Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have and
Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Table of Contents
Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have and
Table of Contents
Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall

Table of Contents

I. Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's
To Have and Have Not
About the Book

About the Author

Overall Summary

Chapter-by-Chapter Summary

Character List

Key Terms & Definitions

Major Themes and Symbols

Interesting Related Facts

Sources and Additional Reading

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Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To
and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not
Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To
and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not

I.

Quicklet on Ernest
Hemingway's To Have
and Have Not

Hyperink Quicklets 2
Hyperink Quicklets

Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To
and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not
Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To
and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not

About the Book

Based on his personal experiences and observations from living in Key West and Cuba,
Hemingway composed the non-stop adventures of the indefatigable yachtsman Harry
Morgan, an ex-policeman struggling to survive the Great Depression in the depths of
Cuban revolutionary waters. The Morgan story was originally intended to be published in
three separate short stories (Baker xvi)—a narrative genre which Hemingway himself was
redefining at the time. Hemingway had already published the first and second “stories” of
Harry Morgan in Cosmopolitan and Esquire magazines (1934, 1935), and decided to
revise all the tales into one novel. Yet the melding of the three stories, along with the
intervening story of Richard Gordon, created a novel lacking in unity. Hemingway even
admitted that To Have and Have Not was “a procedural error” (Baker xv), and his least
gratifying book (Baker 205). The novel was crafted during a time in Hemingway’s life that
experts describe as an ‘interim period’ of artistic regression between his better glory days
(Baker xvi). The start of the Spanish Civil War also influenced Hemingway’s time and
focus on the novel, in that the main character as an individual comes to share the same
fate as the oppressed proletarians of his society (Meyers 267). Hemingway worked and
reworked with the manuscript, even relying on the unbiased editorial eyes of trusted
friends (Mellow 485), until its final publication by Scribner in 1937. It opened to critical
reviews which considered the work to be an anti-capitalist stance against the U.S.
government with Marxist undertones, and as “a novel divided against itself”—telling
multiple stories which just didn’t cohere as a single novel (Mellow 488; Baker 205, 206).

Yet Hemingway did achieve groundbreaking fiction writing techniques within To Have and
Have Not which also showcases some of Hemingway’s best writing, perhaps
underappreciated by his critics at the time (Baker 216). To Have and Have Not is divided
into three parts, each exhibiting different narrative techniques with which Hemingway
was experimenting by way of this novel. One such courageous technique was the multiple
perspectives of the main character from varying points of view—including first-person
narration from Harry himself, a third-person narrator, and later narratives and internal
monologues from surrounding characters as they interact with Harry. This new technique
allowed the reader to view the main character from the mindset of others around him,

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Hemingway’s control over emotionally intense scenarios is masterfully and persistently maintained. or a rendition of a Humphrey Bogart characterization in novel form. Another hallmark technique was Hemingway’s unrelenting aggrandizing of Harry Morgan as an unstoppable hero—transforming an ordinary. primitive man into a modern warrior when faced with the harsh. then they should look no further than this Hemingway gem. Lastly. unforgiving realities of his surrounding world (Baker 216). If readers are seeking an adventurous escape. Hyperink Quicklets 4 Hyperink Quicklets .Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not expanding his character development and establishing stronger connections between him and the other characters.

His involvement and interest in war and its impact on society would remain on his conscience throughout his life and thoroughly shape his identity as a storyteller. he joined other prominent American modernist writers. followed by Men Without Women (1927) upon his return to the United States. In 1921. Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for his incomparable influence on Hyperink Quicklets 5 Hyperink Quicklets . and Spain and enjoyed fishing. Ford Madox Ford. The Old Man and the Sea. Born in 1899 in Oak Park. Hemingway also traveled extensively throughout Africa. Already a renowned American writer. Eliot. In Our Time (1925). Hemingway went on to explore the Caribbean and reported on World War Two from Europe. F. Scott Fitzgerald. During the 1930s and America’s Great Depression. known as the expatriate “Lost Generation” literary group. From his experiences abroad.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not About the Author Ernest Hemingway is a staple of classic American literature and has left behind a tremendous legacy due to his stylistic writing. In 1952. Hemingway began his writing career in 1917 as a reporter with The Kansas City Star shortly after graduating high school. During this time. During his residency in Paris. Hemingway composed Death in the Afternoon (1932) and Green Hills of Africa (1935). he volunteered as an ambulance driver for the Italian front and served the Red Cross during World War One. S. in Paris. A Farewell to Arms (1929) based on his experiences with the WWI Italian front. for which he was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1953. Illinois. and Ezra Pound. Hemingway completed and published Three Stories and Ten Poems (1923). but was severely wounded in 1918 and sent home. and was later printed as a complete novel in 1937. In 1954. Hemingway completed what would become his masterpiece. Hemingway then published one of his greatest literary successes. Hemingway took up residency in Key West as well as Cuba. The group included Gertrude Stein (Hemingway’s mentor and patron). where he based his experimental novel To Have and Have Not that was first published in 1934 as separate short stories in Cosmopolitan and Esquire Magazine. unprecedented narrative. Months later. Hemingway created his classic success For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940). big-game hunting. Hemingway was eventually offered a job reporting on the Spanish Civil War. and bullfighting. Italy. T. and daring character examinations. The Sun Also Rises (1926). based on his residency and observations in Spain.

(Scribner 2003. Winner Take Nothing (1933). Across the River and Into the Trees (1950). Frenz 1969) Hyperink Quicklets 6 Hyperink Quicklets . Islands in the Stream (1970). The Dangerous Summer (1985). Idaho. as well as the posthumously published A Moveable Feast (1964). he died of suicide in Ketchum. The Fifth Column and the First Forty-nine Stories (1938). Hemingway married four times and had three sons. In 1961.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not the American short story and novel. His other works include The Torrents of Spring (1926). and The Garden of Eden (1986).

Harry is a tough. you do not know—and could not possibly even know—what it would be like to see this scenario. the story’s main character. dumps his body into the water.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Overall Summary “You know how it is there early in the morning in Havana with the bums still asleep against the walls of the buildings. before even the ice wagons come by with ice for the bars?” Most likely. Eddy—until he is stiffed by his latest client and left for broke on the island. is well aware of his criminal activity. Marie. Harry at least still has a conscience. The night the exchange goes down. murder. cynical. Harry kills the Chinese businessman. He accepts a deal with a Chinese broker who seems all too eager to pay him $1. including the black market. but to Harry she is a remarkable and loving wife. A large woman and former prostitute. the desperate and helpless population (especially those Cubans running their political revolution) are forced to take any means of income available to them. Marie seems like nothing but a worn-out hooker to everyone else. Harry once was able to persevere by legitimate business—running charters for party- fishing at a respectable rate along with such friends as his alcoholic mate. yet this is the world into which Hemingway plunges his reader at the start of To Have and Have Not. Hyperink Quicklets 7 Hyperink Quicklets .200 to smuggle 12 Chinese workers out of Cuba. bold. This is the world to which Harry Morgan. It is a tumultuous political and social climate. safe from the danger and havoc of Cuba. Harry must now take on the opportunity of smuggling immigrants off Cuba and into Florida for his only income. and smuggling. robbery. pockets the cash. The novel is ultimately about the perils of the “Haves” and “Have Nots” trying to survive the economic crisis of the Great Depression within the locale of Key West and Havana. Harry is forced to run contraband as well as human smuggling on his boat to make a living and survive the societal decay of the region. He returns home to his family. Although he was hesitant about it at first. His wife. and releases the 12 workers back into Cuba. and exceptionally smart yachtsman with a wife and three daughters living in Key West. belongs as well. Although he is heavily involved in cut-throat crime. but knows that he must do whatever it takes in order to support their family. however.

even with Marie. A local crooked lawyer. To do this. Harry finally agrees and takes on Albert. Harry convinces Freddy the bartender to lend him his boat. Bradley from the local people and neighboring tourists. a nameless passerby happens to spot the hidden boat and reports it to the authorities. except he decides to pocket some of the money for himself as a ‘brokerage fee. Harry must begin to rid the boat of the liquor and starts dropping demijohns of booze over the side. Next. Harry tells Albert he can no longer use him as his mate. and tells Richard she is leaving him for Professor MacWalsey. proposes a new business venture to Harry. along with his out-of-work. and honesty—qualities that Richard has never had. and his boat is yet again confiscated by the authorities. Helen. Bradley. Harry goes on to make preparations on the boat.’ Freddy reluctantly accepts the minor payment and gives Harry access to the Queen Conch. Bee-lips introduces Harry to four bank-robbing Cuban revolutionaries who need a charter back into Cuba. the Queen Conch. and Harry hides the boat in what he considers to be a safe place. Bee-lips must bring the $1. Richard continues to carouse about town. Bradley (as the reader discovers). However. Not only is Richard rejected by Mrs. Meanwhile. known as Bee-lips.200 payment from the Cubans. not revealing his actual plans with anyone. whom he actually did love Hyperink Quicklets 8 Hyperink Quicklets . a successful writer but arrogant man who is vacationing in Key West with his beautiful wife. Harry suffers a bullet wound in his right arm which leaves the limb incapacitated. mate-for-hire friend Albert. as he works on completing his fourth novel. Freddy only agrees to the exchange as long as Harry can put up what the boat is worth. affection. who eventually report his booze boat to the authorities. Harry and his mate Wesley are found in the midst of a crisis on Harry’s boat: Both men are shot following a bootleg liquor exchange gone bad. Helen eventually gets tired of his sexual escapades. but now is rejected and abandoned by his own wife. on account that he must steal his own boat back from customs to perform the dangerous task. unashamed of his relationship with Mrs. Bee-lips assists Harry in stealing the boat without being caught. Richard is blatantly having an affair with Mrs. when Albert appears again. Harry then goes home to obtain his Thompson gun. a comical looking man but one who can offer Helen stability. Harry suspects Bee-lips to have made some kind of profit of the double-crossing. a married socialite who is known for collecting men as a hobby. Hemingway begins telling the side story of Richard Gordon. Harry’s bullet-riddled boat is spotted by curious tourists passing in a charter boat. Harry agrees to do the job.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not In the next segment of the novel. Harry is next seen at the local watering hole and grounds of illegal business negotiations —Freddy’s bar—with his right arm missing and his boat impounded by customs. begging Harry to let him be his mate once more. despite Albert’s desperate pleas.

but once conscious again. Harry and Albert are getting ready for the departure. and a crowd has gathered to nosily view the crime scene. and by morning his is delirious with pain and dehydration. Meanwhile. a passing tanker spots Harry’s boat and the Coast Guard is notified. Professor MacWalsey sympathetically attempts to help Richard home in a taxi. She realizes Albert is dead and becomes hysterical. and heads back to the bar. Harry is transported to the Marine Hospital via ambulance. Richard protests and pitifully tries to fight Professor MacWalsey again. Eventually. He sneakily intoxicates the murderous Roberto to render him somewhat disabled. at the same time. Albert protests to aid and abet the criminals. By nighttime. A minute later. He remains in this perilous state overnight. He storms out of the taxi and refuses to get back in without a fight. Richard attempts to fight Professor MacWalsey. Marie and her children are awaiting the results of Harry’s operation. so the large Cuban named Roberto immediately shoots and kills Albert. honest. The men try to get information out of Harry as to what took place on the boat. now stranded in the middle of the Gulf’s waters. and commences his retaliation once they are out in the Gulf Stream. Professor MacWalsey remains calm. Richard leaves their home and ventures the local bars to drink and forget his troubles. right in the gut. the crew tries to keep Harry alive until they reach shore. Harry grabs his hidden gun and shoots all four men. Later at the Hospital. but Harry only seems to be nonsensical in his delirium. He makes friends with some rowdy veterans on leave and presently crowding Freddy’s bar. Hyperink Quicklets 9 Hyperink Quicklets . Richard spots Professor MacWalsey at the other end of the bar and eventually confronts him. Yet the damage is done and it’s too late. on land. and meanwhile makes friends with the younger Cuban. Harry is bitter about Albert’s senseless murder. Marie is seen at the sheriff’s office. when they suddenly hear gunfire coming from the bank nearby. They see the four Cubans escape the bank with guns drawn and cases of money in tow.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not and adore but had neglected for too long. denying nothing. Richard appears pathetic. Professor MacWalsey finally leaves Richard. Albert’s wife emerges from the crowd. but now suffers a fatal wound. they reach the Navy Yard. himself an alcoholic. Harry can only lay on the ground of the cabin of the boat. The Coast Guard retrieves the Queen Conch. washed up. Intoxicated and miserable. and they all leave the dock on Freddy’s boat. but before he can even begin the bar’s bouncer beats him up until he is knocked out. but things are looking bleak for Harry. they are before Harry and Albert. Back on the Queen Conch. Harry shoots and kills the man for good. apparently trying to make sense of whatever happened to her husband. but one Cuban remains alive and shoots Harry back. The Cubans force Harry to take off. and sincere during the confrontation.

Hyperink Quicklets 10 Hyperink Quicklets . She takes the girls home so she may view Harry and grieve by herself back at the hospital.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Later at the Hospital. A doctor arrives and informs Marie that Harry has passed. A week later. She must now realize life without her husband and figure out how to support their three daughters. Marie and her children are awaiting the results of Harry’s operation. Marie is still in shock and unable to even attend Harry’s funeral.

the young Cubans leave the restaurant. Frankie. The party heads back to shore. Harry is left broke in Havana and desperate for money. and begin their charter of Mr. Harry refuses to smuggle anything on his charter boat “that talks. Johnson still carelessly loses not only the fish that he hooked. Johnson on a legal party- fishing trip. Harry witnesses the murder.” indicating that Harry partakes in the illegal smuggling of other goods. Hyperink Quicklets 11 Hyperink Quicklets . to catch wind of someone looking for transport and to set them up with Harry. but instead stiffs Harry and catches a flight back to the U. as well as his drunken friend Eddy—“a rummy”—who apparently had been hiding in the bar during the assault. the first chapter is packed with a sequence of events that set up the novel’s subsequent plot to follow. He seeks out the help of his local friend. Harry takes along another skilled laborer he only refers to as “the nigger” to assist with the fishing expedition. but the whole rod and reel with it.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Chapter-by-Chapter Summary Part One: Harry Morgan (Spring) Chapter One (Summary) Comparatively longer than the novel’s other chapters. He promises to pay Harry his large debt the following morning.S. Harry Morgan—the novel’s main character and current narrator—describes his encounter with three slick-looking Cubans who solicit Harry to charter them out of Cuba and into Key West for cash payment. but at least has a conscience not to smuggle people. Disappointed and angry. Johnson is indebted to Harry for weeks of chartering. Harry quickly meets up with Eddy at the dock where they decide not to talk further of the incident. only to be immediately gunned down by two assassins in a vehicle. After cautioning Johnson on how to properly hook and reel the large marlin in the water. Now he made need to take on the risk he was originally trying to avoid: smuggling immigrants off the island for cash payments. in addition to paying for the lost fishing equipment. Inside the Pearl of San Francisco Café in Havana.

overblowing their stereotypical characteristics into unrealistic proportions. when Eddy arrives on deck. which Hemingway tends to describe in caricature-like terms. remaining one step ahead of them for safety sake. Yet the reader learns that this tough outdoorsman caught in the midst of cultural upheaval also has a wife and three daughters back home in Key West. This may lend to Harry’s rather insulting portrayals of other characters. risk-taking. Chapter Two (Summary) That same evening. Eddy persistently pleads with Harry to let his “pal” come along until Harry literally smacks some sense into Eddy to help him get the point. Harry feels the looming threat of danger hanging over his head. redeeming his reliance on shady means of income with a sense of justice.200. Harry is cautiously trusting of anyone he does business with.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not (Analysis) Like much of the book. and brutally honest. and Harry reports to the port’s broker that he alone will be voyaging that night and gets permission for passage. a fee to be delivered to Harry in two parts upon the successful exchange. resourceful. The two men arrange to meet in the waters off Bacuranao around midnight to exchange 12 Chinese immigrants whom Harry will be in charge of chartering to a specified location. get home. and out of danger. self-interests of the business proposals offered to him. Harry doesn’t have much of a choice if he wants to make any money and return home safely. the reader becomes familiar with Harry’s character—rugged. but quickly thinks of an escape plan. sly. They agree on a price of $1. cynical. Eddy finally leaves. Sing. Upon its Hyperink Quicklets 12 Hyperink Quicklets . (Analysis) Despite the criminal. as Harry describes him. this chapter is brimming with action-packed episodes. Harry starts preparing his boat for the trip. Frankie sets up a meeting for Harry with a “smooth-looking Chink” named Mr. During this chapter. Now Harry really can’t wait to get on with the Chinese deal so he can get paid. Harry receives a threatening message which accuses him of having set up the three Cubans who had sought him for transportation. resulting in their deaths. such as the graphic murder of the three Cubans to boot. only Harry ardently refuses to let Eddy come along. Harry represents what Hemingway considers to be the ideal man. Harry’s desires of profiting within this tumultuous political and economic climate may simply be for the sake of supporting his family. Later. Eddy enthusiastically wishes to join Harry on this mysterious voyage he knows nothing about. quick-minded.

resources like the boat and Eddy) to good use in order to survive. In his frustration. Once the boat has drifted far enough. thinking instead that Eddy may be of some help in protecting him and the ship from the imminent danger of the voyage. Harry shuts off the engine and descends into the cockpit—only to discover Eddy there drunkenly asleep.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not release. The short action demonstrates Harry’s quick thinking. Harry considers killing Eddy. Harry momentarily resolves to not kill his friend but instead cover his tracks via Mr. locked up. but little regard for the lives of others over his sense of duty. Harry decides to wait for nightfall before deciding to tell Eddy anything about the purpose of the trip. Sing’s boat would meet them once and Hyperink Quicklets 13 Hyperink Quicklets .. Hemingway could possibly be giving some room for a conscience within Harry. Sing’s crew. then his cover would instantly be blown and the 12 secret passengers would have been revealed in no time. he doesn’t want to take any chances getting caught. Eddy naively disrupted Harry’s survival plan by insisting on being present. Chapter Three (Summary) Harry begins his departure on the waters—sneaking out his boat into the Gulf—and successfully slips out of sight and begins waiting for nightfall. Harry begins prepping Eddy for the encounter with the Chinese immigrants by gradually permitting him drinks of liquor to calm his alcohol withdrawals and “to keep him brave” (48). At first. To Have and Have Not was highly criticized for Hemingway’s choice of using caricature (Baker 216). He explains to Eddy that Mr. (Analysis) Harry is methodical in his plans and considers any and all consequences and solutions—a quality that has helped him to survive Havana up to this point. Harry even considers shooting his friend Eddy because of what he predicts to be grave danger: If the broker or any authorities discovered a second man on board when the crew list clearly indicates that Harry is allegedly alone. and broke. as noticeably seen in this chapter’s descriptions of Mr. Sing and Frankie. Chapter Four (Summary) At nightfall. Even though all those involved have been friendly toward Harry. but even his decision to keep Eddy alive is rather sympathetic and self-benefiting.e. but then decides against it. This is a demonstration of Harry putting his superior intellect and his “haves” (i.

the twelve Chinese men. With the help of successive drinks of liquor to subdue his shakes. and that he won’t need to worry about Mr. Hyperink Quicklets 14 Hyperink Quicklets . He gives Eddy a pistol for security in case any of the Chinese workers should happen to attack. Harry and Eddy (asleep in the cockpit) are nearing Key West during the early morning hours. Sing. When Key West begins to be in sight.’ Later. Harry finally makes plans to return home. Eddy helps usher the two waves of men into the cabin below and returns to the boat’s controls. Sing anyway by choking him and breaking his neck. Aboard a scull boat. He asks Eddy how he got his name on the list. Harry suspected from the get-go that something was fishy. Sing and his passengers arrive as planned. Sing’s boat would return a second time with the remaining six men and the last half of the payment. Eddy gets too drunk in public and lets his lips loose…”but who believes a rummy?” [63]). (Analysis) Because his deal with Mr. but Harry and Marie refuse Eddy. With his cash payment in hand. but to put the boat into gear as soon as he notices the second exchange of money made. Harry is home with his wife Marie.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not exchange six of the men onto their boat. Sing’s sculling boy. Sing. Sing seemed all too good to be true. spooking the boy driver on Mr. Harry is convinced that the murder is concealed. Harry and Eddy then drive the boat back to the Cuban shore where they kick out the 12 men. keeping the boat going no matter what happens. relaxing and reflecting. and Eddy explains he met the broker just as he was leaving his office and told him he was going along. Harry thinks Eddy is one lucky ‘rummy. Even though the exchanges remained amicable.” and Harry quietly agrees (64). Sing’s boat who then flees the scene. He tells Eddy that he killed the kind businessman “to keep from killing twelve other Chinks” (55). Harry kills Mr. Harry disposes of the body by anchoring it into the depths of the ocean. along with the first half of the payment. that is. as a way of covering his tracks in the whole ordeal. Eddy is ready for his call to duty. and the groups successfully make the swaps. Then Mr. or Eddy blabbing to anyone about it (until. Mr. and pocketing the cash without getting caught by the authorities or any potential enemies. Harry grabs for his papers and discovers Eddy’s name was on the crew list the whole time. Chapter Five (Summary) Having left the crime scene. That’s why Harry decided to kill Mr. He tells Eddy to man the controls of the boat while Harry makes the swaps with Mr. Marie comments that “There aren’t any lucky rummies. An intoxicated Eddy attempts to visit Harry in his home.

The chapter is also a great demonstration of Hemingway’s style of writing for which he is praised: Hemingway seamlessly takes on such powerful complexities (like danger. which complicated the flow of the story. and remains crying in pain on the floor of the cockpit.. Harry argues with Wesley to quit worrying about his wound and to leave it alone. Harry steers the boat not toward Sand Key as originally planned. The reader is immediately submerged in the midst of a crisis: Harry and his shipmate—whom the narrator only describes as “the nigger” but who is actually named Wesley—have apparently fled an overnight bootleg liquor exchange gone bad. and close encounters) and simplifies them through short. Harry can finally see the damage done to the boat. and to himself—and it’s all bad. to Wesley. some critics found the over-the-top dramatic action to be so overwhelming that it became unbelievable. Weary and without use of his right arm. Chapter Six opens up with a new. The setting is not set (e. With the dawn approaching. Part Two: Harry Morgan (Fall) Chapter Six (Summary) The start of Part Two of the novel. violence. Harry took a bullet in his right arm.g. now describing Harry Morgan from an objective standpoint. but Wesley can only complain. readers may be curious of the sudden leap forward in time. Harry still commences to dump the sacks of liquor overboard by himself. terse dialogue and composition.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not (Analysis) The conclusion of Part One of the novel. curse. they may wish to proceed with the remaining two parts of the novel. Once near the channel’s mangroves. It takes little for Hemingway to make the sharp impact he wishes his readers to experience within his story’s remarkable setting. as both men are shot. On the other hand. (Analysis) Because Hemingway had originally composed the three parts of the book as separate stories. but toward Woman Key. Wesley suffers from a gunshot wound in the leg. If the reader could stomach the non-stop violence thus far. The chapter serves as a last glimpse (for the time being) on the inner-workings of the stoic Harry and his logic behind such intense encounters. how Harry came about making the present contraband deal or enlisting the help of Hyperink Quicklets 15 Hyperink Quicklets . and moan in pain. Chapter Five is also the last of which Harry will serve as the narrator for a while. third-person narrator. which now can only dangle from his shoulder ineffectively.

Captain Willie’s kind behavior toward him by keeping Hyperink Quicklets 16 Hyperink Quicklets . and Harry seems grateful for Willie’s gesture. Harry. two U. government officials. and an arm rendered useless) will affect Harry the remainder of the novel. right in the heart of Depression-riddled America. and its two wealthy passengers notice Harry’s troubled boat and become extremely curious. Even though the actual encounter with the contraband gang from whom Harry and Wesley obtained the liquor nor the exchange of gunfire with Cuban authorities is not described. Wesley. but rather to diagnostically demonstrate the decay of society. Harry and Wesley begin their journey back toward home. Captain Willie plays dumb about knowing Harry or his goings-on. but Hemingway does give him one noteworthy line of dialogue in the midst of his grumbling and moaning: “Why they run liquor now?…Prohibition’s over. Harrison gets excited about possibly arresting the neighboring boat’s captain for his obvious bootlegging activity. but shouts a heads-up to him about his nosy passengers before his boat leaves out of sight. By way of the third-person narration. the reader is given full insight into the scenario’s aftermath. Chapters Seven–Eight (Summary) A neighboring charter boat passes by. with no veritable solution (Baker 206). turn their boat around so that they may pass Harry’s boat once again and evaluate whether criminal activity is taking place as he suspects. Captain Willie. Back on Harry’s boat. Harry contemplates the situation: his misfortune with the bootleg job and Cuban government officials’ gunfire. but Captain Willie refuses to turn around his boat and incriminate his fellow yachtsman. Why they keep up a traffic like that? Whyn’t they bring the liquor in on the ferry?…Why don’t people be honest and decent and make a decent honest living?” (70) Questions like this linger throughout the story.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Wesley). the reader learns that the passengers are Frederick Harrison and his Secretary. Captain Willie and his boat depart. Harry tosses the last sack of booze overboard. like many other minor characters. so readers must decipher the current situation as is. The damages caused from this single trip (having a bullet-riddled boat now smothered in illegal booze.S. is unfortunately portrayed as a bit of a caricature of a racist stereotype. selfish. Hemingway specifically used the setting of Key West and Cuba during the Depression not as a platform for a political commentary. Harrison demands that the boat’s captain. There isn’t any real hope of such illegal. and dangerous activity ever coming to a resolved end in Hemingway’s world.

Scott Fitzgerald. such as his boatsmen or family. He can barely afford to feed his family Hyperink Quicklets 17 Hyperink Quicklets . Captain Willie recognizes this callousness in his two passengers. The two touristing government officials appear as predators upon the less fortunate underclass. the two men visit Bee- lips at his home where they meet with the Cubans to make the deal. Harry escapes the immediate danger of the wealthy’s predatory advances. and therefore will be powerless in making any kind of living. Harry recruits Albert to help him with the job. Hemingway resented glamorizing the rich (Baker 191). but they haven’t exhausted their powers just yet. Harry. They have no regard for Harry’s well-being or anyone who could possibly be attached to Harry. and the possibility of losing not only his boat on account of the witnesses. digging sewer lines for the government on a strict. (Analysis) This chapter is important in that not only does the reader get to view Harry from the perspective of another character (Albert). socioeconomic background. but also that Albert’s situation is quite different from Harry’s even though both men are from the same region. a struggling relief worker who relies on extra boating jobs from men like Harry to help him and his family get by. Part Three: Harry Morgan (Winter) Chapter Nine (Summary) Part Three opens with the narration of Albert. and refuses to satisfy their self-interests in damaging Harry’s life. Harry’s boat was impounded once the touring government officials reported it as a booze boat to the authorities.200 for the job. The reader can sense Hemingway’s detest for the wealthy by his characterization of Frederick Harrison and Secretary.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not the two strange men away. They agree to pay Harry a total of $1. Harry still faces the imminent threat of having his booze boat confiscated. but also his arm if he doesn’t get to a doctor soon enough. On the one hand. Harry surmises to steal his boat back in order to make the journey with the four Cubans. is asked by the lawyer Bee-lips (so called because he is always willing to sweet-talk anyone if the price is right) to do another charter boat job: transport four Cuban revolutionaries out of Florida and back into Cuba. preying on Harry’s predicament as an opportunity for profit and for increasing their own records of valor. Later. and business. now missing his right arm. Albert works on the relief. fixed income. (Analysis) Unlike his contemporary F.

He also doesn’t quite trust Albert or Bee-lips. like circumventing the law (i. considering their available options. Harry pursues other reliable avenues of income. Even though the men must resort to illegal means of income. Now I get shot and lose an arm. This chapter definitely captures Hemingway’s straightforward examination of the hopeless time period. and my boat. running a lousy load of liquor that’s worth hardly as much as my boat. Meanwhile.e.” (96) According to researcher Carlos Baker. Harry tells Albert: “Look at me. analyzing the most diseased part of the infection and merely reporting the observations (Baker). Mellow 488). He is worried about the four Cubans potentially sabotaging the departure voyage just after having to steal his own boat back in the first place. but rather to serve as a social documentary on the moral decay of his time (Baker 206. but he realizes that he cannot do without them. He can barely afford to feed his family on the seven and half dollars he earns a week laboring at every opportunity he gets. the government) and making a profit off the decaying political environment. He tells himself that he will just have to remain one step above the rest. I don’t know who made the laws but I know there ain’t no law that you got to go hungry. Hemingway justifies their actions by humanizing them as regular guys trying to support their families like anyone else.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not lines for the government on a strict. Hyperink Quicklets 18 Hyperink Quicklets . my kids ain’t going to have their bellies hurt and I ain’t going to dig sewers for the government for less money than will feed them. Chapter Ten (Summary) The narration returns back to Harry as his inner thoughts are dispelled to the reader. Hemingway’s intent in To Have and Have Not was not to broadcast a political agenda (like so many other pieces of literature from his contemporary writers). using Harry and Albert’s different situations as examples of what the social climate has resulted in for working class America. Surely. either. which is why he must rely on side jobs like chartering with Harry. Using 1930s Key West as the setting—an area certainly affected by the Great Depression—Hemingway was hoping to place a microcosm of the state of the whole nation under the microscope.. The reader can therefore sympathize with the two men and forgive their decision to become entwined in the Cuban revolution and its social cataclysm. their desperate attempts at survival are not guaranteed to fare well. fixed income. I used to make thirty-five dollars a day right through the season taking people out fishing. on the other hand. I can’t dig now anyway. But let me tell you.

Once at the Navy Yard. from the law. Harry reiterates to himself that Bee-lips seems too naive to realize the Cubans may take advantage of him or Albert and Harry—yet even in this critical moment. the revolutionary turmoil. Harry plans to hide the boat up the creek until the Cubans meet him later that night. Harry and Bee-lips exchange plans for the dangerous boat-jacking and trip. Bee-lips explains that he is so desperate to leave the Key West area that he is willing to face even death. practically anyone at some point will be willing to give in to their self- interests (even Harry). for the most part. During such a desperate time. Harry finds that everything on his boat. or pure awareness of one’s own lack of options—but in any way it’s off-putting to Harry. as Bee-lips suddenly seems to be so willing and able to help Harry when he most likely did not need to be. Harry is likely in the most vulnerable position out of all the people involved in the heist. is still in place. This shocks even Harry. but something is not quite right about Bee-lips’ involvement in the whole matter. Harry is the one who is most at risk—from danger. Harry still doesn’t foresee the fact that Bee-lips can take advantage of him. self-pity. (Analysis) Harry can’t put his finger on it. showing that Harry has a conscience and humaneness under his hardened exterior. Knowing this. Chapter Eleven (Summary) Again. the reader can learn that Harry obviously does not trust anyone. Harry starts to wonder what is in it for Bee-lips: He is obviously getting good pay for his part. Harry is still human and attributes some sincerity to others and their intentions (like Bee-lips and his offering of a legitimate job). and from imminent economic failure. when Bee-lips blatantly admits he’s not afraid to be killed. Perhaps the ordeal of confiscating his own boat back from the authorities was too easy for a reason. After all. or the microcosm of the failing Hyperink Quicklets 19 Hyperink Quicklets . Harry doesn’t know whether this admission is out of bravery. After meeting up at Freddy’s bar. Despite his rugged mentality. like the survival of the fittest. The two men coast away in the boat. the possibility of evading the grip of the economic crisis. The entire deadly situation gives rise to the theme of no escape. too. no matter how unfamiliar or close they may be to him. Harry and Bee-lips easily and quickly sneak out Harry’s boat from under the nose of the coast guard.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not (Analysis) Thanks to Harry’s internal monologue. the third-person narration returns. from betrayal.

tough individuals of the hard-hit working class. Marie worries much about her age and appearance. Hemingway lightly hints to the fact that Marie was once a prostitute through her internal monologue. and a sailor’s mouth as they sleep together. Freddy’s bar: Two customs men are questioning Harry about his missing boat. Hemingway actually based her sexual soliloquy off that of Molly Bloom’s in James Joyce’s Ulysses to commemorate his appreciation of Joyce’s writing style (Meyers 83). Chapter Twelve (Summary) Harry returns home. This is the first time Harry admits any kind of insecurity about his missing arm. So far. unaffected by the faults of his social and cultural climate. Bee-lips walks in and conveniently tells Harry that customs confiscated his Hyperink Quicklets 20 Hyperink Quicklets . wishing only to remain attractive to Harry whom she idolizes. In order for Harry to come out alive. and the two drive back to the dock without waking their children at home. (Analysis) The reader learns more about Harry on an intimate level in this chapter.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Key West society is hopeless. Marie thinks of how lucky she feels to have a man like Harry. Marie helps him prepare for his boat trip. and Hemingway chose to portray her as an oversexed woman with a sordid past. Marie. regardless of his missing limb. Harry plays off the incident. including women. and how the other “girls” don’t know what it’s like to have such a man. Marie is also the only female character of the novel. Hemingway must now portray him as super-human. Her past may also explain why she is so concerned about being “old” to Harry (with “old woman” as her pet name from Harry) and her overt willingness to please him in every way—perhaps in a subconscious fear of losing Harry to younger women. Chapter Thirteen (Summary) 10:00am. As the customs officers leave. saying he would never want his own boat stolen in the first place on account of him never being able to retrieve it back himself. except death. Harry is inclined to open up about his true thoughts and worries to his wife more honestly than he does with any other character. He crawls into bed with his wife. Harry now wears a hook in place of his missing arm. After Harry sleeps. Marie adores Harry. she thinks about how much better it is to have a man like Harry over all the other men she’s had. There really is no conclusive outcome from the story’s setting. possibly wishing to capture the real. a 45-year-old big woman with bleached-blonde hair.

In that moment. To do this. The unfortunate circumstances set upon Harry rather becomes a demonstration of his superior wit. He turns down Albert as his mate and convinces Freddy the bartender to lend him his boat for $1. Harry will only do so without having to compromising truth (Baker 221). ironically. resourcefulness. (Analysis) Harry seems uncaring toward his loved ones. Harry looks around the house for anything valuable. especially when time is of the essence.200. Therefore. Here. Marie understands Harry better than anyone else. despite Marie’s supportiveness regarding his latest boat confiscation. In order to survive the unpredictable and soul-crushing conditions of the present. Marie well knows that Harry is about to get involved in some serious illegal activity. and unbreakable willpower to which none of the other characters can compare. Harry quickly thinks up a new plan without revealing it to anyone. Bee-lips tells Harry that the Cubans now want to make an afternoon crossing. And. Harry takes the gun and leaves. Harry realizes that Bee-lips must have been behind the whole double-crossing. (Analysis) Harry’s inability to predict Bee-lips’ underhandedness will be his last humanistic flaw. Harry must be able to persevere over any trials (and. She still absolutely idolizes Harry. Harry even considers putting up his own home as security. but he’s just thinking too fast to be bothered or slowed down. Hemingway is inflating the average man Harry into heroic proportions by instilling in him these ultimate masculine virtues (Baker 222). Harry and Bee-lips must put up the money the Cubans are paying for the deal. yet she steadfastly supports anything he does—even when he may be verbally abusive or come off as neglectful. He tells Marie to retrieve his Thompson gun and to load it for him (since he cannot do this himself anymore). Underneath Harry’s callousness lies some true affection for his wife. Chapter Fourteen (Summary) Harry returns home to his family. Although they share an unconventional relationship. and Marie is probably the Hyperink Quicklets 21 Hyperink Quicklets . Harry the yachtsman-turned-bootlegger appears to become more and more unbeatable as the situation seem to continually worsen. He is short and blunt with his children and Marie.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not boat—somebody happened to notice the boat hiding in the mangroves while passing by atop a WPA truck. unlike his immoral counterpart Bee-lips. He is in a big hurry. without having to resort to legitimate means of employment like that of the federally operated relief programs).

Richard remains in the bar with the Laughtons who are rather naive as to what just took place between the Gordons. Helen and Richard obviously have unresolved issues concerning their marriage. She is accompanied by her tall. By disclosing her inner thoughts about Harry to the reader. Helen decides to leave. After Harry meets with Bee-lips and Freddy in the back of the bar to exchange the money and seal the deal. (Analysis) Hemingway introduced the character of Richard Gordon into the Morgan stories (i. clever. It’s unclear really as to how Richard Gordon’s societal position and role in the novel plays into the cultural and economic climate of the depressed Key West. The two writer men discuss attending a party being given by the Bradleys the following night.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not only person in whom Harry fully trusts. and her goofy husband seems to tolerate her rude demeanor. Harry seemingly appears to be an unstoppable. a handsome writer. He insults the unattractive female tourist who only finds Harry to be charming and attractive. then departs to go find him. And finally. and his lovely wife Helen. The woman tourist is described as quite annoying and unpleasant. and as the two make reference to it. Harry walks into Freddy’s and interrupts three tourists sitting at the bar. Mellow 486. exceptional man.. she harnesses the portrayal of Harry as an enduring super-human. a female character other than those described as “whores” enters the story: Helen Gordon. Helen is aware of it. Meyers 292). and composed. She is exotically beautiful. yet they continue to keep up Hyperink Quicklets 22 Hyperink Quicklets . Yet readers may find the subsequent Gordon-Morgan saga to be two stories that do not stand together but rather split the novel into two (Baker 205. a regular at the bar who then leaves on his bicycle. and thanks to her high level of adoration for Harry. and it is apparent that Richard is having an open affair with the Mrs. Marie knows this. and another male who is also comical in appearance. Next comes in Richard Gordon. To start the segue. Harry goes out to the dock to make the boat’s preparations for the trip. awkward-looking writer husband named James Laughton. Bradley. The third tourist turns out to be Professor John MacWalsey. Albert stops in looking for Harry. Chapter Fifteen (Summary) Hemingway finally introduces the Morgan series of the novel in this chapter. Harry really is just a family man forced into incredible circumstances as his only way of supporting his house and home. what was added to the already published separate adventure stories of Harry Morgan in attempt to craft a succinct single novel) as a masculine alternative to Harry Morgan.e.

the Laughtons. He so badly wants to admit to Freddy what he’ll actually be doing on his boat. Albert enters the boat and asks Harry once more to use him as his mate. “All I’ve got is my cojones to peddle. as well. Hemingway does not make waste of his characters’ dialogue. finding a labor job with only one arm—and comes to the conclusion that the only realizable option he has to ever make a living and support his family is to take on the dirty work. Bradley there home alone. all while his wife Helen would be making her way home alone. concealed place underneath the engines where he can easily grab and use with one arm. Next. who is at that moment on his way to the Bradley’s winter home in hopes of finding Mrs. He considers what other options he might have available to him—selling his home. It also reiterates the fact that those living within this social environment do not have many viable solutions available to them to improve their situations. Harry is drinking at Freddy’s bar while contemplating his current situation. The unattractive couple. just so someone is aware of what is about to happen in case something were to happen—but he hesitantly decides against it. Chapters Sixteen–Seventeen (Summary) Harry is now on board Freddy’s boat making preparations for the trip. begging the bank to give him a loan. whom she would rather spend her time with than her own husband. as the relief just cut his hours even further and his wife is terribly upset with him. Helen also happens to be friends with the eccentric Professor MacWalsey. He stashes his Thompson gun in a safe. therefore he has once again turned to the only means of income that’s sure to produce Hyperink Quicklets 23 Hyperink Quicklets . The narrative shifts over to Richard Gordon. return to the bar. Albert cannot gain meaningful work from the FERA/WPA program. Harry completes his own preparations and decides to go back to Freddy’s until the meeting time approaches. Albert leaves. the mention of Professor MacWalsey by Helen will play a significant role in the Gordon saga later on. Instead. (Analysis) This slight reference to Albert losing his work with the government relief program is a slap from Hemingway towards the Roosevelt administration’s efforts at assisting the impoverished. thinking Freddy would never approve. depressed working class. Harry finally concedes. and gives Albert some tasks to complete regarding their departure. Harry tells Freddy that he may take the Cuban party fishing during their voyage. and the hideous woman attempts to talk to Harry.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not appearances for such reasons perhaps as Richard’s popularity and career.” Harry surmises (147). Harry leaves in a hurry.

is really uncertain. or they may serve as a transitional tool for the narration to switch to the Gordon story. lovers. Harry steers the boat in the direction of Hyperink Quicklets 24 Hyperink Quicklets . Nonetheless. At the close of Chapter Seventeen. and is obviously desperate (or as Harry describes him. Harry is very upset about the large Cuban. Laughton’s advances (Baker 213). and himself (splitting elements of himself into both Harry Morgan and Richard Gordon). some real action! While on the boat. Another possibility is to show contrast between Harry Morgan and Richard Gordon’s lifestyles. named Roberto. enemies. and the Laughtons may very well be just that. and concisely and self-sufficiently prepared for any situation being Harry’s—will end up determining their pending fates. A minute later. so one of the Cubans—the large one—guns down Albert. pantless taxi driver watches them leave from the dock. carrying the four Cuban bank robbers. Albert protests to aiding the four known bank robbers. as Richard is drawn to the society people regardless of their despicableness. whereas Harry is impervious and apathetic to Mrs. a taxi cab pulls up to Harry’s boat.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not results—chartering—regardless of what may be chartered (from legal party-boat fishing. Hemingway is setting up a dramatic turning point for the Gordons story. and the five (plus one dead Albert) depart while the frightened. murdering Albert for no reason. as the reader finds Richard and Helen literally in the crossroads. Chapter Eighteen (Summary) Finally. They force Harry to get the boat moving. Harry and Albert are now at the same level. who are caricatures like so many other minor characters in the novel. to smuggling Cuban revolutionary terrorists). “hungry”). There is much change to come in all the major characters’ lives. Harry can see the armed men fleeing the bank with suitcases in hand and guns ablazing. Hemingway was also known to make mockery of real people in his life through his minor characters. to smuggling contraband. Harry and Albert hear gunshots coming from the nearby bank and realize it is being robbed by the four Cubans. One of the Cubans forces the taxi driver to get out of the car and cuts his pants off to humiliate him and keep him from running away. Hemingway’s inclusion of such comical characters as the Laughtons. the Laughtons’ presence is really an excessive addition to the novel’s action. Albert doesn’t really have any other choices left. and constructed their stories around his real experiences (Meyers 294). Hemingway based almost all the novel’s characters on his friends. They may simply be providing comic relief to the current stressful situation. but their different approaches to life—take it as it comes being Albert’s.

Roberto realizes the gun is missing and becomes angered. The Cuban explains how they must resort to such violent and illegal acts as their bank robbing spree to help fund the important revolution in Cuba. Harry tries to make friends with the younger. Roberto becomes more drunken mad and continues threats of killing Harry once they reach their destination. Thinking quickly. but Harry has another plan for them. by Roberto’s doing again. Harry thinks to himself: “What the hell do I care about his revolution. Harry argues with Roberto for killing Albert.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Havana. The hell with their revolutions. They all double-cross each other. Harry moves back to the young nice-looking Cuban and makes small talk. Night is descending. He first shoots the young friendly Cuban—who is still steering the boat—in Hyperink Quicklets 25 Hyperink Quicklets . nice-looking kid of the bunch and asks him to steer (knowing that the boy cannot steer. He also casually mentions that Bee-lips happened to get killed during the robbery. That’s a working man he kills. and they don’t even know for sure and won’t bother to count it. Although Harry amuses the Cuban by supportedly listening to his story. Yet the boats are no real threat to the men as Harry’s boat easily outpaces them and with a head start. only retorts that Harry is next. Harry offers to buy him a new one in Havana where machine guns are ubiquitous.” (168) Finally. Even the coast guard attempts to catch up with Harry’s boat and fails. Then he tells me about his revolution. and Harry advises the Cubans that the dark will prevent the coast guard from using a helicopter to locate them. when two white boats are seen following them from the distance. To help the working man he robs a bank and kills a fellow works with him and then kills that poor damned Albert that never did any harm. noticing that Roberto is already intoxicated. buying Harry more time). The robbers seem in the clear. All I got to do is make a living for my family and I can’t do that. The two remaining Cubans quickly become seasick and try to rest in the bunks of the cockpit. He never thinks of that. Harry offers Roberto alcohol. with his machine gun in hand. They sell each other out. They get what they deserve. With a family. and will drive the boat even farther off course. It’s the Cubans run Cuba. F——— his revolution. Harry gets the courage to retaliate. Roberto agrees and helps Harry lift the body overboard. Harry secretly steers the boat slightly off course to help him buy time for his offense. The hell with his revolution. He sneaks away and grabs for his hidden Thompson gun. As they toss Albert’s body overboard. He asks the Cubans how much money the obtained. Harry suggests that they should dump Albert’s body off the boat so they won’t have to carry it and deal with it later. Harry unnoticeably kicks over Roberto’s machine gun along with it. and Roberto.

and painfully rocking waves. Harry is forced into this violent. Under Hemingway’s direction. Harry moves to shut off the engines so gas won’t be wasted. Harry is given two options: Carry the Cubans out to Havana as intended and be murdered. Hemingway seemed to have treated the Cuban revolution with some light sympathy. for the respected hero. He lies alone in the dark of the night. The bloody scene may also be another scenario in which Hemingway instills a sense of justice vis-a-vis Harry’s refusal to compromise truth. Hemingway did not clearly construct a solid stance towards Cuba’s political regime in To Have and Have Not. the latter option remains the only option. respect. killing one for sure. or defend himself and stop the murderous bunch in their tracks. Hemingway shows rejection of the cause. Harry can only manage to turn off the engines. He also had pre-planned the entire retaliation beforehand. In addition. and he fears for Marie’s well- being if he dies. gets his bearings back and shoots back. (Analysis) In earlier chapters. and morality. friendly. but he did not mind using the story’s setting as an opportunity to showcase his prejudice towards such minorities as the Cuban immigrants. Chapter Nineteen Hyperink Quicklets 26 Hyperink Quicklets . He spots the murderous Roberto’s shadowy movements and shoots him cold dead. but the one Cuban who remains alive calmly takes aim at Harry from his bunk. severely injured. and shoots Harry in the gut.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not the head. gun spray. in a boat with dead revolutionists. and must now lay on the floor. In truth. Harry cannot move. murderous situation. but here in Harry’s reaction toward the educated. Hemingway shows no compassion toward the sadistic Roberto who appears to having grown a predilection for murder (Mellow 488). Harry cannot see where Roberto went in the dark of the night. Harry. young Cuban revolutionary’s apology regarding their violent pursuits in the name of the revolution. He feels weak and nauseous as his injury causes him internal hemorrhaging. The Cubans obviously intended to kill Harry next after having murdered Albert. Harry doesn’t hesitate to justify his criminal actions and manipulation of others’ economic or domestic downfalls when his own profit depends on it (Meyers 293). causing the now unmanned boat to drive in successive circles. where it seems he has no other choice but to resort to murdering all four Cubans to save himself. killing the Cuban for good. Harry quickly turns and shoots at the two Cubans resting in the cockpit. Yet the reader must remember that Harry himself chose to take on the dangerous job in spite of its risks. Hemingway’s message regarding the Cuban revolution can appear inconsistent here through these two characterizations (Meyers 293).

the narrator gives a detailed description of Freddy’s boat. Marie. He becomes inspired by her grotesque femininity and quickly rushes home so he can construct a new story around her character. (Analysis) In this brief chapter. which looks serene and quiet after such a violent showdown the night before. the pompous. yet he couldn’t be more disconnected from their realities (Mellow 487). the Harry Morgan story overlaps the Richard Gordon story. like his current work-in-progress about an uprising in a textile factory. if not intertwined. Harry remains helplessly alive on board.. drifting in the waters of the Gulf Stream. Hemingway takes advantage of his experimental technique of multiple perspectives by reverting back to the third person (and will remain so the rest of the novel). A loaded tanker from Tampico passes by in the distance. (Analysis) As Harry is now mortally wounded. in this small world of Key West. Here. Instead. As a writer. i.e. the Queen Conch. The reader gets a panoramic glimpse of Harry’s boat. On his way home from Freddy’s bar the following morning—where he learned about the bank robbery—Richard spots a disheveled Marie exiting the sheriff’s office. looking quite comical and unkempt to Richard. wannabe-radical writer Richard is curious about the racy bank robbery and boat-jacking. the narration can no longer utilize Harry’s first-person perspective nor dip into his inner thoughts as it has done several times in earlier chapters. Richard composes compelling stories about revolutionary movements. and yet he cannot even make the connection of the scenario’s impact on real people.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not (Summary) Chapter Nineteen immediately shifts from the violent action of the previous chapter by reverting back to the carefree Richard Gordon. This quick encounter not only demonstrates how the very different lives of those from the two stories are unmistakably close. although he has become a bit delirious and paranoid about his injury and pain. he foolishly seizes the opportunity of seeing the affected woman’s pitiful state as inspiration for his next profitable fiction story at her expense. Hemingway creatively constructs Hyperink Quicklets 27 Hyperink Quicklets . Chapter Twenty (Summary) Now daylight. where native fish have begun nipping at the droplets of blood which continue to descend into the water below the boat.

Yet Richard survives her verbal attack. and that with their mutual friend Jane Mason (characterized by the promiscuous Helène Bradley). and kicked him out. Richard offers to let her sleep in the bedroom as he goes out. She cries and makes plans to leave. which characterizes him as a more detestable human being (Mellow 487). long over. being a capitalistic opportunist who rubs elbows with the elite only to slander them behind their backs (Meyers 294).Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not this moment of contrast as a way of demonstrating nature’s continuum despite man’s finite trivialities. Helen confronts Richard about his affair with Helène Bradley which he doesn’t even attempt to conceal. Richard is rejected again. Although Helen didn’t want the marriage over. everything she had given up in order to love him. nature’s cycle of life will persevere. Richard was so pompous to pursue the luxuries of a comfortable capitalistic lifestyle (including the sexual escapades). Helen accuses him of stripping away everything she once was. Hemingway is sure not to let the pathetic Richard off so easily. The school of fish surrounding the boat continue to feast upon the droplets of blood that descend from the dead men’s bodies aboard the ship. slapped Richard twice. With her now exhausted. Bradley and her subsequent rejection of him (Mellow 287). Chapter Twenty-One (Summary) In their home. and there is no going back. having returned home to his wife. He slaps Helen hard. Richard is jealous of her spending time with Professor MacWalsey. Helen states that their marriage is over. and therefore emasculates Richard during his sexual encounter with Mrs. (Analysis) Hemingway actually based the Richard Gordon love affairs off his own—that with his his wife Pauline (whom he characterized as the devout Catholic Helen). Hyperink Quicklets 28 Hyperink Quicklets . Bradley in bed. The narrator then discloses the scene that had just taken place between Richard and Mrs. having become accustomed to abuse. Helen also scathingly condemns Richard by calling him out on his two-sided snobbery. where Richard was unable to perform once her husband Tommy had entered the room and continued to watch them. However. Hemingway purposely gave the two female characters similar names because the two real women were so closely entwined in Hemingway’s mind (Meyers 294). whereas these men have become nothing more than corpses for nature to digest (Baker 220). Helen’s accusations of Richard stripping her of her former ‘godly’ self is especially a portrayal of Pauline in literary form. Now. Bradley became insulted. Richard leaves. Mrs. They fight bitterly. she now accepts it as so. whom Helen says has asked to marry her.

Sympathetically. the sheriff explains that the authorities at least know that a tanker spotted the boat. still trying to fight Professor MacWalsey in his pitiful drunken state. blonde young man named Herbert Spellman approaches Richard and explains that he is a big fan of Richard’s books. Eventually. that four of the five men are dead. and another blonde man assists by convincing Herbert to leave. yet when he returns to the taxi. They are all incredibly drunk and rowdy. He asks Richard if he’d like to accompany him at the coast guard when the boat arrives. Soon. Richard Hyperink Quicklets 29 Hyperink Quicklets . not looking to fight. and Richard agrees. Professor MacWalsey and the taxi catch up to Richard. An awkward. He tells Richard that the coast guard is bringing in Harry’s boat from the Gulf to the Navy Yard. Professor MacWalsey asks to make one stop to pick up some cigarettes. desperately trying to forget his troubled marriage. and the bar’s bouncer immediately jumps Richard until he is knocked out.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not and now he has fallen victim to the very monster. tall. but Richard declines the offer. Next. Richard is pushed down the bar until he ends up right next to Professor MacWalsey. He begins drinking to forget his troubles. Richard is not only awake but gone. the sheriff. with fights breaking out every minute. but only feels worse. a local bar. The conversation gets uncomfortable. Richard hits Professor MacWalsey in the face. Richard expresses to Professor MacWalsey his hatred for him for stealing his wife and for ruining his life. The sheriff then gives Richard a lift to Freddy’s where a camp of veterans have packed the place. Richard spots Professor MacWalsey also seated at the bar and becomes sick with anger. The driver points out a staggering Richard walking down the street in the distance. a friend of Richard’s. and the location of the stolen money is undetermined. Although the details are a little unknown. Richard’s incensed drinking mates offer to beat up or even kill Professor MacWalsey for him. Richard makes friends with two of the vets and even has a conversation with a “radical” veteran who explains that all the “desperate ones…The ones with nothing to lose” have been stationed in Key West as an attempt to rid them from the legitimate military bases elsewhere (206). Chapter Twenty-Two (Summary) Richard begins walking the streets of Key West and eventually enters The Lilac Time. and Professor MacWalsey tries to convince Richard to get back in the cab. enters the bar. Richard keeps drinking with the hot-blooded men. Richard pugnaciously refuses. Professor MacWalsey carries Richard into a taxi and instructs the driver to take them to Richard’s home. but Professor MacWalsey calmly apologizes.

and dying. detailed accounts of the drunken. disenchanted veterans were created based on Hemingway’s real-life experiences with this Key West population during the Depression (Baker 207). Harry is delirious. Compared to Hyperink Quicklets 30 Hyperink Quicklets . the veterans victims of lower class democracy) seem contradicting here.e. the coast guard captain and his mate are dragging in the Queen Conch with Harry resting in its cabin on a bunk. Yet Harry’s message is clear to the moral of his life story. Harry is just out of his head..S. They leave Harry. This literary error (albeit a daring experiment) was a long-term regret of Hemingway’s once he finally published the novel (Baker 205). The two men try one last time to talk to Harry and learn what took place on the bullet-battered boat. so much so that that they practically stand as two separate stories within one novel. and so Professor MacWalsey gets back in the taxi alone and gives in to his own vice—he instructs the driver to take him back to Freddy’s. Yet this hastily throwing together of many new characters comes to represent Hemingway’s own emotional and personal theories inserted in the midst of the novel’s action—as opposed to developing concrete characters who significantly add to the structure of the plot. Chapter Twenty-Three (Summary) On their tow. (Analysis) The long. and return to steer. (Analysis) Hemingway suddenly gives Harry a heavy dose of proletariat enlightenment which he only realizes near death. Again.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not cannot be convinced. Hemingway casts the veterans in a sympathetic light. Hemingway does not take a clear political stance regarding the current U. as his representations of capitalism (Richard a victim of upper class capitalism. as he in real life felt for their disadvantaged position (i. having lost any solid means of employment due to Key West’s influx of immigrant laborers). he manages to tell the two men: “No matter how a man alone ain’t got no bloody fucking chance” (225). the tale of Richard Gordon seriously breaks from the dramatic tale of Harry Morgan. Likewise. muttering nonsensical bits of information. not expecting Harry to live. Yet many critics and experts find Hemingway’s attempt to redeem the individualistic Harry’s criminalistic behavior in a deteriorated society here to be rather unconvincing (Meyers 293). to rest. or Cuban administrations by way of his characters. dehydrated. To the coast guards. who appears to be incoherent. He keeps mumbling messages that the two coast guards can’t make sense of. as seen in his dying words.

Chapter Twenty-Four (Summary) The narrator describes the scene at the Navy Yard that same night. after their dreams of hope were shattered by the broker’s shady dealing: “Some made the long drop from the apartment or the office window. The remainder of the novel seems contradictory in its stance on capitalistic society. Henry will subsequently commit suicide. as well as the outcome of its passengers. terminate remorse. cure cancer. with a single guard trying his best to keep them back. discuss Henry’s latest financial loss amidst Wallace’s extravagant yacht. and blast an exit from intolerable positions by the pressure of a finger. those well-constructed implements that end insomnia.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Hemingway’s other literary triumphs in which the moral of the story is gravely felt vis-a- vis the main character’s demise or defeat. The narrator describes the many methods of suicide that his clients have taken. some used the native tradition of the Colt or Smith and Wesson. avoid bankruptcy. A crowd is pressing to get through the front gates. Meanwhile. Henry still receives substantially more money than poor ol’ Albert ever did to support his entire family). In a neighboring yacht is a swindling 60-year-old broker. the successful Wallace Johnston and the not-so-driven Henry Carpenter. so well designed to end the American dream when it becomes a nightmare. the Cuban revolution. so sure of effect. reflecting on his latest flee from the Internal Revenue Bureau to the waters of Key West. The narrator comments that as a result of his dwindling financial resources (although even with his losses. Two homosexual men from Harvard. The moral of To Have and Have Not seems clouded and lacking unity. continues to escalate by the minute.” (237–238) Hyperink Quicklets 31 Hyperink Quicklets . toward all of which Hemingway’s narrative assumes the perspective of the “have-nots” (yet Hemingway himself is most definitely in the comfortable class of “haves” in real life). Harry’s death comes as a result of his own choices to break the law and justify his murderous actions (Meyers 293). and the Roosevelt administration. their only drawback the mess they leave for relatives to clean up. those admirable American instruments so easily carried. some took it quietly in two-car garages with the motor running. divorced broker—never before having regretted his cut-throat business practices nor the consequences his decisions may have had on the helpless people who invested with him—for the first time is feeling remorse and can’t sleep. The old. The crowd’s curiosity regarding the Queen Conch being towed in. the narrator descends into the other yachts that are stationed at the same dock.

However. She steps outside the yacht to see the coast guard pulling in the Queen Conch. painting the class of “haves” in a immoral light (Meyers 293). for a dollar a bottle in the large (quart) size … if you make ten dollars a week the cost is just the same to you as though you were a millionaire. the Queen Conch is finally tied to the Coast Guard pier. Just then. a man named Eddie is dead asleep while his mistress. which costs three cents a quart to make. as well as an ambulance awaiting the boat’s arrival. Mrs. It does just what it says it will and more besides” (240). Hyperink Quicklets 32 Hyperink Quicklets . in order to evoke sympathy for the moral. as Hemingway consistently demonstrates contempt for the wealthy class in his satire. Ultimately. Jon Jacobson’s background is based on that of Pauline Hemingway’s uncle who profited off the sale of the popular mouthwash described in the text. ponders about her cancerous husband and “tight” lover Eddie. His daughter Frances will meet her handsome. admires herself narcissistically in the mirror. restlessly remains awake. This contradictory message may be displeasing to some critics’ expectations. Yet Hemingway based Dorothy Hollis’s sexual soliloquy. In his long presentation of the expensive yachts’ passengers. Hemingway’s insertion of this seemingly pro-capitalist commentary on Jon Jacobson’s honest living may appear contradictory to the rest of the novel’s anti-capitalist theme.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not In the next boat over. but Hemingway claimed to not have a political agenda to fulfill through his novel’s plot or character development (Baker 206). James Joyce. It wasn’t often that Hemingway gave praise or paid tribute to his peer writers and politicians. to emulate that of Molly Bloom’s in Joyce’s Ulysses (Meyers 83). the wife of director John Hollis. In another yacht. Hemingway casted many characters. then resorts to taking a sleeping aid and masturbation to get herself to sleep. (Analysis) Hemingway probably wrote such a panoramic narrative of a place’s people to commemorate the artistic mastery of his predecessor. a well-to-do family sleeps soundly. and the product’s really good. eligible fiance the following morning. sometimes caricatures. She steps back downstairs into the boat. Hemingway intertwines financial profiteering with sexual misconduct and manipulation. the father Jon Jacobson having made his family’s honest living by “selling something everybody uses by the millions of bottles. rugged boatsman (Baker 213). as with Marie Morgan’s in Chapter 12. as did Hemingway himself (Mellow 486). Dorothy Hollis. including To Have and Have Not (Baker 191). of individuals lapping up the society life to provide contrast to Harry’s life (albeit one of corruption and piracy).

Drenched in the cold. including the cases of cash.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Chapter Twenty-Five (Summary) The coast guard crew removes Harry—stiffened with pain and silenced by his day-long delirium—off the Queen Conch. Tracy. showing dignity and respect for Harry. A doctor comes out to tell Marie that Harry is gone. A sheet covers his body. Tracy is shoved into the water off the dock. First. The crew transports Harry onto a stretcher into the ambulance. Marie returns to the hospital. She screams relentlessly in dramatic shock and disbelief. a distraught Marie and her three daughter anxiously await the results of Harry’s progress. Mrs. Marie finally begins to cry. Harry’s massive body lay on the operating table within a bleached-white room. (Baker 219) Chapter Twenty-Six Hyperink Quicklets 33 Hyperink Quicklets . She catches the doctor on his way out of the hospital. Marie quietly copes with her husband’s death alone. the treatment by their spouses in their death symbolizes their overall significance and value of character. The crowd begins to disperse. The crowd outside the gate eventually breaks through the weak barrier. which rises to the level of comical. with the exception of moving the two bodies hanging over the deck to prevent them from falling overboard. Among them is Albert’s wife. (Analysis) An important contrast takes place in this chapter’s two scenes involving the female characters. The crew left the entire crime scene as it was. but she continues to wail. Tracy’s disingenuous mourning stands in stark contrast to that of Marie’s. is really more for her own widowhood than it is for Albert. which then departs for the Marine Hospital. Although the two men had finally come to the same level of desperation in their final moments of life. who then escorts her back inside and into Harry’s operating room. Tracy continues to wail for Albert. Mrs. Albert’s domineering wife makes a public fiasco over Albert’s death as she is distraught not for the loss of her loved one. and runs down the dock to catch a glimpse of the action. The dramatic scene she creates. Two coast guard members jump in to retrieve her. At the Marine Hospital. The sheriff tells her repeatedly that Albert’s body was not among the dead seen on the boat. but of her helpmate. and she is hoisted back to the dock. The crowd becomes so anxious to see the boat’s dead bodies that they push those standing in the front—so hard that Mrs. Mrs. and Marie quickly takes her girls home so she may deal with Harry’s death by herself. pleased with themselves for being the first privileged ones to catch the action. After dropping them off at their home.

where life continues on the streets and nearby sea. Hyperink Quicklets 34 Hyperink Quicklets . She really only cared about Harry and herself. She thinks about having to sell the house to continue raising the girls whom she admits she doesn’t even really like. She looks out hopelessly out the window now. confident. (Analysis) Marie’s closing monologue is in a way her husband’s epitaph (Baker 212). self-righteous man attempting to establish his veracity in a societal world that is without morals. even in death. and aware of his identity as a tough. Marie thinks to herself. She thinks about what Harry would have wanted for her. Richard is abandoned by the close of the novel.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not (Summary) The narrator dives into Marie’s inner thoughts. in control. Harry remains consistently level. Marie thinks about how she will possibly get along without her beloved husband. Marie’s closing thoughts delivers Hemingway’s final thoughts on the outcome of living in a depressed economy and war-threatened society: There are no resolutions. I guess you find out everything is this goddamned life” (261). the way Marie always liked to remember themselves. resourceful man who can confront the problems presented by his climate (Baker 212). solely due to his own self-inflicted conflicts. There are no consolations. “I guess you find out all right. and she wishes that it was she who was killed instead of Harry. a victim of his own fatalistic aspirations in a finite existence. and Harry was an honest man who lived true to his morals. Marie and Harry’s marriage was an enduring success. when she was still beautiful and first bleached her hair for Harry. On the contrary. She has flashbacks of their early years. His hollow marriage falls apart. They were passionate and in love. Now a week after Harry’s death. Richard is a phony. as the world around you continues to move on with or without you. his counterpart Richard Gordon was a failure in every sense.

Eddy Commonly known throughout the book as “a rummy. intelligent outdoorsman. an adventurous criminal yet brutally honest man. partially deaf native of Cuba. versatile opportunist. according to Hemingway’s standards: a brutish. and seems to always be in the know of the goings-on around town. During one of his contraband runs. Mr. whom he considers to be a real “pal. Freddy is the barkeeper whose bar serves as one of the novel’s main settings. Harry is shot in the arm by opposing government forces and ends up losing the limb. Johnson stiffs Harry on the fee he owes him for chartering his boat for frivolous fishing expeditions. Eddy is always eager to be by Harry’s side.” Eddy is Harry’s alcohol- dependent charter boat mate who accompanies Harry during all types of his adventurous voyages (both legitimate and illegal ones).” and remains loyal to Harry throughout the book. Hyperink Quicklets 35 Hyperink Quicklets . Frankie is a reliable friend of Harry’s whenever he needs a last-minute deal. He is the epitome of the ultimate man. and his state of sobriety and drunkenness can determine his level of fear or bravery during confrontations and conflicts. but are quickly cleaned up shortly after so locals pretend to forget the incidents ever happened.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Character List Harry Morgan The novel’s underdog hero. and so visiting tourists wouldn’t know the difference. corruption. a profiteer with good intentions who is willing to go to certain lengths necessary in this tough political/social climate in order to support his crumbling family and household. business deals. smart. fearless. rugged. Rather naive to the gravity of situations. and violence tend to take place. quick. sarcastic. Eddy cannot go very long without a drink or else he experiences withdrawals. deception. Frankie manages to find what Harry needs. Frankie a young. Here. callous. Harry is an ex-policeman and a daring boatsman living between Key West and Cuba during the Great Depression. The remainder of the story follows the unlikely one-armed hero as he is forced to face risky situations and make decisions that will impact everyone within Key West and Cuba’s microcosm of violence and upheaval.

Bee-lips. regardless of his neglect and name-calling toward her.’ with a red face. is consistently duping others into back-end deals on which he can profit the most. his wife well aware of it. Sing the “Chinaman” whom Harry agrees to do business with once Harry becomes desperately broke. They share three daughters together and live in a home in Key West. Richard ends up alone and feeling washed up. bleached-blonde. Despite knowing that Harry is ritualistically involved in dangerous. Yet Mrs. and the wife of writer Richard Gordon.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Bee-lips. He deceives Harry when he negotiates the transfer for four Cubans on Harry’s impounded boat. in that he does not provide her with much depth. He unashamedly flaunt his very open affair with Mrs. Professor John MacWalsey described as a ‘rummy professor. During their stay in Key West. and Helen ends up leaving him due to the affair. taking a backseat to Richard’s large ego and arrogant needs. big woman who is an ex-prostitute and steadfastly dedicated to Harry. and decides to leave him. She struggles to find her lost identity once sacrificed when she became a writer’s wife. Mr. which Bee-lips no sooner notifies the authorities of the location of the boat in order to make a his own profit from the authorities. Bradley. dark skinned. the lawyer helps Harry arrange certain business deals involving chartering Harry’s boat. Irish girl with curly black hair. so called for his irresistible urge to let loose his lips and reveal pertinent secrets to others if he so finds a benefit in the ordeal for himself. Sing to cover his tracks in the illegal smuggling. albeit possibly without love—an element of life which she discovers she no longer wants anything to do with anymore anyways. Harry murders Mr. then drops the immigrants back off to Cuba. Mrs. Hemingway tends to portray her as a rather flat character. Bradley rejects him. responsible marriage. Bradley may not be the man-worshipper he had expected her to be. Richard Gordon a popular writer and handsome man taking a vacation in Key West with his beautiful wife Helen. illegal activities to make his fortune. but upon receipt of the immigrants and the money. she becomes mentally and emotionally tired of her husband’s affair with Mrs. Marie Harry’s wife. bright Hyperink Quicklets 36 Hyperink Quicklets . yet is always looking out for his best interest. and ends up having the tables turned on him. Sing agrees to pay Harry $1200 for transporting 12 Chinese immigrants on his boat to a specified location. Helen Gordon described as an exotically beautiful. She is a 45-year-old. Mr. Marie persistently idolizes Harry and is more than willing to assist him in any way. Professor MacWalsey wants to marry her and can offer her a stable. Bradley.

Albert chooses to live a more honest. He wants to marry Helen Gordon. fixed income. sandy mustache. Bradley. yet innocent. even though she is already married. stable. The Bradleys socialites who own a winter house in Key West. is having an open affair with Richard Gordon. due to his wife’s multiple extramarital affairs. He senselessly murders both Bee-lips and Albert during their bank heist. Roberto a brutal. mutual respect. providing her the alternative of a loyal. and a witty. She eventually rejects Richard when she finds him not to be ‘man enough’ for her. sadistic. calm demeanor. but she apparently has several other affairs as she fancies. yet the two men choose two very different paths to make their livings. dark bearded man. a large. Mrs. He convinces her to leave her cheating husband for him. and respected marriage. honest. but takes side jobs working for boatsmen like Harry to try to earn extra income. Although he only has brief appearances in the novel. He works as a relief worker for the federal public works program. hardworking. Tommy Bradley. thoughtfulness. digging sewers when work is available to him and on a tight. Helen sees qualities in Professor MacWalsey that Richard could never possess: consideration for others. he is simple. Albert Tracy Harry’s friend in Key West. whom Hemingway obviously shows no appreciation for (Mellow 488). legitimate lifestyle. He practically lives at Freddy’s bar. kind.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not blue eyes. bloodlusting Cuban revolutionary. and ponders philosophical questions. Harry describes him as ‘very hungry’ because he is so poor and struggling day to day to survive. He ends up getting murdered by one of the Cuban revolutionists during their flee from a bank robbery. He is kind toward Richard even though Richard despises him for ruining his life and stealing his wife away from him. is gossiped to be impotent. and is much like Harry in this sense. Roberto always has something smart to say and manages to exponentially increase Harry’s dislike for him. or to be extremely open-minded toward sexual relations. He is the largest and meanest of the four bank- robbing revolutionaries whom Harry agrees to ferry out of Key West and into Cuba. Helène. Hyperink Quicklets 37 Hyperink Quicklets . He has a family of his own to support. balance. and desperate for work.

after Harry denies the Cubans entry onto his boat. FERA—abbreviation for the Federal Emergency Relief Administration. Demijohns were commonly used for smuggling alcohol during Prohibition. this phrase literally means “long tongue. referring to someone as a lengua larga is the equivalent of calling someone a “big mouth.” the Franklin D. usually encased in wickerwork (see illustration at Merriam-Webster).Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Key Terms & Definitions Conch—a poor white working class resident of the Key West demijohn—a large glass bottle with a narrow neck and small handle. Under FERA.000 men and women employment. “FERA” men are sprinkled sporadically throughout To Have and Have Not in a somewhat critical portrayal. giving more than 4. especially when it comes to hearing insulting slurs.000. Under “The New Deal.000 to state and local agencies in an effort to stimulate employment programming. the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act was passed. he understands both English and Spanish.000. After the CWA’s dismantlement due to its rising costs. as things can be concealed (and likewise revealed) through the implementation of different languages by characters.000 to job creation(Encyclopedia Britannica). Luckily for Harry. lengua larga—in translation. suspecting that Harry believes them to be “lengua largas. so he is not lost in translation. the Civil Works Administration (1934) was formed.” In the novel. Even though Prohibition is already over.000. Harry is still smuggling demijohns of liquor on his boat for black market cash. Roosevelt administration established this federal program to distribute $500.000. giving the reader an impression of Hemingway’s disfavor for the federal government’s stance toward fixing the depressed economy for the oppressed underclass.” as in Chapter One when one of the Cubans seeking deportation via Harry’s boat gets soar with Harry. and the community blames their deaths on account of Harry being the ‘lengua larga’ who blabbed on them. Hyperink Quicklets 38 Hyperink Quicklets . they are immediately killed by assassins.” It is also important to note that being a ‘lengua larga’ can be detrimental to every one’s best interest and survival. The term is also a play on words (and language). giving $5.

to maintain their skills and self-respect. and protection from others.” yet none of them know exactly where this term came from or how it came about to represent the venereal disease. sewers. shelter. the Cuban middle class faced serious economic crises very similar to that of Depressed America. The WPA was a federal agency in effect from 1935 to 1943 under the Franklin D. It was highly criticized as having a Democratic political agenda. and are known for their interweaving roots that thrive above ground. From the 1930s to the 1950s. Hemingway is not exempt from criticizing the government program. Workers were given employed to improve public facilities.” a slang term for some sort of venereal disease. and to stimulate the economy with their wage earning (Encyclopedia Britannica). The drunken veterans at Freddy’s bar in Chapter 24 joke about one another having “the old rale. (Horowitz 2003) skiff—a small rowboat. parks. first known as the Works Progress Administration. Critics called the program an expensive waste of public funds and the makings of a communist machine. roads. Red—communist revolutionary—specifically. Harry likes to conceal his boat by use of the mangroves repeatedly throughout the book. as well as artistic and literary recreation and resources. Perhaps Harry’s closest connection to nature. The largest and most ambitious public works program of its kind. The WPA truck’s interference in Chapter 13 also symbolizes the disruption caused by the government to the working class’ struggle to survive. the mangroves provide him with an escape. bridges. the Cuban middle class suffered from high unemployment and political persecution as the government continued to implement economic sanctions that disadvantaged the proletariats. a Cuban revolutionary. The purpose of the public works program was to provide useful work for America’s vastly unemployed population. the old rale—also “ral. possibly syphylis. as he contrasts the role of the novel’s hero Harry with Albert the WPA worker whose wages are controlled and limited despite his hard labors. dams. the WPA employed nearly 8 million long-term unemployed Americans and provided them wages complimentary to their region’s prevailing wages. as most left-wing critics believe him to do in this novel (Mellow 488). usually flat-bottomed WPA—Work Projects Administration.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not mangroves—tropical low-growing trees or shrubs that grow near a tidal shores or marshes. At the time. Hyperink Quicklets 39 Hyperink Quicklets . emergency systems. Roosevelt administration’s New Deal policy. such as favoring the far-left regions over the extremely poor right-wing regions of the nation like the South (Taylor).

yet Harry tries to remain an individualistic profiteer off the entire climate. mental and physical strength. despite his hardened apprehension.S. Yet he fails to prevent them from entering his own life. will power. depending on the type of gun. Ownership also indicates one’s economic stability. the Cuban government is oppressing its people in a similar manner by depriving the middle class through political sanctions. Boating remains Harry’s sole mean of possible income. Hyperink Quicklets 40 Hyperink Quicklets . government is casted in negative role. or Thomson guns (Harry’s gun of choice). interacting with members of any political party or class but not engaging with them. and the Cuban government. how a man approaches a fishing expedition is a demonstration of his inner self—can he be swift yet patient? Can he remain steadfast to his dedication. Meanwhile. whether it be for legal or illegal profit. Government There are two governments present in the novel: the United States government. it indicates the level of seriousness in the assailant and the level of violence they are willing to commit. Harry can’t seem to keep his boat from violence or getting confiscated by the authorities. not by way of his tyranny but by coming around to its side and guiding it to the desired outcome? Fishing is one of Hemingway’s ultimate metaphor of one’s control. Boats also can account for one’s place in society. The U. in return for a positive outcome? Can he have respect for the life on the other end that he must subdue into his power. Fish/fishing is a test of man’s patience. suppressing the underclass’ ability to thrive in a decaying society. whereas barkeeper Freddy has no problem maintaining his fine fishing boat the Queen Conch. leading to the violent turmoil of the Cuban revolution. The murderous Roberto uses a machine gun to kill both Bee-lips and Albert without a second thought. Guns represent power and status. These two political environments are constantly clashing throughout To Have and Have Not. Different characters choose to use Lugers. Tommy guns.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Major Themes and Symbols Boats are always referred to as “she” or “her”—the reader should constantly be aware of this because the boats are never referred to in any other way. socialites and the wealthy own the elaborate yachts (like those parked near the Navy Yard in Chapter 24).

intense character of Harry Morgan. or agreement. make you brave for battle. Alcohol must be strategized: it can help calm the nerves. it all depends on how a man controls it. in comparison to the strictly serious. etc. this technique was overblown and was considered to hurt the flow of the plot. This technique was highly criticized upon publication of To Have and Have Not. Eddy the “rummy” is alcohol dependent and unable to go without drink for short periods of time. Also. Too much of it can lead straight to a man’s defeat or demise. or the “Chinaman” Mr. Hyperink Quicklets 41 Hyperink Quicklets . settle your anger. friendship. Harry considers alcohol a necessary thing in a man’s world. but like everything else. Sing whom Harry makes the business deal with to export 12 Chinese immigrants). as the reader is not able to take these characters seriously.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not second thought. Drinking is a constant throughout the book. eases the tension. and is a sign of gratitude. Caricature Hemingway inflates the stereotypes of sub-characters throughout the story (such as “Hayzooz” the taxi driver. But alcohol is also used as a method of negotiation—it smooths over complex business deals.

To Have and Have Not (1937) is the only novel of Hemingway’s which takes place in the Hyperink Quicklets 42 Hyperink Quicklets . Hemingway structured the character of Harry Morgan from a real man he met while living in Key West—a former smuggler turned barkeep named Joe Russell. and Mrs. In the movie. Hemingway based Mrs. making friends with the disparate population of fishermen and out-of-work veterans returned from the war. directed by Howard Hawks and starring none other than Humphrey Bogart and—in her first major role at 19 years old—Lauren Bacall. action-packed Hollywood drama (although it doesn’t hold much similarity to Hemingway’s novel). Hemingway had an extramarital affair with Jane during the time. Hemingway only wrote about “something” with which he was familiar. who ran Hemingway’s favorite local bar Sloppy Joe’s and was a frequent fishing companion of his (Meyers 205–206). removing its Marxist undertones and moving the setting from Cuba to Martinique under the Vichy regime to give the story more relevancy to its World War II-era audience. and was very involved in the world of charter-boating. who was a friend of Mr. To Have and Have Not was later adapted into a star-studded.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Interesting Related Facts In this novel. Pauline Hemingway had bleached her hair in an attempt to please her husband. Hemingway based several of the novel’s major and minor characters on actual people he met during his residency (Baker 207). 253). the young. He himself lived in Key West during the Depression for 10 years. Bradley off a real woman named Jane Mason. Hawks loosely based the screenplay off the original novel. and eventually became scorned over their apparent breakup—leading him to portray her as a despised slut in the novel (Meyers 244. Hemingway and a spoiled socialite living near Havana in the 1930s. sultry starlet uttered one of the most famous lines in cinema history: “Anybody got a match?” And the flame was lit— the two stars’ on-screen romance would seal the deal on their real-life romance and marriage. during her bitter rivalry with his mistress Jane (Meyers 435). Like Marie Morgan.

The name “Harry Morgan” is based off a 17th-century Welsh pirate who also sailed and battled in the waters of the Caribbean (Meyers 293). Hyperink Quicklets 43 Hyperink Quicklets .Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Americas and is the only full-length novel that Hemingway completed during the 1930s (Meyers 292).

Encyclopedia Britannica. 1972. (accessed March 15. Jeffrey. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company. and Jaime Sushlicki. The Nobel Prize in Literature. Cuban Communism: 1959–2003. 11th ed. Taylor. Meyers. Hemingway: A Biography. “Demijohn. Da Capo Press.” Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Sources and Additional Reading Baker. 2012. 2012). 1992. 1999. NJ: Princeton University Press.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online (accessed March 15.org. To Have and Have Not. 2008. Horst. Bantam Book. 2003. Encyclopedia Britannica Co. Merriam-Webster. Ernest. 1954: Ernest Hemingway Hemingway. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. American-made: The Enduring Legacy of the WPA: When FDR Put the Nation to Work. Nick. New York: Scribner. ed. Hemingway: The Writer as Artist. James R. Nobel Lectures. Carlos. 2012. 2012). Irving Lewis. 4th ed. 2012. Hemingway: A Life Without Consequences. Horowitz. New York: Houghton Mifflin. 1937. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2003. 2012). 1969. Literature 1901–1967. eds. “Works Progress Administration (WPA). Paperback edition. Nobelprize. Frenz. “United States: The New Deal. Ernest Hemingway Collection Mellow. Hyperink Quicklets 44 Hyperink Quicklets . John F. Princeton.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online (accessed March 16.

Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall Have and Have Not Like then Share! Hyperink Quicklets 45 Hyperink Quicklets .

health. and community. culture. LeAnne has been writing on topics of charity.Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have and Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall About The Author Quicklet on Ernest Hemingway's To Have and About The Author Have Not By LeAnne Bagnall About The Author LeAnne Bagnall LeAnne Bagnall is a professional Los Angeles-based writer and editor who specializes in American literature. and is trained in non- profit board management. volunteering to support veterans. She enjoys writing fiction. Get in touch: Hyperink Quicklets 46 Hyperink Quicklets . swing dancing. lifestyle. health and wellness. collecting antiques. philanthropy. Santa Barbara with a Specialization in American Cultures and Global Contexts in 2006. and current events for a number of publications over the past five years. and spending her free time appreciating classic car culture. reading 20th century American and non-Western literature. She earned a BA in English from the University of California. watching classic film.

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