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Version 042 midterm 03 chiu (56565) 1

This print-out should have 17 questions.


Multiple-choice questions may continue on
the next column or page nd all choices
before answering.
001 10.0 points
A unipolar generator consists of a copper
disk of radius R rotating in a uniform, steady
magnetic eld B perpendicular to the disk,
out of the page. (The magnetic eld is pro-
duced by large coils carrying constant current,
not shown in the diagram.) Sliding contacts
are made at the center (on the axle) and at the
rim of the disk, and the wires are connected
to a voltmeter. If the outer rim travels coun-
terclockwise at a speed v, choose a correct
answer for each of following questions.
The direction of the instantaneous average
velocity of the electrons at any point along
AB
Ia) upward
Ib) downward
The direction of the magnetic force on the
electrons at any point along AB
IIa) towards A
IIb) towards B
The direction of the conventional current
ow
IIIa) into the + terminal of the voltmeter
IIIb) out of the + terminal of the voltmeter
1. Ib, IIb, IIIb
2. Ia, IIb, IIIb
3. Ia, IIa, IIIb correct
4. Ia, IIa, IIIa
5. Ib, IIa, IIIa
6. Ib, IIa, IIIb
7. Ia, IIb, IIIa
8. Ib, IIb, IIIa
Explanation:
Counterclockwise rotation of the disk im-
plies an upward instantaneous velocity at any
point along AB. Hence the answer is Ia.
The magnetic force

F = qv

B is pointing
radially inward. Hence, the answer is IIa.
Negative charge is accumulated at the cen-
ter of the disk A, or the conventional current
ows out from the + terminal. Hence, the
answer is IIIb.
002 10.0 points
Consider the set up shown in the gure where
a solenoid has a steadily increasing magnetic
ux which generates identical induced emfs
for the two cases illustrated.
A B
#1 #2 (1)
i
Case 1: Two identical light bulbs are in
series; the electrical power consumed by bulb
1 and bulb 2 is P
1
and P
2
, respectively.
A B
#1 #2 (2) D
F
C
Case 2: Bulb 2 is shorted by a wire which
is connected between the two points C and F;
the electrical power consumed by bulb 1 and
bulb 2 is P

1
and P

2
, respectively.
What is the ratio
P

1
P
1
?
Version 042 midterm 03 chiu (56565) 2
1.
P

1
P
1
= 0
2.
P

1
P
1
= 3
3.
P

1
P
1
=
1
4
4.
P

1
P
1
=
1
8
5.
P

1
P
1
= 1
6.
P

1
P
1
=
1
3
7.
P

1
P
1
= 2
8.
P

1
P
1
= 8
9.
P

1
P
1
=
1
2
10.
P

1
P
1
= 4 correct
Explanation:
Let E and R be the induced emf and resis-
tance of the light bulbs, respectively.
For case 1, since the two bulbs are in series,
the equivalent resistance is simply R
eq
= R +
R = 2 R and the current through the bulbs is
I =
E
2 R
.
Thus for case 1, the power consumed by bulb
1 is
P
1
=

E
2 R

2
R =
E
2
4 R
.
For case 2, since bulb 2 is shorted, the
current through bulb 1 is now
I

=
E
R
.
so the power consumed by bulb 1 is
P

1
=

E
R

2
R =
E
2
R
and the ratio is
P

1
P
1
= 4 .
003 10.0 points
In an experiment designed to measure the
magnitude of a uniform magnetic eld, elec-
trons are accelerated from rest through a po-
tential dierence of V = 135 Volts. The elec-
trons travel along a curved path because of
the magnetic force exerted on them, and the
radius of the path is measured to be r = 7 cm.
If the magnetic eld is perpendicular to the
beam, what is its magnitude?
Note: The mass of the electron is
9.1 10
31
kg and its charge is 1.6 10
19
C.
1. 0.000726
2. 0.000435
3. 0.000792
4. 0.000554
5. 0.000971
6. 0.00056
7. 0.00067
8. 0.00135
9. 0.000528
10. 0.000706
Correct answer: 0.00056 T.
Explanation:
By the conservation of energy
K + U = 0
We note that the initial kinetic energy is zero,
and the nal kinetic energy is K
f
=
1
2
m
e
v
2
.
The change in the potential energy is given by
eV .
K
f
= eV
Version 042 midterm 03 chiu (56565) 3
1
2
m
e
v
2
= eV
v =

2eV
m
e
v =

2(1.6 10
19
C)(135 V)
(9.1 10
31
kg)
v = 6.89003 10
6
m/s
By equating the magnitude of the magnetic
and centripetal forces we have
e v B =
m
e
v
2
r
eB =
m
e
v
r
The magnetic eld is given by the expression
B =
m
e
v
er
B =
(9.1 10
31
kg)(6.89003 10
6
m/s)
(1.6 10
19
C)(7 cm)
B = 0.00056 T
004 10.0 points
A wire loop of radius R carrying a counter-
clockwise (when viewed from the right) cur-
rent I is moving to the right along the x-axis
at a speed v. It passes around a second, sta-
tionary wire loop of radius a where a R.
Choose the plot that correctly displays the
qualitative behavior of the induced current
I(t) in the stationary loop. On the plots, the
+I axis represents clockwise current, while
the I axis represents counter-clockwise cur-
rent (when viewed from the right on the +x-
axis).
1. VI:
2. V:
3. IV:
4. I:
correct
5. VIII:
Version 042 midterm 03 chiu (56565) 4
6. VII:
7. III:
8. II:
Explanation:
I is the correct choice. Before the current
loop passes the wire ring, the ux through
the ring points to the right and is increas-
ing; to resist this change in ux, a clockwise
(positive) current is induced in the ring. Af-
ter the loop passes the ring, the ux still
points to the right but is decreasing, induc-
ing a counter-clockwise (negative) current in
the ring. To get a sense of the functional form
of the change in ux, note that we are entitled
to use
B
loop

1
(x
2
+ R
2
)
3/2
since a R. (Since we are only inter-
ested in the qualitative behavior, we can
leave o the constant factors and concern our-
selves only with proportionality.) Since the
area of the ring is not changing, d
B
/dt =
A
ring
dB
loop
/dt. Again ignoring the constant
factor A
loop
, we calculate dB
loop
/dt,
dB
loop
dt

d
dt

1
(x
2
+ R
2
)
3/2

dB
loop
dt

3
2
2x
(x
2
+ R
2
)
5/2
dx
dt
dB
loop
dt

3xv
(x
2
+ R
2
)
5/2
Examining this result, we see that the pres-
ence of x in the numerator means our plot
must pass through 0, while to either side of
t = 0 we should expect some polynomial-
like behavior. Combined with what we know
about the sign of the current for times t < 0
and t > 0, I is the only correct option.
005 10.0 points
Consider the three congurations shown
in the gure. In each case there is a long
solenoid viewed end-on with current owing
clockwise, where the current is a decreas-
ing function of time: dI(t)/dt < 0. Mid-
way along each solenoid is a piece of neu-
tral wire arrranged as shown in the gure.
Choose the response that correctly identi-
es the direction of the induced current in
the neutral wires, where CW=clockwise and
CCW=counter-clockwise. You may assume
the magnetic eld outside the interior of each
solenoid 0.
1. I: A:CW, B:no current, C:CW correct
2. VI: A:CW, B:CW, C:CW
3. V: A:CW, B:CW, C:CCW
Version 042 midterm 03 chiu (56565) 5
4. IV: A:CCW, B:no current, C:CW
5. VII: A:CCW, B:CCW, C:CW
6. VIII: A:CCW, B:CCW, C:CCW
7. III: A:CCW, B:no current, C:CCW
8. II: A:CW, B:no current, C:CCW
9. IX: A:CW, B:no current, C:no current
10. X: A:CCW, B:no current, C:no current
Explanation:
I is correct. In each case, the solenoid
produces a magnetic eld in the shaded region
that points into the page but is decreasing.
The induced current opposes the change in
ux, therefore the neutral loops in A and C
acquire a CW current. In B the loop is not
closed, so no current ows.
006 10.0 points
A bar magnet (the shaded cuboid object in
the gure) is placed as shown in the gure,
with its axis horizontal and about half of its
length inside the cubical surface of side a.
What can you say about the magnetic ux

B
=


B.d

A through the cubical surface


shown in the gure? (Note: One half of the
magnet is shaded lighter only to show that it
is inside the cube).
A:
B
> 0, because there is only one pole
of the magnet inside the surface.
B:
B
< 0, because there is only one pole
of the magnet inside the surface.
C:
B
can be either positive or negative,
depending on which pole of the magnet is
present inside the cube.
D:
B
= 0 according to Gausss law of
magnetism.
E: Either C or D can be true depending on
situation.
1. E
2. A
3. D correct
4. B
5. C
Explanation:
D is correct. Gausss law of magnetism
holds here. Suppose the North pole of the
magnet was inside. The eld lines due to
this pole point outwards at every point on the
surface of the cube outside of the magnet, but
they all come back inside the surface through
the magnet, thus making the net ux zero. If
the south pole is inside, things work the other
way around, with eld lines pointing inwards
everywhere on the surface outside the magnet,
and going out through the magnet. In either
case, the net ux through the surface is zero.
007 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
Assume: The mobile charge carriers are either
electrons or holes. The holes have the same
magnitude of charge as the electrons.
Note: In the gure, the point at the upper
edge P
1
and at the lower edge P
2
have the
same x coordinate.
A constant magnitude magnetic eld points
out of the paper. There is a steady ow of a
horizontal current owing from left to right in
the x direction.
Version 042 midterm 03 chiu (56565) 6
L
b
a
I
P
1
P
2
V

B
y
x
A voltmeter (with an internal resistance
less than innity) is connected to the system,
where the contact points are on the upper and
lower surfaces and are in the same vertical
plane.
Choose the correct answer for the case
where the sign of the charge of current carri-
ers are either negative (electrons) or positive
(holes).
1. The direction of the (conventional) cur-
rent through the voltmeter is downward for
either positive or negative charge carriers.
2. The direction of the (conventional) cur-
rent through the voltmeter is downward for
positive charge carriers and upward for nega-
tive charge carriers.
3. The (conventional) current through the
voltmeter is zero for either positive or negative
charge carriers.
4. The direction of the (conventional) cur-
rent through the voltmeter is upward for pos-
itive charge carriers and downward for nega-
tive charge carriers. correct
5. The direction of the (conventional) cur-
rent through the voltmeter is upward for ei-
ther positive or negative charge carriers.
Explanation:
v
d

B
v
d

F = ev
d

The magnetic force on a negative charge


points downwards, so an excess of positive
charge develops along the upper edge. The
induced electric eld then points downward,
so P
1
is at a higher potential relative to P
2
.
The Hall current ows in the direction of the
induced eld, so it ows through the volt-
meter from top to bottom.
+ + + + + + + +

F
008 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
Denote the drift velocity by v
d
and the mag-
nitude of the charge of an electron by q.
Using the dimensions (a, b, and L) given in
the gure, what is the magnitude of the Hall
voltage?
1. V
Hall
= 2 v
d
B b
2. V
Hall
= 2 v
d
B a
3. V
Hall
= q v
d
B b
4. V
Hall
= 2 v
d
B L
5. V
Hall
= v
d
B b correct
Version 042 midterm 03 chiu (56565) 7
6. V
Hall
= q v
d
B a
7. V
Hall
= v
d
B L
8. V
Hall
= q v
d
B L
9. V
Hall
= v
d
B a
Explanation:
The force due to the induced electric eld
must balance the force due to the magnetic
eld, so
q E
Hall
= q v
d
B .
The magnitude of the Hall voltage is
V
Hall
= E
Hall
b = v
d
B b ,
where b is the height of the conducting slab.
009 10.0 points
A square loop of wire of side length s =
28 cm encompasses a circular region of radius
r = 10 cm that contains a magnetic eld
|

B| = 0.0003 T oriented at an angle = 15

to the perpendicular as shown; outside this


region, B = 0. Calculate the magnitude of
the magnetic ux |
B
| through the square
loop.
1. 7.17367e-06
2. 6.17275e-06
3. 6.66074e-06
4. 1.12009e-05
5. 9.93678e-06
6. 9.10363e-06
7. 5.79819e-06
8. 8.21603e-06
9. 4.47063e-06
10. 1.67649e-05
Correct answer: 9.10363 10
6
Wb.
Explanation:
The area of the circular region is given by
A = r
2
= (10 cm)
2
= 0.0314159 m
2
The magnitude of the ux is given by
|
B
| = |

B| A cos
|
B
| = (0.0003 T)(0.0314159 m
2
) cos(15

)
|
B
| = 9.10363 10
6
Wb
010 10.0 points
A very long thick wire of radius R carries a
current I, as in the following gure.
I
1
R
Find the magnitude of the magnetic eld
inside the wire, a distance r from the center
of the wire, where r < R.
Assume current density is the same at every
point inside the wire.
1.

0
4
Ir
R
2
2.

0
4
IR
r
2
3.

0
4
Ir
2
R
4.

0
2
Ir
R
2
correct
5.

0
2
IR
r
2
6.

0
2
Ir
2
R
3
7.

0
2
Ir
2
R
8.

0
2
IR
2
r
3
9.

0
4
IR
2
r
3
10.

0
4
Ir
2
R
3
Explanation:
Version 042 midterm 03 chiu (56565) 8
The current density (current/area) is the
same throughout the wire. Sketch an Ampe-
rian loop within the wire with radius r. Then,
the current through this loop i divided by area
of this loop is equal to the total current per
unit area.
i
r
2
=
I
R
2
i = I
r
2
R
2
The magnetic eld is tangential to the Am-
perian loop. Apply Amperes law by inte-
grating counterclockwise around the loop if
looking at the loop from the right end. Then
the current ows out of the surface and is
positive.


B d

=
0
I
inside path
B (2 r) =
0
I
r
2
R
2
B =

0
2
I r
R
2
.
011 10.0 points
A solid metal cube of edge length d =
1.2 cm moving in the positive Y direction at a
constant velocity v = 6 m/s. The cube moves
through a uniform magnetic eld B = 0.01 T
that points in the +z direction.
Which face has the higher potential? Also
nd the dierence between lower and higher
potential. (Express your answer in units of
mV.)
1. back face, 0.792 mV
2. front face, 0.576 mV
3. top face, 0.864 mV
4. left face, 0.684 mV
5. right face, 0.54 mV
6. left face, 0.504 mV
7. bottom face, 0.648 mV
8. top face, 0.9 mV
9. right face, 0.72 mV correct
10. down face, 0.828 mV
Explanation:
Since the box is metallic, it has freely mov-
ing conducting electrons. As the cube moves
upward with velocity v, electrons inside the
metallic cube will also move with it. Since
they are moving perpendicular to the mag-
netic eld

B, they will feel a net magnetic
force according to the

F = q(v

B) equation.
The magnetic force will thus push electrons
to the left face creating a net potential dif-
ference between the right and left face of the
metal cube, ultimately setting up an electric
eld between right and left faces of the solid
cube. This will leave positive charges on the
right face, which will be at a higher potential.
The potential dierence across the right
and left faces of the cube is given by
V = Ed
When equilibrium for the mobile charges is
established, the electrostatic and magnetic
forces on an electron are balanced.
F
E
= F
B
eE = evB
E = vB
In terms of B, the potential is given by
V = vBd
Version 042 midterm 03 chiu (56565) 9
V = (6 m/s)(0.01 T)(1.2 cm) = 0.72 mV
012 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
Consider the gure shown below. The switch
is initially set at position b. There is no charge
nor current around the right loop while at
position b. At t = 0 the switch is set to
position a.
L
R
C
E
S
b
a
What is the current at t = 0?
1. I
0
=
E
R

1 e
1

2. I
0
=
E

2 R
3. I
0
= 0 correct
4. I
0
=
E
R
5. I
0
= E R
6. I
0
=
7. I
0
=
EL
R
e
1
8. I
0
=
EL
R

1 e
1

9. I
0
=
EL
R
10. I
0
=
E
R
e
1
Explanation:
The dierential equation for an LC circuit
is given by
E I R L
dI
dt
= 0 ,
whose solution is
I(t) =
E
R

1 e
t/L

.
Hence at t = 0 we have I = 0. (The back emf
across the inductor achieves its greatest value
at t = 0).
013 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
After leaving the switch at position a for a
long time, move the switch from a to b.
There will be current oscillations.
The maximum current will be given by
1. I
max
= E

L
C
2. I
max
= E

C
L
3. I
max
=
E
R
correct
4. I
max
=
E
R

L
C
5. I
max
=
E
R

C
L
6. I
max
= E

LC
7. I
max
= E

1
LC
8. I
max
=
E
R

LC
Explanation:
When the switch S is on at a, the loop
equation is given by
E L
dI
dt
IR = 0
After a long time, the current approaches a
constant value, i.e
dI
dt
= 0. In other words the
loop equation becomes
E IR = 0
I =
E
R
Now, the switch S is moved from a to b. The
conservation of the total energy in the LC
circuit implies that at t = 0,
U
C
+ U
L
= (U
L
)
max
=
1
2
LI
2
max
Version 042 midterm 03 chiu (56565) 10
since U
C
= 0 at t = 0. Hence, the maximum
current in the LC circuit must be equal to
the current in the circuit at t=0, given by the
expression
I
max
=
E
R
014 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
In the given gure, +x points to the right,
+y points upwards and +z points out of the
page, towards you. A rectangular current
loop mounted on a pivot aligned along the
z-axis is shown in the gure (since your line
of sight is in the plane of the loop, you can
only see it edge-on, like a straight line). The
loop carries a current I = 1.5 A. A uniform
magnetic eld of

B = 6 T

j is present in the
region. If the sides of the loop are given as
a = 9 cm (not seen in the gure) and b = 4 cm
respectively, and the angle = 19

degrees,
what is the magnitude of torque acting on the
loop at this instant?
1. 0.004137
2. 0.00293
3. 0.01055
4. 0.002813
5. 0.002433
6. 0.01184
7. 0.00421
8. 0.004002
9. 0.009254
10. 0.004688
Correct answer: 0.01055 Nm.
Explanation:
The area of the loop is given by
A = ab = (9 cm)(4 cm) = 0.0036 m
2
The magnitude of the torque is given by
= B I A sin
= (6 T)(0.0036 m
2
)(1.5 A) sin(19

)
= 0.01055 Nm
One can also obtain the magnitude of the
torque by the following argument.
According to right hand rule, the magnetic
force acting on the near side (the side vis-
ible in the gure) and far side of the loop
will be equal and opposite, and act along the
same line in the negative and positive z di-
rection, respectively. Hence, there will not be
any torque due to these forces. The magnetic
force on the left and right sides (the sides
perpendicular to the plane of the gure) will
be along +x and x directions respectively,
and will have the same magnitude F = BIa.
However, their lines of action dier by a dis-
tance of d = b sin. Hence, the magnitude of
the torque, which is the moment of the force,
can be obtained.
= Fd = BIab sin = BIAsin
015 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
For the same loop as in the previous problem,
suppose the magnetic eld is a function of
the y-coordinate, and is given by

B = B
0
y

j.
What will be the net force acting on the loop?
Here, A stands for the area of the rectan-
gular loop.
1. B
0
IAcos

k
2. B
0
IAsin

k
3. B
0
IAsin

j
4. B
0
IAcos

i
5. B
0
IAcos

j
6. B
0
IAsin

i correct
Explanation:
Version 042 midterm 03 chiu (56565) 11
Since we know that magnetic eld varies
with the y-coordinate, we expect that the net
force on the loop may no longer be zero. For
any point on the near side, there will be a
corresponding point on the far side with the
same y-coordinate. Hence, the forces on the
near and far sides cancel other exactly. How-
ever, this cancellation does not work for the
left and right sides of the loop. All the points
on the left side have the same y-coordinate,
say, y
1
, while all points on the right side have
a dierent y-coordinate, y
2
. If B
1
and B
2
are
the corresponding magnetic elds at y = y
1
and y = y
2
respectively, then we can calculate
the net force as follows.

F = B
1
Ia

i B
2
Ia

F = (B
1
B
2
) Ia

F = (y
1
y
2
) B
0
Ia

F = (b sin ) B
0
Ia

F = B
0
Iab sin

i
016 10.0 points
You pull on a simple loop circuit of dimen-
sions 2d L consisting of an ideal wire and a
resistor. You pull with just enough force so
that the circuit moves at a constant speed v.
Initially, half the circuit lies inside a region
of magnetic eld B that is directed out of the
page. How much work must you do to com-
pletely remove the circuit from the magnetic
eld? Choose the correct answer, expressed
only in terms of the given quantities.
1. D:
L
2
B
2
d
2
R
2. G:
LBdv
R
3. H:
L
2
Bvd
R
4. E:
L
2
B
2
d
R
5. B:
L
2
B
2
v
R
6. J: L
2
B
2
d
7. A:
L
2
B
2
vd
R
correct
8. I: L
2
B
2
vd
9. C: ILBd
10. F: ILB
Explanation:
A is the correct choice. First note that as
the circuit moves to the right, the magnetic
ux through through the circuit decreases.
Consequently, a current I must ow counter-
clockwise to oppose this change in ux; on the
vertical segment of wire inside the magnetic
eld region, this current is acted upon by the
magnetic eld, producing a force ILB to the
left.
We are told that the circuit moves at a con-
stant speed v; to move at a constant speed,
net acceleration must be 0, so the applied
force must be equal and opposite to the mag-
netic force on the current: F
ext
= ILB. Since
only half the circuit is in the eld region, the
total work done to remove the circuit from the
eld must be
W = Fd = ILBd
Then, using I =
E
R
and applying Faradays
law,
W = ILBd =
ELBd
R
W =

d
B
dt

LBd
R
Version 042 midterm 03 chiu (56565) 12
W =
d
dt
(LxB)
LBd
R
W =
L
2
B
2
d
R
dx
dt
W =
L
2
B
2
vd
R
where the x introduced in line 3 refers to
the length of the circuit that remains in the
eld region.
017 10.0 points
A bar of negligible resistance and mass of
53 kg in the gure is pulled horizontally across
frictionless parallel rails, also of negligible re-
sistance, by a massless string that passes over
an ideal pulley and is attached to a suspended
mass of 820 g. The uniform magnetic eld
has a magnitude of 640 mT, and the distance
between the rails is 96 cm. The rails are con-
nected at one end by a load resistor of 96 m.
640 mT 640 mT 640 mT
96 cm
820 g
a
9
6
m

53 kg
What is the magnitude of the terminal ve-
locity (i.e., the eventual steady-state speed
v

) reached by the bar? The acceleration of


gravity is 9.8 m/s
2
.
1. 3.38626
2. 0.720324
3. 11.6742
4. 20.6214
5. 73.4963
6. 5.20951
7. 2.4138
8. 2.04366
9. 1.97743
10. 1.48119
Correct answer: 2.04366 m/s.
Explanation:
Let : m = 53 kg ,
M = 820 g = 0.82 kg ,
= 96 cm = 0.96 m,
B = 640 mT, and
R = 96 m = 0.096 .
B B B B B

T
T
M
F
g
a
R
a
m
F
m

F
g
= Mg

F
m
= I

F
net
= (M + m)a =

F
g

F
m
E = I R =
d
B
dt

B
=

B

A
E = B v .
It follows from Lenzs law that the mag-
netic force opposes the motion of the bar.
When the wire acquires steady-state speed,
the gravitational force F
g
is counter-balanced
by the magnetic force F
m
.
F
g
= M g = F
m
= I B (1)
I =
M g
B
. (2)
To nd the induced current, we use Ohms law
and substitute in the induced emf, E =
d
dt
I =
|E|
R
=
1
R
d
dt
. (3)
Note: We have ignored the minus sign from
the induced emf E because we will eventu-
ally evaluate the magnitude of the terminal
velocity. The ux is = B A, so
|E| =
d
dt
= B
dA
dt
= B v , and (4)
Version 042 midterm 03 chiu (56565) 13
I =
B v
R
. (5)
Using Eqs. 2 and 5 and noting that v is the
terminal velocity v

M g
B
=
B v

R
. (6)
Solving for the magnitude of the terminal
velocity v

=
M g R

2
B
2
(7)
=
(0.82 kg) (9.8 m/s
2
) (0.096 )
(0.96 m)
2
(640 mT)
2
= 2.04366 m/s .
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