The Jazz |mprcvisaticn

Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck
¨The nc shcrtcuts, putting the wcrk
back intc it, wcrkbcck. Dc the wcrk, and
vcu will kncw vcur scales!"
Treble Clef
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Middle "C"
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Middle "C"
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1. |denrifv each cf rhe fcllcwing ncres. Then plav each ncre cn rhe pianc.
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J. Ccpv rhe fcllcwing rreble clef melcdv rc bass clef sc ir scunds cne ccrave belcw rhe criginal and plav ir cn vcur insrrumenr.
Then plav bcrh melcdies cn rhe pianc. |f pcssible plav rhem wirh rwc hands in ccraves.
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(Srarring ncresï
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Exercise 1 · Treble and Pass Clefs
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1. Memcrized rhe crder cf flars: Pb, Eb, Ab, Db, Cb, Cb, |b
J. Memcrize rhe crder cf sharps: |#, C#, C#, D#, A#, E#, P#
3. Memcrize rhe placemenr cf kev signarures fcr bcrh rreble and bass clef.
+. Memcrize rhe number cf flars cr sharps fcr everv majcr and mincr kev.
Cmajcr:Amincr |majcr:Dmincr (1 flarï Pbmajcr:Cmincr (J flarsï
Ebmajcr:Cmincr (3 flarsï
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Abmajcr:|mincr (+ |larsï Dbmajcr:Pbmincr (5 flarsï Cbmajcr:Ebmincr (6 flarsï Cbmajcr:Abmincr (¯ flarsï
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Cmajcr:Amincr |majcr:Dmincr (1 flarï Pbmajcr:Cmincr (J flarsï Ebmajcr:Cmincr (3 flarsï
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Abmajcr:|mincr (+ |larsï Dbmajcr:Pbmincr (5 flarsï Cbmajcr:Ebmincr (6 flarsï Cbmajcr:Abmincr (¯ flarsï
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Cmajcr:Amincr Cmajcr:Emincr (1 sharpï Dmajcr:Pmincr (J sharpsï Amajcr:|#mincr (3 sharpsï
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Emajcr:C#mincr (+ sharpsï Pmajcr:C#mincr (5 sharpsï |#majcr:D#mincr (6 sharpsï C#majcr:A#mincr (¯ sharpsï
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Cmajcr:Amincr Cmajcr:Emincr (1 sharpï Dmajcr:Pmincr (J sharpsï Amajcr:|#mincr (3 sharpsï
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Emajcr:C#mincr (+ sharpsï Pmajcr:C#mincr (5 sharpsï |#majcr:D#mincr (6 sharpsï C#majcr:A#mincr (¯ sharpsï
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · J
Exercise J · Kev Signarures
Kev Signarures wirh flars · Treble Clef:
Kev Signarures wirh flars · Pass Clef:
Kev Signarures wirh Sharps · Treble Clef:
Kev Signarures wirh Sharps · Pass Clef:
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Amajcr
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Pmincr
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|mincr
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Dbmajcr
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Ebmajcr
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Pbmajcr
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Abmajcr
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C#mincr
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Dmincr
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Emincr
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Emajcr
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Dmajcr
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 3
Exercise J · Kev Signarures
1. Lisr rhe crder cf sharps five rimes:
J. Lisr rhe crder cf flars five rimes:
3. Lisr rhe crder cf sharps in reverse crder:
+. Lisr rhe crder cf flars in reverse crder:
5. |denrifv each cf rhe fcllcwing majcr kevs:
6. |denrifv each cf rhe fcllcwing mincr kevs:
¯. Ncrare rhe requesred kev signarure. Ncre rhar rhe clef changes everv measure.
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Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · +
Exercise 3 · Majcr Scales
1. Learn all majcr scales cn vcur insrrumenr and be able rc plav rhem cn rhe pianc.
J. Ncrare rhe fcllcwing parrern fcr all majcr scales as marked. Learn and memcrize cn vcur insrrumenr.
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Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 5
Exercise 3 · Majcr Scales
3. Ncrare rhe fcllcwing parrern fcr all majcr scales as marked. Learn and memcrize cn vcur insrrumenr.
+. Memcrize rhe fcllcwing majcr scale parrern in all 1J kevs cn vcur insrrumenr and cn pianc.
Plav as slcwlv as needed.
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A Melcdic |nrerval
(Perfecr 5rhï
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A Barmcnic |nrerval
(Perfecr 5rhï
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Majcr Jnd
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Majcr 3rd
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Perfecr +rh
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Perfecr 5rh
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Majcr 6rh
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Perfecr Ocrave
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Majcr 9rh
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Majcr 9rh
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Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 6
Exercise + · |nrervals
|nrerval = The disrance berween rwc ncres.
A Melcdic |nrerval measures rhe disrance berween rwc ncres scunding in successicn as in a melcdv.
A Barmcnic |nrerval measures rhe disrance berween rwc ncres scunding ar rhe same rime as in a chcrd.
|cr ease cf inirial undersranding and indenrificaricn, ler's ccnsider all inrervals rc be measured frcm rhe rcnic
(cr rccr, cr "1"ï cf a majcr scale. Tc avcid ccnfusicn, all inrervals need rc be measured frcm rhe lcwer ncre
up rc rhe higher ncre. Pegin bv numbering each ncre cf a majcr scale:
All majcr scales being equal, 1·3 will be a Majcr 3rd in all kevs, 1·6 will be a Majcr 6rh in all kevs, erc. Pelcw is
rhe same rable rranspcsed rc rhe kev cf | majcr. Plav rhese inrervals cn rhe pianc, vcur insrrumenr and sing rhem.
Majcr Kev inrervals frcm C. Plav rhese inrervals cn rhe pianc, vcur insrrumenr and sing rhem.
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Perfecr 5rh
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Augmenred Jnd
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Augmenred Ocrave
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Augmenred 9rh
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Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · ¯
Exercise + · |nrervals
1. |denrifv each cf rhe fcllcwing inrervals. Remember, rhe lcwer ncre is alwavs "1" regardless cf rhe acrual kev.
|cr melcdic inrervals dcwnward, rhe same rules applv. Alwavs ccnsider rhe lcwer ncre rc be "1" even rhcugh
rhe ir wculd be rhe seccnd ncre heard.
J. |denrifv each cf rhe fcllcwing inrervals.
Sc far we have idenrified rwc kinds cf inrervals, Majcr and Perfecr. vhen an inrerval is raised cr lcwered ir beccmes:

Majcr |nrerval raised = Augmenred
Majcr |nrerval lcwered = Mincr (vhen a mincr inrerval is lcwered, ir beccmes diminished.ï
Perfecr |nrervel raised = Augmenred
Perfecr |nrerval lcwered = Diminished
Raised (augmenredï inrervals frcm |: (plav cn rhe pianc and singï
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·Dcuble Sharpï
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Diminished Ocrave
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Diminished ¯rh
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Diminished ¯rh
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Diminished ¯rh
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · S
Exercise + · |nrervals
3. |denrifv each cf rhe fcllcwing inrervals.
Lcwered (mincr and diminishedï inrervals frcm |: (plav cn rhe pianc and singï
+. |denrifv each cf rhe fcllcwing inrervals.
5. Ncrare rhe inrerval abcve rhe given ncre.
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Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 9
Triad = A rhree ncre chcrd spelled in rhirds.
1. A majcr rriad is spelled using 1, 3 6 5 cf a majcr scale. The svmbcl fcr a rriad is ncrared as a single ncre
name. Plav cn vcur insrrumenr, cn pianc and sing.
J. A mincr rriad is spelled 1, b3, 5 cf a majcr scale. The svmbcl fcr a mincr rriad is a ncre name fcllcwed bv
a mincr indicarcr. |n ccmmcn pracrice, rhe mincr indicarcr cculd be anv cf rhe fcllcwing: Cmin, Cm, cr C·
Plav rhe fcllcwing cn vcur insrrumenr, cn pianc and sing.
3. An augmenred rriad is a majcr rriad wirh a raised 5rh, cr 1, 3, #5 cf a majcr scale. |r will usuallv be ncrared
as a lerrer name fcllcwed bv aug, a plus sign cr pcssiblv #5. Plav each cf rhem cn vcur insrrumenr, cn pianc
and sing.
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min
D
aug
C
dim
A D
min
C
aug
C
dim
_
D C
min
C
aug
|
dim
C C
min
|
aug
P
b
dim
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 10
+. A diminished rriad is a mincr rriad wirh a lcwered 5rh, cr 1, b3. b5 cf a majcr scale. |r will usuallv be ncrared
wirh a lerrer name fcllcwed bv dim. cr a small circle. (Cdim, Cºï Plav rhe fcllcwing cn vcur insrrumenr and cn a pianc.
5. Spell each cf rhe fcllcwing rriads.
_
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,
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, ,
,
,
,
C
6
,
,
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, ,
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|
6
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, , ,
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b
6
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b
6
,
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,
, ,
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, ,
,
A
b
6
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, ,
D
b
6
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, ,
, ,
, ,
C
b
6
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, ,
, ,
P
6
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, ,
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, ,
E
6
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,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
, ,
A
6
,
,
,
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,
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,
,
D
6
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
C
6
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,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
C
min 6
,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
|
min6
,
,
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, ,
, ,
,
,
P
b
min 6
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,
E
b
mi n6
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,
A
b
min6
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, ,
, ,
D
b
mi n6
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, ,
|
#
mi n6
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, ,
P
mi n6
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E
min 6
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A
min6
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,
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,
,
D
min 6
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,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
C
min6
_
A
b
6 D
b
mi n6
C
b
6
P
min6
E
6 A
min 6
D
6
C
min 6
_
C
6
|
mi n6
P
b
6
E
b
mi n6
A
b
min 6
D
b
6 |
#
mi n6
P
6
_
E
min 6
A
6
D
min 6
C
6
C
min 6
|
6
P
b
mi n6
E
6
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 11
Exercise 6 · Six chcrds
Six chcrds are fcur ncre chcrds ccnsisring cf a rriad wirh an added 6rh abcve rhe rccr. There are rwc fcrms cf six
chcrds rhar are ccmmcnlv used, majcr and mincr. Majcr six chcrds are cfren used as subsrirures fcr a majcr ¯ chcrd
rc avcid ccnflicrs berween rhe melcdv and rhe majcr ¯. Mincr six chcrds are used as subsrirures fcr mincr cne and
fcur chcrds (cfren rc avcid specifving a specific ¯rhï and in fake bccks are cfren inversicns cf mincr¯b5 chcrds.
|cr ncw, ccncenrrare cn rheir spelling and scund ar rhe pianc.
1. Majcr 6 chcrds are majcr rriads wirh an added 6rh abcve rhe bass · 1,3,5,6 cf a majcr scale. Thev are usuallv
ncrared as a lerrer fcllcwed bv a 6 (C6ï cr a lerrer fcllcwed bv a maj 6. (Cmaj6ï Plav rhem cn vcur insrrumenr
as well as cn pianc. Pracrice plaving rhe chcrd wirh vcur lefr hand and rhe arpeggic up an ccrave wirh vcur righr.
3. Mincr 6 chcrds are mincr rriads wirh an added 6rh abcve rhe base · 1,b3,5,6 cf a majcr scale. Thev are usuallv
ncrared as a lerrer fcllcwed bv a min6 (Cmin6ï, m6 (Cm6ï cr ·6. (C·6ï Plav rhem cn vcur insrrumenr
as well as cn pianc. Pracrice plaving rhe chcrd wirh vcur lefr hand and rhe arpeggic up an ccrave wirh vcur righr.
+. Spell each cf rhe fcllcwing 6 chcrds and plav rhem cn vcur insrrumenr and cn rhe pianc.
_
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
1
,
3
,
5
,
¯
Cmaj¯
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,
,
, ,
,
,
,
|maj¯
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, , ,
,
,
,
P
b
maj¯
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E
b
maj¯
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A
b
maj¯
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,
D
b
maj¯
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,
C
b
maj¯
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, ,
, ,
, ,
Pmaj¯
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, ,
,
, ,
Emaj¯
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, ,
,
, ,
Amaj¯
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, ,
Dmaj¯
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,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
, ,
Cmaj¯
_
P
b
maj¯ Amaj¯ A
b
maj¯ |maj¯ C
b
maj¯ Emaj¯
_
A
b
maj¯ D
b
maj¯ Cmaj¯ Emaj¯ Pmaj¯ E
b
maj¯
_
Pmaj¯ |maj¯ C
b
maj¯ Cmaj¯ D
b
maj¯ P
b
maj¯
_
Cmaj¯ Dmaj¯ Amaj¯ Dmaj¯ Cmaj¯ E
b
maj¯
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 1J
Exercise ¯ · Majcr Seven Chcrds
Seven chcrds are fcur ncre chcrds making up rhe vasr majcrirv cf chcrd svmbcls fcund in rhe jazz reperrcire.
As rhe name suggesrs, seven chcrds are rriads wirh rhe addiricn cf a ncre a ¯rh abcve rhe rccr. vhile in
pracrice, addiricnal ncres are cfren added rc seven chcrd, rhe firsr srep will be rc learn rhem as ncrared.

The easiesr wav rc spell a majcr ¯ chcrd is rc rhink cf ir as a majcr rriad wirh a majcr sevenrh abcve rhe rccr
cr 1,3,5,¯ cf a majcr scale. The chcrd svmbcl fcr a majcr ¯ chcrd is a ncre name fcllcwed bv a Maj ¯, (CMaj¯ï
MA¯, (CMA¯ï maj¯, (Cmaj¯ï upper case M¯ (CM¯ï a rriangle, eirher wirh cr wirhcur a ¯, (C, C¯ï cr cn
verv rare cccasicns as a ¯ wirh a slash rhrcugh rhe srem.
1. Plav each cf rhe fcllcwing majcr ¯ chcrds cn vcur insrrumenr and cn rhe pianc.
J. Spell each cf rhe fcllcwing Majcr ¯ Chcrds. Plav each cn vcur insrrumenr and cn pianc.
_
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
1
,
3
,
5
, ,

C
¯
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,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
|
¯
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,
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, ,
,
,
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,
, ,
P
b
¯
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, ,
E
b
¯
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,
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, ,
A
b
¯
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, ,
D
b
¯
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, ,
, ,
C
b
¯
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,
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, ,
,
P
¯
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,
,
,
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E
¯
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,
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,
,
A
¯
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,
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,
,
D
¯
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,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C
¯
_
P
b
¯
A
¯
A
b
¯
|
¯
C
b
¯
E
¯
_
A
b
¯
D
b
¯
C
¯
E
¯
P
¯
E
b
¯
_
P
¯
|
¯
C
b
¯
C
¯
E
b
¯
D
b
¯
_
C
¯
D
¯
A
¯
D
¯
C
¯
P
b
¯
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 13
Exercise S · Dcminanr Seven Chcrds
The chcrd svmbcl fcr a dcminanr seven chcrd is a ncre name fcllcwed bv rhe number ¯. (Or anv number grearer
rhan ¯. C9, C11 and C13 are all dcminanr chcrds wirh exrensicns · mcre cn rhar larerï Tc spell a dcminanr chcrd,
begin wirh a majcr rriad and add a mincr ¯rh abcve rhe rccr, cr 1,3,5,b¯ cf a majcr scale.
1. Plav each cf rhe fcllcwing dcminanr ¯ chcrds cn vcur insrrumenr and cn rhe pianc.
J. Spell each cf rhe fcllcwing dcminanr ¯ chcrds rhen plav rhem cn vcur insrrumenr and cn rhe pianc.
_
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
1
,
b3
,
5
, ,

C
mi n¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
|
mi n¯
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,
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P
b
mi n¯
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, ,
E
b
mi n¯
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,
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,
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, ,
A
b
mi n¯
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,
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,
,
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, ,
C
#
mi n¯
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|
#
mi n¯
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,
P
mi n¯
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,
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,
,
E
mi n¯
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,
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,
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,
,
A
mi n¯
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,
,
,
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,
,
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,
,
D
mi n¯
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,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C
mi n¯
_
P
b
mi n¯
C
#
mi n¯
E
mi n¯
C
mi n¯ C
mi n¯
E
b
mi n¯
_
|
#
mi n¯
A
mi n¯
|
mi n¯
A
b
mi n¯
P
mi n¯
D
mi n¯
_
C
mi n¯
|
#
mi n¯
C
mi n¯
C
#
mi n¯
D
mi n¯
A
b
mi n¯
_
A
mi n¯
E
b
mi n¯
E
mi n¯
P
b
mi n¯
P
mi n¯
|
mi n¯
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 1+
Exercise 9 · Mincr Seven Chcrds
The chcrd svmbcl fcr a mincr seven chcrd is a ncre name fcllcwed min¯ (Cmin¯ï m¯ (m¯ï cr ·¯ (C·¯ï.
Tc spell a mincr ¯ chcrd, srarr wirh a mincr rriad (1, b3, 5 cf a majcr scaleï and add a mincr ¯rh abcve
rhe rccr. (1, b3, 5, b¯ cf a majcr scaleï
1. Plav each cf rhe fcllcwing mincr ¯ chcrds cn vcur insrrumenr and cn rhe pianc.
J. Spell each cf rhe fcllcwing mincr ¯ chcrds rhen plav rhem cn vcur insrrumenr and cn rhe pianc.
_
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
1
,
b3
,
b5
, ,

Cmin¯b5
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,
,
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,
,
,
,
, ,
|min¯b5
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P
b
min¯b5
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, ,
E
b
min¯b5
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, ,
, ,
C
#
min¯b5
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, ,
C
#
min¯b5
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, ,
, ,
|
#
min¯b5
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, ,
,
Pmin¯b5
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,
,
Emin¯b5
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,
,
Amin¯b5
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, ,
,
,
Dmin¯b5
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,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
Cmin¯b5
_
E
b
min¯b5 Amin¯b5 P
b
min¯b5
C
#
min¯b5 Emin¯b5
Cmin¯b5
_
Dmin¯b5
C
#
min¯b5
Cmin¯b5
Pmin¯b5
E
b
min¯b5
Cmin¯b5
_
|min¯b5
|
#
min¯b5
P
b
min¯b5 C
#
min¯b5
C
#
min¯b5 |min¯b5
_
Emin¯b5
Cmin¯b5 Dmin¯b5 Pmin¯b5 Amin¯b5 |
#
min¯b5
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 15
Exercise 10 · Mincr Seven b5 Chcrds (Balf·Diminishedï
A mincr ¯ flar five chcrd can be rhcughr cf in several differenr manners. Sricking wirh cur majcr scale remplare,
ir wculd be 1, b3, b5, b¯ cf a majcr scale. |r can alsc be lccked ar as a diminished rriad wirh a mincr ¯rh added
abcve rhe rccr. Mv perscnal favcrire is as a mincr ¯ chcrd wirh a lcwered fifrh. (min¯b5ï The svmbcls fcr rhis
chcrd include: min¯b5, (Cmin¯b5ï ·¯b5 (C·¯b5ï cr a circle wirh a slash rhrcugh ir signifving "half·diminished"
eirher wirh cr wirhcur a ¯. (Cc, Cc¯ï
1. Plav each cf rhe fcllcwing mincr ¯b5 (half·diminishedï chcrds cn vcur insrrumenr and cn rhe pianc.
J. Spell each cf rhe fcllcwing mincr ¯b5 chcrds rhen plav rhem cn vcur insrrumenr and cn rhe pianc.
_
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
1
,
b3
,
b5
, ,
bb¯
C
º ¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
|
º ¯
,
,
,
,
,
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,
,
, ,
P
b
º ¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
, ,
D
#
º ¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
, ,
C
#
º ¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
, ,
C
#
º ¯
_
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, ,
, ,
|
#
º ¯
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,
P
º ¯
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,
,
E
º ¯
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,
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,
,
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,
,
A
º ¯
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,
,
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,
,
,
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,
,
D
º ¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C
º ¯
_
C
º ¯
D
#
º ¯
|
#
º ¯ A
º ¯
|
º ¯
C
#
º ¯
_
P
º ¯
D
º ¯
P
b
º ¯
C
#
º ¯ E
º ¯
C
º ¯
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 16
Exercise 11 · Diminished ¯ Chcrd
A diminished ¯ chcrd (cr "fullv diminished"ï is a svmerrical chcrd ccnsisring cf all mincr rhirds. |r is pcssiblv
besr undersrccd as a diminished rriad (1, b3, b5ï wirh a diminished¯rh (bb¯ cr dcuble flar ¯rhï abcve rhe rccr.
|r can alsc be rhcughr cf as 1, b3, b5, bb¯ cf a majcr scale. Pecause a diminished ¯rh scunds rhe same as a
majcr 6, ir is pcssible, and likelv, rhar vcu will see diminished chcrds spelled enharmcnicallv rc simplifv reading.
(ex: Cdim¯=C, Eb, Cb, Pbb cr C, Eb, Cb, and A cr C, Eb, |# and Aï
Peing svmerrical, rhere are cnlv rhree disrincr diminished chcrd scunds. |f a diminished ¯ chcrd is rranspcsed a
mincr rhird, ir beccmes an inversicn cf irself. |n crher wcrds, a Cdim¯ chcrd has exacrlv rhe same ncres as an
Ebdim¯, |#dim¯ and an Adim¯. C#dim¯ has rhe same ncres as an Edim¯, Cdim¯ and a Pbdim¯. Ddim¯ has
rhe same ncres as |dim¯, C#dim¯ and Pdim¯.
The usual svmbcls fcr a fullv diminished seven chcrd are: dim¯ (Cdim¯ï and º¯. (Cº¯ï

1. Plav each cf rhe fcllcwing diminished ¯ (fullv·diminishedï chcrds cn vcur insrrumenr and cn rhe pianc.
J. Spell each cf rhe fcllcwing diminished ¯ chcrds, rhen plav rhem cn vcur insrrumenr and cn rhe pianc.
3. Lisr all rhe diminished ¯ chcrds rhar ccnrain an |#.
+. Lisr all rhe diminished ¯ chcrds rhar ccnrain an |.
5. Lisr all rhe diminished ¯ chcrds rhar ccnrain a C.
_
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
1
,
+
,
5
, ,

C¯sus
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
|¯sus
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
P
b
¯sus
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,
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, ,
, ,
E
b
¯sus
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,
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, ,
, ,
A
b
¯sus
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,
,
, ,
, ,
E
b
¯sus
_
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,
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,
, ,
, ,
, ,
C
b
¯sus
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
P¯sus
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
E¯sus
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
A¯sus
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
D¯sus
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C¯sus
_
E
b
¯sus C
b
¯sus |¯sus P¯sus A
b
¯sus A¯sus
_
C¯sus E¯sus C¯sus E
b
¯sus P
b
¯sus C¯sus
_
E
b
¯sus D¯sus |¯sus C
b
¯sus E
b
¯sus D¯sus
_
A¯sus P
b
¯sus P¯sus A
b
¯sus C¯sus E¯sus
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 1¯
Exercise 1J · Dcminanr ¯ suspended + Chcrd
A dcminanr ¯ suspended + chcrd (sus+ï is a dcminanr ¯ wirh rhe fcurrh scale degree abcve rhe rccr replacing
rhe rhird cf rhe chcrd. Spelled as scale degrees cf a majcr scale ir wculd be: 1, +, 5, b¯. (C¯sus = C, |, C, Pbï
The svmbcl fcr rhis chcrd is usuallv sus. (C¯sus, Csus¯ï |r is alsc cfren ncrared mcre specificallv as a "slash chcrd."
A slash chcrd is a chcrd cver an alrernare bass ncre. Ycu mighr see a C¯sus (C9susï ncrared as Cm¯:C cr Pb:C.
1. Plav each cf rhe fcllcwing dcminanr ¯sus+ chcrds cn vcur insrrumenr and cn rhe pianc.
J. Spell each cf rhe fcllcwing dcminanr ¯sus+ chcrds rhen plav rhem cn vcur insrrumenr and cn rhe pianc.
_
,
1
C Majcr Scale
,
J
,
3
,
+
,
5
,
6
,
¯
,
1
,
,
,
,
1
C Majcr Scale Chcrds spelled in Thirds
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,
,
,
J
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,
,
,
3
,
,
,
,
+
,
,
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5
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6
,
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,
¯
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,
1
_
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,
1
Majcr ¯
,
,
,
,
J
Mincr ¯
Cmaj¯ D
mi n¯
,
,
,
,
3
Mincr ¯
,
,
,
,
+
Majcr ¯
E
mi n¯
|maj¯
,
,
,
,
5
Mincr ¯
,
,
,
,
6
Mincr ¯
C
¯
A
mi n¯
,
,
,
,
¯
Mincr ¯
,
,
,
,
1
Pmin¯b5
Cmaj¯
_
,
,
,
,
1
,
,
,
,
,
J
|maj¯ C
mi n¯
,
,
,
,
3
,
,
,
, ,
+
A
mi n¯ P
b
maj¯
,
,
,
,
,
5
,
,
,
,
6
C
¯
D
mi n¯
,
,
,
,
,
¯
,
,
,
,
1
Emin¯b5
|maj¯
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 1S
Exercise 13 · Seven Chcrds cf rhe Majcr Scale
Ler's begin wirh rhe suppcsiricn rhar chcrds ccme frcm scales. vhile ncr enrirelv rrue, cerrainlv ncr in ccmplex
ccnrempcrarv music, ir is a verv useful ccncepr rc accepr when apprcaching harmcnv (chcrdsï wirh rhe inrenr
rc creare melcdv (jazz imprcvisaricnsï. |cr ncw, we will prcceed bv agreeing rhar fcr everv chcrd, rhere is ar
leasr cne scale rhar ccnrains all rhe ncres cf rhe chcrd. Ccmmcnlv used scales have anvwhere frcm five ncres
(penrarcnicï rc rwelve ncres, (chrcmaricï wirh rhe vasr majcrirv ccnraining seven ncres. Mcsr jazz chcrd svmbcls
specifv fcur ncres, scmerimes as manv as seven. Ccrrecr scale chcice fills in rhe blanks berween rhe chcrd rcnes.
The firsr srep rc chccsing ccrrecr scales fcr chcrds is rc undersrand whar chcrds are ccnrained wirhin a scale. This
can be acccmplished bv simplv spelling chcrds in 3rds (¯ chcrds fcr ncw · fcur ncresï srarring cn each ncre cf rhe
scale. |n rhe kev cf C, rhis wculd lcck like rhe fcllcwing:
Nexr, analvze each chcrd and derermine rhe ccrrecr svmbcl rc specifv rhar chcrd.
Majcr scales all being equal rhis demcnsrrares rhar:
1 and + chcrds in a majcr scale will be majcr ¯ chcrds
J, 3 and 6 chcrds in a majcr scale will be mincr ¯ chcrds
5 chcrds in majcr scales will be dcminanr chcrds
¯ chcrds in majcr scales will be mincr ¯b5 chcrds
Transpcsed rc rhe scale cf | majcr rhis wculd lcck like:
_
,
,
,
,
1
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
Cmaj¯
,
,
,
,
+
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
|maj¯
,
,
,
,
¯
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,
,
,
,
,
,
,
Pmin¯b5
,
,
,
,
3
,
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,
,
,
,
,
E
mi n¯
_
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,
,
,
6
,
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,
,
,
,
,
A
mi n¯
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,
,
,
J
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,
,
D
mi n¯
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,
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,
5
,
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,
,
,
C
¯
,
,
,
,
1
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
Cmaj¯
_ · · · ·
1
|maj¯
· · · ·
+
P
b
maj¯
· · · ·
¯
Emin¯b5
· · · ·
3
A
mi n¯
· · · ·
6
D
mi n¯
· · · ·
J
C
mi n¯
· · · ·
5
C
¯
· · · ·
1
|maj¯
_ · · · ·
1
P
b
maj¯
· · · ·
+
E
b
maj¯
· · · ·
¯
Amin¯b5
· · · ·
3
D
mi n¯
· · · ·
6
C
mi n¯
· · · ·
J
C
mi n¯
· · · ·
5
|
¯
· · · ·
1
P
b
maj¯
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 19
Exercise 13 · Seven Chcrds cf rhe Majcr Scale
C: Cmaj¯ Dmin¯ Emin¯ |maj¯ C¯ Amin¯ Pmin¯b5
|:
Pb:
Eb:
Ab:
Db:
|#:
P:
E:
A:
D:
C:
1 J 3 + 5 6 ¯
1. Ccmplere rhe fcllcwing charr cf chcrds fcr each majcr scale. The firsr (Cï: is ccmplered as an example.
J. Learn rhe fcllcwing C majcr scale prcgressicn cn vcur insrrumenr and cn pianc. Arpeggiare rhe chcrds if vcu
are plaving a single·line insrrumenr. Then rranspcse and plav ir in all kevs using rhe supplied chcrd charrs.
_ · · · ·
1
E
b
maj¯
· · · ·
+
A
b
maj¯
· · · ·
¯
Dmin¯b5
· · · ·
3
C
mi n¯
· · · ·
6
C
mi n¯
· · · ·
J
|
mi n¯
· · · ·
5
P
b
¯
· · · ·
1
E
b
maj¯
_ · · · ·
1
A
b
maj¯
· · · ·
+
D
b
maj¯
· · · ·
¯
Cmin¯b5
· · · ·
3
C
mi n¯
· · · ·
6
|
mi n¯
· · · ·
J
P
b
mi n¯
· · · ·
5
E
b
¯
· · · ·
1
A
b
maj¯
_ · · · ·
1
D
b
maj¯
· · · ·
+
C
b
maj¯
· · · ·
¯
Cmin¯b5
· · · ·
3
|
mi n¯
· · · ·
6
P
b
mi n¯
· · · ·
J
E
b
mi n¯
· · · ·
5
A
b
¯
· · · ·
1
D
b
maj¯
_ · · · ·
1
|
#
maj¯
· · · ·
+
Pmaj¯
· · · ·
¯
|min¯b5
(Enharmcnic · Cb majcrï
· · · ·
3
P
b
mi n¯
· · · ·
6
D
#
mi n¯
· · · ·
J
C
#
mi n¯
· · · ·
5
C
#
¯
· · · ·
1
|
#
maj¯
_ · · · ·
1
Pmaj¯
· · · ·
+
Emaj¯
· · · ·
¯
A
#
min¯b5
· · · ·
3
D
#
mi n¯
· · · ·
6
C
#
mi n¯
· · · ·
J
C
#
mi n¯
· · · ·
5
|
#
¯
· · · ·
1
Pmaj¯
_ · · · ·
1
Emaj¯
· · · ·
+
Amaj¯
· · · ·
¯
D
#
min¯b5
· · · ·
3
C
#
mi n¯
· · · ·
6
C
#
mi n¯
· · · ·
J
|
#
mi n¯
· · · ·
5
P
¯
· · · ·
1
Emaj¯
_ · · · ·
1
Amaj¯
· · · ·
+
Dmaj¯
· · · ·
¯
C
#
min¯b5
· · · ·
3
C
#
mi n¯
· · · ·
6
|
#
mi n¯
· · · ·
J
P
mi n¯
· · · ·
5
E
¯
· · · ·
1
Amaj¯
_ · · · ·
1
Dmaj¯
· · · ·
+
Cmaj¯
· · · ·
¯
C
#
min¯b5
· · · ·
3
|
#
mi n¯
· · · ·
6
P
mi n¯
· · · ·
J
E
mi n¯
· · · ·
5
A
¯
· · · ·
1
Dmaj¯
_ · · · ·
1
Cmaj¯
· · · ·
+
Cmaj¯
· · · ·
¯
|
#
min¯b5
· · · ·
3
P
mi n¯
· · · ·
6
E
mi n¯
· · · ·
J
A
mi n¯
· · · ·
5
D
¯
· · · ·
1
Cmaj¯
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · J0
Exercise 13 · Seven Chcrds cf rhe Majcr Scale
_
,
1
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
J
,
,
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3
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+
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5
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6
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¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
_
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1
,
,
|cnian
,
,
,
,
,
Cmaj¯
,
J
,
Dcrian
,
,
,
,
,
,
D
mi n¯
,
3
,
,
Phrvgian
,
,
,
,
,
E
mi n¯
,
+
,
,
Lvdian
,
,
,
,
,
|maj¯
Mixclvdian
,
5
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C
¯
,
6
,
,
Aeclian
,
,
,
,
,
A
mi n¯
,
¯
,
,
Lccrian
,
,
,
,
,
Pmin¯b5
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · J1
Exercise 1+ · Mcdes cf rhe Majcr Scale
Mcdes are scales using rhe ncres cf a parenr scale. Mcdes cf rhe majcr scale refer rc rhe seven scales creared bv
plaving rhe ncres cf a majcr scale (cr kevï srarring frcm each ncre cf rhe majcr scale. |n crher wcrds, plaving a
scale srarring cn rhe firsr ncre cf a majcr scale wculd be rhe firsr mcde cf a majcr scale. Plaving a scale srarring
cn rhe seccnd ncre cf a majcr scale, bur using rhe same ncres as rhe parenr scale, wculd be rhe Jnd mcde cf a
majcr scale.
Example: C Majcr Mcdes:
Mcdes cf rhe majcr scale each have rheir cwn disricrive name. Thev are:
1. |cnian (Majcr Scaleï (C rc C in rhe kev cf Cï (| rc | in rhe kev cf |ï erc.
J. Dcrian (D rc D in rhe kev cf Cï (C rc C in rhe kev cf |ï erc.
3. Phrvgian (E rc E in rhe kev cf Cï (A rc A in rhe kev cf |ï erc.
+. Lvdian (| rc | in rhe kev cf Cï (Pb rc Pb in rhe kev cf |ï erc.
5. Mixclvdian (C rc C in rhe kev cf Cï (C rc C in rhe kev cf |ï erc.
6. Aeclian (Pure Mincrï (A rc A in rhe kev cf Cï (D rc D in rhe kev cf |ï erc.
¯. Lccrian (P rc P in rhe kev cf Cï (E rc E in rhe kev cf |ï erc.
These mcdes cf ccurse ccrrespcnd direcrlv rc rhe chcrds cf rhe majcr scale.
1. |cnian (Majcr Scaleï = Majcr¯
J. Dcrian = mincr¯
3. Phrvgian = mincr¯
+. Lvdian = Majcr¯
5. Mixclvdian = Dcminanr ¯
6. Aeclian (Pure Mincrï = mincr ¯
¯. Lccrian = mincr ¯b5 (Balf·Diminishedï
_
,
|cnian
(Kev cf Cï
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,
,
,
,
,
,
Cmaj¯
,
Dcrian
(Kev cf Pbï
,
, ,
,
,
,
, ,
,
C
mi n¯
,
Phrvgian
(Kev cf Abï
, ,
, ,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
C
mi n¯
,
Lvdian
(Kev cf Cï
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
Cmaj¯
_
,
Mixclvdian
(Kev cf |ï
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
C
¯
,
Aeclian
(Kev cf Ebï
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
C
mi n¯
,
Lccrian
(Kev cf Dbï
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
Cmin¯b5
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · JJ
Exercise 1+ · Mcdes cf rhe Majcr Scale
Majcr Kev: C | Pb Eb Ab Db |# P E A D C
1. |cnian Cmaj¯
J. Dcrian Dmin¯
3. Phrvgian Emin¯
+. Lvdian |maj¯
5. Mixclvdian C¯
6. Aeclian Amin¯

¯. Lccrian Pmin¯b5
1. Ccmplere rhe fcllcwing rable bv supplving rhe ccrrecr chcrd svmbcl fcr everv mcde:kev ccmbinaricn. The
kev cf C is ccmplered as an example.
Mcdes shculd alsc be learned and pracriced in crder, all frcm rhe same ncre. Using C as an example:
_
~
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · J3
|cnian Dcrian Phrvgian Lvdian Mixclvdian Aeclian Lccrian
C: C Pb Ab C C Eb Db
|:
Pb:
Eb:
Ab:
C#:
|#:
P:
E:
A:
D:
C:
Exercise 1+ · Mcdes cf rhe Majcr Scale
J. Ccmplere rhe fcllcwing rable bv filling in rhe parenr majcr scales (kevï fcr each cf rhe mcdes srarring cn
cn rhe ncre cn rhe lefr side cf rhe charr. Mcdes srarring cn C are supplied as an example. Once ccmplered,
use rhis charr rc learn mcdes cn vcur insrrumenr srarring cn rhe same ncre.
|r is alsc valuable rc be able rc ccnceive mcdes as srand·alcne scales, wirhcur ccnsidering rhe parenr scale. One
wav rc gc abcur acccmplishing rhis is rc alrer scales alreadv pracriced and learned.
|cnian = Majcr Scale
Dcrian = Majcr Scale w:b3, b¯, cr Pure Mincr scale wirh a
,
6rh.
Phrvgian = Majcr Scale w:bJ, b3, b6, b¯, cr Pure Mincr scale wirh a bJ.
Lvdian = Majcr Scale w:#+ (#11ï
Mixclvdian = Majcr Scale w:b¯
Aeclian = Pure Mincr, Majcr Scale w:b3, b6, b¯
Lccrian = Majcr Scale w:bJ, b3, b5, b6, b¯ cr Pure Mincr w:bJ, b5.

_ ,
Dcrian
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
C
mi n¯
,
Mixclvdian
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
C
¯
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
_
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
_
,
,
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,
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,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
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,
,
,
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,
, ,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
,
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,
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,
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,
, ,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · J+
Exercise 1+ · Mcdes cf rhe Majcr Scale
3. Supplv rhe mcde name and chcrd svmbcl fcr each cf rhe fcllcwing measure. The firsr rwc are ccmplered
as an example.
_
,
,
,
,
,
|: v
,
C Mixclvdian
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
C
¯
|
¯
P
b
¯
E
b
¯
A
b
¯
C
#
¯
_
|
#
¯
P
¯
E
¯
A
¯
D
¯
C
¯
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · J5
Exercise 15 · |nrrcducricn rc Chcrd |uncricn
|cr rhe purpcses cf rhis wcrkbcck, rhe phrase "Chcrd |uncricn" will be defined as hcw individual chcrds relare
rc rhe kev (cr scaleï rhar rhe chcrds were derived frcm. Derermining a chcrd's funcricn makes ir relarivelv simple rc
supplv rhe mcsr ccrrecr scale fcr rhar chcrd.
|n Exercise 1+, Cmin¯ cccurred in rhree differenr kevs (|, Eb and Pbï and in each case a slighrlv differenr mcde, all
cf which ccnrained rhe ncres cf rhe Cmin¯ wirhin ir, (dcrian, phrvgian and aeclianï was plaved. |n rhe ccnrexr cf
an acrual chcrd prcgressicn, cne cf rhcse mcdes wculd be mcre apprcpriare rhan rhe crhers.
|n a majcr kev, chcrd funcricn is a fairlv easv rask. Sc far, we have alreadv learned rhar wirhin a majcr scale:
1. Majcr ¯ chcrds = 1 cr + in rhe kev (| cr |vï
J. Mincr ¯ chcrds are: J, 3 cr 6 (ii, iii, viï
3. Dcminanr ¯ chcrds are 5 (vï
+. Mincr¯b5 chcrds are ¯ (viiï
Sc, in everv majcr kev rhere are rwc Majcr ¯ chcrds, rhree Mincr ¯ chcrds, cne Dcminanr and cne
Balf·Diminished chcrd. Accepr fcr ncw rhar Mincr¯b5 chcrds alsc funcricn as J (iiï chcrds in mincr kevs
and as such, are ncr gccd indicarcrs cf majcr kev cenrers. This leaves Dcminanr ¯ chcrds as rhe chcrd
rhar besr indicares majcr kev cenrer. Pur ancrher wav, Dcminanr ¯ chcrds are alwavs 5. (vï
1. Memcrize rhe fcllcwing dcminanr chcrd rc majcr kev relaricnships. Then, cn rhe sraff belcw, spell rhe chcrds,
rhe ccrrecr scale, (mixclvdianï rhe majcr kev cenrer and a rcman numeral harmcnic analvsis (vï fcr each dcminanr
chcrd. The firsr measure is ccmplered as an example.
C¯ = |majcr |¯ = Pbmajcr Pb¯ = Ebmajcr Eb¯ = Abmajcr Ab¯ = Dbmajcr
C#¯ = |#majcr |#¯ = Pmajcr P¯ = Emajcr E¯ = Amajcr A¯ = Dmajcr
D¯ = Cmajcr C¯ = Cmajcr
_ · · · ·
D
mi n¯
· · · ·
C: v
C
¯
· · · ·
Cmaj¯
· · · ·
|maj¯
· · · ·
P
b
mi n¯
· · · ·
Ab: v
E
b
¯
_ · · · ·
A
b
maj¯
· · · ·
P: v
C
#
mi n¯
|
#
¯
· · · ·
Pmaj¯
· · · ·
|: v
C
mi n¯
C
¯
· · · ·
|maj¯
· · · ·
_ · · · ·
ii
D
mi n¯
· · · ·
C: v
C
¯
· · · ·
|
Cmaj¯
· · · ·
|v
|maj¯
· · · ·
ii
P
b
mi n¯
· · · ·
Ab: v
E
b
¯
_ · · · ·
|
A
b
maj¯
· · · ·
ii P: v
C
#
mi n¯
|
#
¯
· · · ·
|
Pmaj¯
· · · ·
(viï
ii
|: v
C
mi n¯
C
¯
· · · ·
|
|maj¯
· · · ·
_ · · · ·
ii
D
mi n¯
Cmaj:
· · · ·
C: v
C
¯
· · · ·
|
Cmaj¯
· · · ·
|v
|maj¯
· · · ·
ii
P
b
mi n¯
Abmaj:
· · · ·
Ab: v
E
b
¯
· · · ·
|
A
b
maj¯
_ · · · ·
ii
C
#
mi n¯
|
#
¯
Pmaj:
· · · ·
P: v |
Pmaj¯
|maj:
· · · ·
ii |: v
C
mi n¯
C
¯
· · · ·
|
|maj¯
· · · ·
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · J6
Exercise 15 · |nrrcducricn rc Chcrd |uncricn
|f all dcminanr chcrds are v, (fcr ncw we are gcing rc agree rc rharï rhen rhe firsr srep rc analvzing a chcrd
prcgressicn wculd be rc pur a rcman numeral v and rhe ccrrespcnding kev cenrer belcw everv dcminanr.
Nexr, srarring frcm rhe firsr v chcrd in rhe prcgressicn and sraving in rhe same kev as lcng as pcssible, wcrk
backwards and fcrwards supplving a rcman numeral analvsis each chcrd. |n rhe example belcw,
rhe firsr dcminanr (C¯ï is in rhe kev cf C majcr. vcrking backwards, Dmin¯ is alsc in rhe kev cf C majcr as a
ii chcrd. vcrking fcrward, Cmaj¯ is a | chcrd and |maj¯ is a |v chcrd. Pbmin¯ dces ncr funcricn (firï in rhe kev
cf C majcr, ir is in a differenr kev. Ar rhis pcinr, jump rc rhe nexr dcminanr chcrd and begin again.
_
D
mi n¯
C
¯
Cmaj¯ |maj¯ P
b
mi n¯
E
b
¯
_
A
b
maj¯ C
#
mi n¯
|
#
¯
Pmaj¯ C
mi n¯
C
¯
|maj¯
_
|
mi n¯
P
b
¯
E
b
maj¯ A
b
maj¯ C
#
mi n¯
|
#
¯
_
Pmaj¯ E
mi n¯
A
¯
Dmaj¯ P
b
mi n¯
E
b
¯
A
b
maj¯
_
|maj¯ Cmaj¯ E
mi n¯
A
mi n¯
D
mi n¯
C
¯
Cmaj¯ |
¯
_
P
b
maj¯ A
¯
Dmaj¯ A
b
mi n¯
D
b
¯
C
mi n¯
C
¯
|maj¯
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · J¯
Exercise 15 · |nrrcducricn rc Chcrd |uncricn
J. Analvze rhis same prcgressicn cn vcur cwn supplving rcman numerals, kev cenrers and addiricnallv, ncrare
scales and idenrifv mcde names fcr each chcrd. Plav cn vcur insrrumenr (curline chcrd, plav scalesï and cn pianc.
3. Analvze rhis same prcgressicn in a differenr kev, supplving rcman numerals, kev cenrers, ncrare scales and
supplv mcde names fcr each chcrd. Plav cn vcur insrrumenr (curline chcrd, plav scalesï and pianc.
+. Analvze rhe fcllcwing prcgressicn supplving rcman numerals, kev cenrers, ncrare scales and idenrifv
mcde names fcr each chcrd. Plav cn vcur insrrumenr (curline chcrd, plav scalesï and pianc.
_
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
D
mi n¯
C
¯
,
,
,
,
Cmaj¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C
mi n¯
C
¯
,
,
,
,
|maj¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C
mi n¯
|
¯
,
,
,
, ,
P
b
maj¯
_
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
|
mi n¯
P
b
¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
E
b
maj¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
P
b
mi n¯
E
b
¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
A
b
maj¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
E
b
mi n¯
A
b
¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
D
b
maj¯
_
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C
#
mi n¯
C
#
¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
|
#
maj¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C
#
mi n¯
|
#
¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
Pmaj¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
|
#
mi n¯
P
¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
Emaj¯
_
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
P
mi n¯
E
¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
Amaj¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
E
mi n¯
A
¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
Dmaj¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
A
mi n¯
D
¯
,
,
,
,
,
Cmaj¯
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · JS
Exercise 16 · The Majcr ii·v·| prcgressicn
The ii·v·| (Twc·|ive·Oneï prcgressicn is prcbablv rhe mcsr ccmmcn prcgressicn in music asscciared wirh jazz
imprcvisaricn. |r is imperarive rhar rhese prcgressicns be memcrized and insranrlv reccgnized as rhev
appear.
1. Memcrize rhe fcllcwing ii·v·| prcgressicns in all kevs.
C: Dmin¯ C¯ Cmaj¯ |: Cmin¯ C¯ |maj¯
Pb: Cmin¯ |¯ Pbmaj¯ Eb: |min¯ Pb¯ Ebmaj¯
Ab: Pbmin¯ Eb¯ Abmaj¯ Db: Ebmin¯ Ab¯ Dbmaj¯
C#: D#min¯ C#¯ C#maj¯ |#: C#min¯ C#¯ |#maj¯
Cb: Abmin¯ Db¯ Cbmj¯ P: C#min¯ |#¯ Pmaj¯
E: |#min¯ P¯ Emaj¯ A: Pmin¯ E¯ Amaj¯
D: Emin¯ A¯ Dmaj¯ C: Amin¯ D¯ Cmaj¯

J. Learn rhe fcllcwing simple, lefr hand pianc vcicings fcr ii·v·| prcgressicns. The are ncrared here rc minimize
ledger lines bur shculd be plaved an ccrave belcw where rhev are wrirren.
_
,
Dcrian
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
Mixclvdian
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
D
mi n¯
C
¯
,
|cnian
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
Cmaj¯
,
Dcrian
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
Mixclvdian
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
C
mi n¯
C
¯
,
|cnian
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
|maj¯
_
C
mi n¯
|
¯
P
b
maj¯ |
mi n¯
P
b
¯
E
b
maj¯
_
P
b
mi n¯
E
b
¯
A
b
maj¯ E
b
mi n¯
A
b
¯
D
b
maj¯
_
C
#
mi n¯
C
#
¯
|
#
maj¯ C
#
mi n¯
|
#
¯
Pmaj¯
_
|
#
mi n¯
P
¯
Emaj¯ P
mi n¯
E
¯
Amaj¯
_
E
mi n¯
A
¯
P
Dmaj¯ A
mi n¯
D
¯
Cmaj¯
_
A
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
D
mi n¯
C
¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
. .
Cmaj¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
D
mi n¯
C
¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
. .
Cmaj¯
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · J9
Exercise 16 · The Majcr ii·v·| prcgressicn
3. Plav rhe fcllcwing exercise cn vcur insrrumenr and cn rhe pianc. |f necessarv, wrire in rhe mcdes fcr all kevs.
Once learned, add rhe lefr hand pianc vcicings frcm rhe previcus exercise and plav rhe mcdes cver rhe lefr hand
chcrds. Swirch ccraves wherever necessarv rc avcid crcssing hands.
+. Learn rhe fcllcwing rwc majcr scale parrerns (A and Pï in all kevs cn vcur insrrumenr and cn rhe pianc using
rhe chcrd charr abcve. Add rhe lefr hand pianc vcicings and plav rhe parrerns cver rhe rcp cf rhe chcrds.
_
A
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
D
mi n¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C
¯
,
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
C
#
mi n¯
(erc.ï
, ,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
|
#
¯
_
P
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
D
mi n¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C
¯
,
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
,
,
,
C
#
mi n¯
(erc.ï
, ,
,
, ,
,
, ,
,
,
|
#
¯
_ · · · ·
D
mi n¯
· · · ·
C
¯
· · · ·
C
#
mi n¯
· · · ·
|
#
¯
· · · ·
C
mi n¯
· · · ·
|
¯
_ · · · ·
P
mi n¯
· · · ·
E
¯
· · · ·
P
b
mi n¯
· · · ·
E
b
¯
· · · ·
A
mi n¯
· · · ·
D
¯
_ · · · ·
A
b
mi n¯
· · · ·
D
b
¯
· · · ·
C
mi n¯
· · · ·
C
¯
· · · ·
|
#
mi n¯
· · · ·
P
¯
_ · · · ·
|
mi n¯
· · · ·
P
b
¯
· · · ·
E
mi n¯
· · · ·
A
¯
· · · ·
E
b
mi n¯
· · · ·
A
b
¯
_
A
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
D
mi n¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C
¯
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
D
mi n¯
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
C
¯
_
C
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
D
mi n¯
D
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
P
C
¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
D
mi n¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C
¯
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 30
Exercise 16 · The Majcr ii·v·| prcgressicn
The ii·v pcrricn cf rhis prcgressicn cfren cccurs wirhcur rhe | chcrd.
5. Learn rhe fcllcwing majcr scale parrerns cn vcur insrrumenr and cn rhe pianc wirh chcrds in vcur lefr hand
using rhe prcgressicn cf ii·v's belcw.
6. Learn rhe fcllcwing chcrd curline parrerns (A·Dï cn vcur insrrumenr and cn rhe pianc wirh chcrds in vcur
lefr hand using rhe prcgressicn cf ii·v's abcve.
_
C: Pure Mincr (b3, b6, b¯ï
,
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
C
mi n¯
, ,
, ,
,
,
, ,
,
,
_
,
(C pure mincr = Eb majcrï
, ,
,
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
C
mi n¯
, ,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
, ,
(| pure mincr = Ab majcrï
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
|
mi n¯
, ,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
· · · ·
P
b
mi n¯
· · · ·
_ · · · ·
E
b
mi n¯
· · · · · · · ·
A
b
mi n¯
· · · · · · · ·
C
#
mi n¯
· · · ·
_ · · · ·
|
#
mi n¯
· · · · · · · ·
P
mi n¯
· · · · · · · ·
E
mi n¯
· · · ·
_ · · · ·
A
mi n¯
· · · · · · · ·
D
mi n¯
· · · · · · · ·
C
mi n¯
· · · ·
_
A
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
C
mi n¯
, ,
,
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,
,
,
,
P
,
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,
,
,
,
,
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C
mi n¯
,
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,
,
,
,
C
,
, ,
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,
,
,
,
, ,
C
mi n¯
,
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
,
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 31
Exercise 1¯ · The Pure Mincr Scale (Aeclian Mcdeï
Pure mincr, cr Aeclian Mcde, is rhe sixrh mcde cf a majcr scale. |r is ccmmcnlv rhe firsr (and scmerimes cnlvï
mincr scale srudenrs learn using rradiricnal marerials. vhile ncr rhe mcsr ccmmcn chcice fcr imprcvisaricns,
(Dcrian is usuallv subsrirured because rhe
,
6 creares a scale wirh nc "bad" ncres and is cfren ccnsidered a "hipper"
chciceï ir is impcrranr rc kncw as a scurce cf mincr kev harmcnies. Srudenrs cfren find ir easiesr rc learn
rhis scale as b3, b6, b¯ cf a majcr scale.
1. Learn rhe fcllcwing Pure Mincr (Aeclianï scale parrern in all kevs using rhe supplied chcrd charr.
J. Learn rhe fcllcwing aeclian mcde parrerns in all kevs using rhe chcrd charr abcve. Pracrice cn vcur insrrumenr
and cn pianc wirh rhe chcrds in vcur lefr hand.
_
,
C Barmcnic Mincr
,
, ,
b3
,
,
, ,
b6
, ,
,
¯
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
, ,
,
,
_
A
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
C
min
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,
, ,
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,
,
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,
,
P
~
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
C
min
, ,
,
, ,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
~
_ · · · ·
C
min
· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
|
min
· · · · · · · · · · · ·
_ · · · ·
P
b
min
· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
E
b
min
· · · · · · · · · · · ·
_ · · · ·
A
b
min
· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
C
#
min
· · · · · · · · · · · ·
_ · · · ·
|
#
min
· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
P
min
· · · · · · · · · · · ·
_ · · · ·
E
min
· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
A
min
· · · · · · · · · · · ·
_ · · · ·
D
min
· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
C
min
· · · · · · · · · · · ·
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 3J
Exercise 1S · The Barmcnic Mincr Scale
The harmcnic mincr scale is a mincr scale (b3ï wirh a lcwered sixrh (b6ï bur a narural sevenrh. (
,
¯ï This creares
a scale wirh an augmenred seccnd (Ab rc P
,
in rhe C harmcnic mincr scaleï berween rhe 6rh and ¯rh scale degrees.
The narural ¯rh is rhe leading rcne in rhe mincr kev, meaning ir beccmes rhe majcr rhird cf rhe dcminanr v chcrd
and in rradiricnal music rhecrv will wanr rc resclve up a half·srep rc rhe rcnic cf rhe kev. The b6 in rhe scale
beccmes rhe b9 cf rhe dcminanr v chcrd, meaning in rhe kev cf C mincr, vcu wculd expecr rhe v chcrd rc be a
C¯b9. (C, P
,
, D, | and Abï The harmcnic mincr can be rhcughr cf as a pure mincr scale wirh a raised (
,
¯ï cr as
a majcr scale wirh a lcwered 3rd (b3ï and a lcwered 6rh. (b6ï
1. Learn rhe harmcnic mincr scale in all kevs using rhe fcllcwing rwc parrerns cn vcur insrrumenr and cn pianc.
_
.
Cliffcrd Prcwn · "All The Things Ycu Are"
,
C Barmcnic Mincr
, ,
,
,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
Amin¯b5 D¯
b9
,
, .
C
mi n¯
Cliffcrd Prcwn · "Splir Kick"
, ,
D Barmcnic Mincr
,
, ,
,
,
,
Emin¯b5
. ,
,
, ,
,
, ,
,

b9
,
, .
D
mi n¯
_
|reddie Bubbard · "|rs Ycu Or Nc One"
,
A Barmcnic Mincr
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
Pmin¯b5 E¯
b9
,
(Dcrian cr pure mincrï
,
,
,
,
,
,
A
mi n¯
,
Charlie Parker · "Celerirv"
D Barmcnic Mincr
,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
E
mi n¯

b9
,
,
. , .
D
mi n¯
_
,
,
,
,
,
i · C Barmcnic Mincr
Cmin
(maj¯ï
,
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
v · C Barmcnic Mincr (5rh mcdeï

b9
,
, ,
,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
· · · ·
|min
(maj¯ï
· · · · · · · ·

b9
· · · ·
_ · · · ·
P
b
min
(maj¯ï
· · · · · · · ·

b9
· · · · · · · ·
E
b
min
(maj¯ï
· · · · · · · ·
P
b
¯
b9
· · · ·
_ · · · ·
A
b
min
(maj¯ï
· · · · · · · ·
E
b
¯
b9
· · · · · · · ·
C
#
min
(maj¯ï
· · · · · · · ·
C
#
¯
b9
· · · ·
_ · · · ·
|
#
min
(maj¯ï
· · · · · · · ·
C
#
¯
b9
· · · · · · · ·
Pmin
(maj¯ï
· · · · · · · ·
|
#
¯
b9
· · · ·
_ · · · ·
Emin
(maj¯ï
· · · · · · · ·

b9
· · · · · · · ·
Amin
(maj¯ï
· · · · · · · ·

b9
· · · ·
_ · · · ·
Dmin
(maj¯ï
· · · · · · · ·

b9
· · · · · · · ·
Cmin
(maj¯ï
· · · · · · · ·

b9
· · · ·
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 33
Exercise 1S · The Barmcnic Mincr Scale
Pelcw are fcur examples cf rhe harmcnic mincr scale as used bv grear jazz sclcisrs.
The rcnic chcrd cf harmcnic mincr is a mincr wirh a majcr ¯ chcrd. Unless specified, rhis scale is rarelv used fcr
rhar chcrd. As seen in rhe examples abcve, rhe augmenred Jnd berween rhe b6 and rhe
,
¯ in rhe harmcnic mincr
creares rhe inrerval berween rhe majcr rhird and rhe b9 cf rhe dcminanr chcrd rhar is verv rvpical cf bebcp srvle
lines. vhile plavers cf rhar era mav ncr have been specificallv rhinking harmcnic mincr as rhev plaved, ir wculd
appear rhar rhev were plaving a melcdic scund rhar appears narurallv wirhin rhe scale, making ir an excellenr
rccl fcr learning and recrearing rhar scund.
J. Plav rhe fcllcwing in all kevs cn pianc and cn vcur insrrumenr, curlining rhe chcrds cn single·line insrrumenrs.
_
,
,
,
,
,
C harmcnic mincr
, ,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
Dmin¯b5
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
, ,
,
,

b9
,
,
,
,
,
,
C Pure Mincr
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
,
,
C
mi n¯
,
C Dcrian
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
C
mi n¯
_
,
,
,
,
,
(rccr pcsiricnï
Dmin¯b5
,
,
,
,
,
(Jnd inversicn, nc rccr ·
5rh, ¯rh, b9, 3rdï

b9
,
,
,
,
,
,
(rccr pcsiricnï
C
mi n¯
,
,
,
,
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 3+
Exercise 19 · The Mincr ii·v·i (Barmcnic Mincrï
Almcsr as ccmmcn as rhe majcr ii·v·|, undersranding and acquiring facilirv wirh rhe mincr ii·v·i is imperarive fcr
anv jazz sclcisr. The firsr srep is rc be able rc reccgnize a mincr ii·v·i when ir cccurs.
|n rhe kev cf C majcr, a ii·v·| wculd be: Dmin¯ · C¯ · Cmaj¯. |n a mincr ii·v·i, rhe rccrs srav rhe same bur rhe
chcrd qualiries change. |n C mincr, a mincr ii·v·i wculd be: Dmin¯b5 · C¯b9 · Cmin¯.
1. Ccmplere rhe rable belcw and memcrize rhe fcllcwing mincr ii·v·i prcgressicns in all kevs. Cmin and
|min are ccmplered as examples.
Cmin: Dmin¯b5 C¯b9 Cmin¯ |min: Cmin¯b5 C¯b9 |min¯
Pbmin: Ebmin:
Abmin: Dbmin:
C#min: |#min:
Cbmin: Pmin:
Emin: Amin:
Dmin: Cmin:
|f Dmin¯b5 · C¯b9 · Cmin¯ is kncwn rc be in rhe kev cf C mincr, rhen rhese chcrds musr ccme frcm
C mincr scales.
|rcm rhe example abcve, ir shculd be apparenr rhar rhe harmcnic mincr scale, cf rhe rcnic mincr kev, wcrks fcr rhe
ii and rhe v cf rhe mincr ii·v·i. The rcnic chcrd in rhis prcgressicn is usuallv a mincr ¯ chcrd, meaning a change
cf mcde rc eirher pure mincr (Aeclian · an ckav chciceï cr dcrian (usuallv ccnsidered a berrer, mcre advanced chciceï
is required in crder rc supplv rhe lcwered ¯rh scale degree. Eirher pure mincr cr dcrian will wcrk fine in mcsr cases.
J. Pelcw is a blcck, simple lefr hand pianc vcicing fcr mincr ii·v·i prcgressicns. Learn rhis in all kevs, using rhe
chcrd charr cn rhe fcllcwing page. Once again, ir shculd be plaved an ccrave belcw where ir is wrirren. As a
general rule, keep rhe lcwesr ncre cf rhese vcicings belcw middle C.
_ · · · ·
Dmin¯b5
· · · ·

b9
· · · ·
C
mi n¯
· · · · · · · ·
Cmin¯b5
· · · ·

b9
· · · ·
|
mi n¯
· · · ·
_ · · · ·
Cmin¯b5
· · · ·

b9
· · · ·
P
b
mi n¯
· · · · · · · ·
|min¯b5
· · · ·
P
b
¯
b9
· · · ·
E
b
mi n¯
· · · ·
_ · · · ·
P
b
min¯b5
· · · ·
E
b
¯
b9
· · · ·
A
b
mi n¯
· · · · · · · ·
D
#
min¯b5
· · · ·
C
#
¯
b9
· · · ·
C
#
mi n¯
· · · ·
_ · · · ·
C
#
min¯b5
· · · ·
C
#
¯
b9
· · · ·
|
#
mi n¯
· · · · · · · ·
C
#
min¯b5
· · · ·
|
#
¯
b9
· · · ·
P
mi n¯
· · · ·
_ · · · ·
|
#
min¯b5
· · · ·

b9
· · · ·
E
mi n¯
· · · · · · · ·
Pmin¯b5
· · · ·

b9
· · · ·
A
mi n¯
· · · ·
_ · · · ·
Emin¯b5
· · · ·

b9
· · · ·
D
mi n¯
· · · · · · · ·
Amin¯b5
· · · ·

b9
· · · ·
C
mi n¯
· · · ·
_
A
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
Dmin¯b5
, ,
,
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
,

b9
,
C Dcrian
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
C
mi n¯
,
, ,
,
, ,
,
,
,

_
P
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
Dmin¯b5
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
, ,
,

b9
,
C Pure Mincr
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
C
mi n¯
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
_
C
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
Dmin¯b5
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,

b9
,
, ,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
C
mi n¯
. ,
,
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 35
Exercise 19 · The Mincr ii·v·i (Barmcnic Mincrï
3. Learn rhe fcllcwing scale and chcrd curline parrerns in all kevs using rhe chcrd charr abcve cn vcur insrrumenr
as well as cn pianc. On pianc, plav rhe chcrds in vcur lefr hand, rhe parrern in vcur righr.
_
D
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
Dmin¯b5
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,

b9
,
, ,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
C
mi n¯
.
,
,
_
E
,
(5rh Mcde cf Barmcnic Mincrï
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
Dmin¯b5
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,

b9
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
C
mi n¯
,
,
, .
_
,
,
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
Dmin¯b5 C¯
b9
, ,
,
, .
C
mi n¯
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
Dmin¯b5 C¯
b9
, ,
,
, .
C
mi n¯
_
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
Dmin¯b5 C¯
b9
.
, ,
,
C
mi n¯
,
,
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
Dmin¯b5

b9
. , ,
,
C
mi n¯
_ · · · ·
Dmin¯b5 C¯
b9
· · · ·
C
mi n¯
· · · ·
Cmin¯b5 C¯
b9
· · · ·
|
mi n¯
· · · ·
Cmin¯b5 |¯
b9
· · · ·
P
b
mi n¯
_ · · · ·
|min¯b5 P
b
¯
b9
· · · ·
E
b
mi n¯
· · · ·
P
b
min¯b5 E
b
¯
b9
· · · ·
A
b
mi n¯
· · · ·
D
#
min¯b5 C
#
¯
b9
· · · ·
C
#
mi n¯
_ · · · ·
C
#
min¯b5 C
#
¯
b9
· · · ·
|
#
mi n¯
· · · ·
C
#
min¯b5 |
#
¯
b9
· · · ·
P
mi n¯
· · · ·
|
#
min¯b5P¯
b9
· · · ·
E
mi n¯
_ · · · ·
Pmin¯b5 E¯
b9
· · · ·
A
mi n¯
· · · ·
Emin¯b5 A¯
b9
· · · ·
D
mi n¯
· · · ·
Amin¯b5 D¯
b9
· · · ·
C
mi n¯
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 36
Exercise 19 · The Mincr ii·v·i (Barmcnic Mincrï
Mincr ii·v·i prcgressicns cfren cccur in rhe space cf rwc bars.
+. Learn rhe fcllcwing chcrd curline parrerns using rhe chcrd charr belcw cn pianc and cn vcur insrrumenr.
|n acrual music, especiallv in manv pcpular jazz plav·alcng series, mincr ii·v·i prcgressicns will cfren be ncrared
wirh alreraricns rc rhe v chcrd crher rhan b9, (C¯#9, C¯#9#5, C¯alr, erc.ï cr in fake bccks wirh nc alreraricn
rc rhe v chcrd ar all. (Cmin¯b5 rc C¯ rc |min¯ï vhile in rhe firsr case rhis indicares scale chcices crher rhan
harmcnic mincr, harmcnic mincr will srill wcrk. |n rhe seccnd case, frcm rhe chcrds surrcunding ir, rhe C¯ shculd
alwavs be apprcached as rhe v in a mincr kev. |cr ncw, apprcach anv ii·mincr¯b5 rc v·dcminanr ¯ rc i·mincr ¯
chcrd as a mincr ii·v·i using harmcnic mincr.
_
,
,
,
,
,
,
i
,
,
,
,
,
ii
C
mi n¯
Dmin¯b5
,
,
,
,
,
,
|||
,
,
,
,
,
,
iv
E
b
maj¯ |
mi n¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
v
,
,
,
,
,
,
v|
Cmin¯b9 A
b
maj¯
,
,
,
, ,
,
v||
,
,
,
,
,
i
P
b
¯
C
mi n¯
_
,
,
,
,
,
,
i
,
,
,
,
,
ii
Cmin
(maj¯ï
Dmin¯b5
,
,
,
,
,
,
|||
,
,
,
,
,
,
iv
E
b
maj¯#5 |
mi n¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
v
,
,
,
,
,
,
v|

b9
A
b
maj¯
,
,
,
, ,
,
v||
,
,
,
,
,
,
i
P
º ¯
Cmin
(maj¯ï
_
,
,
,
,
,
,
i
,
,
,
,
,
ii
C
mi n¯
Dmin¯b5
,
,
,
,
,
,
|||
,
,
,
,
,
,
iv
E
b
maj¯ |
mi n¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
v
,
,
,
,
,
,
v|

b9
A
b
maj¯
,
,
,
, ,
,
v||
,
,
,
,
,
,
i
P
º ¯
C
mi n¯
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 3¯
Exercise J0 · Mincr Kev Barmcnv and |uncricn
Mincr kev harmcnv is a lirrle mcre ccmplicared rhan majcr kev harmcnv. |n majcr kevs, a single scale (rhe
majcr scaleï is used rc creare chcrds. |n mincr kevs, a ccmbinaricn cf rhree scales (pure mincr, harmcnic mincr
and melcdic mincrï can be used rc creare chcrds. Tc keep rhings as simple as pcssible fcr ncw, rhis exercise will
deal cnlv wirh rhe mcsr ccmmcn, rradiricnal mincr kev harmcnies.
|cr rhe mcsr parr, ccmmcn mincr kev harmcnies ccme frcm eirher rhe pure mincr scale cr rhe harmcnic
mincr scale. Pelcw are each cf rhese scales and rhe chcrds ccnrained wirhin rhem.
Pure Mincr Scale
Barmcnic Mincr Scale
Pelcw are rhe mcsr ccmmcn mincr kev chcrds. The ii, iv, and v| chcrds are rhe same fcr bcrh rhe pure mincr and
rhe harmcnic mincr scale. The i and ||| chcrds rvpicallv ccme frcm rhe pure mincr scale, rhe v and vii, (rhe dcminanr
funcricning chcrdsï bcrh ccme frcm rhe harmcnic mincr scale.
Ccmmcn Mincr Kev Chcrds
The mcsr ccmmcn mincr kev chcrds fcund in srandard jazz runes are: i (min¯ï ii (min¯b5ï v (dcm¯b9ï and iv
(min¯ï. v| (maj¯ï and ||| (maj¯ï cccur mcre cfren preceded bv a (seccndarvï dcminanr and frcm a melcdic
srandpcinr beccme rcnic chcrds in majcr kevs. The vii diminished ¯ chcrd rarelv cccurs as a vii chcrd, rhe
dcminanr b9 v chcrd filling rhar rcle wirh diminished ¯ chcrd rhe rcp fcur ncres cf rhe srrucrure. Mcsr diminished
¯ chcrds in srandard jazz runes are passing cr seccndarv dcminanr chcrds and will be addressed in larer exercises.
_
,
C pure mincr
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
C
mi n¯
, ,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
,
,
|
mi n¯
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
_ ,
C harmcnic mincr (5rh mcdeï
, ,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
Dmin¯b5
, ,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,

b9
,
C pure mincr
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
C
mi n¯
, ,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
_
|
mi n¯
P
b
mi n¯
Cmin¯b5 C¯
b9
|
mi n¯
_
P
b
mi n¯
E
b
mi n¯
Cmin¯b5 |¯
b9
P
b
mi n¯
_
E
b
mi n¯
A
b
mi n¯
|min¯b5 P
b
¯
b9
E
b
mi n¯
_
A
b
mi n¯
D
b
mi n¯
P
b
min¯b5 E
b
¯
b9
A
b
mi n¯
_
C
#
mi n¯
|
#
mi n¯
D
#
min¯b5 C
#
¯
b9
C
#
mi n¯
_
|
#
mi n¯
P
mi n¯
C
#
min¯b5 C
#
¯
b9
|
#
mi n¯
_
P
mi n¯
E
mi n¯
C
#
min¯b5 |
#
¯
b9
P
mi n¯
_
E
mi n¯
A
mi n¯
|
#
min¯b5 P¯
b9
E
mi n¯
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 3S
1. Learn rhe fcllcwing mincr scale parrerns in all kevs cn vcur insrrumenr using rhe rhe chcrd charr belcw. As
previcuslv srared, dcrian can almcsr alwavs be subsrirured fcr pure mincr. |eel free rc plav dcrian (
,
6ï fcr all rhe
mincr ¯ chcrds in rhis exercise insread cf pure mincr if vcu feel ccmfcrrable wirh dcing sc.
Exercise J0 · Mincr Kev Barmcnv and |uncricn
_
A
mi n¯
D
mi n¯
Pmin¯b5 E¯
b9
A
mi n¯
_
D
mi n¯
C
mi n¯
Emin¯b5 A¯
b9
D
mi n¯
_
C
mi n¯
C
mi n¯
Amin¯b5 D¯
b9
C
mi n¯
_
,
,
,
,
,
,
C
mi n¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
|
mi n¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
Dmin¯b5
,
,
,
,
,

b9
,
,
,
,
,
,
C
mi n¯
.
.
.
.
,
,
,
,
,
_
,
Pbmaj:
ii
,
, ,
,
,
,
, ,
,
C
mi n¯
,
v
,
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
,
|
¯
, ,
|
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
, ,
P
b
maj¯
, ,
|v
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
E
b
maj¯
_
,
vii
ii
Cmin:
Pbmaj:
, ,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
Amin¯b5
,
v
, ,
, ,
,
,
, ,
,
,

b9
,
i
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
,
,
C
mi n¯
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
,
,
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 39
Exercise J0 · Mincr Kev Barmcnv and |uncricn
J. Learn rhe simple lefr·hand blcck pianc vcicings belcw in all kevs. Learn rhem in all kevs, plaving rhe scale
parrerns frcm rhe previcus exercise in vcur righr hand an ccrave abcve. (Plav chcrds an ccrave lcwer rhan wrirrenï
|n mincr kevs, as in majcr kevs, rhe dcminanr ¯ v chcrd derermines kev. |n each cf rhe examples jusr learned rhis
shculd have been apparenr. vhar mav have been ccnfusing was rhar rhe firsr chcrd cf each svsrem, (rhe rcnic
chcrdï cculd alsc have been rhe mincr iv chcrd frcm rhe previcus kev. Chcrds funcricning in rwc kevs are called
"pivcr" chcrds and allcw fcr smccrh and narural mcdularicns berween kevs. Sclcisrs cfren chccse rc apprcach
rhese chcrds differenrlv depending cn rhe shape and direcricn cf rheir melcdies.
Pelcw is an example frcm "Aurumn Leaves." The Amin¯b5 is a pivcr chcrd, funcricning bcrh as vii in rhe kev cf Pb
and ii in rhe rhe kev cf C mincr. |n rhe example, lccrian is ncrared as rhe scale chcice. A sclcisr cculd easilv decide
rc apprcach rhe Amin¯b5 rc D¯b9 as a ii·v in C mincr and use C harmcnic mincr fcr bcrh cf rhcse measures.
_
,
,
,
,
,
,
Pbmaj:
ii
C
mi n¯
,
,
,
,
,
v
|
¯
,
,
,
, ,
|
P
b
maj¯
,
,
,
,
,
,
|v
E
b
maj¯
,
,
,
,
,
vii
ii
Cmin:
Amin¯b5
,
,
,
,
,
,
v

b9
,
,
,
,
,
i
C
mi n¯
,
,
,
,
_
|
mi n¯
P
b
¯
E
b
maj¯ A
b
maj¯ Dmin¯b5 C¯
b9
C
mi n¯
_
P
b
mi n¯
E
b
¯
A
b
maj¯ D
b
maj¯ Cmin¯b5 C¯
b9
|
mi n¯
_
E
b
mi n¯
A
b
¯
D
b
maj¯ C
b
maj¯ Cmin¯b5 |¯
b9
P
b
mi n¯
_
A
b
mi n¯
D
b
¯
C
b
maj¯ Pmaj¯ |min¯b5 P
b
¯
b9
E
b
mi n¯
_
C
#
mi n¯
|
#
¯
Pmaj¯ Emaj¯ A
#
min¯b5 D
#
¯
b9
C
#
mi n¯
_
|
#
mi n¯
P
¯
Emaj¯ Amaj¯ D
#
min¯b5 C
#
¯
b9
C
#
mi n¯
_
P
mi n¯
E
¯
Amaj¯ Dmaj¯ C
#
min¯b5 C
#
¯
b9
|
#
mi n¯
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · +0
Exercise J0 · Mincr Kev Barmcnv and |uncricn
J. Learn rhe fcllcwing blcck chcrd vcicings cn pianc in all kevs using rhe chcrd charr rhar fcllcws. Pe able rc
plav scales cr parrerns previcuslv learned fcr everv chcrd in everv kev cn vcur insrrumenr.
_
E
mi n¯
A
¯
Dmaj¯ Cmaj¯ C
#
min¯b5 |
#
¯
b9
P
mi n¯
_
A
mi n¯
D
¯
Cmaj¯ Cmaj¯ |
#
min¯b5 P¯
b9
E
mi n¯
_
D
mi n¯
C
¯
Cmaj¯ |maj¯ Pmin¯b5 E¯
b9
A
mi n¯
_
C
mi n¯
C
¯
|maj¯ P
b
maj¯ Emin¯b5 A¯
b9
D
mi n¯
_
|maj¯ Emin¯b5 A¯
b9
D
mi n¯
C
mi n¯
|
¯
P
b
maj¯
_
E
b
maj¯ E
mi n¯
A
¯
D
mi n¯
C
¯
Cmaj¯ A
mi n¯
_
D
¯
Cmaj¯ C¯
b9
|
mi n¯
P
b
¯
Amin¯b5 D¯
b9
_
C
mi n¯
E
b
maj¯ C
mi n¯
|
¯
P
b
maj¯ C
¯
|maj¯
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · +1
Exercise J0 · Mincr Kev Barmcnv and |uncricn
3. Supplv a rcman numeral analvsis wirh kev cenrers and scales fcr rhe fcllcwing prcgressicn.
_
,
1
,
3
,
5
,
¯
,
9
,
11
,
13
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
Cmaj13
_
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C13(nc11ï
_
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
(Sus chcrds wirh 3rd abcveï
C
11
,
,
,
,
,
Cmaj11
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
(#11 added rc chcrds w:majcr 3rdsï
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
Cmaj13#11 C13#11
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · +J
Exercise J1 · Chcrd Exrensicns
Exrensicns are ncres added rc chcrds bevcnd rhe ¯rh scale degree. Ccnrinuing wirh rhe ccncepr rhar chcrds
ccme frcm scales and chcrds are spelled in 3rds, rhis wculd leave rhree ncres frcm a seven ncre scale available rc
The rhree exrensicns, 9, 11 and 13 represenr rhe Jnd, +rh and 6rh scale degrees. (Subrracr ¯ frcm anv exrensicn
and rhe resulr will be rhe ccrrecr scale degree.ï A full 13 chcrd will include all rhe ncres required rc spell a
ccmplere scale. This will be impcrranr rc remember when dealing wirh chcrds wirh mulriple alreraricns. A few
ccmmcn pracrice rules abcur chcrd exrensicns.
1. Regardless cf kev cr chcrd qualirv, exrensicns are ncrared as majcr scale inrervals (majcr 9rh, perfecr 11rh
majcr 13ï abcve rhe rccr cf rhe chcrd. Pur ancrher wav, exrensicns ccme frcm rhe majcr scale srarring cn rhe
rccr cf rhe chcrd. The exrensicns fcr Cmaj13, Cmin13, C13 erc. are all figured frcm rhe C majcr scale.
J. Exrensicns are inclusive cf all chcrd rcnes belcw. Meaning rhar a 13 chcrd includes rhe 11rh and 9rh.
Exrensicns rhar dc ncr include chcrd rcnes belcw can be ncrared wirh exrensicns added cr wirh specified ncres
ncr included.
3. A chcrd svmbcl wirh a ncre name fcllcwed bv a number ¯ cr higher is a dcminanr chcrd wirh a lcwered
¯rh scale degree. (C¯, C9, C11, C13ï
+. A C majcr ¯ chcrd wirh exrensicns wculd be ncrared as Cmaj13 cr Cmaj9.
5. A C mincr ¯ chcrd wirh exrensicns wculd be ncrared as Cmin13, Cmin11 cr Cmin9.
6. The narural 11rh is rarelv included in chcrd vcicings wirh a majcr 3rd (majcr cr dcminanr chcrdsï because
cf rhe rhe half·srep (cr mincr 9rhï clash ir creares. vhile ir is parr cf rhe scale and can be used as a passing rcne
melcdicallv, rhe 11rh shculd be lefr cur cf chcrd vcicings. Ancrher cpricn is rc raise rhe 11rh a half·srep crearing
a #11 chcrd. This wculd need rc be ncrared in rhe chcrd svmbcl and wculd resulr in a differenr scale chcice. One
excepricn rc rhis is when an 11rh chcrd is vciced as a sus chcrd (rhe +rh replacing rhe 3rd, rhe rhird added abcveï.
This is an excellenr scunding chcrd rhar will scmerimes be ncrared as an 11rh chcrd.
_
,
,
,
,
,
Cmaj9
,
C icnian
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C
9
Cmin9 Cmin11
_
Cmaj13 C
13
Cmin13 |maj9 |
9
_
|min9 |min11 |maj13 |
13
_
|min13 P
b
maj9 P
b
9
P
b
min9
_
P
b
min11 P
b
maj13 P
b
13
P
b
min13
_
E
b
maj9 E
b
9
E
b
min9 E
b
min11
_
E
b
maj13 E
b
13
E
b
min13 A
b
maj9
_
A
b
9
A
b
min9 A
b
min11 A
b
maj13
_
A
b
13
A
b
min13 D
b
maj9 D
b
9
_
D
b
min9 C
#
min11 D
b
maj13 D
b
13
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · +3
Exercise J1 · Chcrd Exrensicns
¯. The narural 11rh in mincr chcrds (anv chcrd wirh a b3rdï scund grear and are an excellenr cclcr rcne.
Thev can and shculd be ccnsidered a rarger ncre melcdicallv.
1. Spell each chcrd. |n rhe seccnd bar, spell rhe ccrrecr scale and supplv rhe ccrrecr scale name.
_
C
#
min13 |
#
maj9 |
#
9
|
#
min9
_
|
#
min11 |
#
maj13 |
#
13
|
#
min13
_
Pmaj9 P
9
Pmin9 Pmin11
_
Pmaj13 P
13
Pmin13 Emaj9
_
E
9
Emin9 Emin11 Emaj13
_
E
13
Emin13 Amaj9 A
9
_
Amin9 Amin11 Amaj13 A
13
_
Amin13 Dmaj9 D
9
Dmin9
_
Dmin11 Dmaj13 D
13
Dmin13
_
Cmaj9 C
9
Cmin9 Cmin11
_
Cmaj13 C
13
Cmin13
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · ++
Exercise J1 · Chcrd Exrensicns
_
,
,
,
,
,
,
C¯b5
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,

#
11
,
,
,
,
,
,
C¯#5
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C
¯
b
13
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C¯b6
_
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C¯al r
_
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C¯#9#5
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C¯#9#5
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C¯al r
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C¯al r
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · +5
Exercise JJ · Chcrd Alreraricns
Chcrd alreraricns are ncres wirhin a chcrd srrucrure rhar are eirher raised cr lcwered rc prcduce a differenr
scund wirhcur changing rhe acrual qualirv (majcr, mincr, dcminanrï cf rhe rhe chcrd. Chcrd qualirv is derermined
bv rhe 3rd and ¯rh. Obvicuslv alrering rhe rccr wculd creare a ccmplerelv differenr chcrd, sc rhar leaves fcur
pirches (cur cf rhe seven in a ccmplere 13 chcrdï rhar cculd rhecrericallv be alrered. These wculd be rhe 5rh,
(#5, b5ï rhe 9rh, (#9, b9ï rhe 11rh, (#11 cr #+ in scme plav·alcng bccksï and rhe 13rh (b13 cr b6ï. vhile
ir wculd be pcssible fcr scmecne rc wrire a b11 cr a #13, rhese pirches duplicare rhe majcr 3rd and rhe dcminanr
¯rh and as such are ncr generallv used as alreraricns.
Ncrice rhar scme cf rhese alreraricns creare rhe same pirch rc be added rc rhe chcrd. |n a C chcrd, a b5 is a
Cb while a #11 is an |#. The #5 is a C# while a b13 is an Ab. The difference is rhar a C¯#11 wculd include
a narural fifrh (Cï and a C¯b5 wculd ncr: a C¯b13 cr C¯b6 wculd alsc include a narural fifrh (Cï while a C¯#5
wculd ncr. |n each case causing a ccmplerelv differenr scunding chcrd and scale chcice.
Sc, a chcrd rhar is "fullv alrered" wculd include a b5 (#11ï #5 (b13ï b9 and #9. A C¯#9#5b9b5 chcrd is
scmerimes ncrared as C¯alr fcr fullv alrered.
Mcsr cf rhe rime, a fullv alrered chcrd will be vciced rc include jusr rhe #5 and rhe #9. |n chcrds rhar are ncrared,
eirher cr bcrh cf rhe alreraricns mav be enharmcnicallv spelled fcr ease cf reading.
Ccmmcn alreraricns bv chcrd qualirv:
1. Dcminanr chcrds are bv far rhe mcsr cfren alrered chcrd. Expecr rc see b5, #5, b9, #9, #11, b13
in anv ccmbinaricn. |n advanced plaving siruaricns, virruallv anv dcminanr chcrd rhar resclves rc rcnic will
be alrered in scme wav, wherher ir is ncrared as such cr ncr.
J. The mcsr ccmmcn majcr ¯ chcrd alreraricns are #11 and #5. The #11 (lvdian scaleï can be added rc
almcsr anv majcr ¯ chcrd as a cclcr rcne and will creare a scale wirh nc bad ncres. (The +rh scale degree cf
rhe majcr scale ccnflicrs wirh rhe 3rd cf a majcr chcrd and needs rc be used wirh cauricn.ï
3. Mincr ¯b5 chcrds are verv ccmmcn. Less ccmmcn are min¯b13 (aeclianï cr min¯b9 (phrvgianï.
_
Cmaj¯#11 Cmaj¯#5 C¯
#
11 C¯#9 C¯#5 C
¯
b
13
_
C¯#9#5 C¯al r |maj¯#11 |maj¯#5 |¯
#
11 |¯#9
_
|¯#5 |
¯
b
13
|¯#9#5 |¯al r P
b
maj¯#11 P
b
maj¯#5
_
P
b
¯
#
11 P
b
¯#9 P
b
¯#5 P
b
¯
b
13
P
b
¯#9#5 P
b
¯al r
_
E
b
maj¯#11 E
b
maj¯#5 E
b
¯
#
11 E
b
¯#9 E
b
¯#5 E
b
¯
b
13
_
E
b
¯#9#5 E
b
¯al r A
b
maj¯#11 A
b
maj¯#5 A
b
¯
#
11 A
b
¯#9
_
A
b
¯#5 A
b
¯
b
13
A
b
¯#9#5 A
b
¯al r D
b
maj¯#11 D
b
maj¯#5
_
D
b
¯
#
11 D
b
¯#9 D
b
¯#5 D
b
¯
b
13
D
b
¯#9#5 D
b
¯al r
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · +6
Exercise JJ · Chcrd Alreraricns
1. Spell each cf rhe fcllcwing chcrds wirh alreraricns.
_
|
#
maj¯#11 |
#
maj¯#5 |
#
¯
#
11 |
#
¯#9 |
#
¯#5 |
#
¯
b
13
_
|
#
¯#9#5 |
#
¯al r Pmaj¯#11 Pmaj¯#5 P¯
#
11 P¯#9
_
P¯#5 P
¯
b
13
P¯#9#5 P¯al r Emaj¯#11 Emaj¯#5
_

#
11 E¯#9 E¯#5 E
¯
b
13
E¯#9#5 E¯al r
_
Amaj¯#11 Amaj¯#5 A¯
#
11 A¯#9 A¯#5 A
¯
b
13
_
A¯#9#5 A¯al r Dmaj¯#11 Dmaj¯#5 D¯
#
11 D¯#9
_
D¯#5 D
¯
b
13
D¯#9#5 D¯al r Cmaj¯#11 Cmaj¯#5
_

#
11 C¯#9 C¯#5 C
¯
b
13
C¯#9#5 C¯al r
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · +¯
Exercise JJ · Chcrd Alreraricns
_
,
C melcdic mincr
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
_
,
,
,
,
,
i
Cmin
(maj¯ï
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
ii
Dmin13b9
,
,
,
, ,
|||
E
b
maj¯#5
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
|v

#
11
,
,
,
,
,
,
v
C9b6
,
,
,
,
,
,
vi
Amin9b5
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
(enharmcnic spellingï
v||
P¯al r
_
,
i
,
Melcdic Mincr
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
Cmin
(maj¯ï
,
ii
, ,
Dcrian bJ
,
,
,
,
,
,
Dmin13b9
, ,
|||
,
Lvdian Augmenred
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
E
b
maj¯#5
,
|v
,
Lvdian Dcminanr
,
,
,
,
, ,
,

#
11
_ ,
v
,
Mixclvdian b6
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
C9b6
,
vi
,
Lccrian #J
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
Amin9b5
,
v||
,
Super Lccrian
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
P¯al r
_
A
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
C
min6
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
Cmin
(maj¯ï
C
min 6
,
P
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
C
min6
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
Cmin
(maj¯ï
C
min 6
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · +S
Exercise J3 · The Melcdic Mincr Scale
The ascending melcdic mincr (cr jusr melcdic mincr in rhis rexrï creares a ser cf verv impcrranr chcrds:scales.
Onlv rhe ascending versicn is used because rhe rradiricnal descending versicn (b¯, b6, b3ï duplicares pure
mincr and adds ncrhing rc rhe vccabularv. vhile ir scunds like a ccnrradicricn, rhe easiesr wav rc learn
melcdic mincr scales is rc rhink cf rhem as majcr scales wirh a lcwered rhird scale degree.
Pelcw are rhe chcrds rhar ccme frcm C melcdic mincr.
Pelcw are rhe mcdes cf C melcdic mincr.
Of rhese chcrds and mcdes, rhe ii and v cf melcdic mincr are seldcm used and shculd be undersrccd frcm a
rhecrerical srandpcinr fcr rhe rare cccasicns rhev dc shcw up. The resr are exrremelv impcrranr and need rc be
plavable in anv kev.
1. Learn rhe fcllcwing melcdic mincr scale parrerns in all kevs cn vcur insrrumenr and cn pianc wirh rhe chcrd in
vcur lefr hand. Use rhe chcrd charr cn rhe fcllcwing page.
_
C
min 6
|
min6
P
b
min6
_
E
b
min 6
A
b
min6
C
#
mi n6
_
|
#
min6
P
min 6
E
min 6
_
A
mi n6
D
min6
C
min6
_
,
P Super Lccrian
rccr
(C melcdic mincrï
,
b9
P¯al r
,
#9
, ,
maj 3rd
,
b5
,
#5
,

,
rccr
_
.
A
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
P
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
C
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · +9
Exercise J3 · The Melcdic Mincr Scale
Super Lccrian is rhe v|| mcde cf melcdic mincr and is rhe scale fcr fullv alrered (alrered 9rh 6 5rhï
dcminanr chcrds.
J. Memcrize rhe fcllcwing charr cf fullv alrered dcminanrs fcllcwed bv rheir parenr melcdic mincr scale. Ncre
rhar bv using enharmcnics rhe scale chcice can easilv be simplified.
P¯alr = C melcdic mincr E¯alr = | melcdic mincr
A¯alr = Pb melcdic mincr D¯alr = Eb melcdic mincr
C¯alr = Ab melcdic mincr C¯alr = Db melcdic mincr
|¯alr = Cb melcdic mincr Pb¯alr = A#¯alr = P melcdic mincr
Eb¯alr = D#¯alr = E melcdic mincr Ab¯alr = C#¯alr = A melcdic mincr
C#¯alr = D melcdic mincr |#¯alr = C melcdic mincr
Super Lccrian = rhe melcdic mincr scale 1:J srep abcve rhe rccr cf cf rhe fullv alrered dcminanr chcrd.
3. Learn each cf rhe fcllcwing super lccrian parrerns in all kevs cn vcur insrrumenr and cn pianc using rhe chcrd
charr cn rhe nexr page.
_
,
,
,
,
,
Rccr pcsiricn #5
P¯al r
,
,
,
,
,
Rccr pcsiricn b5
,
,
, ,
3, ¯, #9
Nc·rccr vcicings
,
,
,
,
¯, 3, #5
,
,
,
, ,
3,#5, ¯, #9
,
,
,
,
,
¯, #9, 3, #5
_
P¯al r E¯al r A¯al r
_
D¯al r C¯al r C¯al r
_
|¯al r P
b
¯al r E
b
¯al r
_
A
b
¯al r C
#
¯al r |
#
¯al r
_
A
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,

#
11
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
P
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,

#
11
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 50
Exercise J3 · The Melcdic Mincr Scale
Pelcw are sample vcicings fcr P¯alr. Pegin adding rhese rc rhe pianc exercises. Pracrice rhe nc·rccr vcicings
firsr in vcur righr hand wirh rhe rccr an ccrave (cr rwcï belcw in vcur lefr hand. Then pur rhe vcicings in vcur
lefr hand and wcrk rcwards hearing rhe rccr wirh vcur inner ear.
Lvdian Dcminanr (cr Lvdian b¯ï is rhe |v mcde cf melcdic mincr and is rhe scale cf chcice fcr a dcminanr chcrd
wirh a #11 and an unalrered 9rh (|9#11 = C melcdic mincrï. |r can alsc be used as a subsrirure fcr mixclvdian
cn anv dcminanr rhar has and unalrered 5rh and 9rh (C9 = C mixclvdian cr C lvdian dcminanrï. Pv rhis pcinr,
ir is prcbablv easiesr learned as a dcminanr scale (mixclvdianï wirh a raised +rh scale degree. |r cculd alsc be
rhcughr cf as a lvdian scale wirh a b¯ cr a majcr scale wirh a #+ and a b¯. The easiesr wav rc remember
rhe lvdian dcminanr parenr scale is rc plav rhe melcdic mincr srarring cn rhe 5rh cf rhe chcrd.
(C9#11 = D melcdic mincr, Pb9#11 = | melcdic mincr, erc.ï
+. Learn rhe fcllcwing lvdian dcminanr parrerns in all kevs cn vcur insrrumenr and cn pianc. Use rhe chcrd charr
cn rhe fcllcwing page.
Super Lccrian
_
,
,
,
,
,
1, 3, #11,¯

#
11
,
,
, ,
Nc·rccr vcicings
¯, 3, 13
,
,
,
,
3, ¯, 9
,
,
,
, ,
¯, 9, 3, 13
,
,
,
,
,
3, 13, ¯, 9
_

#
11 P
b
¯
#
11 E
b
¯
#
11
_
A
b
¯
#
11 D
b
¯
#
11 |
#
¯
#
11
_

#
11 E¯
#
11 A¯
#
11
_

#
11 C¯
#
11 C¯
#
11
_
A
, ,
(C melcdic mincrï
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
E
b
maj¯#5
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
P
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
E
b
maj¯#5
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
_
,
,
,
, ,
E
b
maj¯#5
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 51
Exercise J3 · The Melcdic Mincr Scale
Bere are suggesred vcicings fcr |¯#11. As much as pcssible begin fccusing cn rhe nc·rccr vcicings. Ncrice
rhe similariries berween rhe nc·rccr |¯#11 vcicings and rhe nc·rccr P¯alr vcicings.
The ||| mcde cf melcdic mincr is lvdian augmenred and creares a majcr ¯ wirh a #5 chcrd (Ebmaj¯#5ï. This
chcrd is cfren ncrared as a "slash chcrd," meaning a chcrd srrucrure cver an alrernare bass. |cr example,
Ebmaj¯#5 is cfren wrirren as a C rriad cver an Eb bass cr C:Eb. This chcrd is cfren used in ccmpcsiricns as
a rcnic | chcrd and in reharmcnizaricns as eirher a subsrirure fcr rhe rcnic majcr ¯ cr as a suspensicn rhar
evenruallv resclves rc rcnic majcr ¯ (ex. |min¯ · Pb¯ · Ebmaj¯#5 · Ebmaj¯ï.
5. Learn rhe fcllcwing lvdian augmenred parrerns in all kevs cn vcur insrrumenr and cn pianc.
vcicings fcr lvdian augmenred.
Lvdian Dcminanr
_
E
b
maj¯#5 A
b
maj¯#5 D
b
maj¯#5
_
C
b
maj¯#5 Pmaj¯#5 Emaj¯#5
_
Amaj¯#5 Dmaj¯#5 Cmaj¯#5
_
Cmaj¯#5 |maj¯#5 P
b
maj¯#5
_
,
(C melcdic mincrï
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
Amin¯b5
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
_ ,
,
,
,
,
Amin¯b5
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
Amin¯b5
,
,
,
, ,
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 5J
Exercise J3 · The Melcdic Mincr Scale
The 6rh mcde cf rhe melcdic mincr scale is lccrian #J and creares rhe mincr 9b5 chcrd. (Amin9b5ï The acrual
"min9b5" chcrd svmbcl is rarelv used bur rhe narural 9 is cfren added as a cclcr rcne rc mincr ¯b5 chcrds. Mcsr
half·diminished chcrds can be apprcached using rhis scale and anv exrended mincr ¯b5 chcrds (rwc cr mcre barsï
will prcbablv scund berrer wirh rhe
,
9rh. |r mighr be besr remembered as a pure mincr scale wirh a b5, a majcr
scale wirh a b3, b5, b6 and b¯, cr as rhe name suggesrs, a lccrian scale wirh a raised Jnd scale degree.
6. Learn rhe fcllcwing lccrian #J parrerns in all kevs cn vcur insrrumenr and cn pianc.
Balf·Diminished vcicings.
Lvdian Augmenred
_
Amin¯b5 Dmin¯b5
_
Cmin¯b5 Cmin¯b5
_
|min¯b5 P
b
min¯b5
_
D
#
min¯b5 C
#
min¯b5
_
C
#
min¯b5 |
#
min¯b5
_
Pmin¯b5 Emin¯b5
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 53
Exercise J3 · The Melcdic Mincr Scale
Lccrian #J
_
,
C whcle·rcne
,
,
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
Db whcle·rcne
, ,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
D whcle·rcne (same as Cï
,
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
,
, ,
Eb whcle·rcne (same as Dbï
,
,
,
,
, ,
, ,
_
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
C9#5
,
,
,
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
_
A
,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
,
C9#5
, ,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
P
,
,
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
C9#5
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
,
,
,
_
C
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
, ,
,
,
C9#5
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
D
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
,
, ,
,
C9#5
,
,
,
,
,
_
E
,
,
, ,
,
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Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 5+
Exercise J+ · The vhcle·Tcne Scale
The whcle·rcne scale is a six ncre scale ccnsisring cf all whcle sreps. There are cnlv rwc disrincr whcle·rcne
scales: rhe scale srarring cn a given ncre and rhe cne a half·srep awav. Once vcu are a whcle srep awav frcm
rhe criginal srarring pirch rhe scale repears idenrical pirches.
Pecause cf irs svmerrical narure, rhe whcle·rcne scale cnlv generares cne qualirv chcrd, rhe dcminanr 9#5.
The narural 9rh in rhe whcle·rcne scale can cause scale·chcice ccnfusicn when dealing wirh dcminanr ¯ chcrds
wirh raised 5rhs (#5ï bur rhe 9rh is ncr specified. (C¯#5ï Ofren rimes pianc:guirar plavers will see a dcminanr
¯ chcrd wirh an alrered 5rh and cur cf habir alrer rhe 9rh as well, especiallv when rhe dcminanr resclves rc a
rcnic mincr. Similarlv, a chcrd rhar reallv shculd include an alrered 9rh mighr be ncrared as a dcminanr ¯rh
wirh jusr an alrered 5rh (ex. Dmin¯b5 · C¯#5 · Cmin9ï. vhile rhis scmerimes will require discussicn, usuallv
ccnrexr (rhe wrirren melcdv, duraricn cf rhe harmcnv, preceding chcrds, resclcuricnï as well as scme
clcse lisrening rc whar rhe sclcisr:chcrding insrrumenrs are plaving will answer rhe quesricn.
1. Learn rhe fcllcwing whcle·rcne parrerns in all kevs cn vcur insrrumenr and cn pianc using rhe chcrd charr
cn rhe fcllcwing page.
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C9#5 |9#5
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9#5 E
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9#5
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9#5 D
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9#5
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9#5 P9#5
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E9#5 A9#5
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D9#5 C9#5
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 55
Exercise J+ · The vhcle·Tcne Scale
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C vhcle·Srep Balf Srep Diminished
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Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 56
Exercise J5 · The Diminished Scale
The diminished scale is an eighr·ncre, svmerrical scale ccnsisring cf alrernaring whcle·sreps and half·sreps.
Pecause cf irs svmerrical ccnsrrucricn, rhere are cnlv rhree disrincr ser cf pirches rhar make up diminished
scales wirh each ser repearing rhemselves everv mincr rhird awav. Each diminished scale ccnsisrs cf rwc mcdes,
rhe vhcle·Srep Balf·Srep Diminished and rhe Balf·Srep vhcle·Srep Diminished.
The vhcle·Srep Balf·Srep Diminished scale is used fcr rhe fullv diminished ¯ chcrd and rhe diminished
majcr ¯ chcrd. The Balf·Srep vhcle·Srep Diminished scale creares a dcminanr ¯ chcrd wirh an alrered
9rh (#9, b9ï bur wirh a narural 5rh and 13rh. |r is rhe scale cf chcice fcr an dcminanr 13 chcrd wirh an
alrered 9rh (C13#9ï and is used exrensivelv as an alrered scund cn virruallv anv dcminanr chcrd rhar resclves
rc rcnic and dces ncr specificallv have an alrered 5rh. (ex. Cmin¯ · C¯ · |maj¯, sclcisr plavs half·whcle
diminished cn rhe C¯, pianc plaver hears ir and adds an alrered 9rh rc rhe vcicing.ï
The fcllcwing charr demcnsrrared rhe ncre relaricnships berween diminished scales. |rcm lccking ar rhe charr,
C whcle·half has exacrlv rhe same ncres as Eb, |# and A whcle·half. vhich in rurn have exacrlv rhe same ncres
as D, |, Ab and P half·whcle diminished.
vhcle·Balf Diminished = Balf·vhcle Diminished
C, Eb, |#, A D, |, Ab, P
C#, E, C, Pb Eb, |#, A, C
D, |, Ab, P E, C, Pb, C#
Diminished scales can be learned several wavs. The firsr is simplv rc pracrice wcrking cn rhe whcle·srep and
half·srep relaricnships. The seccnd is rc "chunk" rhe scales inrc rwc reccgnizable fragmenrs alreadv learned.
vhcle·half diminished can be chunked inrc rwc, fcur ncre rerrachcrds, ccnsisring cf rhe firsr fcur ncres cf a
mincr scale fcllcwed bv rhe firsr fcur ncres cf a mincr scale a rrircne awav frcm rhe rccr cf rhe firsr ser.
|n crher wcrds, a C whcle·half = rhe firsr fcur ncres cf Cmin fcllcwed bv rhe firsr fcur ncres cf |#min.
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Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 5¯
|cr chunking half·whcle diminished scales, ir is easiesr rc learn rhem descending. This has rhe added benefir
cf crearing a line rhar resclves narurallv rc rhe rcnic. |cr a C half·whcle diminished, chunk rhe scale as rhe firsr
fcur ncres cf C¯ (descendingï fcllcwed bv rhe firsr fcur ncres cf |#¯ (descendingï
Exercise J5 · The Diminished Scale
Diminished scales are cfren used rc creare svmerrical parrerns revclving arcund a diminished arpeggic wirh eirher
a half cr whcle srep added belcw, depending cn rhe scale being used.
1. Learn each cf rhe fcllcwing whcle·half diminished parrerns in all kevs cn vcur insrrumenr and cn pianc using
rhe chcrd charr cn rhe fcllcwing page.
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º ¯
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Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 5S
Exercise J5 · The Diminished Scale
Pelcw are diminished chcrd vcicings. Pegin using rhe firsr rwc, rhen experimenr wirh vcicings rhar mcve
ncres up a whcle srep. (Diminished vcicing rule: vcu can add ncres a whcle·srep abcve cr half·srep belcw
anv chcrd rcneï
J. Learn each cf rhe fcllcwing half·whcle diminished parrerns cn vcur insrrumenr and cn pianc in all kevs using
rhe chcrd charr cn rhe fcllcwing page.
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C
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C13#9
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C13#9 |13#9
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13#9 E
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13#9
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b
13#9 C
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13#9
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#
13#9 P13#9
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E13#9 A13#9
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D13#9 C13#9
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 59
Pelcw are vcicings fcr C13#9, 3 and + ncre vcicings, all inversicns.
Exercise J5 · The Diminished Scale
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Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 60
Exercise J6 · Penrarcnics and rhe Plues Scale
Penrarcnics and rhe blues scale are exrremelv impcrranr and flexible scales rhar are usuallv rhe firsr scales vcung
jazz musicians are raughr. Thev are addressed near rhe end cf rhis rexr because rhev are scales rhar dc ncr acruallv
define cr creare harmcnv bur rarher are grcups cf ncres rhar can be plaved cver anv number cf differenr chcrds.
Sc while rhev are grear fcr develcping phrasing, melcdic shape, rradiricnal blues srvles and anv number cf
ccnrempcrarv chrcmaric apprcaches, care shculd be raken rhar rhev dc ncr ger in rhe wav cf alsc learning rc
plav melcdies rhar acruallv scund rhe harmcnv versus plaving cver rhe harmcnv. This is especiallv rrue fcr rhcse
whcse aspiraricns gc bevcnd schccl perfcrmance siruaricns.
The penrarcnic scale is a five ncre scale rhe is generallv raughr in rwc fcrms: rhe majcr and mincr penarcnic. The
mincr penrarcnic is cfren learned firsr as ir is a precurscr rc rhe blues scale and like rhe blues scale, can be plaved
cver rhe enrire blues fcrm (ex. C mincr penrarcnic fcr enrire C bluesï. The majcr penrarcnic is besr rhcughr cf as
1, J,3,5,6 cf a majcr scale. Sc a C majcr penrarcnic wculd be C, D, E, C and A. The mincr penrarcnic is acruallv
a mcde cf rhe majcr penrarcnic srarring cn rhe 5rh ncre (a sixrh abcve rhe rccrï and rhev share rhe same relarive
majcr rc mincr relaricnship as majcr rc mincr kevs. |n crher wcrds, a C majcr penrarcnic (C,D,E,C,Aï has rhe
same ncres as an A mincr penrarcnic (A, C, D, E, Cï. Pcrh fcrms cf rhe penrarcnic cccur narurallv wirhin rhe
black kevs cf a pianc. Srarring cn Cb and plaving upwards is a Cb majcr penrarcnic. (Cb, Ab, Pb, Db, Ebï while
srarring cn Eb is a mincr penrarcnic (Eb, Cb, Ab, Pb, Dbï. Sc, ir shculd be pcssible rc plav an Eb blues ar rhe
pianc jusr sricking rc rhe black kevs.
1. Plav rhe fcllcwing blues prcgressicn ar rhe pianc, imprcvising using jusr rhe black kevs. vcicings shculd be
plaved an ccrave lcwer rhan wrirren. Srarr bv plaving rccrs in rhe lefr hand, rhe vcicings in vcur righr. Then
swirch rc rccrs in lefr hand, black kev imprcvisaricn in righr. Then rrv vcicings in lefr hand, black kev
imprcvisaricn in righr hand.
All rhis being said, mcsr srudenrs find ir easier rc learn penrarcnics based cn rhe majcr scale remplare. The majcr
penrarcnic being 1, J, 3, 5, 6 cf a majcr scale and rhe mincr penrarcnic being 1, b3, +, 5, b9 cf a majcr scale.
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Ebmin
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C#min
E
C#min
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A
|#min
D
Pmin
C
Emin
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 61
Exercise J6 · Penrarcnics and rhe Plues Scale
J. Learn rhe fcllcwing majcr penrarcnic exercises in all kevs cn vcur insrrumenr using rhe chcrd charr belcw.
3. Learn rhe fcllcwing mincr penrarcnic exercises in all kevs cn vcur insrrumenr using rhe chcrd charr belcw.
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C blues scale
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E A D C
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 6J
Exercise J6 · Penrarcnics and rhe Plues Scale
The Plues scale is a six ncre scale, in essence a mincr penrarcnic wirh a b5rh (cf rhe kevï added berween rhe
fcurrh and 5rh scale degrees.
The blues scale can be used rhrcughcur rhe enrire blues fcrm using rhe scale builr cn rhe rcnic cf rhe kev. |n
crher wcrds, a Pb blues scale wculd be used rhrcughcur a Pb blues, an Eb blues scale rhrcugh rhe enrire fcrm
cf an Eb blues, erc.
+. Rerurn back rc #1 cf rhis chaprer (rhe Eb blues using rhe black kevs cf rhe piancï and repear rhe enrire
exercise using rhe Eb blues scale (black kevs + A naruralï.
The blues scale is alsc used exrensivelv when plaving srandard srvle runes rc add a blues scund. Experimenr wirh
rhis when pracricing, especiallv in secricns cf runes rhar have exrended rcnic secricns cr secricns rhar can be
analvzed predcminanrlv in rhe rcnic kev. Thev alsc wcrk grear in mincr kevs, ler vcur ears be vcur guide. |f ir
scunds gccd, use ir!
5. Learn rhe fcllcwing blues scale parrerns in all kevs cn vcur insrrumenr rc ger srarred. Learn as manv mcre as
pcssible bv lisrening rc reccrdings and rranscribing.
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(bebcp mincr scaleï
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Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 63
Exercise J¯ · Pebcp Scales
Pebcp scales are rradiricnal scales wirh chrcmaric rcnes added rc rhem and are an excellenr wav rc inrrcduce
chrcmaric rcnes rc imprcvised melcdies. Thev are rradiricnallv raughr in rhree fcrms, rhe dcminanr, dcrian
mincr (a mcde cf rhe dcminanrï and majcr. The dcminanr bebcp scale adds a chrcmaric ncre berween rhe b¯
and rhe rccr. The dcrian adds a chrcmaric ncre berween rhe 3rd and +rh
scale degree and rhe majcr bebcp scale adds a chrcmaric ncre berween rhe 5rh and 6rh scale degrees. Sc cn a
ii·v·| in | majcr using bebcp scales rhrcughcur, ir wculd lcck scmerhing like rhis:
1. Learn rhe fcllcwing bebcp mincr parrerns in all kevs cn vcur insrrumenr and cn pianc using rhe chcrd charr.
J. Learn rhe fcllcwing bebcp dcminanr parrerns in all kevs cn vcur insrrumenr and cn pianc using rhe chcrd charr.
3. Learn rhe fcllcwing bebcp majcr parrerns in all kevs cn vcur insrrumenr and cn pianc using rhe chcrd charr.
Lefr hand vcicings fcr chcrds.
_
C
mi n¯
|
mi n¯
P
b
mi n¯
E
b
mi n¯
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A
b
mi n¯
C
#
mi n¯
|
#
mi n¯
P
mi n¯
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E
mi n¯
A
mi n¯
D
mi n¯
C
mi n¯
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¯
|
¯
P
b
¯
E
b
¯
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b
¯
D
b
¯
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#
¯
P
¯
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E
¯
A
¯
D
¯
C
¯
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Cmaj¯ |maj¯ P
b
maj¯ E
b
maj¯
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A
b
maj¯ D
b
maj¯ |
#
maj¯ Pmaj¯
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Emaj¯ Amaj¯ Dmaj¯ Cmaj¯
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 6+
Exercise J¯ · Pebcp Scales
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Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 65
Exercise JS · The Trircne Subsriruricn
The phrase "Trircne Subsriruricn" refers rc dcminanr chcrds, a rrircne aparr subsriruring fcr each crher. Sc in
rhecrv, a C¯ chcrd subsrirues fcr an |#¯, a Db¯ subsrirures fcr a C¯ chcrd, erc. This subsriruricn can cccur
spcnranecuslv in rhe ccurse cf perfcrmance, can be used rc reharmcnize an excisring chcrd prcgressicn, cr can
be used ccmpcsiricnallv rc replace rvpical dcminanr v chcrds.
A rrircne sub is usuallv used as a subsrirure fcr a dcminanr v chcrd rhar resclves rc rcnic. This creares chrcmaric,
dcwnward mcricn inrc rcnic bv rhe bass. As an example rhe prcgressicn Cmin · C¯ · |maj¯ beccmes
Cmin¯ · |#¯ · |maj¯ using a rrircne sub.
A rrircne sub can alsc be used bv single·line insrrumenrs melcdicallv rc creare an alrered scunding melcdv. Sc, if
rhe rhvrhm secricn is plaving Cmin · C¯ · |maj¯, an imprcviser cculd plav Cmin¯ · |#¯ · |maj¯ and ir wculd wcrk
fine as an alrered scund.
Example 1:
As shcwn in example cne, rhe scale chcice fcr a rrircne sub is usuallv a dcminanr ¯ #11. The #11 cf rhe
rrircne sub (rhis will cfren be spelled enharmcnicallv as a b5 fcr ease cf readingï is rhe rccr cf rhe crginal
chcrd, crearing a srrcnger ccnnecricn rc rhe kev cenrer.
Trircne subs wcrk because dcminanr chcrds a rrircne aparr share rhe same pirches as rhirds and sevenrhs,
rhcugh rhev are reversed. The rhird cf C¯ (eï is rhe sevenrh cf |#¯, rhe sevenrh cf C¯ (Pbï is rhe rhird cf
|#¯ (A#·respell enharmcnicallv as Pbï. Add rc rhese rwc rhe rccr cf rhe firsr chcrd beccming rhe #11 (b5ï
cf rhe sub chcrd and vcu have rhree ncres in ccmmcn, including rhe rwc mcsr impcrranr ncres, rhe
rhird and sevenrh.
Example J:
_
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
(|# super Lccrian = C melcdic Mincrï
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, ,
,
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|
#
¯al r
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
(C lvdian dcminanr = C melcdic mincrï
,
,
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,

#
11
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D
mi n¯
, ,
(Db penrarcnicï
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,
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C¯al r
,
.
Cmaj¯
,
,
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C
mi n¯
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(|# penrarcnicï
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C¯al r
,
.
|maj¯
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mi n¯
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|¯al r
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P
b
maj¯
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mi n¯
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b
¯al r
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E
b
maj¯
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 66
Exercise JS · The Trircne Subsriruricn
Sc, ncw we kncw rhar dcminanr chcrds a rrircne aparr share rhe same rhird and sevenrh and can subsrirure
fcr each crher. Melcdicallv rhe besr scale chcice fcr a rrircne sub is lvdian dcminanr. Pur rhar is ncr rhe
ccmplere picrure. Ler's ccmpare an |#¯alr chcrd and scale rhe dcminanr #11 a rrircne awav. (C¯#11ï
|#¯alr and C¯#11 share all rhe same ncres and rhe same parenr scale. The rrircne sub in rhis case wcrks
because ir is all rhe same ncres, jusr a differenr ncre as rhe rccr. Melcdicallv a rrircne sub plaved cver dcminanr
creares a fullv alrered scund. Barmcnicallv, a rrircne sub creares an alrered scund rc rhe kev cenrer wirh a
chrcmaric resclcuricn rc rcnic. As a resulr, a chcrd rhar can be analvzed as a rrircne sub shculd ncr be alrered
anv furrher. Alrering a rrircne sub defears rc purpcse and creares a diarcnic dcminanr in rhe kev.
1. Memcrize all rrircne relaricnships.
C¯ = |#¯
Db = C¯
D¯ = Ab¯
Eb¯ = A¯
E¯ = Pb¯
|¯ = P¯
J. One cf rhe quickesr wavs rc begin using rrircne subs melcdicallv is using a penrarcnic cn rhe dcminanr chcrd.
Learn rhe fcllcwing rrircne sub exercises cn vcur insrrumenr and cn pianc wirh rhe chcrds in vcur lefr hand.
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mi n¯
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b
maj¯
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mi n¯
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b
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b
maj¯
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mi n¯
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maj¯
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mi n¯
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P¯al r
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mi n¯
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E¯al r
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mi n¯
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A¯al r
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mi n¯
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D¯al r
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Cmaj¯
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mi n¯
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C¯al r C
b
¯
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C
mi n¯
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C¯al r C
b
¯
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|maj¯
=
A
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C
mi n¯
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C¯al r C
b
¯
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|maj¯
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mi n¯
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C¯al r C
b
¯
,
,
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,
|maj¯
~
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 6¯
Exercise JS · The Trircne Subsriruricn
3. Learn rhe fcllcwing 3 and + ncre vcicings fcr ii·v·| in all kevs cn rhe pianc. The dcminanr bar mcves
frcm v¯alr rc rhe rrircne sub in rhe seccnd half cf rhe measure. Ncrice rhar rhe vcicing dces ncr
change, jusr rhe rccr.
+. Pelcw are simple walking bass lines rc add rc rhe abcve ii·v·| vcicings. Learn each in all kevs wirh bcrh sers
cf vcicings.
_
vi
A
· · · ·
|
C
6
A
mi n¯
P
· · · ·
ii v
D
mi n¯
C
¯
(D mincrï
· ·
|
, ,
v:ii
, ,
,
,
C
6
A
¯
ii
· · · ·
v
D
mi n¯
C
¯
_
C
· ·
|
, ,
viiº¯:ii
,
,
, ,
C
6
C
#
º ¯
· · · ·
ii v
D
mi n¯
C
¯
D
· ·
|
, ,
v (rrircne subï :ii
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,
,
C
6
E
b
¯
#
11
ii
· · · ·
v
D
mi n¯
C
¯
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P
b
6
C
mi n¯
|
¯
P
b
6
C
mi n¯
|
¯
P
b
¯
_
P
b
6
C
mi n¯
C
mi n¯
|
¯
D
mi n¯
C
¯
C
mi n¯
|
¯
P
b
¯
_
P
b
6
C
¯
C
mi n¯
|
¯
D
mi n¯
C
¯
C
mi n¯
|
¯
P
b
¯
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 6S
Exercise J9 · Seccndarv Dcminanrs
A seccndarv dcminanr is a dcminanr chcrd (dcminanr ¯, diminished ¯, rrircne subï rhar is ncr rhe dcminanr cf
rcnic, bur insread is rhe dcminanr cf a ancrher chcrd in rhe kev. |n crher wcrds, ir is a "v¯ cf ¸¸¸¸" scme
crher chcrd in rhe kev. A simple example can be made using rhe verv ccmmcn |·vi·ii·v prcgressicn in rhe kev cf
C. The firsr rwc measures are a rvpical |·vi·ii·v in rhe kev cf C. |n rhe seccnd rwc measures, rhe vi chcrd is a
dcminanr chcrd which dces ncr funcricn in rhe kev cf C (A¯ï. vhile bcrh cf rhese prcgressicns wculd prcbablv
be described as "|·vi·ii·v in C" cn rhe band srand, rhe A¯ is acruallv v¯ cf Dmin, cr v¯ cf ii. As a dcminanr cf
D mincr, rhe A¯ shculd in mcsr cases be alrered wirh ar leasr a b9 and:cr a #5.
As menricned abcve, a seccndarv dcminanr cculd alsc be a diminished ¯ chcrd cr a rrircne sub. Each cf rhese
chcrds prcvide a dcminanr funcricn.
1. The chcrd changes rc "| Ccr Rhvrhm" ("rhvrhm changes"ï are an excellenr labcrarcrv fcr explcring seccndarv
dcminanrs. Bere are scme examples mcving frcm verv simple rc mcre ccmplex using jusr rhe firsr five bars. Analvze
rhe fcllcwing and supplv apprcpriare scale fragmenrs fcr seccndarv dcminanrs.
_
P
b
6
P
º ¯
C
mi n¯
C
#
º ¯
D
mi n¯
C
¯
C
mi n¯
|
¯
P
b
¯
_
P
b
6
P
º ¯
C
mi n¯
C
#
º ¯
D
mi n¯
D
b
¯
C
mi n¯
P
¯
P
b
¯
_
P
b
6
C
¯
C
¯
|
¯
D
¯
C
¯
C
¯
|
¯
P
b
¯
_
P
b
6
C
¯
|
#
¯
|
¯
A
b
¯
C
¯
|
#
¯
|
¯
P
b
¯
_
P
b
6
D
b
¯
C
¯
|
¯
A
b
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C
¯
C
¯
P
¯
P
b
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P
b
6
P
¯
(Pack·cvcleï
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¯
A
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,
.
P
b
¯
Jazz Chcrd:Scale vcrkbcck · 69
Exercise J9 · Seccndarv Dcminanrs
Seccndarv dcminanrs can alsc be used rc creare a prcgressicn rhar "back·cvcles" frcm a rarger chcrd. A back·
cvcle is acccmplished bv picking a rarger chcrd and wcrking backwards using seccndarv dcminanrs rc creare a
new prcgressicn. Using rhe rhvrhm changes example and deciding rhar rhe Pb¯ in rhe fifrh bar is gcing rc be
rhe rarger and keeping rhe criginal firsr chcrd, vcu wculd ccme up wirh:
Ceneral guidelines fcr Seccndarv Dcminanrs:
1. A dcminanr funcricning chcrd can preceed anv chcrd.
J. A ii·v rcgerher can be ccnsidered a dcminanr funcricn.
3. A ii chcrd can preceed anv v chcrd.
+. Unless a seccndarv dcminanr is specificallv ncrared wirhcur alreraricns (C9, C13ï alreraricns will ncrmallv
be added rhar reflecr rhe rarger chcrd. (Ex: A¯ rc Dmin¯, rhe A¯ shculd be apprcached as being in Dmincr.ï