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“ DEVELOPMENT OF TWO PHASE MODEL FOR
ESTI MATI ON OF HEAT TRANSFER AUGMENTATI ON BY
NANO FLUI DS”
GUI DED BY
Dr. JYOTI RMAY BANERJEE
SUBMI TTED BY
Adnan Raj kot wala ( U07ME 654)
Harshit Gupt a ( U07ME 627)
Mohit Gupt a ( U07ME 644)
Prabir Bhat t acharj ee ( U07ME 649)
Vineet Maheshwari ( U07ME 679)
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANI CAL ENGI NEERI NG
SARDAR VALLABHBHAI NATI ONAL I NSTI TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
I CHCHHANATH, SURAT 395 0 07, GUJARAT, I NDI A
CERTI FI CATE
This is t o cert ify t hat t he proj ect report t it led “ DEVELOPMENT
OF TWO PHASE MODEL FOR ESTI MATI ON OF HEAT
TRANSFER AUGMENTATI ON BY NANO FLUI DS” submit t ed by
Mr. Adnan Raj kot wala, Mr. Harshit Gupt a, Mr. Mohit Gupt a,
Mr. Prabir Bhat t acharj ee and Mr. Vineet Maheshwari, in
fulfilment of t he requirement for t he award of t he degree of
“ BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY I N MECHANI CAL
ENGI NEERI NG” of t he Sardar Vallabhbhai Nat ional I nst it ut e
of Technology, Surat is a record of t heir own work carried
out under my supervision and guidance. The mat t er
embodied in t he dissert at ion has not been submit t ed
elsewhere for t he award of any ot her degree or diploma.
GUI DED BY:
Dr. J. BANERJEE
Mechanical Engineering Depart ment
SVNI T, Surat  39500
APPROVAL SHEET
This is t o approve t hat aforement ioned st udent s have successfully
complet ed and submit t ed t heir proj ect report in fulfilment of t he
requirement for t he award of t he degree of “ BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
I N MECHANI CAL ENGI NEERI NG” of t he Sardar Vallabhbhai Nat ional
I nst it ut e of Technology, Surat .
Examiner 1
: _______________________
Examiner 2
: _______________________
Examiner 3
: _______________________
Proj ect Guide
: ________________________
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We feel it as a great privilege in expressing our deepest and most sincere
grat it ude t o our supervisor, Dr. Jyot irmay Banerj ee for his valuable
suggest ions and guidance during t he proj ect work period, wit hout which
t his work would not have been accomplished. We would like t o t hank all
t he professors and ot her non t eaching st affs for t heir kind help in carrying
out t his work. We also t hank t he Chemical Engineering Depart ment and
Applied Science Depart ment for t heir cooperat ion. Last but not t he least ,
we would like t o t hank t he world wide researchers working in t he fields of
Nanofluids and Heat Transfer who have done pioneering work in t hese
fields on which t he proj ect work is based. We are honoured t o be provided
wit h t his excellent opport unit y. We also t hank Mr. M. K. Rat hore for his
kind cooperat ion and help.
Our experience while t he proj ect work was amazing. I t is one of t hose
which we will cert ainly never forget . I t was a great opport unit y t o
research on a t opic in which we had int erest t hrough academic and ot her
readings but had never got a chance t o do. The proj ect wor k has no doubt
helped me explore in great er dept hs t he fields of Nanofluids and Heat
Transfer. I t has fur t her st rengt hened our bondage t o t he field.
ABSTRACT
Nanofluids are colloids of a base fluid and nanopart icles, whose size
is usually of t he order of 1 100nm. Nanofluids have been report ed t o
exhibit appreciable heat t ransfer charact erist ics. The reason for t his
enhancement was credit ed t o t he higher t hermal conduct ivit y of t he
met allic nanopart icles. I n t he init ial models t hat were proposed for heat
t ransfer in nanofluids, t radit ional correlat ions like Dit t us Boelt ier were
ext ended simply by t aking t he volume fract ion of t he nanopart icles int o
account . These models however failed t o validat e t he experiment al
observat ions. Therefore new approaches have been invest igat ed by t he
researchers since t he last decade. Our work involves experiment al
invest igat ion of heat t ransfer in nanofluids and development of numerical
simulat ion t o verify t he result s. The nanofluid we chose t o use is nano
copper part icles and wat er as base fluid.
An experiment al set up was prepared t o st udy t he heat
augment at ion effect s on pure wat er and nanofluids. The flow t akes place
in a rect angular cavit y wit h insulat ed side walls, which makes it a case of
buoyancy dr iven flow or nat ural convect ion. Copper nanopart icles were
procured and nanofluid was prepared t o st udy t he heat t r ansfer effect s. .
The effect s of surfact ant s on t he set t ling t ime of t he nanofluids, was
undert aken. Furt her a model of t he experiment al set up on solid works has
been prepared. The experiment al readings are analyzed and compared
wit h t he result s obt ained by numerical simulat ion. A t wo phase model is
also developed t o validat e t he readings obt ained by our experiment s.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1. I NTRODUCTI ON
1.1 LI TERATURE REVI EW
1.2 APPLI CATI ON OF NANOPARTI CLES I N I NDUSTRI ES
1.3 OUR MOTI VATI ON
2. NANOFLUI D PREPARATI ON,CHARACTERI SATI ON AND
MATHEMATI CAL MODELLI NG
2.1 PREPARATI ON OF NANOFLUI D
2.1.1 ONE STEP METHOD
2.1.2 TWO STEP METHOD
2.2 FACTORS AFFECTI NG THERMAL CONDUCTI VI TY
2.2.1 STABI LI ZERS
2.2.2 PH OF NANOFLUI D
2.2.3 CONDUCTI VI TY OF BASE FLUI D
2.2.4 SI ZE OF THE PARTI CLE
2.2.5 SHAPE OF THE PARTI CLE
2.2.6 PARTI CLE VOLUME FRACTI ON
2.3 CHARACTERI ZATI ON OF NANOFLUI D
2.4 MATHEMATI CAL MODELI NG OF THE PROCESS
2.4.1 HOMOGENEOUS FLOW MODELS
2.4.2 DI SPERSI ON MODELS
2.4.3 TWO FLUI D MODEL
2.4.4 NON DI MENSI ONALI SATI ON OF THE TERMS
3. EXPERI MENTAL I NVESTI GATI ONS OF HEAT TRANSFER
CHARACTERI STI CS OF NANOFLUI DS
3.1 I NTRODUCTI ON
3.2 OBJECTI VES
3.3 APPARATUS
3.3.1 COMPONENTS
3.4 SELECTI ON OF MATERI ALS
3.4.1 POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE ( PLEXI GLASS)
3.4.2 HEATI NG SYSTEM
3.4.2.1 PI D CONTOLLER THEORY
3.4.2.2 PROPORTI ONAL TERM
3.4.2.3 DROOP
3.4.2.4 I NTEGRAL TERM
3.4.2.5 DERI VATI VE TERM
3.4.2.6 LOOP TUNI NG
3.4.2.7 SHORTCOMI NGS OF PI D CONTROLLER
3.5 COOLI NG SYSTEM
3.6 RESI STI VE THERMAL DEVI CES
3.7 6 CHANNEL DATA ACQUI SI TI ON SYSTEM
3.8 MEASUREMENT APPROACH
3.9 PREPARI NG THE NANOFLUI D
3.10 PROCEDURE
3.11 RESULTS
3.12 CONCLUSI ONS
4. NUMERI CAL SI MULATI ON OF SI NGLE PHASE MODEL
4.1 I NTRODUCTI ON
4.2 PROBLEM DEFI NI TI ON
4.3 NUMERI CAL METHOD
4.3.1 STREAM FUNCTI ON VORTI CI TY METHOD
4.3.2 DI SCRETI ZATI ON TECHNI QUE
4.3.3 GSSOR
4.3.4 CODE DEVELOPMENT
4.4 MATHEMATI CAL MODEL
4.4.1 MODELS FOR CALCULATI NG PROPERTI ES OF NANOFLUI D
4.4.2 GOVERNI NG EQUATI ON FOR FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER
4.4.3 NON DI MENSI ONAL FORM OF GOVERNI NG EQUATI ON
4.5 RESULTS AND DI SCUSSI ONS
4.5.1 I NFLUENCE OF SOLI D VOLUME FRACTI ON
4.5.2 I NFLUENCE OF THE RAYLEI GH NUMBER
4.5.3 VARI ATI ON OF THE NUSSELT NUMBER
4.6 CONCLUSI ON
5. CLOSURE
5.1 CONCLUSI ON
5.2 FUTURE SCOPE
5.2.1 I NVESTI GATI ON OF THERMAL CONDUCTI VI TY
ENHANCEMENT BY NANOPARTI CLES USI NG THI N
CYLI NDER METHOD
5.2.1.1 I NTODUCTI ON
5.2.1.2 EXPERI MENTAL SETUP AND METHODS
5.2.2 MAGNETI C NANOPARTI CLES
5.2.3 MULTI PHASE MODEL
REFERENCES
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1. INTRODUCTON
1.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
Heat transfer has always been one of the key areas in research, more so with
the advancement of science and technology. Effective thermal management is
presently one of the most vital challenges in many technologies because of the
constant demands for faster speeds and continuous reduction in device
dimensions. Recent technological advances in manufacturing have led to the
miniaturisation of many devices with various applications. The functionality and
reliability of such a system depends invariably on the efficacy of its heat transfer
units.
A very popular method to achieve adequate heat transfer in systems is to use a
heat transfer fluid in a closed thermodynamic cycle. A heat transfer fluid is a
fluid medium which is used in a system to add or remove heat in a controlled
manner. Commonly used such fluids like water, ethylene glycol, ammonia, CFCs,
mineral oils were widely used in commercial and industrial applications like
power generation, chemical plants, refrigeration and air conditioning. However
they failed to impress with their performance, when it came to high heat transfer
requirements, primarily because of poor thermal conductivities, which implied
the use of bulky heat exchangers and high pumping power. Over the past
decade, a new dimension has been provided by nano technology, which enables
the use of materials in their nano form i.e., of the size of 1 – 100 nm. As such,
metals, which are known to exhibit very high thermal conductivities, were mixed
with the conventional heat transfer fluids, to obtain a new heat transfer medium
called nanofluids.
Nanofluid is a suspension of nano particles, whose size is usually of the order of
1 – 100 nm, in a base fluid. The term nanofluid was first coined by Choi[1] , who
also showed that such a fluid can have significantly better heat transfer
characteristics than the base fluid. After that, several researchers performed
experiments on nanofluids by taking Cu, Al, Cu0, Al
2
O, Au, Ag, TiO
2
and other
metallic nanoparticles, having high thermal conductivities in a base fluid like
water, mineral oils or ethylene glycol, which were conventionally used as
coolants for general purpose heat transfer equipment. The heat transfer
equipments employing nanofluids or heat transfer fluids, to be more general,
essentially have three types of convection processes, namely natural or free
convection, forced convection and mixed convection. Research in nanofluid is
also categorised according to the above mentioned classification, because each
phenomenon is, in itself, quite intensive both experimentally as well as
numerically.
It has been experimentally found that the thermal conductivity of nanofluids is
higher than its base fluid for same flow properties and it increases with increase
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in nanoparticle concentration and decreasing particle size. Also for given flow
Reynolds number and particle size the convective heat transfer coefficient
increases with particle concentration in both laminar and turbulent regimes[2].
Further it was observed that for 3% volume fraction of nanoparticles, the
increase in thermal conductivity was around 20%, as reported by Masuda et
al[3]. However similar experiments performed by Lee et al[4] showed an
increase of 8% and those by Wang et al[5], showed an increase of 12%.
The maximum increase was however around 40% for a volume fraction of 0.3%
as reported by Eastman et al[6].
Nevertheless there were speculations that the effective thermal conductivity may
also sometimes decrease, as opposed to the conventional belief. This was
supported by the experimental results of Li et al[7]. Also the results by Putra et
al[8], and Wen et al[9], which reported similar trends of decreasing thermal
conductivity.
There was an unusual rise in thermal heat transfer coefficient as well, which,
however was still largely unexplained. Based on these observations, several
hypothesis were proposed, for modelling of convection phenomena in nanofluids.
Buongiorno[10], in his paper suggested seven mechanisms: inertia, Brownian
diffusion, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, Magnus effect, ﬂuid drainage, and
gravity settling. However, after an order of magnitude analysis, it was concluded
that Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis were the only two potential
candidates which can account for these observations. However there were no
instances where both the natural and forced convection experiments were
performed using the same experimental conditions. So the deterioration in heat
transfer for natural convection is still an area unaccounted for.
1.2 APPLICATION OF NANOFLUIDS IN INDUSTRIES
There has been an increasing need of superior cooling devices in engineering
applications like microelectromechanicaldevices (MEMS), LEDs, radiators,
semiconductor and integrated circuit. The conventional heat rejection methods
like liquid coolants, heat pipes and extended surface (fins) have already reached
their upper limit. Nanofluids in this respect offer a new horizon for the
researchers to explore. Many researchers have reported unusual thermo physical
properties shown by liquids having nano sized metal particles suspended in
them.Choi() was the first person who reported enhanced thermal conductivity in
liquid and metal nanoparticle emulsion. He coined the term “nanofluid” owing to
the size of metal particles. The idea of adding metal particles into a base fluid is
not a novel concept. It originated more than a century ago when Maxwell tried
adding micro sized solid metal particles to the fluid. It showed detrimental effect
in some cases due to the suppression of turbulence. Moreover the suspensions
settled down as sediment by the passage of time which leads to clogging of
channels and erosion of the container/tubing surface. They also suffered with
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large pressure drop. A high pumping power to maintain the flow was required as
viscosity of the fluid increased. Hence the idea of adding micro sized particles
into the liquid was discarded. However in case of nanofluids, it largely behaves
as a single phase fluid with minimum settling of metal particles. The pressure
drop and increase in viscosity is also found to be small.
1.3 OUR MOTIVATION
There was however quite some disagreement about the performance of
nanofluids in natural convection in an enclosure, differentially heated at vertical
walls . Some Researchers like Khanafer et al [11] advocate that due to
dispersion of copper nanoparticles into water, the amount of heat transfer
increases significantly with increase in volume fraction at any investigated
Grashof number, while others like putra et al[8] have stressed that nanofluids
loose their effectiveness as heat transfer fluids in case of buoyancy driven flow
or natural convection, and have given experimental results showing that in a
horizontal cylinder, differentially heated at the ends, the average nusselt number
of the enclosure, decreased with increasing the nanoparticle volume fraction.
However in the more recent times Corcione [6] have demonstrated that the
notion was wrong and that proper selection of variables can prove that
nanofluids are quite efficient in natural convection cases as well. He argued that
the above mentioned differences were insubstantial because Khanafer et al,
based the nusselt number on the thermal conductivity of the base fluid k
f
, while
Putra et al defined the nusselt number using the effective thermal conductivity of
the nanofluid, k
eff
, which brought to ambiguous interpretations of the data. The
present study was influenced by this very proposition, and it attempts to
investigate the behavior of nanofluids in natural convection.
Nanofluids can prove to be beneficial for a wide spectrum of industries ranging
from automotive industries to the energy sector to use in electronic devices as
well as biomedical industries. Roubert et al has reported that the use of
nanofluid as a coolant can cut industrial emissions. For e.g. in U.S, industries
can save up to 1 trillion British thermal Units of energy. In process industries,
suitable water based nanofluid can increase productivity. Michelin‟s North
America tire processing plants are looking forward to obtain 10% increase in
productivity using commercially produced nanofluid. Donzelli et al highlighted
the use of nanofluid as a heat valve as it can be configured at will to reduce or
improve heat transfer. Hence they are also known as “smart fluids”. A group of
researchers at MIT are exploring the use of nanofluid in nuclear reactors.
Possible application includes pressurized water reactor (PWR), primary coolant,
standby safety systems, accelerator, targets, plasma directors and so forth.
Experiments on pressurized water reactors have shown promising resultsas it
increases the critical heat flux (CHF) between fuel rods and the water. In
automotive industries, it can replace a large number of automotive liquids like
engine oils, automatic transmission fluids, coolants and lubricants. The use of
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nanofluid can reduce the frontal area of the radiators up to 10%. This would
reduce the aerodynamics drag and consequently save fuel up to 5%. The major
obstacle in miniaturization and increasing compactness of electronic devices is
poor heat rejection. Nanofluids can be used as a liquid coolant in the electronic
devices to become the next generation cooling device. Since nanoparticles are of
the size of biomolecules, in biomedical Industries, they are used to ensure
proper delivery of nanodrug to the target living cells at an optimal temperature
of 37
o
C. This is done by controlling the heat flux and purging fluid velocity of the
supply. Nanofluids increase the surface tension thereby increasing the contact
angle and wettability. So they can be used in microscale fluidic applications such
as ﬂuidic digital display devices, optical devices, and microelectromechanical
systems (MEMS). Further, nanofluid can be used to replace water by other
organic liquids like ethyl glycol where temperature range falls beyond boiling
point or freezing point of water. Addition of nanoparticle in ethyl glycol can give
comparable thermal conductivity as of water.
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2. NANOFLUID PREPARATION, CHARACTERISATION AND
MATHEMATICAL MODELLING
2.1 PREPARATION OF NANOFLUID
Dispersing the nanoparticles uniformly and suspending them stably in the host
liquid is critical in producing highquality nanoﬂuids for the study of their
properties and for applications. The key in producing extremely stable nanoﬂuids
is to disperse nanoparticles before they agglomerate. The preparation methods
can be classified as physical process and chemical process. Physical processes
are mechanical grinding and Inert gas condensation technique while chemical
processes are chemical precipitation, chemical vapor deposition, micro
emulsions, spray pyrolysis and thermal spraying. Another classification can be
done on the basis of number of steps of preparation. Many twostep and one
step physical and chemical processes have been developed for making
nanoﬂuids. These processes can be summarized as follows:
2.1.1 ONESTEP PROCESS
In a onestep process, synthesis and dispersion of nanoparticles into the ﬂuid
take place simultaneously. The singlestep direct evaporation approach was
developed by Akoh et al. and is called the VEROS (Vacuum Evaporation onto a
Running Oil Substrate) technique. However it is difficult to remove dry
nanoparticles from liquid prepared by this method. A modiﬁed VEROS process
was proposed by Wagener et al. in which they employed high pressure
magnetron sputtering for the preparation of suspensions with metal
nanoparticles such as silver and iron. Eastman et al. developed a modiﬁed
VEROS technique, in which Cu vapor is directly condensed into nanoparticles by
contact with a ﬂowing lowvaporpressure liquid (EG). Silverwater nanoﬂuids
were produced using onestep optical laser ablation in liquid. A vacuumSANSS
(submerged arc nanoparticle synthesis system) method has been employed by
Lo et al. to prepare Cubased nanoﬂuids. Another onestep physical process is
wet grinding technology with bead mills. Zhu et al presented a novel chemical
method for preparing copper nanoﬂuids by reducing CuSO
4
·5H
2
O with
NaH
2
PO
2
·H
2
O in ethylene glycol under microwave irradiation. In this method the
amount of NaH
2
PO
2
·H
2
O and microwave irradiation can be used to control the
properties of copper produced.
One step method is mostly used for preparing metal nanoparticles without
forming any oxide. An advantage of the onestep technique is that nanoparticle
agglomeration is minimized, while the disadvantage is that only low vapor
pressure ﬂuids are compatible with such a process.
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2.1.2 TWOSTEP PROCESS
The twostep method is extensively used in the synthesis of nanoﬂuids
considering the available commercial nanopowders supplied by several
companies. In a typical twostep process, nanoparticles, nanotubes, or
nanoﬁbers are ﬁrst produced as a dry powder by physical or chemical methods
such as inert gas condensation, wire electric explosion technique and chemical
vapor deposition. This step is followed by powder dispersion in the liquid.
Generally, ultrasonic pulses of 100W at 36 ± 3 kHz for a period of six hours are
used to intensively disperse the particles and reduce the agglomeration of
particles. Nanoparticles prepared by this method which are reported in the
literature are Copper oxide (CuO
2
), TiO
2
, gold(Au), silver (Ag), silica and carbon
nanotubes. The major problem with twostep processes is aggregation of
nanoparticles. Most researchers purchase nanoparticles in powder form and mix
them with the base ﬂuid. These nanoﬂuids are not stable, although stability can
be enhanced with pH control and/or surfactant addition. Some researchers
purchase commercially available nanoﬂuids. These nanoﬂuids contain impurities
and nanoparticles whose size is different from vendor speciﬁcations.
Although the twostep process works fairly well for oxide nanoparticles, it is not
as effective for metallic nanoparticles.
2.2 FACTORS AFFECTING THERMAL PROPERTIES OF NANOFLUID
2.2.1 STABILIZERS
Stabilizers are surfactants which prevent nanoparticle from agglomerating due to
surface charge. Commonly used surfactants in the literature are laureate salt,
oleic acid and Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB), Sodium dodecyl
sulfate (SDS) etc. Addition of surfactants can change the surface properties of
the metal nanoparticles. Assael et al. experimentally studied the enhancement of
the thermal conductivity of carbonmultiwall nanotubes (CMWNT)–water
suspensions with 0.1 wt% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a dispersant. They
repeated the similar measurements using hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium
bromide (CTAB). With respect to the surfactants concentration they found that
CTAB is better than SDS for CMWNTs. Therefore proper selection of surfactant
depending on the properties of solution and the particle is important.
2.2.2 PH OF NANOFLUID
The pH of the solution plays an important role in preventing agglomeration of
particle. Xie et al investigated the effects of the pH value of the alumina
nanoparticle suspension. They found that the increase in the difference between
the pH value and isoelectric point of Al2O3, which lies between 7 and 9, resulted
in enhancement of the effective thermal conductivity. Isoelectric point is the pH
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at which a molecule carries no net electrical charge. This ensures the
nanoparticles are well dispersed and the nanoﬂuid is stable because of very large
repulsive forces among the nanoparticles when pH is far from isoelectric point.
The pH of dispersion can be adjusted adding Hydrochloric acid (HCl).
2.2.3 CONDUCTIVITY OF BASE FLUID
Xie et al. [19] examined the effect of the base ﬂuid material on the thermal
conductivity enhancement. The results show increased thermal conductivity
enhancement of the base ﬂuid which has low thermal conductivity. These results
are important for the design of the heat exchange equipment where heat
transfer enhancement is needed.
2.2.4 SIZE OF THE PARTICLE
It plays an important role in the enhancement of heat transfer. As we go on
reducing the size the ratio of surface area to volume increases as the ratio is
inversely proportional to diameter of the particle. With larger surface area more
heat can be transferred. The Brownian motion, which plays a vital role in
explaining the enhancement in heat transfer, is also significant for small
particles. Brownian velocity varies inversely with diameter. 10nm to 15nm size
of the particle is considered as critical size where Brownian motion is more for
fixed particle volume fraction and temperature. This would follow that reducing
the size of the particle will lead to increase in thermal conductivity. However
Beck2008 stated that thermal conductivity does not show monotonic increase or
decrease with particle size. He opposed that that there is a lower limit as well ,
below which due to phonon scattering, the conductivity shows decreasing trends.
Their results indicate that the thermal conductivity enhancement decreases as
the particle size decreases below about 50 nm. There has been much debate
over the relation of particle size and thermal conductivity and no clear solution
has been arrived at until now. Thus it demands increasing number of
experimental work by the researchers.
2.2.5 SHAPE OF THE PARTICLE
The metal nanoparticle may be spherical, disc shaped or rod like depending on
the process of preparation. Murshed et al investigated TiO2 nanoparticles in rod
shape (∅10×40) and spherical shape (∅15) dispersed in deionized water. They
observed that nearly 33% and 30% enhancement of the effective thermal
conductivity occurred for TiO2 particles of ∅10 × 40 and ∅15, respectively. Thus
rod shaped particles show more enhancements.Xie et al. also studied the effect
of particle shape on the thermal conductivity enhancement in nanoﬂuid.The
results were compared with respect to the geometric shape of the particle with
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the same material and base ﬂuid. It indicates that increase in aspect ratio of the
particle will show increase in augmentation. Thus rod shaped nanoparticle
(aspect ratio 100), spherical nanoparticles (aspect ratio = 1) and disclike
nanoparticles (aspect ratio 0.02) will follow decreasing trend of augmentation in
thermal conductivity. The role of the shape of particle is also confirmed by better
approximation of experimental results with HamiltonCrosser model which is a
modified Maxwell model taking shape into consideration.
2.2.6 PARTICLE VOLUME FRACTION
In forced convection as well as in mixed convection, heat transfer coefficient has
considerable enhancement which increases with addition of the nanoparticle
volume fraction up to 1%. Eastman et al (2001) reported a 40% enhancement in
the effective thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol when 0.3% (v/v) copper
nanoparticles were dispersed in the liquid, and Choi et al. (2001) reported a
150% enhancement in the effective thermal conductivity of synthetic oil
containing 1% (v/v) carbon nanotubes. However, above 1% particle volume
fraction, viscosity and resistance to the flow increases. Unlike forced convection,
experimental results show that in natural convection, heat transfer coefficient
decreases with increasing the nanoparticle volume fraction. However, such
established agreement is not developed and there is a striking lack of
experimental data for natural convection.
2.3 CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOFLUIDS
Good methods for characterizing nanoﬂuids are critical to a correct
understanding of their novel properties. Characterization of nanoﬂuids includes
determination of colloidal stability, particlesize and size distribution,
concentration, and elemental composition as well as measurements of thermo
physical properties. Forsome applications, measurement of the electrical
conductivity of nanoﬂuids is required. Some of the most commonly used tools for
characterization include transmission electron microscopy TEM imaging and
dynamic light scattering DLS. One of the most measured thermo physical
properties is the thermal conductivity of nanoﬂuids. Generally, three methods
are used to measure the thermal conductivity of nanoﬂuids: the transient hot
wire method, the 3sigma method, and the laser ﬂash method.
2.4 Mathematical Modeling of the process
Over the years researchers have been attempting to develop convective
transport models to describe the behavior of nanofluids. As such two major
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approaches were followed, namely, the homogeneous flow models and the
dispersion models.
2.4.1 HOMOGENEOUS FLOW MODELS:
The models previously used to describe the phenomenon of heat transfer in
nanofluids were all based on the assumption that the mixture behaved as a
single phase component and the traditional heat transfer correlations like Dittus
Boeltier, were extended to model them. The models, collectively termed as
homogeneous flow model [1, 2] took into account the increase in thermal
conductivity as the main factor responsible for the augmentation in heat
transfer. However it failed to accurately describe the experimental observations.
They mostly underpredicted the heat transfer augmentation that was actually
observed during experiments.
2.4.2 DISPERSION MODELS:
In the later stages, researchers started employing dispersion models [3] in
which thermal dispersion of nanoparticles along with the increase in thermal
conductivity was considered for the augmentation in convective heat transfer
coefficient. In this approach, the effect of nanoparticle/base fluid relative velocity
was treated as a perturbation of energy equation, with the introduction of a
dispersion coefficient, to describe the heat transfer augmentation. But an order
of magnitude analysis[4] proves that even dispersion effect is insignificant in
comparison to the effect of turbulent eddies.
The main reason behind the performance of nanofluids, is attributed to the
phenomenon of slip, caused by the relative velocity By using the slip mechanics
as proposed above we can develop the transport equations for a 2 phase nano
fluid system.
2.4.3 TWO FLUID MODEL
In this model the system will be treated as a 2 component mixture (base fluid +
nanoparticles). The governing equations can be formulated considering following
assumptions:
1. The flow is considered to be incompressible flow.
2. No chemical reactions occur during the heat transfer augmentation.
3. Negligible or no external forces are present during the process.
4. Mixture is considered to highly dilute (ϕ<<<1)
5. Viscous dissipation is considered to be negligible.
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6. The radiative heat transfer is negligible.
7. At local level nanofluid particles and base fluid are considered to be in thermal
equilibrium.
Assumptions (1) to (6) are valid for nanofluids. Assumption (2) is valid because
the nanoparticles are chosen due to their inertness with the base fluid.
Assumption (3) is justified in light of the relative importance of transport
mechanism of the nanofluids. Assumption (4) is valid for most of the nanofluid
studies published so far, especially with (ϕ<0.05). Assumption (5) is often made
in heat transfer problems, in which the heat flux at the surface is the dominant
energy source in the system.
To justify assumption (7), one has to calculate the heat transfer time constants
for heat conduction within the nanoparticles, and within the base fluid in the
vicinity of the nanoparticles. These time constants can be estimated as d
p
2
/α
p
and d
p
2
/α
bf
, respectively, where α
p
= k
p
/ρ
p
c
p
and α
bf
= k
bf
/ρ
bf
c
bf
are the thermal
diffusivity of the nanoparticle material and base fluid, respectively.
The conservation equations for a twocomponent fluid mixture is adopted here,
as proposed by Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot‟s model often called as BSL model.
To capture the effect of the nanoparticle/base fluid slip, we will use a four
equation approach (two mass equations, one momentum equation, and one
energy equation).
From Assumption (1) the continuity equation for the nanofluid is:
()
()
where, V is nanofluid velocity. Equation (1.1) is identical to the continuity
equation for a pure incompressible fluid.
The continuity equation for the nanoparticles in the absence of chemical
reactions (Assumption 2) is:
p
p
()
–
()
(
) ()
11  P a g e
Where, t is time, jp is the diffusion mass flux for the nanoparticles (kg/m
2
s), and
represents the nanoparticle flux relative to the nanofluid velocity v. If the
external forces are negligible (Assumption (3)), jp can be written as the sum of
only two diffusion terms, i.e., Brownian diffusion and Thermopherosis:
()
p
B
p
T
()
The coefficients D
B
and D
T
can be calculated as mentioned in the above sections.
Substituting these values the nanoparticle continuity equation becomes:
[
B
T
] ()
Equation (1.5) states that the nanoparticles can move homogeneously with the
fluid second term of the (lefthand side), but they also possess a slip velocity
relatively to the fluid (righthand side), which is due to Brownian diffusion and
Thermopherosis.
The momentum equation with negligible external forces is:
[
] ()
where, P is pressure. Note that Equation(1.6) is identical to the momentum
equation for a pure fluid. The stress tensor, τ, can be expanded assuming
Newtonian behavior and incompressible flow:
[ ()
t
] ()
where, the superscript t indicates the transpose of v. If the viscosity µ is
constant, Eq. 2.3.4.10 becomes the usual NavierStokes equation. However, µ
strongly depends on ϕ for a nanofluid.
The nanofluid energy equation as proposed in the BSL model is:
[
] ()
Where, Assumptions (1), (2), (3), (4), and (5) were used. „c‟ is the nanofluid
specific heat, T is the nanofluid temperature, hp is the specific enthalpy of the
nanoparticle material (J/kg), and q is the energy flux relative to the nanofluid
velocity v. Neglecting radiative heat transfer (Assumption (6)), q can be
12  P a g e
calculated as the sum of the conduction heat flux and the heat flux due to
nanoparticle diffusion (BSL):
( ) ()
Where, k is nanofluid thermal conductivity. Substituting the above equation in
the energy equation keeping in mind that ( ) and indicating
the nanoparticle specific heat by cp we get:
[
] ()
Where, has been set equal to which follows from Assumption 7. If here
becomes 0 then the equation turns into the familiar single phase energy
equation. Now, putting the value of in the above equation we get,
[
] [
B
T
] ()
2.4.4 NON – DIMENSIONALISATION OF THE TERMS
The velocity terms are non dimensionalised as:
⁄
()
The temperature terms theta θ as:
()
Pressure term as:
(
)
()
The length terms as:
()
()
13  P a g e
The volume fraction as:
()
And time τ as:
⁄
()
Using Boussinesq‟s approximation as well
()
Also the coefficients are defined as
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
After nondimensionalising, the equations become:
Continuity equation
()
Momentum equation
( )
()
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Nanoparticle continuity equation
{(
) (
)
⁄ } ()
Energy equation:
(
)
((
)
(
)
) ()
15  P a g e
3. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF HEAT TRANSFER
CHARACTERISTICS OF NANOFLUIDS
3.1 INTRODUCTION
Heat transfer has always been one of the key areas in research, more so with
the advancement of science and technology. Effective thermal management is
presently one of the most vital challenges in many technologies because of the
constant demands for faster speeds and continuous reduction in device
dimensions. Recent technological advances in manufacturing have led to the
miniaturisation of many devices with various applications. The functionality and
reliability of such a system depends invariably on the efficacy of its heat transfer
units.
A very popular method to achieve adequate heat transfer in systems is to use a
heat transfer fluid in a closed thermodynamic cycle. A heat transfer fluid is a
fluid medium which is used in a system to add or remove heat in a controlled
manner. Commonly used such fluids like water, ethylene glycol, ammonia, CFCs,
mineral oils were widely used in commercial and industrial applications like
power generation, chemical plants, refrigeration and air conditioning. However
they failed to impress with their performance, when it came to high heat transfer
requirements, primarily because of poor thermal conductivities, which implied
the use of bulky heat exchangers and high pumping power. Over the past
decade, a new dimension has been provided by nano technology, which enables
the use of materials in their nano form i.e., of the size of 1 – 100 nm. As such,
metals, which are known to exhibit very high thermal conductivities, were mixed
with the conventional heat transfer fluids, to obtain a new heat transfer medium
called nanofluids.
As such, an experiment has been developed to estimate the heat transfer
characteristics of such nanofluids, which is described in this section.
3.2 OBJECTIVES
1. To estimate the heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and compare it
with that of the pure base fluid (water).
 A heater supplies heat flux to the apparatus (a cuboidal enclosure),
using a PID controller to maintain the bottom wall at a constant
temperature, while a forced circulation at the top wall takes away heat
and maintains it at a constant temperature as well. The gradient of
temperature along the vertical axis gives an estimate of the heat
transfer characteristics.
16  P a g e
2. To measure the temperature distribution throughout the nanofluid volume
and compare the results with those obtained using numerical simulation.
 The Data Logger records the temperature distribution throughout the
volume of the nanofluid. A comparison with the numerical simulations
gives an idea of the effectiveness of the models used to simulate
simulate the system.
3. To measure thermal conductivity of a nanofluid and compare the result
with that of pure fluid.
 The heat transfer augmentation in nanofluids has been attributed to
the increase in thermal conductivity. A circuit consisting of a
wheatstone bridge has been used to measure the thermal conductivity
of nanofluid and compare it with the base fluid. The method used here
is called the Transient Hot Wire method.
3.3 APPARATUS
The experimental setup has already been fabricated by Sensewell Industries,
Vadodara. A schematic layout of the experimental setup has been presented in
fig.3.1.
Figure 3.1: Schematic layout of experimental setup.
17  P a g e
It consists of the following components:
Figure 3.2: Experimental Setup
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Figure 3.3: Multiple views of the test apparatus
Figure 3.4: 6channel Data Acquisition system
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Figure 3.5: PID Controlled Power supplier
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Figure 3.6: Isometric views of the test section
Figure 3.7: Experimental setup
21  P a g e
Figure 3.8: Detailed view of Test Section
3.3.1 COMPONENTS
It consists of the following components:
1. A cuboidal enclosure, whose vertical walls are made of Perspex
(plexiglass). The horizontal walls are made of metal e.g., the top wall is of tin
and the bottom wall is made of steel.
2. A resistive heating coil attached to the bottom wall to maintain it at a
constant high temperature.
3. A cooling compartment attached to the top wall to maintain it at a
constant low temperature.
4. Resistive Temperature Detectors (RTDs) to sense the temperature.
5. A Data Logger to record the temperatures.
6. A PID controller to monitor the heating through the resistive coil.
Resistive
Temperature Detectors
Plexiglass (Perspex)
enclosure
Heating coil
Coling water inlet
Cooling water outlet
Resistive
Temperature Detector
Slot for Silver wire
Cooling water compartment
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3.4 SELECTION OF MATERIALS
3.4.1 POLY METHYL METHACRYLATE (PLEXIGLASS)
Poly methyl methacrylate is a transparent thermoplastic which is used to
prepare the vertical section of the experimental setup. It is a lighter,
transparent and cheaper replacement for glass. This material can withstand
temperature as high as 165oC depending on their manufacturing process. But
the material used to produce the setup has a melting point of 80oC, this was
in accordance to the requirement, is affordable and is easy to procure. It is
often preferred because of its moderate properties, easy handling and
processing, and low cost, but behaves in a brittle manner when loaded,
especially under an impact force, and is more prone to scratching compared
to conventional inorganic glass. Though being brittle this material finds varied
applications varying from use in simple experimental and construction
purposes to acrylic glass was used for submarine periscopes, windshields,
canopies, and gun turrets for airplanes.
PMMA is routinely produced by emulsion polymerization, solution
polymerization and bulk polymerization. Generally radical initiation is used
(including living polymerization methods), but anionic polymerization of
PMMA can also be performed. To produce 1 kg of PMMA, about 2 kg of
petroleum is needed. PMMA produced by radical polymerization (all
commercial PMMA) is and completely amorphous. The glass transition
temperatures of commercial grades of PMMA range from 85 to 165 °C; the
range is so wide because of the vast number of commercial compositions
which are copolymers with comonomers other than methyl methacrylate.
To create the current required model several rectangular blocks of 4mm thick
Perspex sheets were glued together; rectangular assembly was prepared
instead of a cylindrical assembly as this assembly is hard to manufacture and
in rectangular cavities it is easier to vary the shape. To do this cyanoacrylate
cement was used, more commonly known as superglue, with heat (welding),
or by using solvents such as di or trichloromethane to dissolve the plastic at
the joint which then fuses and sets, forming an almost invisible weld.
Scratches may easily be removed by polishing or by heating the surface of
the material. This method was carried out as it is easier to be carried out in a
workshop with the simplest of the tools.
PMMA is a strong and lightweight material. It has a density of 1.17–1.20
g/cm3, which is less than half that of glass. It also has good impact strength,
higher than both glass and polystyrene. PMMA ignites at 460 °C (860 °F) and
burns, forming carbon dioxide, water, carbon monoxide and low molecular
weight compounds, including formaldehyde. PMMA transmits up to 92% of
visible light (3 mm thickness).
23  P a g e
PMMA swells and dissolves in many organic solvents; it also has poor
resistance to many other chemicals on account of its easily hydrolysed ester
groups. Nevertheless, its environmental stability is superior to most other
plastics such as polystyrene and polyethylene, and PMMA is therefore often
the material of choice for outdoor applications.
PMMA has maximum water absorption ratio of 0.3–0.4% by weight. Tensile
strength decreases with increased water absorption. Its coefficient of thermal
expansion is relatively high as (5–10)×10−5 /K.
The thermal conductivity coefficient (K value) of PERSPEX™ and glass
3 mm single pane  5.6 W/mK for glass 5.2 W/mK for Perspex
5 mm single pane  5.5 W/mK for glass 4.9 W/mK for Perspex
3.4.2 HEATING SYSTEM
The heater is made of a resistive coil, which then induces heat to a steel plate
that heats the fluid as it is in direct contact with the fluid. Steel is used as it
is a good conductor of heat, it can withstand high operational temperatures
and is easier to obtain. The steel plate is in contact with the heater coil on
the other side which is attached to it and this setup is insulated using glass
wool.
Glass wool is an insulating material made from fiberglass, arranged into a
texture similar to wool. Glass wool is produced in rolls or in slabs, with
different thermal and mechanical properties. Glass wool is a thermal
insulation that consists of intertwined and flexible glass fibres, which causes
it to "package" air, resulting in a low density that can be varied through
compression and binder content. Due to the presence of the binding material
and the presence of air “package” it provides great insulation to heat and
heat loss is highly avoided. It can be a loose fill material, blown into attics,
or, together with an active binder sprayed on the underside of structures,
sheets and panels that can be used to insulate flat surfaces such as cavity
wall insulation, ceiling tiles, curtain walls as well as ducting. It is also used to
insulate piping and for soundproofing.
PID controller is used to supply heat to the heater. A heating element in a
setup needs to be provided with a control system which consists of a closed
loop feedback mechanism to maintain either a constant temperature or a
constant heat flux condition. The simplest controllers consist of a simple
automatic ONOFF switch which operates in accordance with the feedback
received from the heating element. Even the most complex heater have the
same mechanisms, these are constant temperature based heating elements.
24  P a g e
This constant switching of power supply creates a constant residual in the
system thus leading to undesirable variation of the temperature values. The
sensed temperature is the process value or process variable (PV). The
desired temperature is called the setpoint (SP). The input to the process (the
water valve position) is called the manipulated variable (MV). The difference
between the temperature measurement and the setpoint is the error (e) and
quantifies whether the water is too hot or too cold and by how much.
Figure 3.9: PID block diagram
The most common type of controller used is a proportional–integral–
derivative controller (PID controller) which is a generic control loop feedback
mechanism (controller). A PID controller calculates an "error" value as the
difference between a measured process variable and a desired setpoint
which is the value of the temperature set by the user. The controller
attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the process control inputs.
These parameter P, I and D can be controlled individually or with
combination to each other as the following combinations P, I, PI, PD or PID.
PI controllers are fairly common, since derivative action is sensitive to
measurement noise, whereas the absence of an integral term may prevent
the system from reaching its target value due to the control action.
While adjusting the process control inputs the controller uses the value of
proportional–integral–derivative coefficients in the equation to dampen the
value of error so as to remove the residual or a constant error in the system
and to achieve a constant temperature from the heating element.
If the details or information of the process is unknown, a PID controller is the
most useful controller. By maintaining the three parameters in the PID
controller algorithm, the controller can provide control action designed for
specific process requirements. The response of the controller can be described
in terms of the responsiveness of the controller to an error, the degree to
which the controller overshoots the setpoint and the degree of system
25  P a g e
oscillation. Though, the use of the PID algorithm for control does not
guarantee optimal control of the system or system stability.
After measuring the temperature (PV), and then calculating the error, the
controller decides when to change the measured value (MV) and by how
much. When the controller first passes the current to the heating element, it
may heat the element only slightly if increase in temperature is desired, or it
may pass a large amount of current if high temperature is desired. This is an
example of a simple proportional control. In the event that the current does
not arrive quickly, the controller may try to speedup the process by passing
moreandmore current as time goes by. This is an example of an integral
control.
Making a change that is too large when the error is small is equivalent to a
high gain controller and will lead to overshoot. If the controller were to
repeatedly make changes that were too large and repeatedly overshoot the
target, the output would oscillate around the setpoint in either a constant
growing or decaying sinusoid. If the oscillations increase with time then the
system is unstable, whereas if they decrease the system is stable. If the
oscillations remain at a constant magnitude the system is marginally stable.
In the interest of achieving a gradual convergence at the desired temperature
(SP), the controller may wish to damp the anticipated future oscillations. So in
order to compensate for this effect, the controller may elect to temper their
adjustments. This can be thought of as a derivative control method.
If a controller starts from a stable state at zero error (PV = SP), then further
changes by the controller will be in response to changes in other measured or
unmeasured inputs to the process that impact on the process, and hence on
the PV. Variables that impact on the process other than the MV are known as
disturbances. Generally controllers are used to reject disturbances and/or
implement setpoint changes. Changes in temperature of the heating element
constitute a disturbance to the temperature control process.
A controller can be used to control any process which has a measurable
output (PV), a known ideal value for that output (SP) and an input to the
process (MV) that will affect the relevant PV. Controllers are used in industry
to regulate temperature, pressure, flow rate, chemical composition, speed and
practically every other variable for which a measurement exists.
26  P a g e
3.4.2.1 PID CONTROLLER THEORY
The PID control scheme is named after its three correcting terms, whose sum
constitutes the manipulated variable (MV). The proportional, integral, and
derivative terms are summed to calculate the output of the PID controller.
Defining u(t) as the controller output, the final form of the PID algorithm is:
() ()
p
()
i ∫ ()
d
() (3.4.2.1)
K
p
: Proportional gain, a tuning parameter
K
i
: Integral gain, a tuning parameter
K
d
: Derivative gain, a tuning parameter
e: Error = SP − PV
t: Time or instantaneous time (the present)
P
out
: Proportional term of output
3.4.2.2 PROPORTIONAL TERM
Figure 3.10: PV vs time, for three values of Kp (Ki and Kd held constant)
The proportional term makes a change to the output that is proportional to
the current error value. The proportional response can be adjusted by
multiplying the error by a constant Kp, called the proportional gain.
The proportional term is given by:
() (3.4.2.2)
A high proportional gain results in a large change in the output for a given
change in the error. If the proportional gain is too high, the system can
become unstable.[note 3] In contrast, a small gain results in a small output
response to a large input error, and a less responsive or less sensitive
27  P a g e
controller. If the proportional gain is too low, the control action may be too
small when responding to system disturbances. Tuning theory and industrial
practice indicate that the proportional term should contribute the bulk of the
output change.[citation needed]
3.4.2.3 DROOP
A pure proportional controller will not always settle at its target value, but
may retain a steadystate error. Specifically, drift in the absence of control,
such as cooling of a furnace towards room temperature, biases a pure
proportional controller. If the drift is downwards, as in cooling, then the bias
will be below the set point, hence the term "droop".
Droop is proportional to process gain and inversely proportional to
proportional gain. Specifically the steadystate error is given by:
⁄ (3.4.2.3)
Droop is an inherent defect of purely proportional control. Droop may be
mitigated by adding a compensating bias term (setting the setpoint above the
true desired value), or corrected by adding an integral term.
3.4.2.4 INTEGRAL TERM
Figure3: PV vs time, for three values of Ki (Kp and Kd held constant)
The contribution from the integral term is proportional to both the magnitude
of the error and the duration of the error. The integral in in a PID controller is
the sum of the instantaneous error over time and gives the accumulated
28  P a g e
offset that should have been corrected previously. The accumulated error is
then multiplied by the integral gain (Ki) and added to the controller output.
The integral term is given by:
∫ ()
(3.4.2.4)
The integral term accelerates the movement of the process towards setpoint
and eliminates the residual steadystate error that occurs with a pure
proportional controller. However, since the integral term responds to
accumulated errors from the past, it can cause the present value to overshoot
the setpoint value.
3.4.2.5 DERIVATIVE TERM
Figure 3.11: PV vs time, for three values of Kd (Kp and Ki held constant)
The derivative of the process error is calculated by determining the slope of
the error over time and multiplying this rate of change by the derivative gain
Kd. The magnitude of the contribution of the derivative term to the overall
control action is termed the derivative gain, Kd.
The derivative term is given by:
() (3.4.2.5)
The derivative term slows the rate of change of the controller output.
Derivative control is used to reduce the magnitude of the overshoot produced
29  P a g e
by the integral component and improve the combined controllerprocess
stability. However, the derivative term slows the transient response of the
controller. Also, differentiation of a signal amplifies noise and thus this term in
the controller is highly sensitive to noise in the error term, and can cause a
process to become unstable if the noise and the derivative gain are sufficiently
large. Hence an approximation to a differentiator with a limited bandwidth is
more commonly used. Such a circuit is known as a PhaseLead compensator.
3.4.2.6 LOOP TUNING
Tuning a control loop is the adjustment of its control parameters
(gain/proportional band, integral gain/reset, derivative gain/rate) to the
optimum values for the desired control response. Stability (bounded
oscillation) is a basic requirement, but beyond that, different systems have
different behavior, different applications have different requirements, and
requirements may conflict with one another.
There are various tuning methods to make appropriate adjustments that lead
to a perfectly tuned setup with no oscillations and residuals. In our case we
used manual trial and error method which requires no mathematics but lead
to a proper understanding of the tuning method and effects of each and every
coefficient. Other popular methods include ZeiglerNicholas method, some
software tools or CohenCoon model.
3.4.2.7 SHORTCOMINGS OF PID CONTROLLER
While PID controllers are applicable to many control problems, and often
perform satisfactorily without any improvements or even tuning, they can
perform poorly in some applications, and do not in general provide optimal
control. The fundamental difficulty with PID control is that it is a feedback
system, with constant parameters, and no direct knowledge of the process,
and thus overall performance is reactive and a compromise – while PID
control is the best controller with no model of the process, better performance
can be obtained by incorporating a model of the process.
The most significant improvement is to incorporate feedforward control with
knowledge about the system, and using the PID only to control error.
Alternatively, PIDs can be modified in more minor ways, such as by changing
the parameters (either gain scheduling in different use cases or adaptively
modifying them based on performance), improving measurement (higher
sampling rate, precision, and accuracy, and lowpass filtering if necessary), or
cascading multiple PID controllers.
PID controllers, when used alone, can give poor performance when the PID
loop gains must be reduced so that the control system does not overshoot,
30  P a g e
oscillate or hunt about the control setpoint value. They also have difficulties in
the presence of nonlinearities, may trade off regulation versus response
time, do not react to changing process behavior (say, the process changes
after it has warmed up), and have lag in responding to large disturbances.
3.5 COOLING SYSTEM
The cooling system is placed at the other end of the cavity from the heater.
The cooling system is a cavity in itself and is connected to a cooling water
supply which maintains the temperature of the other end of the wall. The
cavity is made of tin which is used due to its conductive properties but it also
has considerable thermal resistance which maintains constant and controlled
heat supply.
The water is supplied continuously from a storage system which uses a
submersible pump to give a constant supply of water through inlet and outlet
valve. Resistive Thermal Devices are put at both the inlet and outlet valve of
the cooling system to retrieve the temperature at the same time interval as
that of the test fluid. The temperature variation pattern obtained is in
accordance with the rise of the temperature of the testing fluid. The cooling
fluid heats up as it extracts heat from the test fluid and the temperature
increment follows a parabolic path as clear from the graphical plots between
the inlet and outlet temperature and time.
The variation between the temperature of the upper layers of the fluid and
the cooling plate is due to presence of air gap which acts as a thermal
dielectric and restricts free passage of air. The air gap is present due to
constructional errors in the setup and is avoided as far as it‟s possible by
using a suction system to create vacuum and fill it with the test fluid.
3.6 RESISTIVE THERMAL DEVICES
Resistance thermometers or resistance temperature detectors are
temperature sensing devices that advantage from the predictable change in
electrical resistance of some materials with changing temperature. As they
are almost invariably made of platinum, they are often called platinum
resistance thermometers (PRTs). They are slowly replacing the use of
thermocouples in many industrial applications below 600 °C, due to higher
accuracy and repeatability.
Resistance thermometers are constructed in a number of forms and offer
greater stability, accuracy and repeatability in some cases than
thermocouples. While thermocouples use the Seebeck effect to generate a
voltage, resistance thermometers use electrical resistance and require a
31  P a g e
power source to operate. The resistance ideally varies linearly with
temperature.
Resistance thermometers are usually made using platinum, because of its
linear resistancetemperature relationship and its chemical inertness. The
platinum detecting wire needs to be kept free of contamination to remain
stable. A platinum wire or film is supported on a former in such a way that it
gets minimal differential expansion or other strains from its former, yet is
reasonably resistant to vibration.
5 RTD‟s are used out of which 3 of them are used for acquisition of
temperature of the test fluid and the other 2 are exploited for the cooling
fluid. The RTD‟s height can be varied thus temperature at different heights
within various fluids can be retrieved, but they are at constant distance from
each other at all times. The RTD‟s are connected to an 8 channel data logger
which is also the power supply for the RTD‟s.
3.7 6CHANNEL DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM
Multimeters though being precise are ineffective when used for data
collection from multiple points and also when a power supply is needed for
the probes like RTD‟s. Thus, an externally powered data logging system is
used which can collect data from multiple probes at a given instance of time.
These data points collected are more accurate as compared to multimeters
as data acquisition systems sensitivity is higher.
A manually controlled 6channel data logging system is used to collect the
data from the RTD‟s. The data was displayed depending on which probe is
under observation which could be changed by turning the knob at the front
end of the data logger. The least count of the data logger is 0.01oC. The data
logger can directly produce the temperature of the sample instead of voltage
characteristic which is received in a multimeter, thus the time and man
power required for charting calibration characteristics and data interpretation
can be saved by using such systems for data acquisition.
32  P a g e
3.8 MEASUREMENT APPROACH
Nanofluid would be introduced in the Plexiglass enclosure and heated by
means of the heating coil present at the bottom. Heat would be removed
from the top by circulating cold water. Temperature distribution throughout
the nanofluid volume would be determined by moving three Resistive
Temperature Detectors (RTDs) through the length of the enclosure. To
determine thermal conductivity of nanofluid undergoing natural convection, a
thin silver wire of negligible resistance would be introduced through the slot
shown in the picture above. The change in resistance of the silver wire would
give corresponding change in thermal conductivity of surrounding medium
(nanofluid). Data collection from RTDs and control of heating coil energy
consumption would be done by using a common datalogger and controlling
system.
3.9 PREPARING THE NANOFLUIDS
After acquiring the apparatus (shown above), the next task was to prepare
the nanoparticle solution. We prepared the copper oxide nanofluid using two
step method. The first step was the production of nanoparticles which was
done with the help of “Electric wire explosion technique”. The size of the
nanoparticles was reported to be 70nm. In the second step, the copper oxide
nanoparticles were mixed in water and agitated with the help ultrasonic
agitator or sonicator. CTAB was used as a surfactant which was procured
from “Applied Sciences and Humanities” Departments. We used the sonicator
available in the Chemical Engineering Department of SVNIT. The mixture was
agitated at 30KHz for 15 minutes. Settling times for nanofluids of different
concentrations was investigated.
Copper nanoparticles (Quantity: 22 grams) have been procured from
Neo Ecosystems and Software Limited, Dehradun.
Mode of Preparation: WEE (Wire Electrical Explosion)
Diameter: 70 nm
Purity: 99.7 %
Diameter: 70nm
Surface area: 3.88m
2
/gm
Density: 7.9 g/cc
The nanofluid was prepared by taking specific percentage of nanoparticles by
volume fraction, e.g., for preparing a 1% solution of Cu nanofluid, 99 ml (99
gms) of water was added drop wise from a burette to a test tube containing
7.9 gms (1 cc) of Cu nanoparticles. The mixture was then subject to
ultrasonic agitation at 30kHz for 15 minutes.
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Figure 3.12: SEM photograph of nanoparticles
34  P a g e
Figure 3.13: Nanoparticle solution in water (2.5% by volume), prepared by ultrasonic agitation
at 30 kHz.
Figure 3.14 Nanoparticle solution after 4 hours
(Settling begins)
35  P a g e
The observations recorded were:
1. The nanoparticles started settling at the bottom of the test tube, after a
period of 6 hours.
2. the nanoparticles started sticking to the glass walls of the test tube.
In order to take care of these problems, a surfactant CTAB was used. The
surface active agent was influential in controlling the agglomeration of
nanoparticles as well as their sticking to the glass walls. However the settling
time could not be extended.
3.10 PROCEDURE
First, the remaining vital components of the experimental setup, viz. Cooling
water pump, datalogger and controlling system and silver wire would be
procured. Next, necessary circuits for resistance measurement of silver wire
would be fabricated. Then measurements with single fluid (water) will be
carried out followed by the introduction of nanofluids of different
concentrations.
The setup consists of a heater plate at the base which is heated with the
help of a power supply controller based on the PID technology. The PID
controller takes feedback from the heater and then controls the power
supply accordingly to maintain a constant temperature at the plate. The
heater is maintained at a constant temperature of 55
o
C.
The setup consists of a rectangular vertical section which is made up of Poly
methyl methacrylate. Resistive thermal devices are used for temperature
sensing purposes. In the first case the RTD‟s are kept at a constant distance
from the heater and from each other, thus their height remains constant.
Using these values obtained at a constant time interval of 2 minutes and a
temperature variation profile with respect to time is generated.
In the second case the RTD‟s are placed at varied heights from the heater,
with probe 1, probe 2 and probe 3 being at a distance of 5cm, 2cm and 8cm
respectively and at a constant distance from each other. The temperature
variation is collected at constant time interval of 2 minutes and this data is
plotted as well.
The temperature of the cooling fluid placed at the other end of the setup is
also collected at the same time intervals as that of the test fluid. The
temperature of the cooling system also increases continuously following
almost a linear path.
36  P a g e
A drastic temperature difference between the top layer of the fluid under
study and the cooling fluid is observed which can be attributed to the small
air gap which being a bad conductor of heat creates a huge variation of
temperature. This leads to an interesting observation that the variation of
temperature due to presence of air gap can be as high as 10 degree Celsius
even if its thickness is as low as few millimetres.
37  P a g e
3.11 RESULTS
Figure 3.15 :Temperature vs Time graph for constant probe height
Figure 3.16: Temperature deviation vs Time for constant probe height
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 50 60
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
o
C
)
Time (min)
Temperature vs. Time
probe 1
probe 2
probe 3
average
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 50 60
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
o
C
)
Time (min)
Temperature deviation vs. Time
probe 1
probe 2
probe 3
average
38  P a g e
Figure 3.17: Absolute Temperature vs. Time for constant probe height
Figure 3.18: Absolute Temperature vs. Time for constant probe height
25
30
35
40
45
50
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
o
C
)
Time (min)
Absolute Temp. Avg.
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
1.80
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
o
C
)
Time (min)
39  P a g e
Figure 3.19: Temperature vs Time with different probe heights
Figure 3.20: Temperature deviation vs Time with different probe heights
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
o
C
)
Time (min)
Temperature increment vs. Time
probe 1
probe 2
probe 3
average
temperatur
e
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
d
e
v
i
a
t
i
o
n
(
o
C
)
Time (min)
Temperature deviation vs. Time
probe 1
probe 2
probe 3
Average
40  P a g e
Figure 3.21: Absolute temperatire vs. Time with different probe heights
Figure 3.22: Average Temperature deviation vs Time with different probe heights
25
30
35
40
45
50
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
o
C
)
Time (min)
Absolute temp average vs. Time
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
o
C
)
Time (min)
Average temperature deviation vs. Time
41  P a g e
(a)
(b)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
o
C
)
Time (min)
Temperature variation across wall (bottom) vs Time
probe 1 (bottom)
probe 2 (bottom)
probe 3 (bottom)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
o
C
)
Time (min)
Temperature variation across wall (middle) vs Time
probe 1 (middle)
probe 2 (middle)
probe 3 (middle)
42  P a g e
(c)
Figure 3.23(a), (b), (c): Transient temperature profile at varying positions across the wall
Figure 3.24: Transient temperature profile at varying heights (probe 2)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
o
C
)
Time (min)
Temperature variation across wall (top) vs Time
probe 1 (top)
probe 2 (top)
probe 3 (top)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
o
C
)
Time (min)
Temperature variation across the height (probe 2) vs
Time
Probe 2 bottom
Probe 2 middle
Probe 2 top
43  P a g e
3.12 CONCLUSION
Thus, it is observed that with passage of time, the temperature of the heater
considered constant as set, the temperature of the test fuid increases and
very soon reaches a stable contdition with low deviation in temperature
increment, also at different heights in the same plane in the cavity the
temperature varies due to natural convection and bouyancy effects. This is in
coherence with the natural convection theory and results from numerical
simulation as the fluid stops the mutual heat tranfer after reaching a certain
limiting value of temperature.
NOTE: Due to lack of instruments and lack of availability of proper stabilizers
and surfactants, stable nanofluids couldn‟t be produced in lab. Thus, water
was used as test fluid to study the effects of heat transfer and natural
convection due to heat transfer.
44  P a g e
4. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SINGLE PHASE MODEL
4.1 INTRODUCTION
Considering the difficulties in the experimental approach of studying nanofluids,
computational simulation of the nanofluid in different scenarios has become an
important tool. Lots of efforts have been put by various researchers but yet no
standardized equations have been put forward to completely predict the heat
transfer behaviour of the nanofluid. One of the reasons is the ambiguity
regarding the behaviour of nanoparticles in the nanofluid. As discussed in the
literature review, the variation of the thermal conductivity and rheology of the
nanofluid are not clearly understood and modeled. There are two approaches to
study nanofluid: Single phase approach and multiphase approach. Xuan and
Roetzel [4] proposed a single phase homogeneous flow model where the
convective transport equations of pure fluids are directly extended to nanofluids
with the properties of pure fluids replaced by those of nanofluids. Buongiorno
[10] proposed a multiphase or “two fluid” model in which he proposed on more
equation of particle mass diffusion in addition to standard continuity, momentum
and energy equations. It is not clear yet whether the single phase or multiphase
approach predicts the heat transfer behaviour of nanofluid more successfully.
In this chapter, the details of numerical simulation of buoyancy driven flow for
copperwater nanofluid in a 2D cavity are given. Single phase approach is used.
Nanofluid is considered to be incompressible and steady flow is assumed. Patel
et al. [3] model is used for calculating thermal conductivity of nanofluid. It is
considered to be best option because it explicitly includes the effect of Brownian
motion which is considered to be most important factor for the heat
augmentation in nanofluid in the present times. Nanofluid is considered to be
Newtonian and nonNewtonian and a comparative study has been presented.
Brinkmann model [7] is used to calculate the viscosity for Newtonian fluid and
Ostwaldde Waele model [18] (two parameter power law model) is used for non
Newtonian behavior of fluid. Governing equations are converted to stream
function – vorticity form. Finite difference approach has been used to discretized
these equations. These discretized equations are solved implicitly by Gauss
Siedel –Successive Over Relaxation method.
4.2 PROBLEM DEFINITION
Buoyancy driven flow of nanofluid in a 2D square enclosure is considered for
analysis as shown in fig1. Copper particles of 100 nm diameter are taken as
nanopaticles and water as a base fluid. Nanofluid is assumed to be
incompressible. The side walls of the enclosure are kept at constant temperature
T
H
(30 C)
and T
C
(20 C) where T
C
is taken as reference temperature. The top
45  P a g e
and bottom walls are considered to be insulated i.e. nonconducting. The
boundaries have noslip tangential and zero normal velocity boundary condition.
Nanoparticles are of same shape and size. Density gradients are considered only
in the buoyancy force with the help of Boussinesq approximation.
Insulated
Nanofluid
Y T
H
h g T
C
l
X
Figure 4.1  Physical model of the problem.
4.3 NUMERICAL METHOD
4.3.1 STREAM FUNCTION VORTICITY METHOD
For the incompressible flow, the density is constant and thus the NavierStokes
equation is decoupled with the energy equation. Though we have two equations
and two unknowns i.e. velocity V and pressure P, but there is no direct link for
the pressure between the continuity and momentum equations. To establish a
connection between the two equations, mathematical manipulations are
introduced. One of the simplest methods to solve incompressible flow equations
is stream function vorticity method. The momentum equations are converted to
vorticity equation in such a way that pressure term is removed and continuity
equation is satisfied by using definition of vorticity in terms of stream function
(kinematic equation)
Vorticity transport equation:
(
) (4.1)
Stream function equation:
(4.2)
46  P a g e
From the stream function values, the velocity field can be calculated. The only
drawback of this method is that it is applicable to only 2D flows as stream
function is defined only for 2D (Though few researchers tried to use it for 3D but
it turned out to be really cumbersome).
4.3.2 DISCRETIZATION TECHNIQUE
Such partial differential equations cannot be solved by standard integration
techniques. So this type of equations is converted into algebraic equations by
different discretization techniques. There are three discretization techniques:
1. Finite Difference approach
2. Finite volume approach
3. Finite element approach
Finite difference approach has been used here because of its simplicity. It uses
Taylor‟s expansion to give approximation of different differential terms.
4.3.3 GAUSS SIEDEL SUCCESSIVE OVER RELAXATION METHOD
The algebraic equations obtained after discretization are solved by GSSOR. It is
an iterative method. Implicit approach has been used i.e. initial conditions are
assumed for the whole grid. Then from every governing equation, one variable is
calculated for the given grid (in this case 2D cavity) and this goes on till the
difference between the variables in successive steps is lower than a residual
value. A residual of 10
7
is taken.
Convective term in the NavierStokes equation is considered to be nonlinear
term as coefficient of variable is varying with it. This term makes most of the
numerical methods unstable. To solve this problem, upwinding scheme is used
and all the major variables are properly underrelaxed.
4.3.4 CODE DEVELOPMENT
A code has been developed for the natural convection in the 2D cavity with one
wall heated and other cooled. Standard results for different Rayleigh number are
available in the literature. A comparision of the results obtained with the
developed code is presented in table 1.
Table 4.1: Validation of the results by comparing Nusselt number (Nu) for different Raleigh
number (Ra)
Rayleigh number (Ra) Present De Vahl Davis Khanafer Fusegi
10
4
2.237 2.243 2.245 2.302
10
5
4.539 4.519 4.522 4.646
10
6
8.834 8.799 8.826 9.012
47  P a g e
Also it is required to check whether the grid size used is sufficient or not.
Optimum grid size is the size after which any further increase in size will not
affect the result. Also large grid size is not favourable as it will increase the
computational labour. Grid independence check is done. The solutions obtained
by 151 × 151 and 181 ×181 grids have negligible difference. Hence all the
solutions reported here are obtained using uniform grid of size 151 × 151.
4.4 MATHEMATICAL MODEL
4.4.1 MODELS FOR CALCULATING PROPERTIES OF NANOFLUID
The effective thermophysical properties were calculated as function of
properties of both constituents and their respective concentrations. Thus, all
equations of conservation were directly extended to nanofluids. The major
properties affecting the flow and heat transfer are viscosity, heat capacity,
density, thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity. These
properties are calculated for the nanofluids using the suitable models proposed
by different researchers. The effective density (ρ
nf
) and heat capacity (ρc
p
)
nf
of
the nanofluid in the present work are calculated from the classical formulation
for two phase mixure proposed by in the Xuan and Roetzel []:
( )
(4.3)
(
)
( )(
)
(
)
(4.4)
Similarly effective thermal expansion coefficient is calculated by
( )()
()
(4.5)
The model proposed by Patel et al. is considered the best option for calculating
the effective thermal conductivity because it includes the effect of micro
convection in addition to conduction through liquid and conduction through solid
and thus defines the change of thermal conductivity with the change in
temperature. Here, it is assumed that the liquid medium and the nanoparticles
are in local thermal equilibrium at each location, and so the temperature
gradients in liquid and solid phases are the same. Patel et al. has assumed only
onedirectional heat transfer in their model. Thus particle movement (by
Brownian motion) in one direction only will be helpful in increasing the heat
transfer.
48  P a g e
(4.6)
Where
(4.7)
Here the Peclet number is defined as
and the Brownian motion velocity
given by
; where k
b
is the Boltzmann constant, μ
f
is the dynamic
viscosity of the base fluid, d
p
is the diameter of the nano particle, d
f
is the size of
the molecules of base fluid and α
f
is the thermal diffusivity of the base fluid.
The variation of viscosity with particle volume fraction () is given by
brinkmann model for Newtonian nanofluid. For the nonNewtonian fluid, the
variation of the viscosity does not depend on any direct corelation but depends
on the shear rates (which are influenced by velocity field) and thus indirectly
incorporate the effect of volume fraction on viscosity. The Ostwaldde Waele
model is used for estimation of viscosity and is discussed in the next section.
Properties of water and copper at 20 C are given in table 2.
Table 4.2  Thermophysical properties oI Copper and water at 20 C
Property Fluid (water) Solid (copper)
( ⁄ ) 4181.80 383.1
(
⁄ ) 1000.52 8954.0
( ⁄ ) 0.597 386.0
(
) 210.0 x 10
6
51.0 x 10
6
4.4.2 GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER
The governing equations for the two dimensional, steady, incompressible, single
phase model of the thermally driven nanofluid are as follows:
Continuity equation:
(4.8)
XMomentum equation:
(
)
*
+
(4.9)
49  P a g e
YMomentum equation:
(
)
*
+
(
) (4.10)
Energy Equation:
(
)
*
+ (4.11)
Where
(
)
(4.12)
For nonNewtonian model of nanofluid:
The relationship between the shear rate and shear stress is given by Ostwald
model:
[√
(̇ ̇ )
] ̇ (4.13)
Where
(̇ ̇ ) {(
)
(
)
} (
)
(4.14)
Thus the tensor stresses of equation (4.9) and (4.10) can be written as
{[[ {(
)
(
)
} (
)
]

]}(
) (4.15)
{[[ {(
)
(
)
} (
)
]

]}(
) (4.16)
50  P a g e
{[[ {(
)
(
)
} (
)
]

]}(
) (4.17)
where m and n are empirical constants that depend on the volume fraction
and type of the nanofluid. The values given in the table 3 were interpolated by
Santra et al. [12] from the experimental results of Putra et al. [8]. Putra et al.
[8] had shown the relation between shear stress and shear strain for Al
2
O
3
water
nanofluid for the solid volume fraction of 1% and 4%. Same results for the
calculations of Cu
Table 4.3  Values of fluid index behaviour parameter.
Solid volume fraction (ϕ) (%)
m (Nsec
n
m
2
) n
0.5 0.0187 0.880
1 0.00230 0.830
2 0.00347 0.730
3 0.00535 0.625
4 0.00750 0.540
5 0.01020 0.460
water nanofluid are used in this work. The decreasing value of n indicates that
the nanofluid will behave as shear thinning liquid.
For Newtonian model of nanofluid:
By substituting m=μ
nf
and n=1 in the equations (4.154.17), it can be seen that
correlations for Newtonian fluid are obtained. Viscosity in this case is given by
Brinkmann model as
()
(4.18)
51  P a g e
4.4.3 NON DIMENSIONAL FORM OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS
The governing equations are nondimensionalized using the following scales:
,
,
,
(
)
,
,
(
)
and
where nondimensional terms Gr and Pr are Grashof number and Prandtl number
respectively corresponding to the properties of the base fluid. The non
dimensional equations are as follows:
Nondimensional continuity equation:
(4.19)
Nondimensional Xmomentum equation:
*
+ (4.20)
Nondimensional Ymomentum equation:
*
+
(4.21)
Nondimensional energy equation:
*
+
(4.22)
In the equations (4.20) and (4.21), the term
is given by
For nonNewtonian approach:
(
)
[ {(
)
(
)
} (
)
]

(4.23)
For Newtonian approach
(4.24)
52  P a g e
4.4.4 Nusselt number calculation
The local Nusselt number is calculated as:
(4.25)
The average nusselt number over the hot surface is given by
̅̅̅̅
∫
4.5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The analysis of flow and heat transfer for copperwater nanofluid in the range of
Ra = 10
4
to 10
6
and volume fraction ϕ = 0% to 5% is presented here. Prandtl
number of water at 20 C is taken as 7.02. The value of constant „c‟ appearing in
the thermal conductivity model is taken as 2.5 x 10
4
.
4.5.1 INFLUENCE OF SOLID VOLUME FRACTION
From the figure 3(a), it can be seen that the vertical velocity near the hot wall is
high. This is because the fluid becomes lighter when comes in contact with the
hot surface and thus a density gradient is generated. The lighter fluid is pushed
in upward direction by the buoyancy effect. But the velocity at the wall should be
zero. Thus the vertical velocity increases from zero to maximum and velocity
boundary layer is generated near the hot wall. The vertical velocity decreases
towards the centre of the cavity because the density gradient is negligible in this
region. The opposite effect is created at the cold wall i.e. the higher vertical
velocity but in the downward direction.
Similarly the horizontal velocities are high near the horizontal walls (figure 3b).
This clearly indicates that circular motion is taking place inside the cavity under
the effect of natural convection. This is also indicated by the contour of stream
lines (figure 5). The velocities are algebraically governed by the spatial gradient
of stream function values. Thus, closely spaced stream lines near the walls
indicate higher velocities while sparse stream lines indicate lower velocities.
Higher the flow velocity more is the convected heat indicating higher heat
transfer. But due to convection of the heat, the formation of the thermal
boundary layer is hindered. Thus smaller the thermal boundary layer, higher is
the heat transfer from wall. The temperature at the core is constant due to
almost zero absolute velocity at the core (figure 3c).When the heat transfer from
the wall is high, the isotherms are almost horizontal for the core region and
53  P a g e
becomes vertical in the thermal boundary layer region (figure 6). The closely
spaced isotherms indicate a very high temperature gradient near the wall and
thus high heat transfer.
Newtonian behaviour means that the viscocity is constant for a particular
volume fraction ϕ. The increase in the viscocity with ϕ is given by the Brinkmann
model. But there is also an increase in thermal conductivity with ϕ. Thus heat
flow through conduction increases. This leads to higher density gradients. Thus
the velocity of flow increases with ϕ in Newtonian model (figure 3a and 3b).
Same thing can be observed in stream contours in figure 5. The value of the
stream line is zero at the wall and thus the value of innermost streamline
governs the gradient of the streamlines from wall to centre of the cavity. As the
ϕ increases, the value of innermost stream line is increasing indicating increase
in velocity.
With the increase in the velocity, the heat transfer by fluid from wall will also
increase. So the thermal boundary layer will decrease with ϕ (figure 3c). In the
figure 6, the isotherms get closer near the wall with increase in ϕ indicating
higher temperature gradient. Thus effective heat transfer will increase with ϕ.
Thus it can be concluded that rise in viscocity is not sufficient to affect the flow
and heat transfer in case of Newtonian model.
For the NonNewtonian model, the rise in viscocity is dependent on velocity
gradient. It will vary inside the cavity (figure 4).Now as the volume fraction
increases; the viscosity will also increase (much larger compared to Newtonian
viscosity model). The value of viscosity for nonNewtonian model reaches to the
order of 10
1
whereas when calculated by Brinkmann model (Newtonian
approach) viscosity is of the order of 10
3
for ϕ < 5%. Thus when nanofluid is
considered nonNewtonian, vertical and horizontal velocity will decrease with
increase in ϕ which can be seen in figures 3(a) and 3(b). This is because (1) the
rise in the value of viscosity in Newtonian model is very less compared to non
Newtonian model and (2) as buoyancy driven flow is considered here, velocity is
dependent on heat transfer. It can be seen in figure 5 that for nonNewtonian
model (values in bold) the value of innermost streamline tends towards zero.
This shows decrease in the flow with increase in ϕ.
The rise in thermal conductivity is almost same as Newtonian model for a
particular ϕ (There will be some difference because thermal conductivity model
includes effect of Brownian motion. The thermal conductivity will change with
temperature). But the effective heat transfer decreases with ϕ because velocity
of flow is decreasing. Thus thermal boundary layer will increase with ϕ (figure
3c). Degradation of effective heat transfer is also indicated by isotherms (figure
6). As the value of ϕ increases, the isotherms tend to become vertical in the
central core region. This indicates increase in the thermal boundary layer and
54  P a g e
the diffusive heat transfer. But the spacing between the isotherms near the wall
increases with ϕ which shows that heat transfer is decreasing.
Thus it can be summed up that for Newtonian and nonNewtonian model, the
increase in the conductive heat transfer is the same for a particular volume
fraction but convective heat transfer is
more in case of Newtonian model.
(a) (d)
(f)
(b) (e)
(c) (f)
55  P a g e
Figure 4.2  (a, d) Variation of vertical velocity (v) with vertical direction (y) at x= 0.5; (b, e)
variation of horizontal velocity with x at y = 0.5; (c, f) variation of temperature with x at y = 0.5
for Newtonian model (left) and nonNewtonian model (right) of nanofluid at Ra = 10
6
.
(a) (b)
Figure 4.3  Isotherms for Newtonian (dashed lines) and nonNewtonian nanofluid at Ra = 10
6
;
(a) ϕ = 0%, (b) ϕ = 2%
4.5.2 INFLUENCE OF THE RAYLEIGH NUMBER
Rayleigh number is the governed by Grashof and Prandtl number. Prandtl
number is dependent on the property of the fluid and is constant for a fluid but
Grashof number shows the influence of the buoyancy force. Thus, as the Ra
increases, the heat transfer by natural convection increases.
For Newtonian model, the viscocity is dependent only on volume fraction ϕ.
There is no influence of Rayleigh number (Ra) on the viscosity. For the constant
ϕ, the thermal conductivity remains constant (considering effect of temperature
to be small). So the diffusion heat transfer will be same for all Ra. But the
velocity of nanofluid will increase with Ra (figure 7a and 7b). Thus convective
heat transfer will increase with Ra and thermal boundary will decrease (figure
7c).
Also the nature of stream lines depict that with the increase in Ra, the centre
vortex breaks into two parts and centre of vortex moves away from the centre of
the cavity. This represents high velocities near the wall. The value of the
innermost stream line is also increasing with Ra indicating increase in velocity
56  P a g e
(figure 8). The isotherms are densely packed near the wall for higher Ra (figure
9). Thus, it is clear that effective heat will increase with the increase in Ra.
For the nonNewtonian model, the viscocity depends on the velocity gradient.
With decrease of Ra, the flow velocities will decrease (figure 7a and 7b). This will
increase the viscosity which will further resist the flow (figure 7d). Thus
effectively, the convective heat transfer will decrease.
The decrease in fluid velocity with decrease in Ra is also depicted by decreasing
value of innermost stream line (figure 8). The decrease of effective heat transfer
from wall with decrease in Ra is also shown by isotherms (figure 8). Heat
transfer is maximum for Ra= 10
6
which is denoted by the closely spaced
isotherms near the wall. The same pattern is observed for the other values of
volume fraction.
Thus as the viscosity is independent of Ra for Newtonian model, the effective
decrease in heat transfer with decrease in Ra will be more in case of non
Newtonian model.
4.5.3 VARIATION OF THE NUSSELT NUMBER
The relative strength of convective and conductive heat transfer is represented
by Nusselt number. This governs whether overall heat transfer augmentation is
taking place or not. The variation of the Nusselt number along the hot wall for
constant Ra= 10
6
and different values of ϕ is shown in figure 9. Figure 10 shows
this variation with Rayleigh number for constant ϕ = 0.5%. The Nusselt number
is high near the bottom of the hot wall showing the maximum heat transfer at
this place. This can be explained as new fluid comes in contact with the hot wall,
it takes away maximum heat and thus its temperature increases. When it goes
up by the buoyant force, its heat absorbing capacity decreases, thus Nusselt
number decreases.
From figure 9, it can be seen that for Newtonian model, maximum Nusselt
number value tends to increase with ϕ indicating increase in heat transfer. For
nonNewtonian model with the increase in ϕ the Nusselt number line tend to
become vertical. This shows lower heat transfer near bottom i.e. reduction in the
convective heat transfer.
57  P a g e
Figure 4.4  Variation of Nusselt number along the hot wall at different Ra (Newtonian)
Figure 9 shows the importance of the convective heat transfer in the overall heat
transfer and how drastically the Nusselt number falls with the decrease in the
Rayleigh number for both Newtonian and nonNewtonian model. Thus it can be
summed up that for nonNewtonian model with the increase in ϕ, the shear rate
decreases due to shear thinning behavior of the nanofluid. This causes a sharp
rise in the viscosity and effect of buoyancy driven flow decreases. Therefore the
convective heat transfer decreases and the increase in the thermal conductivity
is insufficient to recover the loss. Similar pattern was observed by Putra et al []
in his experimental work. On the contrary for Newtonian model, the viscosity
increase is small and does not affect the convective flow and thus there is
increase in heat transfer with increase in ϕ.
Figure 4.5  Variation of average Nusselt number with ϕ at different Ra for Newtonian (dashed
lines) and nonNewtonian nanofluid
58  P a g e
The pattern of variation of average Nusselt number for Newtonian and non
Newtonian model can be seen in the figure 11. It can be seen that the average
Nusselt number increases a bit for nonNewtonian model after ϕ= 3% for Ra=
10
4
and 10
5
. This can be attributed to the increase in thermal conductivity with
volume fraction after the flow has ceased at ϕ =3% due to drastic increase of
viscosity. But at Ra =10
6
, there is decrease in average Nusselt number till ϕ
=5% (as the rise in viscosity is low due to higher convective power represented
by higher Rayleigh number).
4.6 CONCLUSION
A numerical analysis for natural convection of copperwater nanofluid is carried
out considering the Brownian motion of the nanoparticles for thermal
conductivity and a comparative study is done for Newtonian and nonNewtonian
models for nanofluid viscosity. The present numerical study shows a
considerable decrease in heat transfer with increase in volume fraction of the
suspended particles for nonNewtonian model and increase in the heat transfer
for Newtonian model. This is observed for the entire range of Rayleigh number
considered here. The numerical results for nonNewtonian model are similar to
the paradoxical pattern observed by Putra et al. [] in his experimental work Most
of the research in the field of nanofluid is focused on proposing the model for the
increase in the thermal conductivity. However this aspect of the effect of
viscosity on flow should also be considered toward estimating the overall
thermal behavior of nanofluids. Experiments should thus be carried out to find
actual heat transfer and variation of viscosity for different nanofluids
59  P a g e
5.CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE
5.1 CONCLUSION
Experimental analysis as obtained from the data observed by conducting
experiments on the model leads to an observation that the natural convection
occurs during heating and the buoyancy effect affects the heating of the fluid
which is evident from the temperature profile as the temperature initially
increases and then the deviation in the temperature increment ceases to exist.
After passage of time the temperature profile becomes stable as evident from
various positions of the RTD‟s in the test section.
A drastic temperature difference between the top layer of the fluid under study
and the cooling fluid is observed which can be attributed to the small air gap
which being a bad conductor of heat creates a huge variation of temperature.
This leads to an interesting observation that the variation of temperature due to
presence of air gap can be as high as 10 degree Celsius even if its thickness is
as low as few millimetres.
Numerical simulation of the single phase model is carried out. Comparative
study of Newtonian and nonNewtonian nanofluid is done. Thermal conductivity
model selected includes the effect of Brownian motion. Heat deterioration is
observed in case of nonNewtonian fluid. This can be one of the probable
reasons for the heat deterioration observed by Putra et al. [8]
5.2 FUTURE SCOPE
5.2.1 INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
ENHANCEMENT BY NANOPARTICLES USING THIN CYLINDER
METHOD
5.2.1.1 INTRODUCTION
Nanofluids are engineered by suspending nanosized particles into base fluids.
The main and fundamental difference between a nanofluid and the conventional
suspensions is due to the very small sizes of the particles dispersed in the fluid.
Quantum effects in nanofluids allow the experimenter to change many physical
features of materials without changing their bulk chemistry. As metals and their
oxides have always higher thermal conductivity than fluids, the idea of
dispersion of such solid particles in a fluid to increase the fluid conductivity has
been proposed. Nanofluids not only increase the heat transfer properties of the
fluid but also increase the suspensions stability and provide the lack of
sedimentation and blockage of flow channels. Also due to the low kinetic energy
imparted by nanoparticles when impacting on a surface cause much less friction
and erosion and hence results in practically no damage to pumps and flow
60  P a g e
channels. In the steady state methods a thin layer of the fluid with unknown
thermal conductivity is exposed to a constant heat flux. The layer has a very
small dimension in comparison to the other dimensions so that one dimensional
Fourier equation can be used for the system and thermal conductivity can be
calculated and determined by measuring the temperature on both sides of the
layer.
5.2.1.2 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND METHOD
The apparatus built based on this technique would include two concentric
aluminium cylinders with radii 23.5 mm and 25.5 mm and lengths 200 mm and
210 mm, respectively. The 2 mm gap between the two cylinders would be filled
by a liquid with unknown thermal conductivity to be measured, forming a thin
cylinder of unknown conductivity sample between the aluminium cylinders. Both
ends of the system would be well insulated insuring no heat loss from these
places. An electrical heater would be inserted in the middle of the inner cylinder
fitting well in the hole drilled for this purpose. The length of the heater would be
200 mm and its radius would be 8.5 mm. On both sides of the fluid layer
temperature sensors with accuracy of 0.1 °C would be positioned. All
temperature readings (8 sensors in total) will be recorded simultaneously on a
computer.
Thermal conductivity of fluid that forms the thin cylinder could be measured
using the formula:
(
)
(
)
First, the reading for water would be taken. After that nanofluid would be
introduced in place of water. Thermal conductivity of nanofluid is expected to be
much greater than that of water.
61  P a g e
5.2.2 MAGNETIC NANO PARTICLES
There are many different types of nanoparticles, of which the most easily
tunable from an external stimulus are the magnetic nanoparticles. There
particles have a size range of 12 50 nm and have a residual magnetic field in
their solid state. Such particles are called the Super paramagnetic particles,
however, the same residual field is absent in liquid form because of its ability to
move according to the internal magnetic domain. The sample of magnetic
hysteresis is employed in this case for its motion and dispersion in the human
system. Simple nano oxides of iron have been used for this study. We can
employ a polymer over the surface of the magnetic particles acting like envelope
to the drug which is coated on a temperatures sensitive magnetic surface of the
particle. Once, its under a magnetic field, the hysteresis heat travels along the
condensed/convoluted polymer and makes it elongated /erect thereby exposing
the drugs to the open blood stream. As the drugs move out into the fluid, the
energy in the polymer decreases and condenses back and preventing any further
drug outflow. We can modify the surface of the drugs and attach a monoclonal
antibody, which inturn allows the drug release only when it reaches a specific
stimuli For Eg: we have certain nanopolymer drug complex and we inject it, this
drug contains a radioactive dye which is used to monitor the drug outflow. The
monoclonal antibody on the drug surface is specific for cancer cells only, and
thus releasing the drug only at the cancer localized site and not any normal
healthy human cell. Henceforth, preventing multiple side effects of the
chemotherapy treatment. However, the stability sharply decreases with increase
in every 0.1
0
C of body temperature. We can also work on maintaining the
stability by using a different oxide structures and polymers. Hopefully, the
stability of the nanoparticles could be achieved and soon be available for insitu
human research.
5.2.3 MULTIPHASE MODEL
As a future endeavour multiphase model can be generated for studying the
nanofluid model. A multiphase model incorporates the dependence of fluid
properties on the solid volume fraction of the nanoparticles which was
considered to be constant in single phase model. The volume fraction is varying
with time and is coupled with energy and momentum equation thus it varies with
change in velocity and temperature of the fluid. This in turn constantly changes
to fluid properties. This makes the formulation unstable thus resulting in hash
data. This can be controlled by using SIMPLE approach for simulation.
62  P a g e
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