Biography of Walt Whitman By Steven N.

Table of Contents
Biography of Walt Whitman Table of Contents
By Steven N.

Table of Contents

I. Biography of Walt Whitman
Introduction

Early Life

Major Accomplishments

Personal Life

Walt Whitman Quotes

Walt Whitman Facts

Conclusion

Resources

Further Reading

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I.

Biography of Walt
Whitman

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Introduction

Walt Whitman is considered one of the most important poets in American history.
Whitman is known as the father of free verse, because his poetry was a palpable blend of
words and feeling which flowed freely from his pen.

His style changed forever the nature of American literature. Whitman was a humanist,
who ascribed to schools of both realism and transcendentalism. His poems had a
wonderfully natural feel that celebrated humanity it its purest form. Whitman's most
famous work was a collection of poems, "Leaves of Grass," which he paid to have
published multiple times throughout his life. Considered by many to be the quintessential
American poet, Walt Whitman challenged the ideals of American culture and inspired
others to do the same.

Whitman lived during one of the most tumultuous periods in American history, a time
marred by conflict and bloodshed. Although he was never a soldier, he saw first hand the
pain and suffering that took place during the American Civil War. After the assassination
of President Lincoln shocked the nation, Whitman wrote a poem in honor of the fallen
leader titled, "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd." During his life, Whitman also
worked as a journalist, a civil servant and a teacher, but his true passion was his poetry.
Whitman was a perfectionist who continued to revise his masterpiece, "Leaves of Grass,"
until his death in 1892, and left a legacy like no other.

The themes of Whitman's poems caused much controversy among his critics. As a
gregarious non-conformist, Whitman shocked staid American society with his strong
individuality. Whitman's personal life was also an object of curiosity for people in the
nineteenth century. Whitman is thought to have been a homosexual, although it is not
clear if he had sexual relationships with other men. There were several men whom
Whitman was close during his lifetime, who may have been his lovers. However, Whitman
himself never confirmed or denied his sexual preferences, and scholars continue to argue
about his sexuality. Whitman also courted controversy through his political and religious
beliefs. He was known to be a deist, and he did not believe that there was one true faith.
Whitman was also a proponent of the temperance movement, which aimed to outlaw the

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Whitman was also a proponent of the temperance movement, which aimed to outlaw the
use of alcohol in the United States.

Whitman's literary influence is as strong today as it was in the nineteenth century. Many
consider his works to be among the greats of American literature, and his life has also
inspired other individualistic, American artists. Walt Whitman was a person who seemed
to live life on his own terms, unconcerned with the conventions and social values of the
society he lived in. His life and work was particularly American, and his poems were a
celebration of democracy and individual freedom. His poetry continues to be an
inspiration to poets both in the United States and around the world.

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Early Life

Walt Whitman was born on May 31, 1819, in West Hills, New York. His family was
considered to be working class. His father, Walter Whitman, Sr. was a carpenter by trade,
and was a farmer at the time of his son's birth. When Whitman was four years old, his
father moved the family to the burgeoning borough of Brooklyn, New York. Walt Whitman
was born into an American society at its new beginning. The Revolution had been won
only a few decades before his birth. In their essay, "About Walt Whitman," Kenneth M.
Price and Ed Folsom wrote, "One of Walt's favorite stories about his childhood concerned
the time General Lafayette visited New York and, selecting the six-year-old Walt from the
crowd, lifted him up and carried him. Whitman later came to view this event as a kind of
laying on of hands, the French hero of the American Revolution anointing the future poet
of democracy in the energetic city of immigrants, where the new nation was being
invented day by day."

Whitman's mother, Louisa Van Velsor gave birth to a total of nine children throughout her
life time. Whitman had a special affinity for his mother, and it seems he was not very
close to his father. Walter Whitman, Sr. was a difficult man to love, as he was prone to
fits of rage and may have suffered from alcoholism. Whitman and his mother wrote
letters to one another for the duration of her life, and the two confided in each other
about their family problems. The youngest brother, Edward was physically and mentally
disabled and required constant supervision, while another brother, Jesse, was mentally ill
and was eventually confined to an institution.

By all accounts, Walt Whitman had a happy childhood in Brooklyn, New York and
especially enjoyed riding the Brooklyn Ferry across the river to New York City. Whitman
later memorialized this experience in the poem, "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry."

During his formative years, Whitman attended public schools, but he seems to have
attained his real education outside of school while attending museums, libraries, and
lectures. Although the family was not officially religious, Whitman's mother came from a
Quaker background, and this theology seems to have impacted Whitman's spiritual
beliefs.

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At the tender age of eleven, Walt Whitman completed his formal education and began his
working life. It was not unusual during this period in American history for children to enter
the workforce; in fact Whitman had stayed in school longer than either of his parents.
Luckily for Whitman, his first job working for an attorney gave him access to a circulating
library, and he continued his own education through the world of books. A voracious
reader, Whitman worked his way through the classics of Western literature, and learned
much about the art of writing.

In 1831, Walt Whitman officially began his writing career when he got an apprenticeship
at a newspaper, the Long Island Patriot. By 1834, Whitman had published his first article,
and was elated by the phenomenon of seeing his own work in print. The year before this
article was published, the rest of Whitman's family had returned to the West Hills area,
while he remained in the city. As a fourteen year old boy, Whitman lived alone and
worked for the newspaper, and had all the responsibilities of an adult. He continued his
work in the printing industry until he was seventeen years old, and then moved back to
the farm to rejoin his family.

Whitman's next position was that of a teacher, and he taught in various positions until the
spring of 1838. However, Whitman did not feel that teaching was the right career for him,
and he quickly returned to his first love; newspapers. He returned to the city and began
to write for the "Long Island Star," from September 1845 to March 1846. Next, from
March 5, 1846 to January 18, 1848, Whitman worked as the editor of "The Eagle," where
he also published many articles. Whitman's own political position on American slavery
cost him his job, because the publisher, Isaac Van Anden was pro-slavery, while Whitman
was against it. Whitman was not an abolitionist, a position he believed to be extreme; he
advocated the end of slavery not on the basis of human rights, but rather as an
unsustainable economic practice.

Whitman also wrote poetry during his young life, and in June of 1855, he paid for the
publication of his book, "Leaves of Grass." The book was well received by critics, including
Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau who praised the poetry of Whitman.
However, "Leaves of Grass" did not earn Whitman much money, and he was forced by
financial need to continue his career as a journalist.

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Major Accomplishments

Walt Whitman's greatest literary achievement was "Leaves of Grass," the anthology of
poems that became Whitman's life work. The first edition that Whitman published in 1855
consisted of twelve poems and only ninety-five pages. Ultimately, Whitman revised his
work completely six times, and published the revised editions in the years, 1855, 1856,
1860, 1867, 1871, 1872, and 1881. In some editions Whitman added or removed entire
poems, in others he simply shifted lines of text or edited existing material.

The twelve poems in the first edition were: "Song of Myself," "A Song For Occupations,"
"To Think of Time," "The Sleepers," "I Sing the Body Electric," "Faces," "Song of the
Answerer," "Europe: The 72d and 73d Years of These States," "A Boston Ballad," "There
Was a Child Went Forth," "Who Learns My Lesson Complete?", and "Great Are the Myths."
To read these poems is to understand the early days of America. In his article,
"Whitman's Lifelong Endeavor," Geoffrey Saunders Schramm wrote of Whitman's poetry,
"Whitman's conviction that America and its citizens were poems in and of themselves
echoed the zeitgeist of mid-nineteenth-century America that sought to eradicate the
lingering influences of Europe by defining a distinctly American idiom and literature.
During this American Renaissance, as it came to be known, authors and philosophers
such as Hawthorne, Melville, Thoreau, and Emerson assessed the nation's brief history in
their writings and summarily expressed a national identity."

Another of Walt Whitman's greatest works is, "Drum-Taps," his collection of poems that
focussed on the growing pains that America experienced during the Civil War. Because
Whitman actually traveled south and witnessed the horrors of war himself, he was moved
to convey his experiences through the genre of poetry. There are several themes in
"Drum-Taps," including patriotism, politics and the horror and suffering of war.

Whitman did not only write poetry, he also was a journalist and he published several
works of non-fiction. Among them was the book, "Democratic Vistas," which was a
compilation of essays that Whitman published in 1971. Where "Leaves of Grass" was a
celebration of America, "Democratic Vistas" was a criticism of the country. In his article,

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"Democratic Vistas," Arthur Wrobel wrote, "In taking up the challenge of reconstructing
his country, Whitman assumes several roles: that of a Jeremiah – harsh and
uncompromising in his detailing of America's many spiritual and moral failures; a cultural
diagnostician who looks below the surface of America's body politic to 'the inmost tissues,
blood, vitality, morality, heart & brain' (qtd. in Warren 79) in order to determine a course
of treatment; and a visionary seer who anticipates the unfolding of the Great Republic of
the future comprised of superbly developed individuals whose freedom lies in their
obedience to eternal spiritual laws."

Although Walt Whitman is now considered one of the greatest American poets, he did not
receive as much attention for his work during his lifetime. Many critics praised his work,
but others were shocked by his frank take on sexuality and sensuality.

The sales from Whitman's books never produced enough to fully support the writer
financially. Whitman depended on his wages from journalism and clerking. The
controversy that his work attracted made life more difficult for Whitman.

When he took a job in the Bureau of Indian Affairs at the Department of the Interior.
Unfortunately, Whitman was fired from the position the following year by Iowa Senator,
James Harlan, who seems to have had a moral objection to some of Whitman's poems. By
the end of his life, the royalties from his books enabled him to purchase a modest house
in Camden, New Jersey, where he lived until his death in 1892.

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Personal Life

Walt Whitman was always close to his family, and helped his brothers whenever he could.
His brother, George, fought for the Union army during the Civil War, and kept in touch
with Whitman through his letters. When the letters stopped arriving, Whitman feared that
George had been injured or killed in battle, and he immediately left for the southern
United States on foot. Unbelievably, he located his brother and was relieved to find that
George had sustained only superficial injuries. Whitman also had the difficult task of
committing his brother, Jesse, to the Kings County Lunatic Asylum.

Walt Whitman's romantic life has been the topic of much scholarly inquiry over the years.
Whitman was never married, and had no children that we know of. However, the fact that
his poetry is rife with allusions to sexual desire caused many scholars to seek out answers
about the poet's own sexuality. Many Whitman scholars believe that the writer was either
homosexual or bisexual, although there is no definitive evidence of his sexual
relationships. One of the men with whom Whitman shared a lasting friendship was Peter
Doyle, a bus conductor that many people believe was Whitman's lover.

The two apparently met on a bus, and were instantly smitten with one another. Bill
Duckett was another young man with whom Walt Whitman seemed to be extremely
close. Duckett was a neighbor of Whitman's in Camden, New Jersey, and he lived with the
much-older Whitman for several years. At the time, Duckett was described as a "boarder"
in Whitman's home, but the truth may be that the pair was much closer than previously
assumed. Harry Stafford was yet another young man who formed a close bond with
Whitman, and the two seemed to have a close relationship for several years.

Interestingly, several of these men wrote about Walt Whitman, or spoke about him in
interviews in what seem to be clear terms of a homosexual relationship. However, when
Whitman himself was pointedly asked about his sexuality, he declined to answer any
questions. Whitman did keep journals for many years, and there is some evidence that he
had close relationships with men, but his writings on the matter are not explicit. Whitman
used codes in his diaries, to disguise the names of some of the people he wrote about,
and his allusions are rather cryptic.

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and his allusions are rather cryptic.

During his lifetime there were also rumors that linked Whitman to women. Ellen Grey, a
New York actress had a romantic tryst with the poet, but no one knows if the relationship
was sexual in nature. There were several women who Whitman referred to in his later
years as his "old sweethearts," but again, the nature of these relationships is not clear. In
1890, Whitman himself wrote in a letter that he had, in the course of his life, fathered six
children, two of whom he said had died. There is no evidence that this is true, and no one
ever came forward to corroborate his version of events. However, since these
relationships occurred over a century ago, we may never know the truth about
Whitman's sexual proclivities.

According to James E. Miller, Jr.'s article, "Sex and Sexuality," "There are many critics who
agree on the pervasive homoeroticism in Whitman's life, letters, and poetry, and even on
his latent if not overt homosexuality; they are not, however, ready to adopt such a
singular and reductive assumption about what Whitman "intended" in his Leaves-'to
communicate his homosexuality to his readers.'"

Miller describes Whitman's poetry as homoerotic instead of homosexual because in the
poems, "manly" sexuality is celebrated, but there are also allusions made to women.

Other scholars believe that Whitman's allusions to same-sex attraction were not subtle at
all, and that Whitman all but openly admitted his homosexuality. Certainly, there is some
strong evidence that Whitman was not attempting to hide his male relationships. For
example, a picture taken with Bill Duckett, the young man who lived with Whitman, shows
the pair in a position that it typical of a marriage portrait. Whitman also apparently gave
Harry Stafford a ring that he wore for the duration of their relationship, but returned to
Whitman when the friendship ended. In his article, "Walt Whitman: A Gay Life," Gary
Schmidgall argues that Whitman scholars have purposefully avoided the fact that the
poet was homosexual, he writes, "Recent Whitman scholarship has improved somewhat,
though admiring heterosexual academics-such as the City University of New York's, David
Reynolds-are still loathe to admit that a poet of such stature as Whitman's could have
actually lived as an uninhibited, proud, homosexually-inclined genius."

Although we may never know the definitive truth about Walt Whitman's sexuality, it is
important to remember the time in which he lived. Although society disparaged
homosexuality in America during this period, there were certainly many people who had
homosexual relationships. During the nineteenth century, sexuality was less defined than
it is today, and individuals were not considered homosexual or heterosexual by nature.
During this period, although homosexual activity was generally considered "sinful," it was

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also thought of as a sin that could be committed by anyone. Walt Whitman challenged
many ideas of his day, and his sexuality is just one more piece of this fascinating puzzle.

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Walt Whitman Quotes

"Resist much. Obey little." This quote by Whitman represents perfectly his countercultural
attitude.

This is a beautiful example of Whitman's masterful free verse:

"I exist as I am, that is enough,

If no other in the world be aware I sit content,

And if each and all be aware I sit content.

One world is aware, and by the far the largest to me, and that is myself,

And whether I come to my own today or in ten thousand or ten million years,

I can cheerfully take it now, or with equal cheerfulness, I can wait."

Whitman's spiritual beliefs were esoteric and unusual for the period, he wrote, "In the
faces of men and women, I see God." He also recommended religious skepticism when
he wrote, "Argue not concerning God, …re-examine all that you have been told at
church or school or in any book, dismiss whatever insults your soul…"

"Whoever you are, now I place my hand upon you/ That you may be my poem/ I whisper
with my lips close to your ear/ I have loved many women and men, but I love none better
than you." This quote shows the poet's romantic nature.

Here is a selection from Whitman's poem memorializing Abraham Lincoln:

"O captain! My Captain!

Our fearful trip is done.

The ship has weather'd every wrack

The prize we sought is won

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The port is near, the bells I hear

The people all exulting

While follow eyes, the steady keel

The vessel grim and daring

But Heart! Heart! Heart!

O the bleeding drops of red

Where on the deck my captain lies

Fallen cold and dead."

Here is another beautiful example of Whitman's beautiful poetry:

"Are you the new person drawn toward me?

To begin with, take warning – I am surely far different from what you suppose;

Do you suppose you will find in me your ideal?

Do you think it so easy to have me become your lover?

Do you think the friendship of me would be unalloy'd satisfaction?

Do you think I am trusty and faithful?

Do you see no further than this façade-this smooth and tolerant manner of me?

Do you suppose yourself advancing on real ground toward a real heroic man?

Have you no thought, O dreamer, that it may be all maya, illusion?"

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Walt Whitman Facts

Three of Whitman's brothers were named for American presidents, Andrew Jackson,
George Washington, and Thomas Jefferson.

Each day, for the final twenty tears of his life, Whitman ate four raw eggs for
breakfast each morning.

In 1881 "Leaves of Grass" was banned in Boston due to its sexual content.

Before his death, Whitman had a $4000 tomb built for himself in Harleigh Cemetery
where he is now buried.

In 1944, ten of Walt Whitman's notebooks were found to be missing from the
collection at the Library of Congress. Four of the notebooks were found when a man
who was selling items from his father's estate brought them to Sotheby's, the other six
have never been recovered.

"Franklin Evans" was the book that sold the most copies during Whitman's lifetime,
although the author himself hated the book.

Whitman's brother George fought for the Union in the Civil War and was captured by
the Confederates in Virginia.

When Whitman worked at the Attorney General's office he interviewed Confederate
soldiers for Presidential pardons.

Upon his death, over one thousand people visited his Camden, New Jersey home to
view Whitman's body.

Orator, Robert G. Ingersoll, who was known as "the great agnostic," delivered
Whitman's eulogy.

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Conclusion

Walt Whitman was an astoundingly talented poet who lived an unconventional and
remarkable life. Whitman's poetry is still taught today as the ultimate example of free
verse, and is revered as great American poetry. Whitman's poems are rich with the
enthusiasm of America and the romantic nature of the nineteenth century. Whitman
himself believed that he was an important poet, he was known to compare his work to
that of Shakespeare and to call himself "the American Bard."

Many people respect not only Whitman's poetry, but also his unusual life. In the 1950s,
the writers in the Beat poetry movement tried to emulate Whitman's vagabond lifestyle
as well as his rejection of contemporary values and his style of poetry. Whitman's fierce
individualism is a large part of what makes him the great American poet. Each new
generation of poetry fans rediscovers Walt Whitman and his beautiful words.

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Resources

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of English: "About Walt Whitman."
(http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/s_z/whitman/bio.htm)

National Endowment for the Humanities: "Whitman's Lifelong Endeavor: Leaves of Grass
at 150" (http://www.neh.gov/news/humanities/2005-07/whitman.html)

The Walt Whitman Archive: "Democratic Vistas [1871]"
(http://whitmanarchive.org/criticism/current/encyclopedia/entry_4.html)

The Walt Whitman Archive: "Sex and Sexuality"
(http://whitmanarchive.org/criticism/current/encyclopedia/entry_49.html)

Gay Book Reviews: "Walt Whitman: A Gay Life"
(http://gaybookreviews.info/review/3503/841)

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Further Reading

The New York Times: "Whitman the Scrivener"
(http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/17/opinion/17sun3.html?_r=1&ref=waltwhitman)

The New York Times: "Whitman's Multitudes, for Better and Worse"
(http://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/18/books/18whit.html?ref=waltwhitman)

The Washington Post: "Walt Whitman: Celebrating the Poet's History – and Washington's"
(http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A62977-2005Mar24.html)

Elizabethtown College Department of English: "Redrawing Whitman's Circle"
(http://users.etown.edu/s/sarracct/waltwhitman.htm)

Academy of American Poets: "Back Down to Earth: On Walt Whitman's Preface to the
1855 Leaves of Grass." (http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/5915)

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About The Author

Steven N.
Steven N. is an experienced writer and a member of the Hyperink Team,
which works hard to bring you high-quality, engaging, fun content. Happy
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