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Local limits of jurisdiction The High Court has jurisdiction to try all civil proceedings where the cause

of action arose or where the defendant resides or has his place of business, or where the facts on which the proceedings are based exist or are alleged to have occurred. Local jurisdiction means the territory comprising Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Malacca, Negri Sembilan, Pahang, Penang, Perak, Perlis, Selangor, Terenganu and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur; in the case of the High Court in Sabah and Sarawak, the territory covers Sabah, Sarawak and the Federal Territory of Labuan. In the case of Subordinate Courts, which include the Sessions Court, the provisions are slightly different. Section 59 (2) of the Subordinates Court Act 1948, for example, provides for jurisdiction to be for the local limits assigned to it, and if no local limit is assigned, the jurisdiction of respective High Courts.

Subordinate courts
The Magistrates' Courts and Sessions Courts in Malaysia have jurisdiction in both criminal and civil matters. Sessions Courts Somewhat like the former Quarter Sessions in England, the Sessions Courts have jurisdiction to try offences which are not punishable by death. They are presided over by Sessions Court judges (formerly Sessions Court Presidents). The Sessions Courts also hear all civil matters of which the claim exceeds RM25,000 but does not exceed RM250,000, except in matters relating to motor vehicle accidents, landlord and tenant and distress, where the Sessions Courts have unlimited jurisdiction. Magistrates Courts Magistrates are divided into First Class and Second Class Magistrates, the former being legally qualified and having greater powers. Second Class Magistrates are now not normally appointed. In criminal matters, First Class Magistrates' Courts generally have power to try all offences of which the maximum term of imprisonment does not exceed 10 years or which are punishable with fine only, but may pass sentences of not more than five years imprisonment, a fine of up to RM10,000, and/or up to twelve strokes of the cane. The Magistrates Courts hear all civil matters with less than RM25,000 in dispute. The Magistrates' Courts also hear appeals from the Penghulu's Courts. Other courts The court of a penghulu, or Malay village head, has the power to hear civil matters of which the claim does not exceed RM50, where the parties are of an Asian race and speak and understand the Malay language.

The Penghulu Court's criminal jurisdiction is limited to offences of a minor nature charged against a person of Asian race which is specially enumerated in his warrant, which can be punished with a fine not exceeding RM50. In Sabah and Sarawak, there are no Penghulus' Courts, but there are instead Native Courts having jurisdiction on matters of native law and custom. The Court for Children, previously known as the ears cases involving minors except cases carrying the death penalty, which are heard in High Courts instead. Cases for children are governed by the A child is defined as any person below the age of 18. The Special Court was established in 1993 to hear cases of offences or wrongdoings made by a Ruler. A Ruler includes the (King), the sultans of monarchical states in Malaysia, the and the i.e.: the of Malaysia and its component states. Prior to this, a Ruler was from any proceedings brought against them in their personal capacity.[ In camera describes cases (or portions thereof) that the public and press are not admitted to. In camera is the opposite of where all the parties and witnesses testify in a public, and make their arguments in public Entire cases may be heard in camera when, for example, matters of are involved. In camera reviews may also be used during otherwise open trials for example, to protect trade secrets or where one party asserts privilege (such as communications). This lets the judge review the document in private before determining its admissibility in open court.