Experimentelle Strömungsmechanik

Prof. Dr.-Ing. C.O. Paschereit
Hermann-Föttinger Institut

Study of Theoretical and Experimental Aspects of Particle Image Velocimetry
by
Vineet Maheshwari Email: er.vineetmaheshwari@gmail.com

Berlin, 04.08.2010

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Technische Universität Berlin Institut für Strömungsmechanik und Technische Akustik - Hermann-Föttinger-Institut Fachgebiet Experimentelle Strömungsmechanik Müller-Breslau-Str. 8 D-10623 Berlin
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Study of Theoretical and Experimental Aspects of Particle Image Velocimetry

DECLARATION

I certify that the work described in this report has been done by me and I am solely responsible for the preparation of this report.

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(Vineet Maheshwari)
04.08.2010

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Study of Theoretical and Experimental Aspects of Particle Image Velocimetry

ABSTRACT
During this internship, theoretical concepts involved in Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) were studied and then hands-on experience in this technique was gained by assisting in an ongoing experiment. PIV is an experimental technique to visualize fluid flow and is used for visualization of overall flow field in a region. It is not as precise as some of the other point-wise measurement techniques like hot-wire anemometry or laser Doppler anemometry (LDA), but it is more suitable to analyze flow over a larger region with considerably high precision. The experimental component of the internship was part of the project on Active Flow Control of an Incompressible Axisymmetric Jet using Flaps and Zero Mass-flux Excitation. The enhancement in mixing characteristics of a jet with the ambient at different positions was investigated, under the introduction of vortices by means of sinusoidal excitations. It was concluded that active control was more effective in the near field.

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Study of Theoretical and Experimental Aspects of Particle Image Velocimetry

CONTENTS
1. Principal of Particle Image Velocimetry......................................................................5 1.1 Tracer particles……..............................................................................................5 1.2 Light source………………………………………………..……………………………………………………5 1.3 Camera………………………………………………………..……………………………………………..…..6 1.4 Computer……………………………………………………..…………………………………………..…….6 2. Experimental work……………........................................................................................7 2.1 Project title.........................................................................................................7 2.2 Brief project description………………………………………………………………………………….7 2.3 Experimental setup………………............................................................................7

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2.4 Experimental procedure and data analysis........................................................8 2.5 Results and discussion………………….....................................................................9 2.6 Challenges faced………........................................................................................11 2.7 Skills acquired………………………………………………………………………………………………….11 Acknowledgements…………………………..............................................................................12 References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...12

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Study of Theoretical and Experimental Aspects of Particle Image Velocimetry

1. Principle of Particle Image Velocimetry
As the name implies, PIV measures the velocity at numerous points in a fluid flow by taking images of particles flowing with the fluid and analysing a sequence of these images. The experimental set-up of a PIV system typically consists of several sub-systems. These include (i) a source of tracer particles (seeding generator), (ii) a high intensity laser and related optical attachments that convert laser beam into a thin sheet, (iii) one or two CCD camera(s) with selective colour filters and (iv) a data acquisition and analysis unit (computer).

1.1 Tracer Particles (seeding)
They move along with flow and scatter the incident light towards the camera(s). In true sense, visualization of flow is done by visualizing the motion of tracer particles. Being an indirect technique, PIV measures tracer particle velocities instead of fluid velocity. Therefore, fluid mechanical properties of tracer particles have to be checked in order to avoid significant discrepancies between fluid and particle motion. When the fluid in question is a gas, like in wind tunnels, spheres of solid materials like polystyrene, aluminium or magnesium or smoke of liquids such as oils are used as seeding. An atomiser is used as a seeding generator to create smoke out of oil and pressurised air. In case of liquid flows, solid particles of larger diameter serve as tracer particles. The materials used polystyrene, aluminium or silver-coated glass spheres. Sometimes, oxygen bubbles may also be used as tracers.

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1.2 Light source
Lasers are widely used in PIV, because of their ability to emit monochromatic light with high energy density, which can easily be bundled into thin light sheets for illuminating and recording the tracer particles without chromatic aberrations. Generally, Neodym-YAG (Nd:YAG) lasers are used in PIV as they have a high amplification and good mechanical and thermal properties. A typical PIV laser system essentially consists of a pair of lasers. These lasers shoot at small time intervals (typically in micro-seconds). Two images are taken by the camera, each being illuminated by a single laser. A common feature of most PIV laser systems is the presence of a quality switch (Q-switch). It normally consists of a polariser and a Pockels cell. By including a Q-switch inside the cavity, laser can be operated in a triggered mode. Quality of optical resonator changes with Pockels cell voltage. Q-switch alters the resonance characteristics of the optical cavity, allowing it resonate at the most energetic point of flashlamp cycle. This yields a very powerful laser pulse, the so-called ‘Giant pulse’. The highly intense light beam coming out of the lasers need to be given proper shape and orientation. It is done with the help of suitable optical attachments like mirrors and focussing lenses. One important component of PIV laser optics is a cylindrical lens. It converts the final laser beam into a thin sheet that illuminates the region of interest.

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Study of Theoretical and Experimental Aspects of Particle Image Velocimetry

1.3 Camera The camera used in PIV image recording is of CCD (charge coupled device) type. Since Nd:YAG laser gives green light of wavelength 532 nm, selective colour filter is used that permits light of only this wavelength to enter the camera, filtering out all other optical noises. The temperature of CCD chip also needs to be controlled as over-heating may lead to electronic noises. So the cameras are equipped with cooling fans. In case of 2D PIV, a single camera is used and it is placed in such a way that object, lens and image planes are parallel to each other. In stereo PIV, two cameras are used and they are placed at an angle with respect to the object plane. In order to get a sharp image in this orientation, object, lens and image planes must meet at a point. This is called Scheimpflug condition (Figure - 1).

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Figure – 1

1.4 Data Acquisition
For acquisition of data (images), it’s processing and analysis, a computer with suitable software is used. Many software are commercially available to process PIV data. This software (e.g. Vid PIV) utilise image processing algorithms and correlation functions to calculate velocity vector values at all interrogation points, giving a vector map for the whole region. Vector values are stored and exported to other analysis software like MATLAB and Tecplot for further analysis and interpretation. Standard PIV gives velocity information in a 2-D plane while stereo PIV gives complete 3-D velocity field.

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Study of Theoretical and Experimental Aspects of Particle Image Velocimetry

2. Experimental Work
2.1 Project Title
The experimental work was part of the project on Active Control of an Incompressible Axisymmetric Jet using Flaps and Zero Mass-flux Excitation.

2.2 Brief Project Description
An active flow control method of an axis-symmetric jet was investigated which, when activated, generated streamwise vortices and thus enhanced mixing of the jet flow with the ambient. The perimeter of the jet was equipped with six small flaps deflected away from the stream. Zero mass-flux perturbations were being used to excite the flow. These excitations were introduced in the flow through slots at the base of the flaps. Each of the flaps could be excited independently. In these investigations, the effect of an array of six individually controllable flaps on the global jet behavior was addressed. Each of the flaps could be excited in phase or with pre-fixed phase shift. Effects of frequency and amplitude on the flow momentum, streamwise vorticity, circulation and turbulence for a fixed flap deflection angle were part of the investigation. A stereo-PIV setup was used to acquire complete flow field information. The emphasis was placed on mapping the development of the trailing vortices in order to quantify the mixing achieved.

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2.3 Experimental Setup
The wind tunnel used for the experiments was a low speed, circular cross-section, open circuit tunnel with an open-air jet. The exit jet diameter was 90mm and it gave a maximum Reynolds number of 90,000 based on jet diameter. The lip of the axisymmetric jet was equipped with six small flaps deflected away from the stream at an angle of 30°. The chord length of the flaps was 15mm. The flaps incorporate a flow control slot (15x1.5mm) and each slot was connected to a speaker via a flexible tube. A sine-wave was supplied to the speakers to produce the desired frequency and amplitude through which zero mass flux excitation was introduced to the flow in the axial direction. The control slot had been calibrated to get the desired amplitude of the excitations. The velocity measurements were carried out using stereo-PIV in planes perpendicular to the axis of the jet at axial locations of x/D = 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0. Figures - 2 (a), (b) and (c) show different views of the experimental setup.

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Study of Theoretical and Experimental Aspects of Particle Image Velocimetry

(a)

(b)

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(c)

Figure - 2 2.4 Experimental Procedure and Data Analysis
Complete flow field measurements were carried out using a stereo-PIV setup, at a Reynolds number of 31000. The amplitude of the excitation was quantified by the non-dimensional parameter Cμ, the momentum coefficient. It is defined as the ratio of the momentum added by the control slot to the momentum of the main jet. The calibration of the excitation amplitude was carried out using a hotwire, which was positioned directly in front of the slot, oriented parallel to it. For each excitation frequency, the peak velocity of the jet was determined as a function of the AC voltage of the excitation signal supplied to the speakers. The amplitude of the excitation was varied in a range previously determined by earlier works. Within this range, a frequency scan was carried out with reduced frequency F+ (dimensionless excitation frequency). The stereo-PIV acquisition was phase-locked with the actuator signal and data at 16 different phases were acquired. The software used for data acquisition and processing was ‘VidPiv’, developed by Intelligent Laser Application, GmbH. Further processing and analysis of results were done with previously developed scripts in MATLAB.

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2.5 Results and Discussion
Figure – 3 shows the velocity field at x/D =1.0 in the absence of any control. The axial velocity profile resembles an unaltered jet, showing that there is no effect of the presence of slots on the jet.

Figure – 3 Axial velocity field at x/D =1.0 (Singh et al, AIAA Paper 2010-4417) Figures – 4 (a), (b) and (c) show development of flow over three axial locations x/D = 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 respectively at F+ = 0.2 and Cμ = 0.45. It can be seen that the introduction of excitation causes the flow near the flaps to get distorted and move towards the flaps at six flap locations, one of them marked as ‘P’ in the first figure. As we move downstream, the distortions begin to appear in regions between the flaps as well. This indicates the presence of a symmetrical system of stream-wise vortices. On going away further, these regions of distortion begin to merge rapidly.

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Figure – 4 Axial velocity field, x/D = 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0, F+ = 0.2 and Cμ = 0.45 (Singh et al, AIAA Paper 2010-4417)

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Figure – 5 Axial velocity field, x/D = 1.0, F+ = 0.2 and Cμ = 0.15, 0.45 and 0.75 (Singh et al, AIAA Paper 2010-4417)

Figure – 5 shows the effect of change in amplitude of excitation. Cases (a), (b) and (c) represent Cμ = 0.15, 0.45 and 0.75 respectively at F+ = 0.2 and x/D = 1.0. It can be easily seen that increase in amplitude of excitation increases the deflection of flow towards the flaps but this effect saturates at still higher amplitudes.

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Figure – 6 Streamwise vorticity, Cμ = 0.3, F+ = 0.1, (a) φ = 0o, (b) φ = 90o, (c) φ = 180o and (d) φ = 270o (Singh et al, AIAA Paper 2010-4417)
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Figure – 6 shows strength of stream-wise vortices at Cμ = 0.3, F+ = 0.1 at four phase angles. At 0o, two pairs of counter-rotating vortices can be observed near each flap. At 90o, a circular system of vortices is formed in the shear layer, with the pairs close to the flaps travelling into the ambient air. At 180°, the vortices that were previously observed have moved out further and have already dissipated to a large extent. At 270o, strong pairs could be seen near the flaps.

2.6 Conclusions
Active flow control using zero mass-flux excitation is applied to study mixing characteristics in a circular jet equipped with six finite span flaps along its perimeter. The above discussions result in following main conclusions: • Zero mass-flux excitation parallel to the flow is effective in attaching the flow to the flaps and also in generating streamwise vortices. • The location as well as the strength of these vortices strongly depends on the excitation frequency. • The effect of increasing the excitation amplitude saturates at higher amplitudes.

2.7 Challenges Faced

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• The laser-sheet optics is an essential aspect of a PIV measurement. Proper illumination of the desired region requires a thin and focused light sheet. The position of laser-sheet with respect to the calibration target is also very important in order to get accurate and precise data. Adjusting the laser-sheet was a tedious and time-consuming job that required a lot of patience. • The amount of seeding is a big factor that decides the quality of results. Insufficient seeding gives inaccurate results, while excessive seeding also deteriorates the quality of results as the size of seeding particles becomes too big for the available pixel size. So maintaining the optimum amount of seeding in the test area was a tough job and tested the experience of my mentors. • Taking sharp calibration pictures is very important to achieve good accuracy. For that, it must be ensured that Scheimpflug condition is met and the focus is properly adjusted. The task of adjusting the camera to get optimum calibration pictures was tough and challenging.

2.8 Skills Acquired
Working on the above experimental setup gave me practical experience in the following areas: • I learned all the aspects of the experimental technique of PIV, viz. selection of components, setting up of experimental setup, calibration, taking measurements, processing of data and data analysis. • Creating a three dimensional model of the setup in the software ‘SolidWorks’ gave me ample amount of experience with Computer Aided Design.

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Study of Theoretical and Experimental Aspects of Particle Image Velocimetry

Acknowledgements
I thank Prof. Dr.-Ing. Christian Oliver Paschereit for this opportunity to learn at HermannFöttinger Institute (HFI/ISTA), Technical University Berlin and gain this invaluable and useful experience. I also gratefully acknowledge the support and guidance of Dr.-Ing. Christian Navid Nayeri, Mr. Yogesh Singh and Mr. Hanns Müller-Vahl in completing this internship.

References
1. “Particle Image Velocimetry – A Practical Guide” by M. Raffel, C. Willhert and J. Kompenhans.

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2. Singh, Y., Mueller-Vahl, H., Greenblatt, D., Nayeri, C.N., Paschereit, C.O., “Active Control of an Incompressible Axisymmetric Jet using Flaps and Zero Mass-flux Excitation”, AIAA Paper 2010-4417, 2010. 3. Wikipedia.org

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