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Marcia Jones UNE EDU 721 Case Study part 1 & 2

Part 1 The Dynamic Instructional Design Model, also known as DID, is an approach used by many educators to achieve effective instruction in their classrooms. To plan for effective instruction teachers must be cognizant of all elements that occur during the lesson. The Dynamic Instruction Design consists of the following six integral components to construct its foundation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Know the learner State your objectives Establish a learning environment Identify teaching and learning strategies Identify and select technologies Summative evaluation and revision plan

By combining theses factors the teacher can see the whole object or goal they wish to achieve. In addition, because of the DIDs unique construction, teachers are granted the opportunity to narrow and adjust specific lesson plans as needed by the use of the continuous looping of internal and external feedback within each step. Lever-Duffy & McDonald (2011) concur, the feedback occurs during an event or process, thus ensuring a way to facilitate a steady flow of information as instruction is implemented, during which, corrections and accommodations can be produced while the operation unfolds. Its the ongoing feedback that safeguards each step maximizing its effectiveness. Step One: Each step is paramount to the big picture and scaffolds on one

another. The first step, Know the Learner, permits the teacher to observe and collect information on the learners. By gaining knowledge on the demographics, developmental stage, cognitive learning styles, strengths of multiple intelligenences, and group dynamics of the students, the teacher can begin creating the direction of the lesson to meet the needs of the learners. Reflection Questions: * What are the cultural backgrounds of the students? * What kind of prior knowledge do the student possess? * Determine how their learning styles and backgrounds affect the Instructional design. Step Two: In step two, State your Objectives, the teacher defines what the learners will achieve from the instruction. Its important to keep the instructional design focused on behaviors and students performance. In this step, you need to not only create performance objectives, but also need to critically analyze whether the objectives you have created are measurable, valid, and reliable, and whether or not they have captured the content that the students needed to learn (Sharpe, 2011). In addition, Blooms taxonomy (Bloom, 1956) provides a solid boundary for identifying the level of thinking desired from the learner. The six levels of Blooms taxonomy specify expected performance with action verbs that can help ensure that the instruction and learning have the capabilities of obtaining the diverse cognitive levels of each individual.

Blooms Taxonomy and Action Verbs ("Blooms taxonomy


Reflection Questions: * What specifications are needed to obtain student proficiency? * Include Blooms Taxonomy to ensure content is appropriate.

Step Three: Step three; Establish the Learning Environment encompasses the conditions and influences that affect learning development. Here the teacher looks at every aspect of the classroom that can have the capacity to touch learning. Whether its changes to the classroom space, adding reinforcement to the unit, motivational techniques, and grouping or student interaction it is essential to be aware of all these elements to gain optimal learning. The designing instruction must be a deliberate effort to ensure that the learning environment fosters positive, confident attitudes on the part of the learner(Lever-Duffy & McDonald, 2011). Environmental Rubric/Checklist /Ch 2 -Learning Space Rubric.pdf ("Environment rubric,)

Reflection Questions: *Is the classroom space appropriate for effective learning? * What motivational strategies are needed to reinforce learning? * What type of student grouping can achieve positive interaction? Step Four: Step four; Identify Teaching and Learning Strategies, assists in the decision process of teaching strategies used to help student achieve the learning objectives. This step relies on both teacher and learner, so it is imperative to bear in mind that both of the teaching strategies and learning strategies required, keep the learners engaged and motivated in learning. Offering a multitude of ways of explaining and exploring information as well as various tools such as technology can advance student learning. Reflection Question: *Are the strategies used meeting the needs of all learners? * Be sure to connect prior/new knowledge, formative and summative evaluations into all strategies. Step Five: Step five; Identify and Select Technologies strengthens, supports and amplifies teaching strategies. Lever-Duffy & McDonald, (2011) stress that although different technological tools have their advantages and disadvantages, it is pressing that a teacher have an understanding of what technology can do to support instruction, how to use it and

differentiate its role in the classroom. Its main focus being to improve learning efficiency. Reflection Questions: *What technology is needed to support learning? * Is the technology used effective? Step Six: Step six; Summative Evaluation and Revision Plan, maximizes the quality of the design plan. Through evaluation, reflection, feedback and revisions the design plan can be modeled and formed to fit the needs of each learner. This period provides information needed to establish the effectiveness of the design. Reflection Questions: * Are the assessments used appropriate and accurately measure desired objectives? * Are assessments effective and do they provide needed the data? Personal Rational: I found the DID Model to be clear, organized and easy to follow. With the constant use of feedback throughout each step, this model highlights collaboration and increases students interest and motivation. I especially liked the opportunity for reflection within each step. Taking the time to ask your-self questions and evaluate the process can bring benefits to the instruction and more importantly the learners. The DID Model helps ready the learners, target specific objectives, prepare the classroom, identify methods, materials and

technology needed as well as check for success through feedback and assessment. All critical elements that inspire young learners to achieve higher level thinking and intensify academic success.

Student Profile: The focus of this case study will be on a ten -year old boy, who shall be named James for confidentiality purposes. James has been diagnosed with Autism, OCD and struggles socially due to his impulsivity. James is extremely bright and is currently working at a higher than grade level for Reading. He does however struggle with writing concepts and will loose focus quickly. In addition, his Math skills are above average, and he lacks the ability to remain on task to complete many assignments. James excels in Social studies and Science especially with map and lab activities. James has a one on one support for most academic work, earns rewards for completion of work as well as timed concentration amounts. His IEP goals are to increase concentration, develop and apply grade leveled writing concepts, participate in social engagements and eventually work independently as well as be enrolled in an inclusive classroom environment. In the past, James has needed to be removed from classroom due to OCD behaviors and safety concerns. James: 10-year-old male

4th grade student Mother, Caucasian Father, Caucasian (deceased) Jamess identical twin brother attends the same school and is enrolled in another class Background * James lives with his mother, his twin brother and maternal grandparents. * The twin is enrolled in another 4th grade inclusive classroom setting. * The twin also has Autism, OCD and mild social behaviors. * James and his brother share a bedroom in their two-bedroom apartment. * James comes from a lower social-economic background and takes part of the free and reduced lunch/breakfast program. Hobbies & Interest: * Reading. (Especially dictionary, maps, historical events and newspapers) * Music. Classic Rock in particular * Computers * Sports that include balls School: * James is gifted in reading and has strong comprehension skills. He excels in Science and Social studies and has preformed in the above average/proficient range on standardized test in these areas. * James struggles with attention issues, which at times can cause behavioral concerns * James understands math concepts but struggles with application practice. * James is working well below grade level in writing and wrestles with completing all writing assignments. * James has difficulty participating socially with his peers. He will often play around them not with them. *James speaks in a low voice and very quickly. He will become frustrated when asked to repeat himself. * James likes routine and will often cry or have an outburst if changes are made to daily routine. * James does not like loud noises and will cover his ears if room becomes too loud or chaotic. * James is very sensitive and shows empathy. (Which is rare in children with autism) He will ask others if they are ok when they are visibly upset. James has been known to cry when reading or watching

a character struggle during stories and movie. * James is very charismatic with adults. Classroom Environment: The classroom consists of 20 students. Cooperation, respect and strong community values are stressed and practiced on a daily basis. Lessons are structured around prior knowledge and collaboration is encouraged. A class meeting takes place every morning and afternoon where daily schedules and feedback are shared. Space is limited so many activities are designed for small grouping, one on one/peer conferencing or whole group tasks. Desk arrangements are changed often as are the learning groups in order to enhance collaboration and cooperation within the classroom. Table and floor lamps are used to establish a homey and comfortable atmosphere and supplemental materials are clearly labeled to help assist and encourage students in independent exploration.

Connecting it all together: The brain is an amazing organ and each of us, thankfully is equipped with this skillful tool. It is important that educators not only remember that each student is an individual but each student uses their brain differently as well. According to Rose & Meyer (2002) the brain has three neural networks know as, recognition, strategic, and affective networks. Each of these networks works together to help us

perform certain tasks. The recognition network permits us to identify and understand information and concepts. The Strategic network allows us to plan, carry out and observe actions and skills, while the affective network works to keep us engaged in learning and aware of our surroundings. Together these three neurological systems give us the what, how and why we are learning. By understanding the brain and how a person uses these three networks to learn can be a valuable tool for educators. The first step, collecting information to create a student or class profile can empower the teacher in seeing the big picture and guide them to where they want go. This step also begins the scaffolding process of building instruction, establishing an effective learning environment, identifying strategies, and technologies to bring value to learning. Student profile t_id=136&step=1 (Rose & Meyer, 2002). All three networks use a Bottom up/Top down processing to digest and connect information. This process begins as information flows from the lower section of the brain to higher brain structures. This procedure produces understanding solely based on outside stimuli. As it continues, information then continues to pass back down from the higher structures to the lower- levels, carrying out more complex duties. It is here that prior knowledge influences the operation

of understanding. In the recognition network, the brain tells us what we are sensing by identifying and interpreting information, during the strategic network, the brain show us how it monitors, decides and works things through as well as tells us how to use the information. In concluding, the Affective network uses interaction from the real world to tell why the information is significant or useful. In breaking down this information to connect it to the classroom, and in particular James, I could create a learning profile, to gain a better understanding of his strengths and weaknesses, which expose his needs and ultimately leading me to the bigger picture of creating an effective instructional design to assist his academic needs. From this process I can add environmental supplements, execute valid strategies and allocate relevant technology to inspire, engage and meet his needs. Learning Profile: James Recognition Affective What Why (Strengths) (Strengths) Strategic How (Strengths)
Quick learner Read well Strong Deeply Highly

Strong reading Comprehension relationship with adults Understands concepts quickly engaged in learning vocab. interested in Sol. Studies/ maps

(Needs) (Needs)
Writing application

Can Not apply knowledge to written form Weak social

peer relationships Difficulty applying Math family support Concepts to paper


Loves Music Enjoys playing ball sports

Environmental Supplements: Strategies: Technology:

Seating preference. I pad. Grouping. book download. Lighting. Computer for writing Ed Tech support. assistance. IEP Goals. Small group instruction. Individualized instruction. Using prior knowledge to guide instruction. Employ hands on materials. Short timed lessons. Establish goals and rewards. E-

The above information from his student profile highlights his strengths and weakness. I now have the capabilities to fine tune and differentiate a program that best meets his needs. Using materials that make a connection to real world links would be beneficial to James. In addition, using small groups or a partner type activity could increase social interaction, and by adding technology such as the I pad to support writing assistance would bring value to his learning and allow James the opportunity to understand the what, how and why of the lesson as well as meets his learning needs, which ultimately will increase his academic success.

Part 2

Student diversity is a challenge all teachers have to face. Its vital that they are aware of the individual needs of all of their students. Essentially, teachers in differentiated classrooms accept, embrace and plan for the fact that learners bring many commonalities to school, but that learners also bring the essential differences that make them individuals(Tomlinson, 1999). The DID model is an extraordinary example of how to plan and execute individualized lessons for such diversities. Creating a profile for each student strengthens the relationship between teacher, student and classroom community. The Learning Objectives clarify the desired goals while taking the time to assess the learning environment can enhance opportunities that will enrich the students learning style. As the steps continue, the lesson deepens in value through the teaching and learning strategies and in addition, is amplified by the use of technological support. Together, these components scaffold one another and produce a plan that is custom made for each individual involved. The following lesson, entitled Peanut Butter and Jelly Sandwich, is geared to help students gain knowledge on how to write a step-bystep procedural operation.

Many students often struggle with the ability to apply what they know to paper. This lesson is focused to help those who do and James, the focal point of this case study. In addition, James has difficulty remaining on task and needs short timed spanned activities. The activities introduced are brief, include movement and are designed to easily support additional breaks if needed. The use of an I-pad and desk computers are instituted for the technology writing assistance. As are the added choice of video and camera devices to further improve the comprehension and connect a real life attribute to their learning. The I-pad gives James the ability to apply his knowledge to written form by several different applications, the standard typing on a word program, speech to text and by picture clues. I can also download the materials needed, such as videos, and graphic organizers to the I-pad, which would allow him to achieve greater success with his academic objectives. In addition, James can keep track of his IEP goals and timed activities as well as record his progress and truly personalize his learning.

Dynamic Instructional Design Lesson Plan Lesson Title: Peanut Butter and Jelly Sandwich Know the Learner * The ages of the students will range form 9 to 10 years, which will include an inclusive fourth grade classroom. * Many of the students come from a diverse social-economic background. * Many of the students have prior knowledge of how to make a peanut butter and jelly sandwich. * Many of the students are familiar with The Six Traits of Writing program used for this lesson, and are learning each trait in sections. The students skills are in the developing stage and students are in the process of gaining an understanding of connecting each trait to their writing. Feed-Back Additional Information Gained

Learning Objectives At the end of the lesson the student will be able to: 1. Identify and describe the importance of writing a step-by- step Organizational Pattern. 2. Explain and summarize the items needed in order to make a peanut butter and jelly sandwich. 3. Show and model the task of making of making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich. 4. Construct an outline that will analyze the process of making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich. 5. Combine acquired information gained to develop a step-by-step paragraph on assembling a peanut butter and jelly sandwich.

6. Evaluate and share their writing according to the rubric and recommend revisions. Feed- Back and Additional Information Gained

Learning Environment This lesson will be part of The Six Traits of Writing, Organization Unit. The activity is tailored for partner or small group format. The room will provide the resources to accommodate all of the students. The accommodations include tables, chairs, materials for hands on activity, I pad, Computer, camera or video recorder, Television/VCR, screen, projector and cable connectors. The students will need space for the hands on activity prior to writing project. The lesson is designed for several short paced instructions followed by brief activities to allow for application of skills learned. Feed- Back and Additional Information Gained

Teaching and Learning Strategies 1. Classroom Discussion: a. Students will demonstrate their prior knowledge of what are directions and why are they important through brainstorming and a verbal forum. b. Students will review, compare and discuss their knowledge to checklist worksheet.

("Writing procedural checklist,)

2. Classroom Demonstration: a.(Two Students will be needed for this activity. Materials needed: one jump rope.) Students will observe, listen and learn the steps on how to jump rope as student #1 verbally explains directions on how to jump rope to student #2. Student#2 follows directions given from student #1. b.Students evaluate demonstration, give feedback and illustrate knowledge learned through another demonstration. 3. Video: Peanut Butter and Jelly Sandwich a. This short video will teach students the importance of presenting clear instruction/directions as well as introduce the activity on how to write an organized step- by step/procedural writing pattern. 4. Writing: a. Students will construct an outline and draft for procedural steps for making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich. Students will use choose from the flowing graphic organizers to begin writing phase. (Procedural Graphic Organizer) b. Students will assemble information from graphic organizers and develop a step-by step/ procedural plan that will demonstrate their knowledge of how to write a clear and precise organization-writing pattern. c. Students will assess their writing and compare to Writing Success worksheet. Students will reflect and revise as needed. (Writing Success Checklist) d. Students will review and evaluate their writing to rubric. Students will be encouraged to revise if needed. (Procedural Rubric) 5. Peer Communication: a. Students will join a partner to share and assess work. Students are encouraged to use rubric and assessment form highlight writing strengths. (Procedural Rubric) (Peer Self Rubric) 6. Peer Demonstration: a. Students will assemble a peanut butter and jelly sandwich using their partners step-by step instructions. b. Students will record a finalized demonstration using video recorder or computer. (Option A) c. Students will use a camera to create a visual step -by -step pamphlet for future reference. (Option B) Feed Back and Additional Information Gained

Support Technologies I pad and computers will be used for writing assistance. Camera, video recorder, television/VCR and projector/screen will be available for visual support and final project to demonstrate proficiency.

Feed-Back and Additional Information Gained

Evaluation and Revision Plan To determine the students level of comprehension and proficiency, this project will be graded according to a final rubric designed to assess written and visual portions of lesson. The information from the rubric can be used to adjust for future Instruction, strategies and activities, practiced. The information will also allow the instructor to reflect on students responses, outcomes, and success of the lesson. Throughout the activities, teacher and student conferences will keep all informed of concepts and performance status. Class discussions and student input will give insight to ideas, techniques and methods that may need additional review or can boost higher level skills. Feed-Back and Additional Information Gained

Evaluating the Lesson Plan Rubrics are a great tool to guide, inform and more importantly a valuable way to measure academic success within any given lesson. For this activity I will utilize two final rubrics to evaluate the effectiveness of the lesson plan. As the instructor, I can use the rubrics

to pin point the areas where the highest percentage of students had difficulty and re-assess the strategies, methods and techniques used during instruction. In addition, a reflection piece will be added to encompass feedback, which will ultimately highlight the lessons strengths and weaknesses. screen=ShowRubric&rubric_id=2211073 (Jones, 2012) screen=ShowRubric&module=Rubistar&rubric_id=2211078& (Jones, 2012) Reflection Questions: (Students will complete survey after completion of lesson) 1. Three things I learned 2. Two ideas that connected for me 3. Did you and your partner respect each others space and work well together? Why or why not? 4. Do you feel you put in your best effort in the lesson? Why or why not? 5. Do you think you could now complete another assignment similar to this one independently? Why or why not? 6. One question I still have Reflection and Conclusion Reflecting back, I really enjoyed this lesson. The Dynamic Instructional Design gave me the opportunity to take my big picture of what I wanted to do and helped me to intently focus on the details that support and define it. In the scenario to James, I felt the DID allowed me to concentrate on his needs with greater focus as well as deepen his academic plan. Although the DID

plan did take more time than the traditional lesson plan, It did however pinpoint the areas of strengths and weaknesses of each student better. It also granted me a greater opportunity to adjust the lesson and instruction accordingly. I think once I get used to the procedure it will become more natural and time will not hinder the planning.

References: Lever-Duffy, & McDonald, J. 2011. Teaching and Learning with Technology, Pearson Education, Inc. Boston, MA. Rose, & Meyer 2002. Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age: Universal Design for Learning, ASCD. Tomlinson, C.A., 1999. The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners, ASCD, Alexandria, VA.

Blooms taxonomy of educational objectives. (n.d.). Retrieved from Environment rubric. (n.d.). Retrieved from 2

-Learning Space Rubric.pdf Sharpe, A. (2011). An interactive approach to design based on continual feedback. Retrieved from Bloom's learning taxonomy, instructional design. (n.d.). Retrieved from m

Bloom's taxonomy of learning domains. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Rose, H., & Meyer, A. (2002). Classroom profile, teaching every student in the digital age. Retrieved from t_id=136&step=1 How to make a peanut butter and jelly sandwich. (n.d.). Retrieved from v=GX1EjqXAszM&playnext=1&list=PL65982CA5FF437D78&feature=results_ main
Westcott, N. 1987.Peanut Butter and Jelly: A Play Rhyme. Penguin Group, New York, New York

Writing procedural checklist. (n.d.). Retrieved from Writing steps graphic organizer. (n.d.). Retrieved from Procedural writing graphic organizer. (n.d.). Retrieved from Procedural graphic organizer. (n.d.). Retrieved from Procedural graphic organizer. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Organizational success writing check list. (n.d.). Retrieved from Procedural writing rubric. (n.d.). Retrieved from Peer self evaluation. (n.d.). Retrieved from Behavior rubric. (n.d.). Retrieved from Ipad in the classroom. (n.d.). Retrieved from Jones, M. (2012, 08 06). Organizational Rubric. Retrieved from Jones, M. (2012, 08 06). Technology rubric. Retrieved from screen=ShowRubric&module=Rubistar&rubric_id=2211078&