on the open skyline, affecting the rural character and setting of the village to a very limited extent. None: the turbine is screened from view by intervening shelter belt on the skyline. All characteristics unaffected. Medium: the turbine would be very noticeable on the skyline, introducing movement to the containment provided by the hills and affecting rural character to an extent, although in scale with other surrounding vertical features and landform. Low-negligible: little perceptible change to the

residents modminor x local road users

high

med

Negligible: very oblique views from several dwellings and direct views of local road users of only a very small part of the turbine tips visible on the skyline with no real change to the perception or focus of the view. None: the turbine is screened from view by intervening skyline shelter belt. Medium: oblique views from two nearby dwellings and local road users of the turbine very visible and back lit on the skyline, adding to the visual clutter although fitting the the existing development pattern with little change to the focus of the view. Low: direct views of local road users and oblique

modminor

x

minor

x

2.

2.7

Coastal Margins

med-high

none

x

local road users

med

none

x

residents moderate to modmajor x local road users

high

modmajor

3.

2.6

Coastal Margins

med-high

med

moderate

x

4.

3.5

Coastal Farmland

med-high

modminor

x

residents

high

moderate

x

Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine

58

Significant

Sensitivity

Effect

Effect

Landscape Distance (km) Magnitude of Change VP Location

Visual Magnitude of Change

Receptor(s)

Landscape Character Type

Significant

Sensitivity

containment provided by the nearby hill with a very small addition of movement on the open skyline and affecting coastal character to a minor extent.

local road users

med

views of two nearby dwellings & two with direct filtered views of the tips of the turbine blades flicking on the open skyline with no real change to the perception or focus of the view. Medium: direct views of local road users of the turbine clearly visible and back lit on the skyline, adding to the visual clutter although fitting the the existing development pattern with little change to the focus of the view. Medium: some direct views of walkers of the turbine clearly visible and on the intervening skyline, and backed by views out to sea. It would add to the visual clutter although fitting the the existing development pattern with little change to the focus of the the wider view.

modminor

x

5.

3.5

Coastal Margins

med-high

Med-low: the turbine would be noticeable on the skyline, adding movement to the containment provided by the hills to an extent although in scale with other surrounding vertical features and landform, near to a busy road corridor. Med-low: the turbine would be noticeable on the skyline, adding movement to the containment provided by the hills to an extent. It would contrast with the semi natural character of open moorland although in scale with other surrounding vertical features and landform.

moderate

x

local road users

med

moderate

x

6.

3.6

Upland Hills

med-high

moderate

x

walkers

medhigh

mod to modmajor

x

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59

Significant

Sensitivity

Effect

Effect

Landscape Distance (km) Magnitude of Change VP Location

Visual Magnitude of Change

Receptor(s)

Landscape Character Type

Significant

Sensitivity

7.

3.9

Coastal Margins

med-high

Med-low: the turbine would be noticeable on the skyline, adding movement to the containment provided by the hills to an extent although in scale with other surrounding vertical features and landform, within a busy main road road corridor. Med-low: the turbine would be noticeable on the skyline, adding movement to the containment provided by the hills to an extent although in scale with other surrounding vertical features and landform, within a busy main road road corridor. Low: the turbine blades would introduce a limited amount of movement on the skyline, affecting the character and qualities of the designed landscape to a minor degree.

residents

high

moderate

x main road users medhigh

Med-low: oblique views of three nearby dwellings and oblique views of main road users of the turbine clearly visible and back lit on the skyline, adding to the visual clutter although fitting the the existing development pattern with little change to the focus of the view. Med-low: oblique views of one nearby dwellings and oblique views of main road users of the turbine clearly visible and back lit on the skyline, adding to the visual clutter although fitting the the existing development pattern with little change to the focus of the view. Low: direct views of visitors to the GDL of the turbine blades evident flicking on the skyline filtered by trees, adding to the visual clutter with little change to focus of the view towards the church.

mod to modmajor

x

moderate

x

residents moderate x main road users

high

mod to modmajor

x

8.

4.2

Coastal Margins

med-high

medhigh

moderate

x

9.

4.8

Coastal Farmland

med-high

mod to modminor

x

visitors to church & Dunglass GDL

high

moderate

x

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Significant

Sensitivity

Effect

Effect

Landscape Distance (km) Magnitude of Change VP Location

Visual Magnitude of Change

Receptor(s)

Landscape Character Type

Significant

Sensitivity

10.

5.3

Coastal Farmland

med-high

Low: the turbine blades would introduce a limited amount of movement on the skyline, affecting the rural character and containment of hills to minor degree, although in scale with other surrounding vertical features and landform. Med-low: the turbine would be noticeable, introducing movement to the containment provided by the hills and affecting rural character to an extent, although in scale with other surrounding vertical features and landform. Med-low: the turbine would be noticeable, introducing movement to the containment provided by the hills and affecting rural character to a limited extent,

mod to modminor

x

residents

high

Low: direct views of four dwellings of the turbine blades flicking on the wooded skyline, adding to the visual clutter with little change to focus of the view and little of the view affected. Med-low: some direct views of walkers of the turbine clearly visible and back lit on the wooded skyline, adding to the visual clutter although fitting the existing development pattern with little change to the focus of the view towards to the coast. Low: oblique views of nearby dwelling and road users and: Low-medium: direct views of walkers of the turbine

moderate

x

11.

5.2

Upland Fringes

high

mod to modmajor

x

walkers

med

moderate to modminor

x

12.

6.5

Upland Fringes

high

mod to modmajor

residents x local road users

high

moderate modminor

x

med

x

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Significant

Sensitivity

Effect

Effect

Landscape Distance (km) Magnitude of Change VP Location

Visual Magnitude of Change

Receptor(s)

Landscape Character Type

Significant

Sensitivity

although in scale with other surrounding vertical features and landform. walkers

medhigh

noticeable on the skyline, adding to the visual clutter although fitting the the existing development pattern with little change to the focus of the view towards to the coast. Med-low: direct views of road users of the turbine noticeable on the skyline, adding to the visual clutter although fitting the the existing development pattern with little change to the focus of the view towards to the coast. Low: oblique views of road users of the turbine blades evident flicking on the open skyline, adding to the visual clutter with little change to the focus of the view along the road corridor.

moderate

x

13.

6.0

Platform Farmland

med

Med-low: the turbine would be noticeable, introducing movement to the containment provided by the hills and affecting rural character to a limited extent, although in scale with other surrounding vertical features and landform. Low: the turbine blades would introduce a limited amount of movement on the skyline, affecting the rural character of the back drop to a minor degree although in scale with other surrounding vertical features and landform.

moderate to modminor

x

local road users

med

moderate to modminor

x

14.

7.2

Coastal Margins

med-high

moderate to modminor

x

local road users

med

modminor

x

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Significant

Sensitivity

Effect

Effect

Landscape Distance (km) Magnitude of Change VP Location

Visual Magnitude of Change

Receptor(s)

Landscape Character Type

Significant

Sensitivity

15.

9.8

Coastal Moorland

high

Low: the turbine would be evident, introducing a limited amount of movement on the skyline, affecting the coastal character to a minor degree although in scale with other surrounding vertical features and landform. Low: the turbine would be evident, introducing a limited amount of movement on the skyline, affecting the coastal character to a minor degree although in scale with other surrounding vertical features, landform and land use patterns. Low: the turbine would be evident, introducing a limited amount of movement on the skyline, affecting the rural character to a minor degree although in scale with other surrounding vertical features, landform and land use patterns.

main road users moderate x NCR users

medhigh

high

Low: direct views of road users and the NCR of the turbine evident on the skyline, adding to the visual clutter although fitting the the existing development pattern with little change to the focus of the view towards to the coast. Low: views of local road users and walkers of the turbine evident on the skyline, adding to the visual clutter although fitting the the existing development pattern with little change to the focus of the view of the wider Lammermuir skyline. Low: direct views of walkers of the turbine evident on the skyline, adding to the visual clutter although fitting the the existing development pattern with little change to the focus of the view of the wider Lammermuir skyline and the coast.

moderate to modminor

x

moderate

x

16.

12.5

Coastal Margins

med-high

moderate to modminor

walkers along John Muir Way x local road users

high

moderate

x

med

modminor

x

17.

14.0

Lowland Plains

med-high

moderate to modminor

x

walkers

medhigh

moderate to modminor

x

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Significant

Sensitivity

Effect

Effect

Table 16: Viewpoint Assessment

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64

5.5.3.

Detailed assessment of significant viewpoint effects

As demonstrated in Table 16, no significant landscape effects are predicted at any viewpoints with significant visual effects only predicted at viewpoint 3. These effects are examined in more detail in the following paragraphs. Viewpoint 3: Thurston Manor The viewpoint, looking south, is taken from a local road near to the entrance of Thurston Manor Holiday Park. The existing view (Drawing DNB039) is a medium range view of the road corridor and the entrance to Thurston Manor Holiday Park to the right of the view with a large open grass field bounded by post and wire fencing to the left. The field is backed by coniferous and deciduous woodland blocks with a line of telegraph poles and pylons running across the view. The foreground is backed by the slopes of Blackcastle Hill with two transmitter masts prominent on the skyline. The viewpoint represents the worst case scenario of two nearby dwellings with oblique views and the oblique views of local road users. The predicted view of the proposed development, located 2.63 km to the south, demonstrates the turbine forming a very noticeable element on the nearby skyline, adding to the visual clutter in association with the existing masts on Blackcastle Hill and Pylons along the lower ground. The turbine would be back lit, increasing its visibility. However, to some extent, the turbine fits the existing development pattern of other vertical elements with little change to the focus of the view towards the existing masts. From two nearby residential dwellings located along the road, views of the proposed development would be oblique in nature. With a high sensitivity and medium magnitude of change, the effect on the visual amenity is therefore judged to be mod-major and significant. Visual effects for local road users are not judged to be significant due to the lower sensitivity of these receptors. Potential views of the turbine from within Thurston Manor Holiday Park are likely to be screened by intervening woodlands along the southern and eastern perimeter of the park. 5.5.4.

Residual landscape effects

As demonstrated by the viewpoint the assessment, significant effects are very unlikely to be experienced outwith 15 km from the turbine. Therefore, to focus the assessment on likely significant effects, only those receptors within 15 km have been assessed further. For those LCTs and designations outwith 15 km, the magnitude of change is predicted to be no greater than low-negligible. This would not result in any significant landscape effects on the following landscape receptors outwith 15 km from the proposed turbine:      Luffness GDL Duns Castle GDL Garleton Hills and Laws AGLV Balgone House GDL Leuchie GDL     Dirleton Castle GDL Archerfield GDL Rolling Lowland Margin LCT Lowland Hills and Ridges LCT

The following LCTs and designations are outside of any theoretical visibility and no effects are therefore predicted:   Grey Walls (High Walls) GDL St Mary's Pleasance GDL   Biel GDL Edrom Nurseries GDL
65

Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine

         

Whittingehame GDL Wedderburn GDL Lennoxlove GDL Whitchester GDL Marchmont GDL Manderston GDL Yester House GDL Pilmuir GDL Netherbyres GDL Houndwood House GDL

         

Ayton Castle GDL Gosford House GDL Stevenson House GDL Coastal Valley LCT Lowland with Drumlins LCT Upland Valley with Farmland LCT Lowland River Valley LCT Plateau Grassland LCT Upland Fringe Moorland LCT Rolling Farmland LCT

Table 17 sets out a summary of the predicted effects on the landscape receptors within 15 km from the proposed turbine and within the ZTV (Drawings DNB015-017). For those LCTs or designations where significant effects have been identified, a more detailed assessment has been presented in the Section 5.5.5.

Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine

66

Receptor

Sensitivity to Change

Magnitude of Change

Residual Effect

Significance

Landscape Designations Within 0-15 km
Low to medium within 5 km: The proposed turbine is located within the northern fringes of the designation. Within 5 km, there are extensive areas of theoretical visibility concentrated along the north and western slopes of Blackcastle and Cocklaw Hills and the series of incised cleughs, north facing slopes and hill summits to the south of the site. Most of the south and eastern facing slopes of Blackcastle Hill and Cocklaw Hill are outwith theoretical visibility as is the most of the higher ground along Monynut Edge. The area has a prevailing open and often exposed character and actual visibility would be reduced to a limited extent by the pattern of small woodlands scattered across the hill slopes to the south of the site. Lammermuirs AGLV/SLA med-high The assessment at viewpoint 6 (Monynut Edge) predicts a low-medium magnitude of change. From this location, the turbine would be noticeable on the skyline, adding movement to the containment provided by Blackcastle and Cocklaw Hills to an extent. It would contrast with the semi natural character of open moorland although in scale with other surrounding vertical features and landform. A low-medium magnitude of change is also predicted from viewpoint 12 (Halls) to the west of the site. Although the turbine would be noticeable on the hill summit, the existing masts on Blackcastle Hill would limit the magnitude of change resulting from the addition of a single turbine. Furthermore, the AGLV to to the south-west of the turbine location is dominated by existing windfarm development which significantly detracts from the surrounding open moorland character of the AGLV. Taking into the relatively extensive actual visibility and the context of large scale windfarm development and prominent masts, the magnitude of change resulting from the proposed development is judged to be low to medium. moderate not significant

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Receptor

Sensitivity to Change

Magnitude of Change
Low-negligible outwith 5 km: ZTV is much more limited outwith 5 km and largely restricted to small areas of some hill summits. From these, the proposed turbine would mostly be viewed within a context or foreground dominated by the large scale wind farm development at Crystal Rig and screened by large scale conifer plantations from many locations. Considering the very limited extent of any effect, the magnitude of change is judge to be low-negligible Low-negligible: The GDL is located 3.7 km to the east of the turbine, approximately half of which is within theoretical visibility, scattered across the designation. Actual visibility would be limited to small areas of open ground. Extensive policy woodlands within the garden would screen the turbine from view from most locations, including the church, surrounding buildings and the designed wooded gorges. One of the very few available views is represented by the assessment at viewpoint 9 where a low magnitude of change is predicted. From this location, views of the turbine blades would introduce a limited amount of movement on the skyline, affecting the character and qualities of the designed landscape to a minor degree. Overall, taking into account the very limited extent of any effect, the magnitude of change is judged to be lownegligible. Low: The AGLV is located 4.4 km to the north of the site at its closets point. Nearly all of the area to the east of Dunbar is within ZTV with mostly open views towards the site. To the west of Dunbar, the large majority is within ZTV although built development in Dunbar and the extensive policy woodlands in and around Tyninghame GDL would screen views from many locations. Taking into account the magnitude of change from viewpoint assessments at similar locations and the effects of large scale industrial development at Skateraw and Torness, the overall effect on the coastal qualities of the AGLV is judged to be low.

Residual Effect

Significance

minor

not significant

Dunglass GDL

high

moderate to mod-minor

not significant

Coastal Areas AGLV

med-high

moderate to mod-minor

not significant

Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine

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Receptor

Sensitivity to Change

Magnitude of Change
Negligible:

Residual Effect

Significance

Broxmouth Park GDL

high

Broxmouth Park GDL is located 5.4 km to the north of the proposed turbine with nearly all of the designation within theoretical visibility. Any views are very likely to be screened by the dense policy woodlands along the southern perimeter and those within the GDL, although from some small areas of open ground, views of the very tips of the turbine above the treeline maybe possible. None of the designed vistas are likely to be affected. Taking this into account, the magnitude of change is judged to be negligible. Low to negligible: The SLA is located 6.0 km to the east at its closest point with most of the designation within 15 km within theoretical visibility. There is very little visibility outwith 15 km. Due to the open character of the coastal landscape, actual visibility is likely to be similar although some views would be screened by intervening local landform and woodland. The assessment at viewpoint 15 (Old Campus) is within the SLA and predicts a low magnitude of change where the turbine would be evident, introducing a limited amount of movement on the skyline, affecting the rural/coastal character of the view to a minor degree although in scale with other surrounding vertical features and landform. Taking into the relatively localised extent of effect on the overriding coastal qualities of the SLA, overall, the magnitude of change is judged to be low to negligible. Low: The John Muir Country Park is located approximately 8.4 km to the north-west of the proposed turbine at its closest point. Nearly all is within theoretical visibility. To the east, actual views would be screened by Dunbar with some areas along the southern boundary and north-western part screened by woodland. The majority of the coastal marshland would experience views although the car park is outwith the ZTV. Taking into account the findings of the viewpoint assessment from similar distances and the extent of effect, the magnitude of change is judged to be low overall.

mod-minor

not significant

Berwickshire Coast SLA

med-high

moderate to mod-minor

not significant

John Muir Country Park

medium

mod-minor

not significant

Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine

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Receptor

Sensitivity to Change

Magnitude of Change
None:

Residual Effect

Significance

Belhaven House GDL

high

The GDL is located approximately 8.4 km to the north-west with all of the designation within theoretical visibility. Actual views of the turbine are very likely to be screened from view by perimeter trees and adjacent intervening built development in Belhaven. Low-negligible: Located approximately 12.2 km to the north-west, nearly all of the GDL is within theoretical visibility. Actual views are likely to be screened from most locations by the pattern of small woodlands and shelter belts throughout the garden. However, views maybe possible from some areas of open ground with a similar effect to that predicted at viewpoint 16. From here, the turbine would be evident, introducing a limited amount of movement on the skyline, affecting the rural character to a minor degree although in scale with other surrounding vertical features, landform and land use patterns. Overall, the magnitude of change is judged to be lownegligible. Low-negligible: The AGLV is located 12.4 km to the west of the site with approximately one third of the designation within theoretical visibility. Actual visibility would be similar to the ZTV. The assessment at viewpoint 17 predicts a low magnitude of change where the turbine would be evident, introducing a limited amount of movement on the skyline, affecting the rural character of the view to a minor degree although in scale with other surrounding vertical features, landform and land use patterns. Taking into account the limited extent of effect and the panoramic views from the summit, the magnitude of change overall is judged to be lownegligible.

none

not significant

Tyninghame GDL

high

moderate to mod-minor

not significant

Trapain Law AGLV

med-high

mod-minor

not significant

Landscape Character Types
Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine 70

Receptor

Sensitivity to Change

Magnitude of Change

Residual Effect

Significance

Within 0-15 km
Low: Within 10 km, approximately two thirds of the LCT is within theoretical visibility although from many locations to the west of the site, the pattern of linear woodlands and conifer plantations would screen the turbine from view from some locations. Outwith 10 km, there is no theoretical visibility. The landscape assessment at viewpoint 1 (Oldhamstocks) predicts a negligible magnitude of change where the turbine would result in very little perceptible change to the containment provided by the nearby hill with a very small introduction of movement on the open skyline, affecting the rural character and setting of the Oldhamstocks to a very limited extent. From viewpoints 11 (Doon Hill) and 12 (Halls), a med-low magnitude is predicted. From these locations, the turbine would be noticeable, introducing movement to the containment provided by the hills and affecting rural character to a limited extent, although in scale with other surrounding vertical features and landform. Overall, taking into account the likely extent of effect, the magnitude of change on the LCT is judged to be low. Low-negligible: Theoretical visibility is limited to the north facing slopes of the hills within 10 km and some some hill summits scattered across the LCT. Several large conifer plantations along the northern fringes of the hills would help to screen the turbine from hill summits. The landscape assessment at viewpoint 6 (Monynut Edge) predicts a med-low magnitude of change where the turbine would be noticeable on the skyline, adding movement to the containment provided by the hills to an extent. It would contrast with the semi natural character of open moorland although in scale with other surrounding vertical features and landform and in the context of surrounding large scale wind farm development. Taking into the findings of the viewpoint assessment and the very limited extent of effect across this large LCT, the magnitude of change is judged to be low-negligible overall.

Upland Fringe

high

moderate

not significant

Upland Hills

med-high

mod-minor

not significant

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Receptor

Sensitivity to Change

Magnitude of Change
Med-low: Approximately half of the LCT is theoretical visibility, including most of the coast. The landscape has a prevailing open character although built development and small woodlands, particularly towards the west, would provide localised screening. The landscape assessment at viewpoint 3, (Thurston Manor) predicts a medium magnitude of change, med-low at viewpoints 5, (A1 Thurston Manor turnoff) 7, (A1 at Torness) and 8, (A1 Oldhamstocks turnoff) low at viewpoints 14 (Dunbar) and 16 (A198 over river Tyne) and none at viewpoint 2 (local road close to Oldhamstocks). In general, the turbine would be noticeable on the skyline, introducing movement to the containment provided by the hills and affecting coastal character to an extent, although in scale with other surrounding vertical features and landform. Taking into account the moderate extent of effect across the LCT, the overall magnitude of change is judged to be medlow. Low: Nearly all of the Coastal Farmlands are within theoretical visibility with some localised screening provided by the pattern of linear shelterbelts. From viewpoint 4, (Ferneylea) a low-negligible magnitude of landscape change is predicted and low at viewpoints 9 (Dunglass) and 10 (Cockburnspath). This would be due to views of the turbine blades introducing a limited amount of movement on the skyline, affecting the coastal character and containment of hills to minor degree. Considering the large extent of effect, the magnitude of change is judged to be low on the LCT as a whole. Low-negligible: Approximately half of the Coastal Moorland is within theoretical visibility although actual visibility would be reduced by plantation woodland within the LCT and woodlands within intervening LCTs. The landscape assessment at viewpoint 15 (A1107 close to Old Cambus) predicts a low magnitude of change where the turbine would be evident, introducing a limited amount of movement on the skyline, affecting the coastal character to a minor degree although in scale with other surrounding vertical features and landform. With a limited extent of effect, the overall magnitude of change is judged to be low-negligible.

Residual Effect

Significance

Coastal Margin

med-high

moderate

not significant

Coastal Farmland

med-high

moderate to mod-minor

not significant

Coastal Moorland

high

moderate to mod-minor

not significant

Environmental Statement –Dunbar Community Wind Turbine

72

Receptor

Sensitivity to Change

Magnitude of Change
Low: Approximately half of the LCT is within theoretical visibility with actual views reduced to some extent by the screening effect of woodlands. From viewpoint 13, a med-low magnitude of change is predicted where the turbine would be noticeable, introducing movement to the containment provided by the hills and affecting rural character to a limited extent, although in scale with other surrounding vertical features and landform. Taking into account the limited extent of visibility and the distance from the site, the magnitude of change is judged to be low overall. Low-negligible: Most of the LCT is outwith theoretical visibility expect for three of ZTV between East Linton and Haddington. From lower ground, woodlands would provide some local screening. From viewpoint 17, a low magnitude of change is predicted. This would be due to the turbine being evident, introducing a limited amount of movement on the skyline, affecting the rural character to a minor degree although in scale with other surrounding vertical features, landform and land use patterns. Considering the very limited extent of effect, the overall magnitude of change is judged to be low-negligible. Low-negligible:

Residual Effect

Significance

Platform Farmland

medium

mod-minor

not significant

Lowland Plains

med-high

mod-minor

not significant

Pastoral Upland Fringe Valley

high

Some parts of the upper valley sides are within theoretical visibility although the pattern of valley side woodlands would limit actual views of the turbine to localised areas. Taking into account the limited extent of visibility and the distance from the site, the magnitude of change is judged to be low-negligible. Negligible:

moderate to mod-minor

not significant

Wooded Upland Fringe Valley

high

Only small parts of the LCT are within theoretical visibility, mostly within or adjacent to intervening woodlands. Actual views would be limited to occasional glimpses of the turbine. Taking into account the very limited extent of visibility and the distance from the site, the magnitude of change is judged to be negligible.

mod-minor

not significant

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Receptor

Sensitivity to Change

Magnitude of Change
Negligible:

Residual Effect

Significance

Grassland with Hills

medium

Only small parts of the LCT are within theoretical visibility, mostly within or adjacent to intervening woodlands. Actual views would be limited to occasional glimpses of the turbine. Taking into account the very limited extent of visibility and the distance from the site, the magnitude of change is judged to be negligible.

minor

not significant

Table 17: Residual effects on landscape receptors

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74

5.5.5.

Summary of landscape effects

No significant effects are predicted on the integrity of any landscape designations or LCTs within the study area. Furthermore, no localised significant effects are predicted from any of the seventeen representative viewpoints see Table 16.

5.6.

Overall pattern of visibility

The 3 point ZTVs are illustrated in Drawings DNB010-014. This indicates that within 5 km of the proposed development, there are large near continuous areas to the west of the site and across the Upland Fringe LCT predicted to experience theoretical views of the turbine, apart from the bottoms of the numerous small incised valleys. To the north of the site, most of the coast and A1 is within the ZTV although the village of Innerwick and most of the area to the north-west of Brunt Hill and Pinkerton Hill are outside of any theoretical visibility. To the east, most of the east facing slopes of Blackcastle Hill and Cocklaw Hill are outside of the ZTV with large areas of near continuous theoretical visibility across the lower lying coastal landscape. To the south of the site, the north facing slopes of the Lammermuirs and associated AGLV designation is within the ZTV although from most of Monynut Edge, there would be no visibility. From 5-15 km, theoretical visibility is more restricted with parts of Dunbar and large areas of the Coastal Margin LCT to the north of East Linton within the ZTV. There are smaller, scattered areas of ZTV along parts of the Lothian Edge and on some hill summits in the Lammermuirs. To the east of the site, there are large scattered areas of ZTV around Cockburnspath and parts of the coastal landscape further east. Outwith 15 km, most of the landscape is outwith any theoretical visibility except for a relatively large part of the Coastal Margin LCT to the south of North Berwick, some hill summits across the Lammermuirs and parts of the coastal landscape to the east of the study area. As the ZTV takes no account of the screening effects of woodland, development and other landcover, it is likely that the pattern of coniferous woodlands to the south, built development, policy woodlands and wooded valleys to west, north and east of the site would significantly limit the opportunity for open views towards the turbine from many locations. 5.6.1.

Residential dwellings and settlements

Within 5 km from the turbine, the landscape is relatively well settled to the east, west and north of the site with a pattern of scattered dwellings and small villages concentrated along valley bottoms, including the villages of Oldhamstocks and Innerwick, both of which are Conservation Areas. To the east and west of the site, the wider study area contains a number of coastal towns and villages including Dunbar, North Berwick and Eyemouth. Within the southern part of the study area, settlement is less frequent, particularly across the Lammermuir Hills. Many of these dwellings and settlements have intervening woodlands or built development which will reduce opportunities for direct views of the turbine, particularly from ground floor rooms. Table 18 sets out an assessment of the visual effect on the clusters and villages within 5 km of the proposed turbine location and those larger settlements outwith 5 km.

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Receptor

Approx. distance (km)

Sensitivity

Magnitude of Change

Residual Effect

Significance

Clusters & Villages & Towns within 0-5 km Thurston Mains Cocklaw Elmscleugh Innerwick Easter Pinkerton Skateraw Little Pinkerton Stottencluegh Old Branxton Oldhamstocks 1.23 1.80 1.91 2.01 3.86 3.75 4.69 2.03 2.14 2.47 high high high high high high high high high high low: possible views of turbine blades filtered intervening woodlands none: outside of ZTV none: views screened by local landform none: outside of ZTV negligible: several dwellings with possible oblique filtered views of the very ends of blade tips flicking on the skyline none: views screened by garden vegetation, roadside trees and stonewall none: outside of ZTV none: outside of ZTV none: views screened by dense garden vegetation and nearby woodland negligible: dwellings with very oblique views of the the very tips of the blades on the skyline low-neg: mostly oblique views from several dwellings of the turbine screened/filtered by garden vegetation negligible: several dwellings with very oblique views filtered by gardens vegetation none: views screened by dense garden vegetation, nearby woodland and local landform moderate none none none mod-minor none none none none mod-minor moderate to mod-minor mod-minor none not significant not significant not significant not significant not significant not significant not significant not significant not significant not significant

Thornton

2.74

high

not significant

Crowhill Woodhall

2.93 3.01

high high

not significant not significant

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Receptor
The Brunt Ferneylea Birnieknowes Thorntonloch Hoprig Bilsdean

Approx. distance (km)
3.48 3.65 3.98 3.99 4.23 4.73

Sensitivity
high high high high high high

Magnitude of Change
medium: several dwellings with open direct views of the turbine low: several dwellings with direct or oblique views screened or filtered by garden vegetation negligible: several dwellings with very oblique views filtered by gardens vegetation med-low: several dwellings with open oblique views of the turbine none: views screened by dense garden vegetation and nearby woodland none: views screened by dense garden vegetation and nearby woodland

Residual Effect
mod-major moderate mod-minor moderate to mod-major none none

Significance
significant not significant not significant not significant not significant not significant

Villages and Towns within 5-15 km none: majority screened by built development Cockburnspath 5.3 high low: several dwellings on south-western fringe with direct views of the turbine blades flicking on the wooded skyline none: outside of ZTV none: majority screened by built development Dunbar 6.6 low: a limited number of scattered dwellings throughout the town with direct views of the turbine on the skyline high high high high none: outside of ZTV none: outside of ZTV none: outside of ZTV none: outside of ZTV
77

none moderate none none moderate none none none none

not significant not significant not significant not significant not significant not significant not significant not significant not significant

Spott

5.6

high

West Barns Stenton Abbey St Bathans Granthouse

8.3 9.6 10.9 11.1

Environmental Statement – Dunbar Community Wind Turbine

Receptor
East Linton Longformacus

Approx. distance (km)
13.3 14.6

Sensitivity
high high

Magnitude of Change
none: outside of ZTV or screened by built development none: outside of ZTV

Residual Effect
none none

Significance
not significant not significant

Towns within 15-25 km Haddington Duns North Berwick Eyemouth 18.9 19.0 20.0 23.0 high high high high none: outside of ZTV none: outside of ZTV none: outside of ZTV none: outside of ZTV none none none none not significant not significant not significant not significant

Table 18: Summary of residual effects on residential settlements

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5.6.2.

Detailed assessment of significant visual effects on settlements

Several dwellings at The Brunt would have direct and open views towards the site and are predicted to experience significant visual effects. From these dwellings, the turbine would be very noticeable on the skyline and would add to the visual clutter of transmitter masts on Blackcastle Hill. There would be little change to the focus of the view. At this distance, a medium magnitude of change is predicted and taking into account the high sensitivity of residents, a mod-major and significant effect. However, to some extent, the turbine fits the existing development pattern of other vertical elements with little change to the focus of the view towards the existing masts. No other clusters of dwellings, villages or towns are predicted to experience significant effects as views tend to be oblique, screened by built development, garden vegetation or woodland. From those dwellings that would direct and open views outwith approximately 3.5 km, the visual prominence of the turbine would reduce to an extent where effects would no longer be judged as significant. As noted within the methodology, a detailed assessment on individual dwellings is beyond the scope of this assessment. However, there are several individual dwellings within 5 km of the proposed turbine. Where dwellings would have direct and un-obscured views of the turbine, significant are likely within approximately 3.5 km. 5.6.3.

Roads and recreational routes

Main Roads Talking into account the findings of the viewpoint assessment, significant effects are very unlikely to be experienced outwith 10 km from the proposed development. This is due to the limited extent of ZTV, the screening provided by intervening woodlands and built development and the low reducing to negligible magnitude of change at this distance. Therefore, no significant effects are predicted on any sections of the A6112, A6105, A6093, A6137 or A199. Those main roads and routes with the potential to experience significant effects are as follows: A1 Within 10 km from the proposed development, approximately 15 km of the route is within theoretical visibility. Travelling east, there are occasional intermittent views filtered by roadside trees and mostly screened by embankments for approximately 1.5 km between 8 km and 10 km from the proposed turbine. To the east of Dunbar, there are two sections of approximately 800 m in total where open and oblique views of the turbine would be experienced. Roadside embankments and trees would screen all other theoretical views towards viewpoint 5. Open views towards of the turbine would be possible for approximately 3 km towards viewpoint 7. When travelling west, views to the east of viewpoint 7 would be occasional glimpses and often filtered by roadside trees and screened by embankments. The assessments at viewpoints along the A1 predict a low-medium magnitude of change. The oblique views of main road users would be of the turbine clearly visible and back lit on the skyline, adding to the visual clutter although fitting the the existing development pattern with little change to the focus of the view. Taking into the relatively long duration of open views in close proximity to the site, the med-high sensitivity, the effect is judged to be moderate and not significant. A1107 Approximately 2 km of the A1107 is in theoretical visibility within 10 km. Travelling west, road users would experience open and direct views along two sections of the route for approximately 1.2 km in total. All other potential views would be screened by valley side woodlands. The assessment at viewpoint 15 predicts a low magnitude of change with direct
Environmental Statement – Dunbar Community Wind Turbine 79

views of the turbine evident on the skyline, adding to the visual clutter although fitting the the existing development pattern with little change to the focus of the view towards to the coast. Considering the extent of effect within 10 km and the med-high sensitivity, the effect is judged to be moderate to mod-minor and not significant. A1087 Approximately 5 km of the route is within theoretical visibility. Views from within Dunbar would be screened by built development. To the east of Dunbar, mostly direct and open views of the turbine on the skyline would be experienced for approximately 2.2 km. At this distance, with a medium sensitivity and magnitude of change, the effect is judged to be moderate and not significant. Berwickshire Coastal Path & John Muir Way Most of the Coastal Path and John Muir Way (and coastal stretches of the Southern Upland Way) within 10 km from the proposed turbine are within theoretical visibility. Actual visibility would be screened around Dunbar by built development and by woodlands around Dunglass. In general, all other sections to the north of the site would experience mostly open views although local landform, coastal development and small woodlands would offer intermittent screening. Most open views would be over 4 km from the proposed development and experienced outwith the direct view along the coastline. Taking into account the relatively long duration of effect, a high sensitivity and a low-medium magnitude of change, the effect is judged to be moderate to mod-major and not significant.

5.7.

Cumulative Assessment

This section assesses the potential landscape and visual effects arising from the proposal, in combination with other wind developments that have been consented or are at application stage and have the potential to interact with the proposed development. The proposed site forms the focus of the study area and includes all those schemes within a 25 km radius (see Drawing DNB018). The cumulative assessment identifies the ways in which the proposal may have additional effects, when considered together with the cumulative situation resulting from other wind energy developments. 5.7.1.

General Cumulative Inter-Visibility

The cumulative ZTVs (see Drawings DNB020-033) identify the thirteen schemes that are operational/consented or in planning within 10 km from the site and with the greatest potential for significant cumulative effects. These demonstrate the areas of theoretical visibility where the proposed development could be viewed in combination with Woodhall, Aikengall, Ferneylea, Wester Dodd, Dryburn Bridge, Hoprigshiels, Neuk Farm, Crystal Rig, Luckieshiel Farm, South Belton, Belhaven Fruit Farm, Quixwood, Belhaven Trout and Old Townhead. The cumulative ZTVs illustrate that there are very few areas, if any, where the proposed development would introduce theoretical visibility to a part of the study area not within the theoretical visibility of at least one other scheme. As these thirteen schemes are located within both upland and lowland landscapes, there is no overall pattern of combined theoretical visibility. The schemes with greatest concentrations of combined theoretical visibility are Aikengall, Wester Dodd and Dryburn Bridge. Taking into account the close proximity of these schemes to the proposed development, these present the greatest possibility for significant cumulative effects.

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5.7.2.

Cumulative viewpoint assessment

The seventeen representative viewpoints identify actual cumulative intervisibility to illustrate the cumulative effects of the proposed development with one or more wind energy developments in the study area. As noted previously, these viewpoints are considered to be representative because they are from a range of receptor types and distances. Table 19 identifies the predicted view and the cumulative landscape and visual effects at each viewpoint.

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Predicted view without proposed development

Predicted view including proposed development

Landscape Magnitude of Change

Visual Magnitude of Change

VP Location

Receptor(s)

Landscape Character Type

Significant

Sensitivity

1

All potential development screened from view by intervening buildings and woodland. N/A - proposed development screened from view. Part of Wester Dodd and Aikengall visible on the skyline within the 800 view and Dryburn Bridge visible in succession. All other development screened from view by roadside woodland.

Only the proposed development would be visible.

Upland Fringes

residents high none none x local road users local road users

high medium

none none

none none

x x

2

The proposed development would be screened from view. The proposed development would be very noticeable on the skyline, bringing development closer to the the receptor and introducing a new pattern of development to an undeveloped part of the skyline.

Coastal Margins

medhigh

none

none

x

medium

none

none

x

residents Coastal Margins medhigh medhigh modmajor  local road users

high

lowmed

moderate to modmajor

x

3

medium

lowmed

moderate to modminor

x

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82

Significant

Sensitivity

Effect

Effect

4

The tips of Hoprigshiels, Wester Dodd and Ferneylea visible above woodland in successive views. All other development screened from view by local landform and woodland.

The tips of the proposed development would be evident on the skyline, introducing a new pattern of development to an undeveloped part of the skyline.

residents Coastal Farmland medhigh low moderate to modminor x local road users

high

lowneg

moderate to modminor

x

medium

low

mod-minor

x

5

Dryburn Bridge visible in succession. All other development screened from view by roadside woodland.

The proposed development would be noticeable on the skyline, introducing a new pattern of development to an undeveloped part of the skyline. The proposed development would be noticeable on the skyline, introducing a new pattern of development to an undeveloped part of the skyline.

Coastal Margins

medhigh

medium

moderate to modmajor

x

local road users

medium

medlow

moderate to modminor

x

6

Extensive windfarm development of Wester Dodd and Crystal Rigg dominant in the successive view.

Upland Hills

medhigh

medhigh

modmajor

walkers

medium

medhigh

moderate to modmajor

x

Environmental Statement – Dunbar Community Wind Turbine

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7

Three tips of Wester Dodd visible on the skyline within the 800 view with several other developments of varying patterns and scales visible in succession.

The proposed development would be noticeable, introducing a new pattern of development to an undeveloped part of the skyline. The proposed development would be noticeable on the skyline, introducing a new pattern of development to an undeveloped part of the skyline. Only the proposed development would be visible. The tips of the proposed development would be evident on the skyline, introducing a new pattern of development to an undeveloped part of the skyline. The proposed development would be noticeable, introducing a new pattern of development to an undeveloped part of skyline.

residents Coastal Margins medhigh medium moderate to modmajor x main road users

high

low to medium

moderate to modmajor

x

medhigh

low to medium low to medium low to medium

moderate moderate to modmajor moderate

x

Dryburn Bridge and the tips of part of Wester Dodd both visible in succession. 8

residents Coastal Margins medhigh medium moderate to modmajor x main road users visitors to church & GDL

high

x

medhigh

x

9

All other development screened from view by trees and woodland. Several tips of Wester Dodd visible on the skyline within the 800 view and Neuk Farm partially prominent in succession. All other development screened by buildings. Dowlaw, Drone Hill visible on the skyline within the 800 view with Crystal Rig and Dryburn visible in succession.

Coastal Farmland

medhigh

none

none

x

high

none

none

x

10

Coastal Farmland

medhigh

low

moderate to modminor

x

residents

high

low

moderate

x

lowmed Upland Fringes high moderate to modmajor x walkers medium

low-med moderate to modminor x

11

Environmental Statement – Dunbar Community Wind Turbine

84

12

Woodhall Farm and three tips of Aikengall visible on the skyline within the 800 view. Several other developments visible towards the coast.

The proposed development would be noticeable on the skyline, with a similar pattern and location to Woodhall and Aikengall.

residents Upland Fringes high low moderate x local road users walkers

high medium medhigh

low low lowmed

modminor modminor moderate

x x x

13

Dryburn Bridge, Hoprigshiels, Ferneylea, Aikengall and Wester Dodd visible on the skyline within the 800 view. Quixwood, Monashee and Neuk Farm visible in succession. All other development screened from view by shelterbelt. Tips of Drone Hill and Dryburn Bridge visible on the skyline within the 800 view. The tips of Crystal Rig visible in succession. All other development screened from view. The tips of Aikengall, Neuk Farm, and Dryburn Bridge visible on the skyline within the 800 view. All other development screened from view.

The proposed development would be noticeable on the skyline with a wider view of several developments at varying scales, patterns and locations. The tips of the proposed development would be evident, introducing a new pattern of development to an undeveloped part of the skyline. The tips of the proposed development would be evident, introducing a new pattern of development to an undeveloped part of the skyline.

Platform Farmland

medium

low

modminor

x

local road users

medium

low

modminor

x

14

Coastal Margins

medhigh

low

moderate to modminor

x

local road users

medium

lowneg

modminor to minor

x

15

Coastal Moorland

high

low

moderate

x

main road users NCR users

medhigh

low

moderate to modminor moderate

x

high

low

x

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16

Two clusters of skyline development within the 800 view and a successive view of other skyline developments.

The turbine would be evident, introducing a new pattern of development to an undeveloped part of the skyline.

Coastal Margins

medhigh

low

moderate to modminor

x

walkers along John Muir Way local road users

high

low

moderate

x

medium

lowneg

mod-minor to minor

x

17

Several clusters of development visible in combination and succession across the Lammermuirs and coastal lowlands.

The turbine would be evident, introducing a new pattern of development to an undeveloped part of the skyline within a wider view of varying patterns, scales and locations.

Lowland Plains

medhigh

lowneg

mod-minor

x

walkers

medhigh

low

moderate to modminor

x

Table 19: Summary of cumulative landscape and visual effects

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5.7.3.

Assessment of significant cumulative effects

The cumulative viewpoint assessment predicts significant cumulative landscape effects from viewpoint 3 (Thurston Manor) and viewpoint 6 (Monynut Edge). These relate to the following receptors: Coastal Margins LCT Significant cumulative landscape effects are predicted at viewpoint 3 on the Coastal Margin LCT. The proposed development would be very noticeable on the skyline, bringing development closer to the receptor and introducing a new pattern of development to an undeveloped part of the skyline. The proposed turbine would be viewed within a wider view of part of Wester Dodd and Aikengall visible on the skyline to the south and Dryburn Bridge to the north, if consented. The addition of the proposed development would further erode the rural qualities of the area and the containment provided by the hills to an extent. With a medium to high sensitivity and magnitude of change, the effect is judged to be mod-major and localised significant. However, the extent of significant effect on the LCT is predicted to be very localised. The pattern of linear estate and valley woodlands to the west and north of the viewpoint would screen cumulative views of nearby developments to a large degree. As demonstrated by the assessments from other viewpoints within the LCT, no other significant landscape effects are predicted. Overall therefore, the cumulative effect of the proposed development on the integrity of the LCT is judged to be not significant. No significant cumulative visual effects are predicted on road users and nearby dwellings due to the very oblique nature of cumulative views. Upland Hills LCT & Lammermuir Hills AGLV Significant landscape effects are predicted at viewpoint 6 on the Upland Hills LCT and the associated AGLV designation. The proposed development would be noticeable within views to the coast, introducing a new pattern of development to an undeveloped part of the skyline and viewed in succession with extensive and dominant windfarm development of Wester Dodd and Crystal Rigg to the south. This would extend the influence of development from the Lammermuir Hills to the adjacent Lammermuir Fringe. With a medium to high sensitivity and magnitude of change, the effect is judged as mod-major and localised significant on the Upland Hills LCT and AGLV designation. As demonstrated by the cumulative ZTV, any significant effect would only be experienced along the very northern fringes of the LCT and a very small part of the AGLV. Overall, effects on the integrity of the LCT and AGLV are judged to be not significant. Upland Fringe LCT Although no viewpoint assessment was undertaken in close proximity to the proposed turbine location, taking into account the assessment from viewpoint 6, localised significant cumulative effects are also predicted on the Upland Fringe LCT. This would be due to the influence of development being introduced further north from the Lammermuirs, further affecting the landscape setting of the Lammermuir Fringe in relation a the backdrop of extensive windfarm development. Overall however, the cumulative landscape effect on the Upland Fringe LCT is judged to be not significant due to the limited extent of significant effect. The assessment of cumulative landscape and visual effects from the remaining fifteen viewpoints demonstrates that no other significant effects are predicted. This is largely due to the limited extent of actual combined visibility where the pattern of woodlands across the landscape limits cumulative views to localised areas.

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Where cumulative views are apparent, these tend to be at relatively long distances within the wider view where the magnitude of change as a result of the proposed development does not significantly affect the visual coalescence or landscape setting of existing and proposed development patterns. The scale of the proposed development also limits the potential for significant effects. 5.7.4.

Assessment of sequential cumulative effects

As demonstrated by the cumulative assessment, no significant effects are predicted along the A1, A1107 and A198. Where cumulative views are apparent, the proposed turbine is mostly viewed within oblique views at over 4 km. Where combined or sequential views of other development are available, this would not present any significant cumulative effects. Taking into account the findings of the viewpoint assessment, effects on all main roads and recreational routes to the north of the site are not predicted to present any significant cumulative effects.

5.8.
5.8.1. 

Summary and Conclusion
Summary of effects
The findings of the LVIA have demonstrated that the proposed development will not result in any significant changes to the physical landscape resources of the site or surroundings during the construction and operational phases of the development; No significant effects are predicted on the integrity of any landscape designations or LCTs within the study area. Furthermore, no localised significant landscape effects are predicted from any of the seventeen representative viewpoints; There are predicted to be significant visual effects on several residential dwellings at The Brunt. No other clusters, villages or towns are predicted to experience significant visual effects; Of the seventeen viewpoints, the visual amenity of viewpoint 3 is predicted to experience a significant visual effect on two nearby residential dwellings. No other viewpoints are predicted to experience significant visual effects; No significant visual effects are predicted on main roads or users of main recreational routes; and Significant cumulative landscape effects are predicted on small parts of the Upland Hills LCT, the Upland Fringe LCT and the Lammermuir AGLV. No significant effects are predicted on the integrity of any landscape designations or LCTs.

 

5.8.2.

Issues of Significance

Local and National planning policy are supportive of wind energy developments subject to specific developments avoiding unacceptable landscape and visual effects. The assessment of effects on the landscape and visual resource has demonstrated that the proposed development will have localised significant effects on a very limited number of residential receptors and cumulative landscape effects on small parts of the Upland Hills LCT, the Upland Fringe LCT and the Lammermuir AGLV. In relation to the Planning Guidance for the Location and Design of Wind Turbines in the Lowland Areas of East Lothian (2010), the following conclusions are made:  Apart from significant effects on The Brunts, the development does not harm the landscape setting of any settlements, including the Conservation Areas of Oldhamstocks and Innerwick;
88

Environmental Statement – Dunbar Community Wind Turbine

      

The overall integrity and setting of key public views to and from landmark features, both natural and man-made, are not significantly compromised; The proposed development does not significantly harm the character, appearance and setting of significant natural landscape features, landmark buildings and structures; Although the turbine would be noticeable on the hill summit, the existing masts on Blackcastle Hill would limit the magnitude of any further landscape change; The proposed development is in scale with its landscape setting and surrounding vertical elements and is not detrimental to the landscape character of coastal areas; The character, appearance and setting of sites listed in the Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes are not significantly affected; The integrity of AGLVs are not significantly affected; The development does not have a detrimental impact on views out across the Firth of Forth, [including views of the Forth Islands] and views along the coastline.

The landscape capacity study concludes there is no scope for the proposed development within the Upland Fringe LCT. Although the study provides a robust assessment of capacity at the strategic scale, this does not necessarily preclude development at the proposed location. It is the role of this LVIA to identify the nature and extent of any significant effects. In relation to the sensitivities of the LCT, the LVIA has demonstrated that:  The complex rolling landform, intimate narrow valleys and the dramatic landform of the steep-sided Lothian Edge and pattern of distinctive knolly hills against the scarp of the Lammermuir Hills are not significantly affected. This is primarily due to the existing masts on Blackcastle Hill already affecting these characteristics and the effects from the addition of proposed development are limited; Although the proposed turbine is located on a visually prominent hill top and seen from key transport routes such as the A1, this is at distance where the scale of the turbine does not present significant effects for the large majority of receptors; Significant cumulative landscape and visual effects with existing windfarm developments within the adjacent Lammermuir Hills are limited to very localised areas.

Overall, these factors indicate the landscape has the capacity to effectively accommodate the proposed development at this location without an unacceptable and detrimental change to its inherent character or visual amenity.

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6.

Hydrology

The activities involved within the construction, operation and decommissioning of the wind turbine could have an impact on the hydrological elements within the surrounding area. All hydrological and hydrogeological impacts are assessed including impacts on any watercourses, lochs, groundwater, other water features and sensitive receptors such as private water supplies. Where necessary, mitigation measures have been outlined to prevent erosion, pollution, sedimentation or discolouration of receptors. Hydrological issues are thought to be minor at this site; however the risk of any negative effects on any hydrological/hydrogeological elements within the area should be evaluated and appropriately mitigated where necessary.

6.1.

Methodology

The methodology used to assess the impact of the proposed development at Cocklaw Hill is described as follows:    All Hydrological information is gathered and potential receptors that may be at risk from the proposed development are identified Each activity of the development such as construction, operation and decommissioning is assessed for the potential to create a pollution risk Proposed mitigation measures and preventative actions are detailed

6.2.

Baseline Assessment
Source of information
Legislation SEPA Policies Water Environment (Controlled Activities) Regulations 2005 Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC)(WFD), and Water Environment and Water (Scotland) Act (WEWS Act) 2003 Environmental Impact Assessment (Scotland) Regulations 1999 Control of Pollution Act 1974 (as amended) Part II: Pollution of Water No. 19: Groundwater Protection Policy for Scotland, Dec 2003 No. 26: Policy on the Culverting of Watercourses No. 54: Land Protection Policy SPP 7 Planning and Flooding (replaced NPPG7 in 2004) PAN 58 Environmental Impact Assessment PAN 61 Planning and Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems PPG1: General guide to the prevention of water pollution PPG4: The disposal of sewage where no mains drainage is available PPG5: Works in, near or liable to affect watercourses PPG6: Working at construction and demolition sites PPG8: Safe storage and disposal of used oil PPG21: Pollution incident response planning

Relevant National legislation and guidelines are highlighted in Table 20 below. Legislation/Guidelines

Scottish Planning Policies Planning Advice Notes (PANs)

-

SEPA Pollution Prevention Guidelines (PPGs)

-

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Legislation/Guidelines
Other Guidelines -

Source of information
CIRIA: Environmental Good Practice on Site CIRIA: Control of water pollution from construction sites, C532, 2001 CIRIA: Control of water pollution from linear construction projects Forestry Commission: Forests and Water Guidelines Edition 4, 2003

Table 20: Relevant policy and guidelines for hydrology assessment 6.2.1.

Site Context

This section details the existing hydrological and hydrogeological conditions at the site and its surroundings. This includes information on nearby watercourses, groundwater and any potential risks of flooding. Surface Water The turbine is located approximately 200m from tributaries to Ogle Burn to the East and Cauld Burn is situated approximately 300 m to the south west. Surface water features are shown in Figure 8 below.

Figure 8: Surface water features within 500m of turbine. Ogle Burn joins Thornton Burn to the North which drains to the North Sea at Thorntonloch, approximately 6 km upstream from the tributaries of Ogle Burn. Cauld Burn joins Aikengall Water which flows to the North into Thurston Mains Burn which then joins Thornton Burn into the North Sea at Thorntonloch, approximately 8.5km upstream from Aikengall Water.

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Groundwater & Hydrogeology Groundwater is present under most landforms, although some geological formations are more permeable than others. Any groundwater within the area may be used as a source of drinking water and is also essential for irrigation within highly productive agricultural areas. The hydrogeology at the site has been examined to determine whether any groundwater at the site is at risk of contamination. The site of the proposed development is underlain by Dunbar bedrock and localised sand and gravel aquifers (ID150225) which covers an area of 337.85 km2. In 2008 the quality of the groundwater was classified as “Good with High confidence”. Any reduction in the quality of the groundwater resource is of potential concern and should be avoided. Flood Risk SEPA’s online flood risk map was used to identify locations within the area that would be at risk to flooding. Figure 9 below shows those areas within the vicinity that are at risk to flooding.

Figure 9: Flood risk areas shown in blue The nearest watercourse at risk of flooding is the Thurston Mains Burn to the north, any significant increase in run-off to the burn has the potential to increase the risk of flooding and should be avoided.

6.3.
6.3.1.

Impact Assessment
Surface water

As described previously, there is the potential for surface water to drain to two burns in the east and south west directions. This is the main consideration for assessing potential impacts on surface water at the site.

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Potential construction impacts The main potential impact of the development on surface water and water bodies is an increase in sediment during the construction phase. There is also the potential for oil spillages from tanks and machinery on site. A list of risks to surrounding water bodies that require appropriate mitigation measures is given below:  Chemical pollution – potential pollutants include spillage or leakage of chemicals, runoff from vehicle wash down facilities, unset concrete, fuel or oil, during use or storage on site. Such pollutants can damage the ecology and quality of affected soils, watercourse and groundwater, affecting biodiversity, fish stocks and water supplies Erosion and sediment release – high levels of sediment can damage fish populations, flood storage capacity and water sources. Spoil heaps from the excavations for the turbine base will be stored temporarily; if left exposed, this could lead to an increase in silt-laden run off draining off site. Soil compaction – movement of construction traffic can lead to compaction of the soil, reducing soil permeability and rainfall infiltration. Increase in runoff – areas of hard standing will cause local increases in run off volume. This could influence rates of soil erosion, and alter the way local streams respond to storm rainfall. Cable trenches could act as a conduit for surface water flows Incorrect site management of excavations which could lead to loss of solids and nutrients to surface waters.

 

 

The construction phase is most likely to give rise to environmental impacts as many of the associated activities have a direct influence on the amount of water, and the amount of suspended solids in the water, arising on the site. Impacts on water quality in the network of streams draining the development could affect receptors sited at some considerable distance from the proposed development. Chemical contamination of ground and surface waters is a risk throughout all phases of operational activity and requires appropriate control and management. It should also be noted that there is no requirement for the crossing of watercourses and therefore there are no potential issues arising from culverting works etc. Potential Operational Impacts When operational, the development will have a negligible effect on surface water quality as there will be no further disturbance of soils post construction. Due to the insignificant increase in potential run-off from the site and the non-intrusive nature of site operations, there will be negligible release of sediment to the watercourses from site operations. During the operation phase, small quantities of oil will be used in cooling the transformer. There is potential for oil spills, but they are in no way likely to be significant, should they occur. 6.3.2.

Groundwater

In order to protect the bedrock from entry of contaminants, mitigation measures will be put in place to deal with concrete displacement within the bedrock. The turbine foundation will be dug at a depth of approximately 2m and there is a negligible risk that groundwater will be present at this level. This will be investigated during the ground
Environmental Statement – Dunbar Community Wind Turbine 93

investigation works and will determine whether disposal of groundwater at the foundations is necessary.

6.4.

Mitigation Measures

Mitigation measures for this wind development will focus on preventing the pollution of watercourses and groundwater. With regards to surface water contamination, new drainage pathways may be introduced and carry contaminated run – off. Mitigation measures to prevent these scenarios are outlined within this section. 6.4.1.

Surface water

The following mitigation measures will be introduced to reduce the potential risk of adverse impacts on surface water:  During construction any oil, fuel or other chemicals will be stored in a suitable temporary storage area. Oil spill cleanup materials will also be stored on site throughout the construction period. It is anticipated that concrete will be delivered ready made to the site. Provisions will be made to ensure that deliveries are supervised by qualified personnel and site staff should be aware of what to do in the event of spillage. Mitigation measures will be outlined within construction method statements with regards to concrete delivery and will be carried out in accordance with SEPA guidance (particularly PPG6 and PPG13). Washing out of the delivery vehicles will be carried out to ensure that washings do not pollute surface water at the site, and it is proposed to undertake the washing out of concrete trucks offsite at the source location. Any stored diesel or fuel oils be bunded to 110% of capacity. The turbine transformer enclosure will be self-contained or bunded to preclude the release of contaminants to the environment. Regular visual inspections of the surrounding drains will be undertaken during the construction phase to examine the turbidity and clarity of the water. Underground cables will be laid in small trenches that are parallel to access tracks as far as possible. Trenches will be dug during dry weather periods and the cables will be laid quickly and backfilled to minimise water entering the trenches. Suitable drainage measures will be detailed within the construction method statement and will accord with best practice in the SUDS manual C697.

 

6.4.2.

Groundwater

As with any construction project there is a risk of a pollution spill that may enter the water table and contaminate groundwater. It is considered that this risk can be satisfactorily mitigated through use of best practice construction methods. This will require compliance with all of the guidance contained in the relevant Pollution Prevention Guidance (PPG) notes listed in Table 16. An assessment of groundwater levels at the turbine location will be carried out prior to construction. A borehole will be made to at least the depth of the turbine foundation (approximately 2 metres) to assess whether groundwater is present. This will be carried out as part of a pre-construction soil investigation survey. In the unlikely event that groundwater is present at this depth it will be necessary to temporarily lower the ground water level to avoid any contamination from materials used for the turbine foundations.

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6.5.

Conclusion

The contamination of hydrological features such as nearby watercourses and groundwater is considered to be a potential risk primarily arising from the construction phase. The relatively small scale of development and the specific site conditions are such that the potential impact is considered to be negligible assuming the construction stage follows the available guidance relating to best practice methods. In this way the most relevant risk, that of impacts upon surface water, can be satisfactorily mitigated. An assessment will be carried out prior to any construction works to determine whether groundwater is present at the foundation as part of the ground investigation works. This will ensure that suitable mitigation measures can be put in place during excavation and construction if required. As stated above, mitigation measures can be implemented at the detailed design phase to ensure that the overall risk of contamination of surrounding watercourse is negligible. It is proposed that qualified personnel will be present during soil investigation works to ensure that suitable construction methods and mitigation measures are designed into the construction statement to prevent pollution or sedimentation. Mitigation measures carried out through the construction phase will be carried out in accordance to SEPA guidance and legislation and through ongoing discussion with East Lothian Council.

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7.

Socioeconomic

The construction of a wind turbine is considered to provide benefits to the local economy and provide a contribution to the Government’s carbon reduction targets. A poorly situated turbine may also have an adverse impact on the local economy. This section details the likely beneficial and adverse impacts of a wind turbine on the local and wider economy with regards to financial benefits, impacts on tourism, property prices and other impacts on the wider community.

7.1.

Methodology

This assessment will outline the socioeconomic profile of the area as well as describing the recreational activity within the area. An assessment will be made on the effect of the proposed wind development on the local economy and tourism sector through consideration of the key business and tourist sites in the region and any relevant previous studies regarding the social/economic impact of wind development.

7.2.
7.2.1.

Baseline Assessment
Site Characteristics

The proposed DCEC wind turbine is situated on agricultural land, approximately 315m above sea level. The nearest settlements are outwith 1km from the turbine location at Oldhamstocks and Innerwick. There are smaller residential areas surrounding the site such as Aikengall, Wester Aikengall and Thurston Mains. These are also outwith 1km from the site. The wider region comprises mainly of rural land uses and views of the turbine will be possible from Dunbar and the coastal region to the north and from the A1 road which passes to the north. Tourism and recreation is locally important and includes sites of historical interest such as Doon Hill Fort/settlement. 7.2.2.

Population

An overview of the demographics of the surrounding area is provided in Table 21 below. Area
Postcode area 60QM000587 Dunbar East Lothian Council Area

Total Resident Population
81 4,947 59,436

Table 21: Population of area surrounding Cocklaw Hill (2001 census data) 7.2.3.

Economic Activity

The workforce in the East Lothian region was 33,563 in 2001. A summary of the 2001 Census employment statistics by area is provided in Table 22 below. Sector
All persons aged 16-74 in employment % Agriculture, hunting and forestry % Fishing % Mining and quarrying % Manufacturing
Environmental Statement – Dunbar Community Wind Turbine

Postcode
53 20.75 0 0 11.32

Dunbar
2,678 3.67 0.14 0.36 8.83

Council Area
33,563 3.7 0.49 0.37 11.35
96

Sector
% Electricity, gas and water supply % Construction % Whole & retail trade, repair of motor vehicles % Hotels and catering % Transport storage & communication % Financial intermediation % Real estate, renting and business activities % Public administration and defence % Education % Health and social work % Other

Postcode
5.66 13.21 5.66 3.77 1.89 0 13.21 9.43 5.66 5.66 3.77

Dunbar
2.45 9.29 13.58 4.38 5.3 7.46 12.23 7.56 6.66 12.28 5.81
9

Council Area
6.65 10.12 11.99 5.3 4.89 4.85 10.38 5.34 7.24 12.47 4.8

Table 22: breakdown of main employment in the region

The 2001 Census showed the main sectors of employment in the Dunbar region to be in Whole & Retail Trade, Real Estate and Healthcare. 38% of the population within the Dunbar Census output area are employed within these sectors. This is comparable to the employment statistics for the whole East Lothian area (approximately 35%). Tourism does not have a high level of employment within the local area and is less than the national average of 5%. It is considered that the installation of a wind turbine will not have a negative impact upon employment but should provide a strong positive from direct and indirect employment. 7.2.4.

Tourist Activity

An assessment of existing tourist attractions around the development was undertaken, specifically focusing on those attractions where the scenic value of the surrounding area is important, Table 23 below summarises the sites included within this assessment. Tourist Site
Doon Hill Dunbar Castle White Castle Hill Fort Traprain Hill Fort Belhaven Bay John Muir Way The Herring Road

Description
Cultural heritage site Cultural heritage site Cultural heritage site Cultural heritage site Popular beach and coastal attractions Walking route Walking route

Distance from Turbine
5 km 8 km 11km 14km 9 km 4 km 4 km

Table 23: Noted tourist attractions surrounding Cocklaw Hill The potential impacts on these sites will be of a visual nature and is discussed in more detailed within Chapter 5 of this document. Further discussion on the economic impacts on tourism is provided within this section.

9

From 2001 Census information provide from www.scrol.gov.uk

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7.3.

Impact Assessment

The direct and indirect impacts of the proposed development on the local economy can be separated into 4 separate areas:      Direct economic benefit for the community Direct economic benefit for the local farming business Ancillary economic benefits from construction/operation Potential adverse impact on wider community Potential economic impact on tourism

The potential impact of the development on each of the above areas is discussed further below. 7.3.1.

Direct economic benefit for the community

The primary driver for developing a wind turbine at the site is to provide a source of income to fund community projects within Dunbar and District. Dunbar Community Energy Company has recognised that the area’s wind resource gives the community the opportunity to finance a Community fund which can be used to improve the quality of life for local residents and visitors to the Area. Based on current financial projections, the operation of a 500 kW wind turbine at this site would generate approximately £4m for the community over the life of the turbine and will be made available for the Dunbar and District Community. The income from the turbine utilises the government’s existing Feed in Tariff (FiT) system 10 and through the sale of electricity11. If the turbine was to gain consent and become operational, DCEC will provide access to funding through an application process. The grants scheme will be open to voluntary/nonprofit making organisations and community initiatives primarily based in the Dunbar, West Barns and East Linton ward of East Lothian. The allocation of grants will be determined by the Sustaining Dunbar board and representatives of the wider community as outlined in the Disbursement process (attached within appendices). As part of this process activities and projects that complement the Dunbar 2025 Local Resilience Action Plan12 (attached within appendices) will be encouraged to sustain and create local jobs. The action plan focuses on five main areas.      Food Energy Transport Health Enterprise, Skills and Education

DCEC have conducted community consultation in order to gain an understanding of local attitudes towards a community owned wind turbine. Households within the Dunbar, West

10 11

Conservatively estimated at 16.6p per kWh generated Estimated at 5.5p per kWh generated 12 http://www.scribd.com/doc/71442230/Sustaining-Dunbar-2025-Local-Resilience-Action-Plan

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Barns and East Linton ward of East Lothian were asked for their opinion on wind turbines. Feedback was gathered from approximately 500 households. The results of the survey are summarised in Table 24 below. Support
How do you feel about private wind turbines? How do you feel about community wind turbines? 46.6% 67.7%

Object
32.4% 19.8%

Don’t know
21.1% 12.5%

Table 24: Summary of local opinion From those that supported the idea of a community turbine, it was noted that support for local businesses should be an important aspect of the community fund. 7.3.2.

Direct economic benefit for the local farming business

DCEC have arranged a Heads of Terms agreement with the landowner at Cocklaw farm, Douglas McReath. Through a land rental agreement the landowner will receive a proportion of the gross revenue generated by the turbine. This will help to ensure the viability of ongoing farming operations at Cocklaw Farm and demonstrates diversification of a local business. 7.3.3.

Ancillary Economic Benefits from Construction/Operation

The use of suitably experienced contractors and sub-contractors for construction, operation and maintenance works within the local area will be encouraged, as long as they meet the financial and technical requirements for the build. Local contractors will be given the opportunity to cost for balance of plant such as electrical works, foundation and additional civil works. The capital cost of the project is estimated at £1.7 million In 2006 Scottish Enterprise published a report discussion the economic impact of wind farm construction. Based on this report, it is estimated that 29% or £493,000 of the capital cost of the installation and operation of the development could be spent in Scotland, this includes:     7.3.4. Services (consultancy, planning advice) Construction (roads, access, fences etc) Grid connection Operation and Maintenance

Potential Adverse Impact on Wider Community

There are a number of potential impacts on the local community from the proposed development and these include:     Landscape and Visual amenity Noise Shadow Flicker Telecommunications and television

These impacts are considered individually in their respective chapters of this document.

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7.3.5.

Impact on Tourism

From the baseline assessment a number of attractions have been highlighted as having particular importance for tourist activity within the area. The potential impact at each of these attractions is discussed in Table 25 below. Tourist Site Dist to Turbine Potential impact
Doon hill is situated at the eastern end of the Lammermuir Hills, approximately 3km south of Dunbar. The site is a signposted cultural heritage location and is the site of a fort and settlement. The LVIA includes a viewpoint from this location and the overall impact of the turbine was not considered to be significant. The shill provides a vantage point for tourists wishing to view the Dunbar Battlefield site. It is considered that views towards the battlefield site are of importance to the understanding of the site. The Cocklaw Hill turbine will not be seen within views towards the battlefield and therefore is unlikely to discourage tourists from visiting the site. The ruins of Dunbar Castle overlook the harbour of Dunbar, from the ZTV there will be no visibility of the Cocklaw turbine from this location. It is also noted that there is no access to the castle at this time. Dunbar Harbour is located on the northern edge of Dunbar. The harbour dates from the 14th century and is guarded by the ruins of Dunbar Castle. The turbine will be theoretically visible from the Lamer Island Battery, which is the mains tourist attraction within the harbour. However, actual visibility is likely to be screened by buildings surrounding the harbour. The impact on tourism at the harbour is therefore considered to be negligible. White Castle Hill Fort is located to the west of the Cocklaw site within the foothills of the Lammermuirs, the site provides extensive views of the landscape towards Traprain Law and North Berwick Law. From the ZTV it can be seen that there will be no visibility of the Cocklaw turbine from the fort. Therefore it is unlikely that this will discourage tourists from visiting the area. Traprain Law is regarded as one of the most important hill forts in Scotland and provides vast views of East Lothian to the coast. The Cocklaw turbine will be visible from the summit of Traprain Hill, although due to the distance from the turbine location the visual impact is not considered to be significant. Also, it is considered that from this distance the Cocklaw turbine will be seen as part of the existing Aikengall Wind Farm. The impact on tourism for the site is considered to be negligible due to the already existing Aikengall development. Further assessment of Traprain Hill Fort is provided within the Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment. Belhaven Bay is located within the John Muir Country Park and stretches from Belhaven to the north of the River Tyne. The beach is popular for its views of the Forth Estuary, water sports and other local attractions (shops, restaurants, pubs etc). With regards to the aesthetic quality of the surrounding area, views inland and towards Cocklaw Hill are considered to be of less importance. The John Muir Way coastal route links East Lothian with the Scottish Borders. The route offers views of East Lothian including much of the coastline and historic sites. The landscape quality of the surrounding area is of great importance to the setting of this route. The route starts from Musselburgh and continues along the coast towards Cocksurnspath, approximately 6km to the east of the Cocklaw site. Due to the single turbine nature of the turbine and the existing Windfarm landscape at Aikengall, the visual impact of the Cocklaw turbine is considered to be negligible. This is discussed further within the Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment. The “Herring Road” stretches from Dunbar towards Lauder crossing the Lammermuir Hills. For the majority of this route, the Cocklaw Turbine will not be visible and is unlikely to deter hill walkers from using this route.

Doon Hill

5 km

Dunbar Castle

8 km

Dunbar Harbour

8 km

White Castle Hill Fort

11km

Traprain Hill Fort

14km

Belhaven Bay

9 km

John Muir Way

4 km

The Herring Road

4 km

Table 25: Discussion on tourist attractions within the area From the baseline assessment it was seen that there are a number of popular tourist areas and attractions within the area, particularly sites of historic value. For many of these areas,
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the landscape and high visual amenity of the area is a primary draw. A detailed assessment of these considerations is provided within the Landscape and Visual chapter for key local attractions. It is considered that landscape and visual impacts associated with development were low from many key tourist routes, sites or landscapes. The most recent national study commissioned by the Scottish Government 13 examined the likely economic impacts of wind energy developments. It should be noted that this report focuses on larger scale commercial wind developments but many points are relevant to smaller wind projects such as the one proposed at Cocklaw Hill. The latest Tourism Attitudes Survey states that “scenery” and “natural environment” are the main attractions for tourists visiting Scotland. If wind farms were to deter significant numbers of tourists, they could potentially threaten the tourism industry and also the economic sustainability of the local community. The study assessed the economic impact of four case studies within Scotland where wind farms were likely to be visible. It should be noted that the scale of wind energy development discussed within these documents are larger commercial developments and the conclusions may not relate directly to the single turbine proposed in this development. This was carried out in four key stages:     Identifying the change in likelihood of the tourists returning to Scotland Identifying the proportion of tourists in each area where this applies Identifying the proportion of accommodation exposed (drop in “room with view” sales) Estimating likely proportion of change in expenditure in the affected accommodation

From the study, it was concluded that “overall there does not appear to be any robust evidence to suggest a serious negative economic impact of wind farms on tourism”. A change in tourism expenditure is predicted if a substantial amount of wind developments are installed in Scotland, however this loss of revenue is expected to be “offset or reinforced” by other positive economic or environmental impacts from wind farms. The study also concluded that tourism activity is likely to be displaced to other areas around Scotland rather than reduced entirely. A survey of tourists was conducted within the four areas used in the case study; it involved information from tourists that were likely to have seen a wind farm during their visit. The survey confirmed that a minority of around 20%- 39% preferred a landscape that contained no wind farms; overseas visitors were found to be more positive than domestic tourists. The vast majority of the tourists surveyed (93%-99%) that had seen a wind farm within the area said that it would not affect their decision to return that area or Scotland as a whole.

7.4.

Conclusion

The development of a wind turbine for DCEC will provide a strong net positive socioeconomic impact to the area. Full assessment of potential adverse impacts on the local ad wider community (potential for issues with landscape or visual amenity, noise, shadow flicker and telecommunications) has been undertaken in the relevant chapters and has been demonstrated minimal overall impact and the acceptability of the project.

13

Scottish Government (2008) Economic Impacts of Wind Farms on Scottish Tourism

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Individual assessment of the landscape and visual impacts on local tourist sites within the area have shown the proposed development to be visible from several sites, however the single turbine nature of development and distance means that the impact would be moderate at most and not significant. This level of impact is considered to be insufficient to cause a detrimental effect on the attraction of these sites. The key socioeconomic benefits are as follows:  The revenue raised from the sale of renewable electricity will provide the wider community of the area with a sustainable source of income to fund local projects within the Dunbar and District area. It is estimated that approximately £4 million of useable funds will be available within the initial 20 years of operation. DCECo have provided consideration of key areas requiring funding and detailed plans as to how this money will be administered to local projects The significant community consultation completed to date has demonstrated strong support for a community owned and operated wind development The rental agreement with the land owner will also provide an alternative source of income that will support the ongoing farming operation There will be almost £500,000 of construction works that could be completed by local contractors

  

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8.

Cultural Heritage

This section assesses the impact of the proposed Cocklaw Hill wind development on those known cultural heritage or archaeological features within the area. This assessment focuses on the impacts upon listed buildings and noted archaeological features within the immediate area of the turbine.

8.1.

Methodology

A detailed assessment was carried out on the effect of wind development on any surrounding cultural heritage sites within the area. There are no sensitive sites that will be physically impacted from the construction of the wind turbine. Therefore the assessment focuses on how the turbine would impact upon the setting of any sensitive cultural heritage sites. This has been carried out in accordance with Historic Scotland’s guidance notes on managing change in the historic environment (October 2010). This guidance details how the setting of an historic monument may be impacted upon. In the case of this development this will mainly relate to the landscape context, the surrounding landscape character and the impact on the aesthetic qualities of the site. Where relevant, discussion will be provided on whether the development will impact upon the historical understanding of the site. A desk based study was carried out using Historic Scotland’s available GIS databases, all heritage sites listed as Scheduled Ancient Monuments and listed buildings within a 5km radius were identified. The assessment focuses mainly on the visual impact on these sites; the matrix used to assess the overall impact on these sites is detailed in Table 26 below. Sensitivity Magnitude
High High Medium Low Negligible Major Major/Moderate Moderate Moderate/minor Medium Major/Moderate Moderate Moderate/Minor Minor Low Moderate Moderate/Minor Minor Minor/None

Table 26: Overall impact assessment matrix The criteria used to determine the magnitude and sensitivity of the visual impact is described in Table 27 and Table 28 below: Magnitude
High Medium Low Negligible Not Applicable

Description
Dominant Conspicuous Apparent Inconspicuous -

Definition
Receptor(s) are within 500m of the development Receptor(s) are between 500m - 2km of the development Receptor(s) are within 2km - 5km of the development Receptor(s) are > 5km of the development No visibility from Receptors

Table 27: Magnitude of impact

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Sensitivity
 High    Medium   Low   Category A and B listed buildings Scheduled Ancient Monument

Definition

Non – Statutory List of sites likely to be of national importance Category C listed building Archaeological sites on the Sites and Monuments record (of regional or local importance) Conservation Areas Archaeological sites of lesser importance Non – Inventory Gardens and Designed Landscapes

Table 28: Sensitivity of cultural heritage site

8.2.
8.2.1.

Baseline Assessment
Site Context

An assessment was carried out for any high sensitive sites within 5km of the Cocklaw turbine. Details of these sites are shown in Table 29 and Table 30 below. These sites are shown relative to the turbine in Drawings DUN008and DUN016within the appendices Map ID
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Description
Blackcastle Hill, Homestead 1300m SSE of Thurston Mains Blackcastle Hill, Homestead 370m ENE of Post Office Mast Thurston Mains, enclosure Braidwood, enclosure Black Castle Cottage, promontory fort Woodhall Farm, enclosure Black Castle, enclosure Castledene, enclosure Oldhamstocks Mains, enclosure Branxton Cottage, enclosure Corsick Hill, enclosure Innerwick Castle Innerwick Castle, fort and ring ditch Glen Cottage, enclosure Glen Cottage, promontory fort Branxton, enclosure Thurston, enclosures and ring-ditch Glen Cottage, enclosure Crowhill, enclosure Thurston, enclosure

Distance to Turbine (km)
0.35 0.63 1.75 1.79 1.83 2.02 2.07 2.29 2.53 2.55 2.60 2.64 2.65 2.68 2.81 2.84 2.85 2.91 2.92 3.09

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Map ID
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

Description
Thurston, fort Meikle Pinkerton, fort Springfield, enclosure Thornton Mill, enclosure Meikle Pinkerton, enclosure Dryburn Bridge, enclosure Springfield, Palisaded enclosure and ring ditch Springfield, enclosure Skateraw, ring ditches and cropmarks Doon Hill, enclosure Little Pinkerton, enclosure Bell Craig, promontory fort Doon Hill, hall, Innerwick French Camp, fort, Dunglass Little Pinkerton, enclosure Little Pinkerton, enclosure Doon Hill, forts

Distance to Turbine (km)
3.28 3.50 3.55 3.56 3.61 3.61 3.81 3.81 3.82 4.60 4.61 4.68 4.69 4.71 4.75 4.75 4.88

Table 29: Scheduled Ancient Monuments within 5km of Cocklaw turbine Map ID
A B C

Description
Thurston Home Farm Oldhamstocks Parish Church, burial ground and watch house Dunglass House, Gazebo

Distance to Turbine
2.27 2.39 4.39

Table 30: Listed buildings within 5km of Cocklaw turbine The expected impact on these noted cultural heritage and archaeological features is discussed in the next section.

8.3.

Impact Assessment

This impact assessment discusses the potential direct and indirect impacts that may occur at the cultural heritage receptors outlined within the baseline section. Outwith any direct disturbance on known cultural heritage sites the main impact will be visual. In relation to rural settings any development seen in principal views to or from a sensitive site can be considered as potentially affecting its setting. With regards to the potential for direct impacts from the development it is noted that no known sites are within the proposed construction area for the access road or the wind turbine. Any impact of the proposed wind turbine upon these sites will be visual. Table 31 below provides details of cultural heritage sites identified within 5km, along with the demonstrated extent of the theoretical turbine theoretical visibility, sensitivity and magnitude according to the methodology described in Section 8.1. The theoretical visibility at each of the cultural heritage sites is shown in Drawing DNB016 within the appendices. Further discussion is provided on those sites where there may be a significant impact.
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Map ID
1

Name
Blackcastle Hill, Homestead 1300m SSE of Thurston Mains Blackcastle Hill, Homestead 370m ENE of Post Office Mast Thurston Mains, enclosure Braidwood, enclosure Black Castle Cottage, promontory fort Woodhall Farm, enclosure Black Castle, enclosure Castledene, enclosure Oldhamstocks Mains, enclosure Branxton Cottage, enclosure Corsick Hill, enclosure Innerwick Castle Innerwick Castle, fort and ring ditch Glen Cottage, enclosure Glen Cottage, promontory fort Branxton, enclosure Thurston, enclosures and ring-ditch Glen Cottage, enclosure Crowhill, enclosure Thurston, enclosure Thurston, fort Meikle Pinkerton, fort Springfield, enclosure Thornton Mill, enclosure Meikle Pinkerton, enclosure Dryburn Bridge, enclosure Springfield, Palisaded enclosure and ring ditch Springfield, enclosure

Theoretical Visibility
Nacelle

Sensitivity
High

Magnitude
High

Potential Impact
Major

2

Full

High

Medium

Major/Moderate

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Nacelle Nacelle Nacelle Nacelle Nacelle Blades None Nacelle Nacelle Nacelle Nacelle Nacelle Nacelle Nacelle Nacelle Full Nacelle Full Full Full Nacelle Nacelle Full Nacelle Nacelle Blade tip

High High High High High High High High High High High High High High High High High High High High High High High High High High

Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Low N/A Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low Low

Major/Moderate Major/Moderate Major/Moderate Major/Moderate Major/Moderate Moderate None Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate

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Map ID
29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

Name
Skateraw, ring ditches and cropmarks Doon Hill, enclosure Little Pinkerton, enclosure Bell Craig, promontory fort Doon Hill, hall, Innerwick French Camp, fort, Dunglass Little Pinkerton, enclosure Little Pinkerton, enclosure Doon Hill, forts

Theoretical Visibility
Nacelle None None Full Full Nacelle None None Full

Sensitivity
High High High High High High High High High

Magnitude
Low N/A N/A Low Low Low N/A N/A Low

Potential Impact
Moderate None None Moderate Moderate Moderate None None Moderate

Table 31: Assessment of cultural heritage sites within 5km 8.3.1.

Impact Significance

Blackcastle Hill, Homestead This monument is situated approximately 350m from the turbine location; the scheduled area is shown in Figure 10 below.

Figure 10: Scheduled monument at Blackcastle Hill, 1,300m SSE of Thurston Mains (shown yellow) Limited public information is available on this monument. The Enclosure is positioned on the western edge of Blackcastle Hill and provides a vantage point for views to the West and North towards the Dunbar Coast. The wider landscape within these views will contribute to the setting of the monument due to its prominent position on the edge of Blackcastle Hill. Due to

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the proximity of the turbine to the monument, the potential impact on setting is considered to be Major. However, whilst there is a perceived significant impact, the presence of the telecommunications mast next to the turbine location already reduces the sensitivity of views within this direction. It is also noted that whilst there will be some local understanding of the fort, the lack of visitors to the monument will reduce its sensitivity to wind development. Blackcastle Hill This monument is located approximately 630m from the proposed turbine location, the scheduled area is shown in Figure 11 below.

Figure 11: Scheduled monument at Blackcastle Hill, 370m ENE of Post Office Mast (shown yellow) Limited public information is available on this Scheduled Monument. The enclosure is positioned on the north face of Blackcastle Hill and provides a vantage point for views towards the coast. The landscape within these views will be an important element to the wider setting of the monument. Views towards the turbine location from the monument are considered to be less sensitive due to the topography of the surroundings and the existing telecommunications mast between the enclosure and the wind turbine location. Also, while there will be a local understanding of the enclosure, it is considered that the lack of visitors to the monument will reduce its sensitivity to wind development. Thurston Mains, enclosure This enclosure is situated approximately 1.75km to the North West of the turbine location. The scheduled area of the monument is shown in Figure 12 below.

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Figure 12: Scheduled monument at Thurston Mains (shown yellow) The monument comprises the remains of an enclosed settlement of prehistoric date and is represented by crop marks visible on oblique aerial photographs. The settlement is situated within improved farmland at the field edge. Due to agricultural activities at the site and the changing appearance of the immediate area, the setting of the monument is considered to be restricted to the defined scheduled area. While there may be a local understanding of the monument, it is considered that the lack of visitors to the monument will reduce its sensitivity to wind development. Braidwood, enclosure The enclosure is situated approximately 1.8km from the proposed wind turbine; the scheduled area is illustrated in Figure 13 below.

Figure 13: Scheduled monument at Braidwood enclosure (shown yellow)
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The monument comprises the remains of a small enclosed settlement of prehistoric date represented by crop marks visible on oblique aerial photographs. The monument is situated within improved agricultural land. Due to farming activities as the site, it is not possible to determine the scheduled area of the enclosure. Due to the imperceptible boundary of the scheduled area, the wider setting is considered to be limited to within the field boundary. The presence of the wind turbine is therefore not considered to have a significant impact upon the wider setting of the monument. Black Castle Cottage, promontory fort Black Castle fort is approximately 1.8km from the proposed turbine location; the scheduled area is illustrated in Figure 14 below.

Figure 14: Black Castle Cottage promontory fort (shown as yellow polygon) The monument comprises the remains of a promontory fort of later prehistoric date represented by crop marks visible on oblique aerial photographs. The fort is located on the Northern face of Blackcastle Hill was used for views towards the coastline. Due to the topographical position of the fort and surrounding vegetation, the view towards the turbine is likely to be obscured. Also, views towards the coast are considered to be more important to the wider setting of this monument. The impact of the wind turbine on this site is therefore not considered to be significant Woodhall Farm, enclosure Woodhall Farm enclosure is located approximately 2 km from the proposed turbine position, the scheduled are is shown in Figure 15 below.

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Figure 15: Woodhall Farm Enclosure (shown yellow) This enclosure comprises of an oval shaped settlement measuring about 50m in diameter, circular crop marks within the settlement are thought to be roundhouses. The monument is located on the NE flank of Tripslaw Hill and is visible from oblique aerial photographs.] The site is monument is located within an area of improved farmland and electricity pylons pass through the southern edge of the scheduled area. Due to the level of human activity and the presence of anthropogenic features within the scheduled area, the sensitivity to wind development is reduced. Black Castle Cottage, enclosure Black Castle Cottage enclosure is located approximately 2 km from the proposed turbine position, the scheduled are is shown in Figure 16 below.

Figure 16: Black Castle Cottage enclosure (shown as yellow circle)
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Little public information is available on this scheduled monument. The site is located within an area of improved farmland and the boundary of the scheduled area is imperceptible. The level of human activity within the scheduled area and lack of visitors to the site will reduce its overall sensitivity to wind development.

8.4.

Mitigation Measures

There are no mitigation considered necessary as there will be no physical impacts on any sensitive cultural heritage sites.

8.5.

Conclusions

This assessment has examined the expected impact of the proposed Dunbar turbine on cultural heritage sites. With regards to the potential for direct impacts from the development, it was noted that no known sites are within the proposed construction area for the proposed access road or turbine location. The primary consideration was whether the turbine would have a significant impact on the setting of the sites through significant visual impact. A number of sites were identified where a potentially significant effect on their setting may occur. However, due to the limited understanding of the majority of these sites and existing anthropogenic features at the turbine site, the actual impact of the turbine is not considered to be significant.

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9.

Ecology

A report detailing the ecological impacts of the development is provided within the appendices. The assessment has been carried out by BSG Ecology. A summary of the key findings of the study is provided below: “The proposed work will result in the loss of a small area of improved grassland habitat that is considered to be of minimal ecological interest: the field has low floristic diversity A limited range of bird species has been identified within the study area, and an assessment of the habitats within the site has concluded that the site is only likely to support a limited range of common farmland bird species. The few species observed during the walkover survey were mainly using trees in the coniferous plantation 280m west and the buildings at Cocklaw farm steading 1.6km south – east. The field where the wind turbine will be located is considered to be poor for nesting birds. The development may potentially result in the disturbance of a small number of common farmland birds, but this is predicted to be a short –term and temporary impact. Assessment of the fields around the proposed wind turbine location found no evidence that geese have been present. Desk study data indicates that the area does not support large numbers of pink-footed and greylag geese. Although no vantage point survey work has been carried out, a theoretical collision risk analysis indicated that the development does not pose a significant risk to geese. The development is not predicted to impact upon protected species, including bats. A minimum 280m stand-off has been maintained from the nearest trees or woodland areas or buildings. It is considered that the development is in accordance with current best practice guidance (Natural England, 2009).”

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10.

Shadow Flicker

Under certain combinations of geographical position, time of day and time of year, the sun may pass behind a turbine rotor and cast a shadow over neighbouring properties. When the blades rotate a shadow forms for short periods and this effect is known as ‘shadow flicker’. Shadow flicker is considered an issue when the blade shadow passes over a narrow opening, such as a neighbouring property’s window. The main cause for concern is the potential annoyance to homeowners. This is an issue that can be completely mitigated, if required, through understanding the periods of concern and controlling the turbines appropriately during these periods. This chapter considers the potential for shadow flicker effects occurring at local properties.

10.1. Methodology
The effect of shadow flicker can be assessed using specialist software. This software models the shadow flicker from the following geometric considerations:  The position of the sun at a given date and time  The size and orientation of the windows that may be affected  The size of the proposed turbines that would cast the shadow If periods of shadow flicker were calculated then the turbine would have to be shutdown over all potential periods. This would mean that the availability of the turbine option would be reduced.

10.2. Baseline Assessment
10.2.1.

Relevant Policy and Information

The PAN45 (2002) guidelines have been replaced with web based renewables advice and is regularly updated. The most up to date advice on shadow flicker effects states: “Under certain combinations of geographical position, time of day and time of year, the sun may pass behind the rotor and cast a shadow over neighbouring properties. When the blades rotate, the shadow flicks on and off; the effect is known as “shadow flicker”. It occurs only within buildings where the flicker appears through a narrow window opening. The seasonal duration of this effect can be calculated from the geometry of the machine and the latitude of the potential site” “where this could be a problem, developers should provide calculations to quantify the effect. In most cases however, where separation is provided between wind turbines and nearby dwellings (as a general rule 10 rotor diameters), “shadow flicker” should not be a problem. However, there is scope to vary layout/reduce the height of turbines in extreme cases.” 10.2.2.

Site Context

There are no residential dwellings within 10 rotor diameters (470m) of the proposed turbine location. This is illustrated in Figure 17 below.

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Figure 17: 10 rotor diameter distance from turbine (470m)

10.3. Impact Assessment
As stated within the baseline assessment, there are no residential dwellings where shadow flicker would occur. Further assessment on the effects of shadow flicker is not considered necessary as the nearest houses are outwith the area where flicker impacts are theoretically possible.

10.4. Conclusion
The following conclusions have been made regarding shadow flicker considerations and the proposed wind development:  The online planning guidance states that houses within a distance equivalent to 10 x rotor diameter (equivalent to 470 m for the proposed turbine) may be impacted by shadow flicker  There are no properties within this 470 m zone of potential impact  It was shown that the location of the proposed turbine relative to surrounding houses means that shadow flicker would not have an impact on these properties. Overall shadow flicker is considered to be an area of perceived concern for nearby residents but for this development it has been shown to have no actual impact on resident’s amenity.

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11.

Noise

This section assesses whether a wind turbine at Cocklaw Hill is likely to cause a noise disturbance to the nearest residential dwellings. The chapter will initially provide an overview of relevant policy, wind turbine noise and site context before assessing the extent of wind turbine derived noise on the nearest residents.

11.1. Methodology
The extent of turbine noise has been quantified using International Standard ISO 9613 “Acoustics – Attenuation of Sound during Propagation Outdoors”. This has been carried out using Resoft’s Windfarm software.

11.2. Baseline Assessment
11.2.1.

Turbine Noise

Wind turbines generate noise as they rotate. Wind turbine derived noise will occur above the “cut-in‟ wind speed and below the “cut-out‟ wind speed. Below the cut-in wind speed there is insufficient strength in the wind to generate efficiently and above the cut-out wind speed the turbine is automatically shut down to prevent any malfunctions from occurring. The cut-in wind speed at proposed turbine hub height is 3 meters per second (m/s) and the cut out wind speed is normally around 28 m/s. Above wind speeds of 8 to 12 m/s, background noise begins to exceed turbine noise as shown in Figure 18. Therefore, it is within the range 8 to 12 m/s that turbine noise is typically most audible.

Figure 18: Background Noise and Wind Turbine Noise vs. Wind Speed 14 During the operational phase there are two potential sources of noise from a wind turbine; aerodynamic noise from the movement of the blades through the air, and mechanical noise from the operation of turbine engine components (e.g. gearbox and generator) in the nacelle. Modern wind turbines have been designed to be considerably quieter than earlier turbine models and significant progress has been made in recent years in achieving lower noise signatures. Well designed modern wind turbines are generally quiet in operation and compared

14

Graph taken from The Assessment & Rating of Noise from Wind Farms, The Working Group on Wind Turbine Noise, September 1996.

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to the noise of road traffic and construction activities in other locations, the noise from wind turbines is very low. Aerodynamic noise can be minimised through careful attention to blade design, whilst mechanical noise can be minimised through innovative design and noise insulation materials within the nacelle. The turbine specific noise details for this project are provided in Table 32 below and the noise data has been provided from the turbine manufacturer
Turbine Easting Northing Height ASL Measured sound power level at 95% operation (10m/s) including safety factor of 2dB RRB 47 371614 671871 315 m 103.7 dB(A)

Table 32: Turbine details used in this assessment 11.2.2.

Relevant Policy and Legislation

The following policy and guidance documents were utilised in the completion of this chapter:   PAN 45 (2002), Planning Advice Technologies, Scottish Government Note 45 (Revised 2002): Renewable Energy

ETSU (1997), ETSU-R-97: The assessment and rating of noise from wind farms, the Department of Trade and Industry

PAN 45 (2002) provides national planning advice for the development of renewable energy technologies, including on-shore wind energy. Recommendations are given on all aspects of wind turbine development covered in this Environmental Statement, including the assessment of noise from wind farms. This planning advice note suggests that the report “The Assessment and Rating of Noise from Wind Farms” (ETSU, 1997) presents a series of recommendations that can be regarded as relevant guidance on good practice. ETSU (1997) suggests that current practice on controlling wind farm noise should be by the application of noise limits at the nearest noise-sensitive properties. These noise limits should be applied to external locations and should apply only to those areas frequently used for relaxation or activities for which a quiet environment is highly desirable. The report suggests that noise limits should be set at a LA90 10min of no more than 5 dB(A) above background, subject to a minimum of 35-40 dB(A) for daytime and 43 dB(A) for nighttime. These limits are applicable up to a wind speed of 12 m/s measured at 10 m height on the site. However, the report also states both day and nighttime lower fixed limits can be increased to 45 dB(A) to increase the permissible margin above background where the occupier of the property has some financial interest in the wind farm. 11.2.3.

Site Context

The nearest residential location to the proposed turbine is at Thurston Mains Farm, approximately 1.2km from the turbine location. This is shown in Figure 19 below.

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Figure 19: Location of Thurston Mains (H1)

11.3. Impact Assessment
Noise related issues need to be considered decommissioning phases of the project. 11.3.1. for the construction, operational and

Construction and decommissioning phases

During these phases there will be a number of short term noise impacts of varying intensity and these include:  The transportation of abnormal loads (equipment and materials) to site will require the use of Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGV’s). The majority of the transport route is likely to be via motorways and other busy regional roads so there is unlikely to be significant additional noise impacts for sensitive receptors along the majority of this route. The construction/excavation of the foundations and ancillary structures (including the excavation of earth to lay foundations and underground cabling) is likely to have shortterm noise impacts higher than background levels. It is considered that all of this construction work will take place during daylight hours to ensure minimal disturbance to nearby residential dwellings

Given the single turbine nature of the development there will only be a short term noise impact from construction traffic and turbine components coming to and from site along local roads. These stages are therefore considered to have a negligible overall noise impact. 11.3.2.

Operational phase

As discussed, a desk-based noise impact was undertaken based on ISO 9613:  ISO 9613 – 1 Attenuation of Sound During Propagation Outdoors, part 1: Calculation of the Absorption of Sound by the Atmosphere
118

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ISO 9613 – 2: Attenuation of Sound During Propagation Outdoors, Part 2: General Method of Calculation

The propagation model described in Part 2 of the ISO 9613 standard provides for the prediction of sound pressure levels based on either short-term, down-wind (i.e. worst case) conditions, or long term, downwind overall averages. ISO 9613 is considered a conservative model as it assumes all receivers are downwind from the noise sources. In reality, when wind is blowing in the opposite direction (i.e. from receivers to sources), the source attributable noise levels are lower. Turbine sound power level and Octave Band Data In this assessment, noise predictions for this site have been based on calculated sound power levels for the RRB47. The Sound Power Levels and Octave Band Levels are shown in Table 33 and Table 34 respectively. Model RRB47 Wind Speed (m/s) 5
99.3

6
99.8

7
100.3

8
100.8

9
101.3

10
101.8

11
102.3

12
102.8

Table 33: Sound Power Levels of turbine (dB (A)) Octave Band Level (Hz) 63
79.2

Model RRB47

125
87.1

250
90.8

500
96.2

1000
98.0

2000
93.9

4000
88.9

8000
70.2

Table 34: Octave band levels for turbine at 10 m/s (dB (A)) Directivity Factor The directivity correction describes the extent to which a point source radiates sound. For a wholly omnidirectional source (like a turbine nacelle), the directivity correction is 0. Ground Factor The ground region parameter (i.e. how acoustically hard or soft the ground is) was set at 0.5 for the model. The ground region can be set between 0 (hard ground such as water or concrete) to 1.0 (grassland or farm land). Barrier Attenuation There are no screening obstacles (i.e. barriers) included in this model.

11.4. Results
The ETSU Guidelines state that the LA90 noise descriptor should be adopted for both background and wind farm noise levels and that, for the wind farm noise, this is likely to be between 1.5 and 2.5 dB less than the LAeq levels over the same period. Use of the LA90 descriptor for wind farm noise allows reliable measurements to be made without corruption from relatively loud, transitory noise events from other sources. Noise predictions were carried out for all wind speeds between 5 and 12 m/s at 10m height. The receiver was set at a 4 m height above ground level. The results are plotted in the form of noise contours shown in Figure 20 below. It should be noted that this represents downwind propagation in all directions simultaneously, which clearly cannot happen in practice. The predicted turbine noise LAeq has been adjusted by subtracting 2 dB to give the equivalent L A90 as suggested in ETSU-R-97.
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Figure 20: Noise model at Cocklaw Hill As is shown above, the predicted noise level at Thurston Mains (shown as H1) will be under 35 dB(A), the expected maximum noise level from turbine noise at the farm will be approximately 26 dB(A)

11.5. Conclusions
The following conclusions have been made regarding noise considerations and the proposed wind development:   The closest residential property is approximately 1.2km from the turbine location. The noise level from the wind turbine will not exceed the recommended noise levels set out in the ETSU guidance

Overall noise concerns are considered to be low and are considered able to be adequately represented and mitigated through sympathetic construction scheduling in the case of construction noise and a condition relating to operational noise being below the agreed noise limits at nearby dwellings.

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12.

Telecommunications

This chapter examines the proposed development of a wind turbine at Cocklaw Hill with regards to the potential to interference with telecommunications and television reception.

12.1. Methodology
To assess the potential impact on telecommunications Locogen initially provided details of this development to the Office of Communications (Ofcom). Ofcom are the agency tasked with assessing the potential impacts of wind energy proposals on the civilian radio network (consists primarily of mobile phone operators and communication systems for public sector and utility companies). Ofcom responded with a list of those telecom links that were within a 500m radius of the proposed development. Information on the proposed development was also passed on to Atkins and the Joint Radio Company (JRC) who manage the scanning microwave and telemetry links of utility companies. Ascertaining the potential impact on local television transmission signals initially involves the completion of a BBC wind farm assessment tool 15. The accuracy of such initial studies has been discussed with the BBC (responsible for terrestrial television transmitters in the area).

12.2. Baseline Assessment
All impacts are likely to be during the operational phase of the project. Initial discussions with the varied stakeholder bodies had identified some potential issues with the proposed development with regard to interference of fixed microwave and telemetry links and further assessment was required. The results of the telecommunication and television assessment are provided below. 12.2.1.

Telecommunications

The potential impact of the proposed development on mobile phone companies and their fixed microwave link network were provided by Ofcom. As discussed above, the JRC and Atkins were also contacted. The outcome of this stakeholder contact has been summarised in Table 35 below alongside responses. Company
Airwave Solutions Ltd British Telecom (BT) Everything Everywhere Ltd Mll Telecom

links
2 12 1 1

Responded
Yes Yes Yes Yes

Further issues
No No No No

Table 35: Overview of responses from Telecommunication companies 12.2.2.

Television Reception

With regard to domestic television reception the primary area of concern is that the presence and movement of the turbine causes shadow and/or reflection zones in the surrounding area. A worst case scenario is that television reception systems within these zones may be partially or totally impaired through the reception being blocked or mirrored by the presence of the

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www.bbc.co.uk/reception/info/windfarm_tool.shtml 121

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turbine. For this development the BBC wind farm tool stated that at the proposed site the development may have the following potential impacts:   “likely to affect 1 home for whom there is no alternative off-air service” “may affect up to 18 homes for whom there may be an alternative off-air service”

It should be noted that this software tool does not take into account the size of the development (so does not differentiate between a single wind turbine development and a large commercial wind farm). It was also stated on the site that this tool is a rough estimate and that it acts as an aid to quantify the need for further work if high numbers of homes are likely to be impacted upon. As stated above this automated tool is a worst case scenario that does not take into account the size of development (scale and number of turbines), or the position of the turbine(s) within the measured 100 m2 grid area. Therefore the expected number of affected houses is expected to be far less than this initial figure.

12.3. Impact Assessment
12.3.1.

Telecommunications

Based on the consultation responses, there are no perceived impacts on telecommunications at the proposed site. 12.3.2.

Television Reception

The BBC wind farm tool examines the impact upon domestic television reception systems that may be partially or totally impaired. Overall television reception issues are not perceived to be a major concern due to the low number of houses that are noted as potentially being impacted, the single turbine nature of the project and the ability to rectify issues for those individual households that are affected.

12.4. Conclusions
Further assessment has shown that the turbine location is outwith the required clearance zone of any radio links that pass near the site. While the BBC assessment tool has stated that there is the potential to affect some nearby properties, it should be noted that this assessment does not take into account the relatively small scale and single nature of the development. It is considered that any interference that may occur can be successfully mitigated against. The applicant is willing for a condition to be included whereby the developer agrees to mitigate any issues caused to local television reception by the development.

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13.

Aviation

Wind turbines can encroach on airspace and interfere with flight safety (both civilian and military), ground-based RADAR systems and aircraft navigation systems.

13.1. Methodology
Locogen have assessed the potential impact on aviation through desk based assessment and stakeholder consultation.

13.2. Baseline Assessment
13.2.1.

Relevant Policy and Legislation

Guidance for assessing the potential impact on aviation considerations is provided in:    Scottish Government 2002 – PAN 45: Renewable Energy Technologies BWEA aviation guidance – www.bwea.com/aviation BERR (Formerly DTI) – Wind energy and aviation interests (2002)

13.3. Impact Assessment
The vast majority of aviation impacts will be during the operational phase of the project. Due to the complexity in assessing aviation interests it is primarily left to the relevant statutory bodies to make their own views on the proposed development. Locogen have completed a preliminary desk based assessment of the perceived effects of a wind turbine operation on specific aviation operations. 13.3.1.

Airport Safeguarding

From a desk based assessment it was concluded that the turbine will be outwith safeguarded zones from Edinburgh Airport (>30km). There are no perceived civil aviation issues at the site. 13.3.2.

Ministry of Defence (MOD)

The main consideration with regards to MOD operations relates to ATC Radar and areas of low flying aircraft. The nearest ATC Radar is located approximately 55km to the north of the site at RAF Leuchars. The Dunbar turbine is not likely to be visible to the radar. 13.3.3.

NATS En-Route Ltd (NERL)

NATS manages the UK’s en-route air traffic outside of the individual air traffic control zones around airports. They therefore have a number of Radar stations that provide Radar coverage across the UK to allow wind developers to initially assess the potential issues with regards to en-route navigational facilities. The development is considered to be outwith any areas of Radar visibility.

13.4. Conclusions
Given the above assessment, there are no perceived concerns with the proposed Dunbar turbine development. It is understood that statutory consultees such as MOD, BAA and NATS will provide a response to the proposal upon submission of the planning application.

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14.

Public Safety

14.1. Baseline Assessment
A map showing the proposed turbine location and the fallover distance of the turbin11e is provided in Figure 21 below. The outer circle equates to a 1.1 x tip height of the turbine (62m).

Figure 21: Turbine location and safety demarcations PAN 45 states the following regarding the operational safety of a wind turbine: General Safety standards – “Companies supplying products and services to the wind energy industry operate to a series of international, European and British Standards. A set of product standards for wind energy equipment has been developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission - IEC 16400. There are a number of British Standards that correspond to it, for example, BS EN 61400-1: 1995 "Wind turbine generator systems - safety requirements.” Blade loss – “A possible but rare source of danger to human or animal life from a wind turbine would be the loss of a piece of the blade or, in most exceptional circumstances, of the whole blade. Many blades are composite structures with no bolts or other separate components. Even for blades with separate control surfaces on or comprising the tips of the blade, separation is most unlikely. “ Ice throw – “The build-up of ice on turbine blades is unlikely to present problems on the majority of sites likely to be developed in the near future. In those areas where icing of blades does occur, fragments of ice might be released from blades when the machine is started. However, most wind turbines are fitted with vibration sensors to detect any imbalance which might be caused by icing of the blades. This enables the operation of machines with iced blades to be inhibited. “ Lightning Strike – “The possibility of attracting lightning strikes applies to all tall structures and wind turbines are no different. Appropriate lightning protection measures are incorporated
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in wind turbines to ensure that lightning is conducted harmlessly past the sensitive parts of the nacelle and down into the earth. “ Proximity to Roads and Railways – Although wind turbines erected in accordance with best engineering practice should be stable structures, it may be advisable to achieve a set-back from roads and railways of at least the height of the turbine proposed, to assure safety. Driver distraction may, in some circumstances, be a consideration. The provision of appropriately sited lay-bys can be helpful.”

14.2. Impact Assessment
General Safety standards – The proposed turbines meets the required international, European and British Standards including BS EN 61400-1: 1995 "Wind turbine generator systems - safety requirements” Blade loss – As stated above the turbine has been designed to meet the required safety standards and this includes suitable consideration of the risk of blade loss Ice throw – Modern turbine designs are able to accommodate blade heating systems for sites where there is a high likelihood of blade icing occurring. Direction will be sought from the manufacturer on the requirement for this technology and if blade heating is not utilised the turbine could be programmed to shut-down during periods of potential icing and not start up until climatic conditions where such that icing and ice throw were no longer considered to be an issue. Lightning strike – The turbine will have the required level of lightning protection incorporated within the build. Proximity to roads, paths and railways – There are no public roads, paths or railways within close proximity of the turbine location. Proximity to overhead transmission lines – There are no overhead power lines within close proximity of the turbine location

14.3. Mitigation Measures
The mitigation measures discussed above include ensuring safe operation of the turbine once installed and full turbine shutdown (if required) during operational periods when this is deemed necessary.

14.4. Conclusions
The turbine to be installed meets all relevant national and international design and safety standards and the potential issues of ice throw and lightning strike have both been addressed through design and operation. The turbine is considered to be a suitable distance from all buildings, roads and routes to avoid any residual concerns regarding safety.

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15.

Summary & Impacts in Context

The proposed development of the wind turbine has the potential to have positive and negative impacts on the receiving social, economic and ecological environment.

15.1. Potential Negative Effects
The proposed development of a wind turbine at Cocklaw Hill has the potential to have negative impacts on the receiving environment, as follows:   visual impact of the proposed turbine on the surrounding landscape increase in local traffic during construction stage

15.2. Potential Positive Effects
The potential positive impacts on the receiving environment include:      A significant direct financial contribution to the local community totalling £4 million over the initial 20 years of operation The provision of a valuable new use of the current land The creation of an indigenous, local, secure and sustainable energy resource Diversification of a local farming business A direct neutral and indirect positive effect on climate

15.3. Interaction of Effects
There is potential for interactions between one aspect of the environment and another which can result in an impact being positive, negative, slight, imperceptible or have no interaction. Table 36 below outlines the interaction between the various positive and negative effects presented in this environmental assessment.
Impact construction phase - traffic - excavations - noise operational phase - noise - visual - energy output - drainage - shadow flicker - traffic
- = no interaction I = imperceptible impact

Landscape

Hydrology

Human environment

Heritage

Ecology

I I -

I I -

P P I

I I -

I I I

I-M -

I I
S = slight impact M = moderate impact

I I-M P I
P = positive impact

M I -

I I -

N = negative impact

Table 36: Summary of Interaction of Environmental Effects

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15.4. Conclusions on Development and Impacts in Context
The following conclusions can be made from the completed environmental chapters:  The wind turbine will provide a positive economic impact to the locality and for the Dunbar and District area. The community focused nature of the project will provide a positive effect to the locality by providing funds for local projects. The construction and operation of the turbine will provide a local farming business with an alternative source of income through the rental of land. The size and layout of the turbine development has been chosen to limit the visual impact on areas of high sensitivity such as Oldhamstocks Conservation Area. An assessment of landscape and visual impact concluded…(DOUG HARMAN) The proposed turbine will not have a significant impact on known archaeological sites and monuments. The turbine is a sufficient distance from local residences (over 1.8km) so that shadow flicker and noise effects will not pose as a nuisance With the successful application of mitigating measures and best practice construction techniques the wind turbine construction phase is not anticipated to have any significant, long term negative impacts on habitats of local wildlife Concerns regarding telecommunications and aviation are not expected Construction traffic is a short term impact and its management will be coordinated with East Lothian Council

     

 

In summary, based on the positive impacts of the development, and the low level of negative impacts (as mitigated, where required), it is considered that Cocklaw Hill is a suitable location for a wind turbine development at the scale proposed.

15.5. Planning Statement
This Environmental Supporting Document has demonstrated that the proposed development at Cocklaw Hill conforms with local and national planning policy. An overview of the specific policies relating to this development is provided below. 15.5.1.

Local Planning policy

Local Policy NH1a: Internationally protected areas The ecology assessment has demonstrated that the proposed development will not have an adverse affect on the conservation interest of any surrounding SPAs, SACs or RAMSAR sites. Local policy NH1b: Sites of Special Scientific Interest The ecology assessment has demonstrated that the objectives and overall integrity of any surrounding SSSIs will not be compromised. Local Policy NH2: Wildlife and Geological areas The ecology assessment has demonstrated that the development will not affect any designated site of natural heritage value. Local PolicyNH3: Important Local Biodiversity sites

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The ecology assessment has demonstrated that the development will not harm a Scottish Wildlife Trust Site, a Regionally Important Geological site or a site containing a Priority Habitat. Local Policy NH4: Areas of Great Landscape Value Taking into account the relatively extensive visibility and the context of the large scale Aikengall development and the two existing masts on Cocklaw hill, the magnitude of change that the proposed development will have on the Lammermuirs AGLV is judged to be relatively low. Local Policy NH6: Watercourses and Wetlands The Hydrology assessment has demonstrated that the development will not have an adverse affect on any watercourses or wetlands within the area. Method statements for drainage during the construction phase will be submitted for the approval of East Lothian Council and SEPA. Local Policy ENV7: Scheduled Monuments and Archaeological sites The Cultural Heritage assessment has identified that the development will not have a significant effect on the setting of heritage sites within the area. The setting of Oldhamstocks Conservation Area has been identified as being particularly sensitive to wind development, the development has therefore been designed to avoid significant impacts to the conservation area. Local Policy ENV8: Gardens and Designed Landscapes As is stated within the LVIA, the character and setting of the sites listed in the Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes are not significantly affected; Local Policy NRG4: Wind Power Sites – Restorations This document has stated that the site will be restored to its original condition after the lifetime of the development. It is noted that a legal agreement will be arranged with the LPA after planning consent has been obtained. Local Policy NRG3: Wind Turbines This Environmental Supporting Document has demonstrated that      The development will not change the existing landscape character or have an unacceptable visual impact on the surrounding area. The noise levels of the turbine will be within acceptable levels at residential areas, The effect of shadow flicker will not impact on residential areas. There will be no unacceptable cumulative impacts. They will have no adverse impacts on hydrogeology/hydrology.

Policy NRG3 is supportive of wind turbine proposals that would not have an unacceptable impact. Local Policy NRG5: Edinburgh Airport Safeguarding Zone The Aviation assessment has demonstrated that the development will be outwith Edinburgh Airport’s safeguarding zone.

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15.5.2.

East Lothian Supplementary Landscape Capacity Study for Smaller Wind Turbines (2011)

As demonstrated in the LVIA, it is considered that the landscape has the capacity to effectively accommodate the proposed development at this location without an unacceptable and detrimental change to its inherent character or visual amenity. While the SPG states that the area does not have the capacity for a wind development of this scale, it is considered that the guidance provides a generalised assessment of a large area and does not give consideration to site specific elements. The LVIA within this document has detailed the site specific elements of the proposed development and has demonstrated its suitability within the landscape in relation to the terms detailed within the SPG. The following was concluded:  The findings of the LVIA have demonstrated that the proposed development will not result in any significant changes to the physical landscape resources of the site or surroundings during the construction and operational phases of the development; No significant effects are predicted on the integrity of any landscape designations or LCTs within the study area. Furthermore, no localised significant landscape effects are predicted from any of the seventeen representative viewpoints; There are predicted to be significant visual effects on several residential dwellings at The Brunt However, to some extent, the turbine fits the existing development pattern of other vertical elements with little change to the focus of the view towards the existing masts on Blackcastle Hill. No other clusters, villages or towns are predicted to experience significant visual effects; Of the seventeen viewpoints, the visual amenity of viewpoint 3 is predicted to experience a significant visual effect on two nearby residential dwellings. No other viewpoints are predicted to experience significant visual effects; No significant visual effects are predicted on main roads or users of main recreational routes; and Significant cumulative landscape effects are predicted on small parts of the Upland Hills LCT, the Upland Fringe LCT and the Lammermuir AGLV. No significant effects are predicted on the integrity of any landscape designations or LCTs.

 

15.5.3.

Scottish Planning Policy 2010

The planning system has an important role in supporting the achievement of sustainable development. The decision making in the planning system should:     Contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in line with government targets Protect and enhance the cultural heritage Protect and maintain the natural environment Promote rural development

These key points have been fully assessed within this Environmental Supporting Document. The Scottish Planning Policy also highlights the need for supporting development where there are associated economic benefits to the area. This has been highlighted within the socioeconomic assessment and details the potential benefits to the local community. It is considered that the development of a wind turbine at Cocklaw Hill will conform with the specific policies set out in the local plan and the principles of the Scottish Planning Policy. All of

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the associated impact assessments have been carried out in accordance with relevant guidance and methodology. The DCEC turbine will also contribute to the 500MW community and locally-owned schemes targeted for 2020. This will allow the residents of the Dunbar, West Barns and East Linton ward to take advantage of the significant revenue stream available through the Feed in Tariff scheme and, in turn, will benefit the local economy. In summary, this Supporting Environmental Document has provided suitable assessment on the following:         landscape and visual impact, effects on the natural heritage and historic environment, contribution of the development to renewable energy targets, effect on the local and national economy and tourism and recreation interests, benefits and dis-benefits for communities, aviation and telecommunications, noise and shadow flicker; and Cumulative impact.

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