Celebrity Fashions started as a small 50 machine factory with 72 people on 14th April 1988 in Mylapore, Chennai. It started with the name Celebrity Designs Pvt Ltd. Company was started by Mr. V Rajagopal, who served as an IPS officer for almost a decade before he resigned to start the company. Company was incorporated on April 28, 1988 as Celebrity Fashions Private Limited under the Companies Act, 1956. In the year 1998, it became a deemed Public Company. Subsequent to the amendment to the Companies Act 1956, company reverted back to the status of a Private Limited Company in the year 1999. It became a Public Limited Company on September 12, 2005 and subsequently the name changed to Celebrity Fashions Limited. Celebrity Fashions is among India’s top men's wear manufacturers. Celebrity Fashions Ltd today is one of India’s leading garment exporters with its own menswear brand, Indian Terrain. The fact that some of the world’s top designer and fashion brands source out of Celebrity Fashions is testimony to the company’s expertise and experience in international standard clothing design, production, quality and warehousing. Celebrity Fashions, with its headquarters in Chennai, India is uniquely located to handle contracts for all kinds of garments in the latest international trends. Celebrity fashions Ltd, MEPZ unit was acquired in March 2006 from Ambattur Clothing Unit. This is the largest unit in India which is dedicated entirely to bottoms of all kinds. MEPZ unit is the headquarters consisting of around 4000 workers. The other three units of Celebrity group in Chennai are located at Thiruvancherry that has a centralised washing unit, Narayanapuram that has a centralised fabric and trim store and Poonamallee. Celebrity Fashions, Poonamallee unit commenced operations on 21st February 2005 when it took over SPAN EICHER. This unit specializes in

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men’s and women’s tops. It is a 100% exports oriented unit with a workforce of 700 workers.

1998 – Celebrity Designs Pvt. Ltd., Mylapore 1992- Celebrity Fashions – Velachery 1996- Celebrity Fashions – Chrompet 1998- Celebrity Fashions- Pallikaranai 1999- Celebrity Fashions- Porur Unit I 2000- Celebrity Fashions- Thiruvanchery 2000- Indian Terrain Clothing – R.A. Puram 2002- Centralized Trims / Fabric stores – Narayanapuram 2003- Celebrity Fashions – Porur Unit II 2004- Celebrity Fashions – Narayanapuram 2005- Celebrity Fashions – Poonamallee 2006- Celebrity Fashions – MEPZ, bottoms 2006- Celebrity Fashions – Irungattokotai

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• To become a powerful apparel business set up, effectively moving in the value chain, achieving greater economies of scale and tapping the world market with its unique styling. • To integrate the domestic brand and the international export business with the capacity to adapt itself to the demanding product specifications for both international markets and the branded domestic market • • To continuously upgrade and benchmark systems and processes to achieve and exceed customer satisfaction. To maintain high standards of investors relations, corporate governance and work place practices.

• • • • • • • • • • • Strong management team and motivated and efficient work force Experienced team with industry specific knowledge Strong infrastructure setup Experience with cost-plus engagement models Delivery capabilities Commitment to quality A de risked business model Strong customer base 20 years of experience in Garments. Geographical Location (Manufacturing Units Near to seaport) Strong Domestic brand, Indian Terrain
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Company Address : : Celebrity Fashions Ltd, Poonamallee Celebrity Fashions Ltd, No. 72/1 Senneerkuppam Village, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai -600056 Capacity Buyers : : 4300 garments /day Eddie bauer A&F Kohls Corporation - USA Academy Malbro classics ITC Unit Type Company Products Total Factory Area Production Lines : : : Men’s and Women’s Shirts 38000 Sq feet 8 February 2005 : 100 % E.O.U/ Public Listed

Commencement of Operations :

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Total Workforce




Merchandising department

PDC department

Production planning department

I.E Department

Fabric and Trims main store (CTS and CFS)

Fabric and trims sub store

Cutting section

Ticketing and bundling

Sewing section

Finishing section

Quality control
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Factory Manager Assistant HR Production Manager Production Coordinator Production Coordinator Production Coordinator Cutting Incharge HR. Executive Quality System reporting Management Trainee Industrial Engineer Commercial Executive M/C Maintenance Needle Maintenance Trims-incharge Cashier


Mr. Victor Premrajan Mr. Uma Maheshwaran Mr. Haridoss Mrs. Smitha Mr. Selvam Mrs. Naresh Mrs. Rajeshwari Mrs. Premlatha Mrs. Premlatha Mr. Navin Mr.Elumalai Rajan A. Mr. Hari Babu Mr. Ramesh Ms. Bhanbagwalli Mr. Thirunavkarasu Mr. Jeevanandam

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The merchandising department acts as a link between the buyer and the company and ensures the timely delivery of the order. The major functions of the merchandisor are: 1. Order booking 2. Costing 3. Development of samples 4. Communication with the planning department 5. Communication with sourcing team 6. Following operations

Process Flow
Receive Tech Packs


Organize Fabric, Trims Prepare Patterns

Prepare Samples

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Receive approval from buyer, send for bulk

Every season the garment merchandiser receives 30-40 Techpacks from various buyers. These techpacks contain information about the garment down to the very last detail. 4 copies of these techpacks are made for the following: o o o o Industrial Engg Dept CAD Dept (Pattern) Sampling Dept Self

Factors considered during Costing are: o o   o o o o Fabric Cost Trims Cost For Sewing For Packing Cost of Manufacture (CM) - overheads added here. Up charge (profit margin) Washing Processing e.g. Over dyeing

Fabric Merchandiser is in charge of purchasing the fabric, for sampling as well as bulk purposes. Trims Merchandisers are in charge of purchasing the trims. There are different merchants for organizing interlining, thread, packing material, buttons and zippers etc. The garment merchandiser then fills pattern request forms and sampling request forms and executes the styles for sampling. There are various types of samples made based on the criteria that need to be noted from the sample. Based on the issues that crop up during sampling, changes are made, re submits are made over and over again, until the required look and feel of the garment is achieved.

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A final sample called the sealer sample or the pre production sample is made which is sent to the factory for bulk production. During production, if any shortage in fabric or trims or any other problems arise, the merchant is informed, and they acquire more fabric or trims, or under extreme conditions, inform the buyer for an extension in delivery date.

Format for recording mini marker details for costing
Style No. Matching Stds











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Order confirmation

Fit Sample

Pattern Grading

PP Approval Pattern

PP Sample

Size set (selected roll all size all color


Resize set and pattern amendment


Different pattern Version shrinkage

Pilot run selected shrinkage range 10 -100 pcs all size all color Re- pilot with pattern amendment FAIL


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PATTERN MAKING(CAD) Responsibilities
1. Making patterns for samples 2. For sample markers, production markers 3. For checking 4. For templates to be used in production. For tops LECTRA is used and for bottoms GGT Gerber is used. The functions of the CAD department are: • • • • • • • • The department receives a pattern request form from the The pattern maker consults the tech pack and makes the This is then digitized, reprinted after naming and cut. The digitized patterns are amended, graded and used for This is the pattern that is used for making templates also. Every time there is a change or amendment in the pattern, the There is a team that works exclusively on making templates for The patterns are also printed on white sheets for sending to sampling department every time a new pattern is to be made. pattern.

making markers for costing and also for the production markers.

pattern version alphabet is changed. For example from A to B. production. buyers for approval.

• Digitizing is done on a digitizing board. This board is electronic and the pattern pieces are pasted on it.
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• • • • •

Then the digitizing mouse is used to input the points, the grain line and trace the pattern into the computer. Usually this pattern is not completely accurate and amendments are done. Future amendments are then made on this digitized pattern and directly printed; this reduces the work of the manual pattern maker. Even allowance for shrinkage is done on the digitized pattern on Gerber software. There is an input menu on the board, which is used to digitize piece.

The following is an example to digitize a front pattern piece:
1. Start piece 2. Piece Name FRT * 3. Piece cut X2* 4. Rule table (S) * 5. Grain line AA * 6. Corner ABOD9 7. Notch AC1 8. Select Point A 9. Close piece 10. Internal Label (S) 11. All internal marks: ABOD9 12. To end * 13. End input. There are 10 technicians for bottoms and 10 for tops.

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The buyer places the order, along with Product Development Request form. The marketing department then communicates with the Product Development Centre. The function of the PDC department is to analyze the fabric consumption, SAM calculation, the critical method involved in the style and trims details. In the Product Development Request form, the fabric details are filled by the merchant. Proto Sample The first sample made after order confirmation is Proto sample. This sample is made of the closest matching fabric and trims and is for the purpose of identifying the overall look of the style and to obtain a clear understanding of the style. The garment is produced in the base size (M) as asked by the merchandiser. 2-3 pieces are made for proto sample one for SMS (color wise) and other for Presentation sample. Fit Sample Comments from the merchandiser are received regarding the shape, size and fullness. Fit sample is based on the measurement list. Only base size given by the buyer is made and fit is checked on mannequins. This sample is also done on the substitute fabric as proto sample. The main factors that are considered are: a. Perfect style

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b. Quality c. Measurement. Different buyers have different fits, based on which samples are requested in each fit. First Iteration: Similar to the first fit sample, new fit sample of the basic size is made with few changes according to the comments and new techpack sent back by the buyer. Again, third or may be fourth fit sample can be made as required. Second Iteration: Similar like second fit sample new fit sample of the basic size is made with few changes according to the comments and new techpack sent back by the buyer. If the sample is approved the buyer confirms the order to merchandiser and the specifications of the fabric and trims along with the techpack are sent back to the merchant. In another case merchant sends up to ten swatches of fabric for the approval for the bulk production. Finally, the approval of the fabric and trims is decided by the mutual understanding between the buyer and merchandiser. Salesman Sample These samples are made for the purpose of testing customer reaction to the various styles in various colors. In many cases these samples are placed in different retail stores and based on the average reaction, the buyer places orders for bulk production. At the factory the salesman samples are referred to as mini bulk. Garment Process Test GPT (Garment Performance Test) sample: two or three garments are sent for the GPT test. GPT test consists of: • • Seam slippage Tearing strength

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Button Pulling

In case samples fail in above test, production is not allowed. Therefore in the next GPT sample weaknesses of the garment are avoided and approval is taken from the Lab. The initial or first yardage is sourced from the mill during this period. Sealer Sample/Pre-Production Sample Sealer sample is sent back by the buyer after the approval of size set sample. Seal is attached on this sample and it is maintained in the production department, finishing department and QA for the requirements and the quality parameters. Once the sealer sample is received industry is not allowed to make any changes in the garment and this sample should only be followed as the standard for production. Size set: In this stage of sampling, actual fabric is used to stitch the garment. If the fit sample is approved, buyer size set is produced in all colors and all sizes o Original trims and accessories are used. o Four sets each of size are made. o If not approved then again size set is made. Pilot run: 25 pieces are cut in each colour and each size. 5-5 pieces on each size and each colour are offered to the buyer’s QI’s. TOP sample: The buyer Q.A. picks up one size or all set of sizes from the first bulk production. It is considered to be the perfect sample with respect to all sizes and all colors. In the base size the sample produced should be double. • • One set to the buyer One set to buying office
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• •

One set as a counter with the merchant, IF NOT APPROVED, then again top sample is produced.

IF APPROVED, then bulk production of the garment starts.

Shipment Sample: Before the shipment buyer Q.A. picks up the carton randomly and check for the quality. Shipment can only happen after of the approval over shipment sample. The workforce of PDC department is 170. There are 90 operators for sampling.


Production planning and control is the backbone for the factory as it coordinates with all the departments and maintain smooth flow of all the materials. The main objective of PPC department is to collect information about the factory’s committed capacity and available capacity. It also prepares production plan of a particular order prior it reaches size set. It prepares master plan to all departments and sending to them to respective departments. This plan contains the following details:

• • •

Style Date Color and size ratio
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• • • • •

Total Order quantity Fabric Source Color and size ratio Total Order quantity Bill of Material

It updates the factory plan on day to day basis and to make schedules of the functions to be performed by each department, providing a detail schedule of the start and end dates of cutting, production, finishing and packing. The 8-weeks rolling plan is prepared by this department which consists of the dates on which a particular style has to be loaded on a particular line.

Process Flow
2 Months Planning PPM Meeting (Pre production Meeting) Shrinkage Study (Shrinkage Report) Pattern making (Size Set) Size Set Garments to Washing Size Set Approval

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Pilot run

Cutting Schedule
The master plan gives the cutting department the information on how many pieces of what color, size and fabric should be cut. They are also provided with a week’s plan of all the orders running in each production line and the quantity of pieces to be fed to the corresponding lines daily.

Sewing Schedule
This schedule is provided to the Production incharge to keep them updated with their daily production targets. The schedule lets them keep track of how many garments have been completed, and also the number of days and garments remaining to be sewn for a particular style.

Washing Schedule
The planning department sends a washing schedule to the washing department.

There is a small HR department headed by Mr Uma Maheshwaran as Assistant HR Manager. The department has many functions like attendance, Payroll, training, recruitment and welfare. This department keeps a track of the attendance and leave of the employees that is used for deciding on the salary of the workers. A welfare officer is also there who takes care of the needs of the workers and plays a vital role in motivating them and creating awareness among them. There is a welfare department which is a part of H.R. department. It works for the workers of the company. The awards and the programs done by the welfare department are:

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Star of The Month: It is the award given for the efficiency and

work to the workers. It is given to one operator from each line, one from collar section, one from cutting room, one from finishing and one from quality department. The criteria for this award are: o o     o o 100% attendance Discipline Subordination Absenteeism Efficiency Silence Late hours Attendance for 1 yr.

POP Corner: POP stands for Pride Ownership Passion.

It is held monthly. In this the operators are given information regarding garment industry, eco-friendliness and CTPAT. CTPAT stands for Customs Trade Partnership Against Terrorism and is encouraged by U.S. buyers. There is a mascot named Neela doll for this program. Sociable build Soldiers: Thanksgiving cards are given for

expressing the feeling of gratitude for others. The person who gets the maximum number of thanks giving card is awarded. Creche: Creche facility is also provided to the workers for their

children. The children are taken proper care and evening tea and teaching are also imparted to them.

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Trims and fabric store is centralized for three units of celebrity fashions i.e. for Narayanapuram, Poonamallee and Thiruvancherry unit. They are located at Narayanapuram unit.

The trims used for tops only are stored at CTS. The major functions of CTS are to receive, check and issue the trims and keeping the balance trims in red tag area. CTS incharge – Mr. Harikrishnan
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The process flow of CTS is as follows: • • • Bill of material is received from Mepz unit. Purchase order is made and sent to the respective suppliers Receiving department of CTS receives the order. The lead time for imported trims is 25 days and that for the trims sourced from local market is 5 – 10 days. • • • • The trims are checked for quality as well as quantity by the quality checking team of CTS. Work order is received from the head office according to which the trims are issued to the respective factories. Trim card is made and sent to the head office for approval. Daily trim report(TDR) is made and sent to the head office.

Types of trims Labels • • • • • • • • • Main label Main size label Size label Size and content label Wash care label Country of origin label Placket label Pocket label Side seam label
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Buttons Sizes • • • • • • • • Types • • • • • • • • • • • • MOP Horn Snap Rivets Derings Ring snap Pearl snap Chalk buttons(dyeable) Chain poly Core-spun polyester Filament Viscose 32 L 28L 24L 22L 20L 18L 16L 14L


Packing trims • • • • Back support Collar patti Butterfly PVC patti
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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Pins Clips Tissue paper Polybags Master polybag Flat polybag Stand up polybag Hanger pack Hang tag Common tag Price tag Loop lock Stapping roll Gum tape Cello tape Tag and bullet

Inspection and checking Threads  Threads ticket number is checked.  Threads article number is checked for colour.  Thread quantity is checked  Embroidery thread – 9000m per box  Spun polyester thread – 6000 m per box  Poly-poly – 10,000 m per box Buttons  Buttons are checked for their “L” size.  1L= 1/40 inch.  Shade and color of buttons is checked  Type of button is checked
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 1 gross of buttons is counted and weighed and then whole packet is weighed to check the quantity of buttons.  20 L button – 3 gross/packet  18 L button – 12 gross/packet  16 L, 14 L buttons – 20 gross/packet

Labels  labels are checked for print, content , type of label andd quantity  Main label - shows brand name or logo.  size label – shows the garment size s,m,l,xl etc.  wash care label – describes the wash instructions.  Content label – describes the fabric content. Example, 67% cotton, 33%- polyester etc..  Origin label – it describes the country of origin. Elastics  Elastic comes in different sizes(width) and colours.  10% of total quantity is checked.  Width and type of elastic are checked Polybags Two types of polybags are used as per the specification of the buyer  Polypropylene  Polyethylene The trims are received at the receiving area, the carton numbers are checked and the receipt is signed. The cartons are kept at quarantine area. They are then opened and the trims are checked at the QC inspection area. If defective trims are found then the number of defectives are informed to the merchandising department at head office who in turn ask the supplier to replace that amount.

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After checking the trims are kept in the respective racks. A card containing the number of trims according to style and buyer hangs at every rack. It helps in keeping track of the amount of trims left in that rack. The threads are kept according to the suppliers and shade. Labels are kept in cartons that carry the buyer name, style number and the type of label. Packing trims are kept according to type and the buyer. Trim tapes and elastics are kept buyer wise. The balance trims are kept at red tag area. The trims are issued according to the work order to the respective factories and also to the trim sub store of the Narayanapuram unit. Total work force in CTS Staff – 8 Workers – 12 Sourcing regions  Permar agency , Nerkundram , chennai  LR associates, cholai, Chennai  Coats India, vellacherry , Chennai  Brilliant labels, Hong kong  Max trade, Hong kong  Downtown buttons, Hong kong

Fabric is received from the supplier according to the purchase order by the receiving person. The fabric is then kept in the quarantine area. The roll are issued for cutting of bits for shrinkage test and for preparing shade band. After
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this the fabric rolls are inspected according to 4 pint grading system. The rolls are inspected in perching machine and the takka are inspected on the checking table. The passed fabric rolls are then kept on pallets and then kept on racks according to the buyer and style no. Fabric is issued at the issuing areas to the respective factories according to the work order. It is issued along with the Non- Commencable Bits (NCR bits), pink copy (fabric inspection report) and summary reports. After the receipt of the fabric, three processes are followed: Shrinkage test: • • • • • • • • • • Fabric bit is cut to a size of 50 cm X full width in every roll. Fabric bit is cut into 50 X 50 cm The bit is overlocked and marked with roll number and warp direction Marking is done as per the shrinkage template ie.. 35 X 35 cm Taking of washing standards for the particular style from the business unit. Washing bit is taken as per the wash recipe required for the style. For washing, bits are sent to Thiruvancherry unit. Pressing is done as per the style requirement Fabric bits are then relaxed for 4 hrs. after ironing as per lab requirement. Shrinkage percentage in both warp and weft for every roll is determined. Shade bands • • • • • Shade blanket is cut 12” X 12”. Shade blanket is sent to washing along with approved wash standard. Shade segregation is done after wash Shade band is made with both washed and unwashed bit of each shade. Three set of shade band is sent to business for approval.

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Center to selvedge variation and selvedge to selvedge variation is checked in spectralight shade matching cabinet according to the light specified by the buyer.

• •

The different types of lights available are : daylight, cool white light(u35), uv light, horizon light. Cool white u35 is used for A&f

Fabric inspection • • Fabric face side swatch card is sent to business unit for approval. Details covered in face side card are: o Wash specification o Pressing standards o Fabric quantity o Hand feel o Pattern • • • • • • • Fabric is checked lotwise as per 4 point system 100% fabric is checked for lot quantity below 500 mt. 30% of fabric is checked for lot quantity above 5000 mt and if lot fails 100% checked. Samples of all defects found is washed and tested. Unwanted sample of defects is given to cutting department for panel checking. Green sticker is for fabric roll that passed the inspection and red sticker for the fabric that failed. Fabric roll are inspected in perching machine and takka are inspected on checking tables.

4 point inspection system

Length of defect in fabric(either length or width)


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Up to 3 in. (7.5 cms.) Over 3 in. (7.5 cms.) up to 6 in (15 cms.) Over 6 in. (15 cms.) up to 9 in. (23 cms.) Over 9 in. (23 cms.)

1 2 3 4

Holes and openings(largest dimension)
1 in. (2.5 cms.) or less Over 1 in. (2.5 cms.) 2 4

Rejection Criteria Type of fabric 50s count and above 18 Denim and twills 26 Mill made/ auto loom 26 fabric Chambray sucker 38 Linen and blends Power loom fabrics 36 28 27 and seer- 30 Roll points 14 19 19 24 Shipment points

After the completion of the above three processes, 100% shrinkage and shade details – rollwise is sent through mail to VP operation, factory manager, merchandiser, cutting department incharge, technical department, sourcing department and planning department. Then the fabric is issued to cutting as per the work order. The lead time for one style to pass these three processes is 7 days. Wash evaluation test for Kohls Wash evaluation test is done in which three intermediate washes are given to the garment according to the AATCC 135 std. Drying condition is minimum 25 minutes. The garment undergoes conditioning for 4 hrs at 24º c and 65% RH.
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One washed and one unwashed garment is hanged on Wash Evaluation Quick View Board and check for smoothness, seam and pilling standards by comparing the garments with the standard photographs. This test is done on the garments that come out of the pilot run. Workforce Fabric receiving - 1 staff 3 workers Fabric checking – 1 incharge 22 checkers Inspection machines – 6 machines 12 checkers (2 for each machines) Library – 1 staff Testing lab – 1 lab technician 3 workers Fabric sourcing regions • • • • • • Arvind mills Adihi textiles ,Mumbai A&EZ corporation, Chennai (lining fabric) Ganitex Pvt. Ltd. , New Delhi Global textile Pvt. Ltd. , New Delhi Hitima Textiles , Andheri( Mumbai)

Cutting department receives the fabric from the Central Fabric Stores, which is situated in the Narayanapuram unit. CFS (Central Fabric Stores) issues the fabric according to the work order and the amount of fabric available ready for use. The received fabric is stored in the racks infront of the cutting
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Size set (selected Pilot run selected shrinkage roll all with pattern Different pattern Resize set and pattern Re- pilot size all range 10 -100 pcs all size all color ammendment amendment Version shrinkage color

department. There is one fabric and trims incharge for maintaining records regarding the incoming and outgoing of fabric and trims. There are total 85 operators amongst which 5 are cutters and 80 are assistants. The total floor area of cutting department is 3750 square feet. It has 5 spreading tables. The installed cutting capacity is 2000 - 2500 garments/day.


Shrinkage Study Pattern Required in Size Set
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Size Set Cut Marker Consumption Approval Work Order Received Fabric Received Laying Marking Cutting Refolding Relaying Ready cutting Panel Checking Damage Cutting Numbering Fusing Bundling Storage in the Rack Issuing in the line

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• • • • • • • • • Check the lot nos. of the received fabric. Layer the lot wise fabric for cutting to be cut in desired ratio. Check layer height. Select approval pattern for cutting and confirm style no., width etc. Lay the pattern and cut the layer. Inspect the top, middle, and bottom Panels for the cutting accuracy. Number the panels with lot no., size, and panel no. Bundle the numbered panels. Issue to the production lines.

Spreading or laying is done completely manually in the unit. The laying workers receive the laying details which contains all the details required for laying the fabric. The workers go and get the fabric from the storage racks. If the fabric is in folded form, then the fabric is kept under the laying table on a
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sheet to prevent the fabric from getting dirty. If the fabric is in roll form then either it is unwound from the roll form or otherwise the roll is placed using a rod on one end of the table. Normally there are three people involved in the process of spreading. One person stands on the end of the table and pulls the fabric from the underside and releases it for spreading. The other two persons carry the fabric from one end to the other. The spreading process goes as a cycle. The cycle is mentioned below: Worker standing on the end of the table pulls the fabric from the One of the other two workers carries the end of the fabric till the other

underside of the table using both hands and releases it for spreading.  end of the lay. The other worker holds a wooden stick in one hand and moves with the other worker on the other side of the table.   The end of the fabric is matched with the end of the lay. After that both the workers move towards the other end. One of the

workers not carrying the stick moves ahead of the other one and matches the selvedge of the fabric with the edge of the lay. And the other worker follows while settling the fabric using the wooden stick. Meanwhile the worker standing near the end cutter spreads both the arms to spread the fabric.  After they reach the end one worker makes a small cut with scissors on After that, again both the workers move towards the other end with the the fabric layer and the other worker tears the fabric with his/her hands.  edge of the fabric and the whole cycle is repeated again and again till required number of layers is not laid. When a thaan or roll of fabric finishes in between laying, the end bit is cut, measured, recorded and kept separately. Big end pieces are used later in single piece or two piece marker. The smaller end bits are used to replace defective pieces. The same is applicable for the interlining and lining which are followed by manual marking and band knife cutting.

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After the lay is ready, the marker is made manually by keeping the patterns on the lay and weights are kept. The patterns are received from the head office and are stapled on a thick sheet to prevent tearing of patterns. A sticker indicating size, lot number and name of the part is stuck on top layer of each part in the lay before cutting. This is for easy identification of the parts after cutting. After all the adjustments are made and the lay is ready for cutting, cutters start cutting the lay using straight knife. Block cutting is done for checks and stripes. Most of the notches are made using the straight knife only. The power for cutting machine is received from the overhead power line.

After the pieces are cut, the required pieces are refolded one by one manually. Refolding is done for matching purposes and also to ensure the straight grain where ever required for example in front placket, yoke, etc. Some other problems like bowing, etc in the fabric are also removed during this time.

After the refolding of parts, they are laid again for ready cutting.

After the pieces are refolded, many of the parts are to be cut exactly as per the patterns. Bigger parts like fronts, back, etc are cut using straight knife blade and the smaller parts like plackets, yokes, etc are cut using band knife machine. Extra care is required during this process as a small mistake can leave all the pieces damaged.


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After all the pieces are re-cut, they are taken for ticketing. A normal hand held ticketing machine is used for this purpose. Ticketing is done on the pieces according to the ticketing placement decided in PPM. A sticker contains the size and a continuously increasing number. The number on the ticket can be 3 – 4 digits. Different colored tickets are used like white, blue, yellow, green and pink. The numbering starts from 1 for every color in one style

The cut parts are checked by keeping the pattern over them. Top, middle and bottom panels of every lay are checked. All the cut pieces are checked one by one for defects. All the defective pieces are taken out and recorded by the workers. Workers checking the cut parts have been told of what kind of defects to look for and of how much intensity. The mend able defects are mended by the weavers, else the defective parts are replaced using the end bits of same color and shade. Defective pieces are kept separately and can be used for cutting smaller pieces if required.

All the pieces which require fusing are sent to the fusing section in the cutting room. It has two Continuous Fusing Machines. Cuff, placket, welt pocket pieces, collar, collar band etc are normal parts which require fusing. The parts and the interlining are sandwiched between two tissue papers and fed in the fusing machine. After the fusing is done, the parts are removed from the tissue paper. They are bundled and sent back to cutting room.

After that all the parts from the lay are divided into the bundles. Each bundle is folded into a roll and tied with waste fabric. Very small pieces are kept within the bundle of bigger pieces viz., Sleeve placket pieces are kept in the bundle of sleeve. Each bundle is attached with a small card containing information about that bundle:
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      

Lot number Style Size Quantity Color and Shade Serial number Name of the part

After bundling the bundles are kept in the racks in the cutting room. The feeding helpers from the sewing lines take the bundles from these racks. One worker in the cutting room records the number of bundles sent to the cutting room

Band Knife – 02 Straight Knife – 10 Ticketing Machines – 05 Fusing Machines – 02

There are various types of files and records maintained in the Cutting section at different stages. They are discussed below: • • • • • • • • • Fusing Test Report Damage replacement report Continuity card Fabric summary sheet Work Order File Fabric shrinkage report Lay quality report Pattern position report Cut panel report
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Cutting issue slip

*ref:refer annexures

The Production department comprises of 8 production lines. Progressive Bundle System is the production system used. Total number of operators in this department is 297. There are total 8 supervisors. The sewing department
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occupies an area of 12792 square feet. Total 339 machines are there in this section. The department is divided into collar and cuff sections, kaja button section and the main assembly line.










An hourly report is maintained in registers by helper girls, who go around to every operator to find out their production for that hour. This then updated on
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a board kept for each line to show their hourly as well as cumulative production. A report of Work in Progress is collected from individual operator, who then informs the situation to the Production Master, Production Managers. The quality reporters compile the inline checking reports, end line checking reports as well as the production status so that it is made into comprehensive reports for the whole day for review. An hourly production status is been sent to Factory Manager, who monitors the work flow.


There are various types of files and records maintained in the sewing section at different stages. They are discussed below: • • • • • • • • Line Balancing File Hourly Production per Operator Incoming Bundles Hourly Production Line wise Daily Production Line wise Production status (Style wise) Production and Attendance Details File Daily Factory Status Report (DFSR)

*REF: refer annexures

• To Rate the operators for pay purposes.
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• • • • • •

To make the operation bulletin Line Balancing Work station layout Work Study Method study Capacity planning.

Operations Bulletin
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Contains the elemental break down of all the operations. The operations are classified into loops, waist band, backs, fronts and The bulletin contains the following details. Date Style Description Total SAM No of operators Expected efficiency Pcs / machine Expected output / Day/Shift Pieces / hour Parts Description M/c Sam Manual SM Operation requirements / hr Work places M/c type Feed type Attachments


Line Balancing

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Initial line balancing is done taking into account the SAM values stored in the sewing database. This information is included in the operation bulletin. The IE department acts as an advisory body in resorting chronic bottle necks. In the case of absenteeism then the line supervisor and the Industrial engineer work together to balance the line.

• • • • Line wise efficiency Factory efficiency Daily production details Time Study Report

*ref: refer annexures

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Process Flow
Inward Segregation

Issue Job Card

Dry Processing Grinding Blasting Tagging…

Wet Processing Desizing Enzyme wash Stone/ Rubber ball Bleaching Tinting Softener Acid wash PASS


Audit Hydro Extractor


Audit PASS Outward


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The garments sent to this department are sorted by shade, the purchase order, and style and stored in the respective bins. • • Consequently based on the planning schedule, the garments are sent for the wash programs. The wash recipe is set by the washing executive for the first lot, and carried out for the all the garments in that particular style, fabric and colour. • • • All dry processes are performed before the wet processes except in the case of grinding where it is done before the softener treatment. After washing, the garments are put into the hydro extractor to drain out the water from the garments. Subsequently, the garments are dried in tumble drier to remove any traces of wetness. Drying takes about an hour depending upon the specifications. • Finally, all the garments are checked 100% for visual defects such as strikes, patches, shade mismatch etc. The defective pieces are sent for rework and the good pieces are sent to the finishing department.

Tumble Dry machines

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Sand Blasting
It a type of dry process which is used to give a faded and worn out look to the garment. To achieve this effect sand is blown at a pressure between 3 to 6 bar depending on the intensity of fading and type of fabric.

Sand Blasting Machine

Dust collector of the Sand Blasting Machine

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This is a process where the garment is gathered and tagged in different places. Due to this, during the wet processing the tagged areas do not get affected by the chemicals / enzymes/ stone so only that area retains the fabric color, thereby giving it a dark and light effect.

It is a dry process. Here the garments are grinded so as to give it a torn look. Generally after grinding the garments are given a softner wash.

Enzyme Wash
Enzymes are proteins and are present in all living cells. Enzymes speed up chemical processes that would run very slowly. They are non-toxic and can be readily broken down. Enzymes are used in textile processing, mainly in the finishing of fabrics and garments. They help to soften the fabric and lighten the colour.

Stone Wash
It is the process in which pumice stones are added to wash cycle to abrade the garment and to loosen the color. They are mainly used for denims.

Softener Wash
This wash is done so as to give the garment a good hand feel to the garment. There are two kinds of softeners. • • Silicon Cationic

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Effluent Treatment Plant Process Flow

Raw Effluent

Receiving sump

Equalization Tank Flash Mixing

Flocculation Tank Effluent Concentrate Filtrate Concentrate Sludge For Disposal Back Wash Carbon Filter Tank Back Wash Ultra Filtration Back Wash Reverse Osmosis Back Wash Treated Water For Reuse

Filter Press

Clarification Tank

Sand Filter Tank Back Wash Dual Media Filter

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Receiving Sump
This is a small tank like structure where the wash out water from the washing machine come and collected under gravitational force. From this sump the effluent is pumped into the equalization tank. In this stage all the rags, sticks, and stones etc are removed using a physical screen.

Overview of Effluent Treatment Plant

Equalization Tank
The objective of equalization is to minimize or control fluctuations in wastewater characteristics in order to provide optimum conditions for subsequent treatment processes. To maintain BOD and COD airator are used in this tank. The functions of this tank are: • • • • To help adequate pH control or to minimize the chemical requirements necessary for neutralization. To prevent high concentrations of toxic materials from entering the biological treatment plant. To get a normal water temperature To get a homogeneous mixture of the effluent.

The effluent is retained in this tank for 8 to 12 hours.

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Flash Mixer
This is a small tank where the effluent is mixed with alum / mixed sulphate salts at 100 to 500 mg/l. and lime at 100 to 500 mg/l. The effluent is agitated so that the following chemical are mixed properly. They are added for ph adjustment. The retention time in this tank is about 1 min.

Lime storage tank

Flocculation Tank
Here Polyelectrolyte are added at 1-2 mg/l . The retention time in this process is about 30 min. Flocculation is a process of gentle and continuous stirring of coagulated water for the purpose of forming flocs through the aggregation of the minute particles present in the water. It is thus the conditioning of water to form flocs that can be readily removed by settling or filtration.

Clarification Tank
This is a tank where all the heavy molecules are allowed to settle at the bottom (sedimentation process). Then the water on top is allowed to flow into the sand filter and the effluent concentrate is sent for filter press.

Filter Press
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Filter press is used to further concentrate the effluent to form semi solid sludge.Filter press operate by applying very high pressure to the cake (from 5 to 15 bars and sometimes even more). After this the sludge is dried and stored in sacks. The back wash of the press is sent back to the equalization tank

Filter press

Sand Filter
Sand filter is used to remove the suspension materials and impurities in water. The filter can remove the suspension materials.

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Media Filter
A media filter is a type of filter utilizing a bed of sand, crushed granite or other material to filter water.

Activated Carbon Filter
It helps to remove the following substances
• • • •

Organic, non-polar substances Halogenated substance: I, Br, Cl , F Odour Yeasts and various fermentation products

Ultra Filtration
In this stage the water is forced against a semi permeable membrane. Suspended solids and solutes of higher molecular weight are retained while low molecular weight solutes pass through the membrane.

Reverses Osmosis
It is the process of forcing a solvent from a region of high solute concentration through a membrane to a region of low solute concentration by applying a pressure in excess (osmotic pressure). The membrane here is semi permeable, meaning it allows the passage of solvent but not of solute. The membranes used for reverse osmosis have no pore, the separation takes place in a dense polymer layer of only microscopic thickness. In most cases
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the membrane is designed to only allow water to pass through. This process requires that a high pressure be exerted on the high concentration side of the membrane, usually 2 - 14 bar.

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Finishing section is responsible for trimming, checking, mending, ironing, and packing the garments. Finished garments are received from Washing Unit. There are total 100 checkers/ironers/packers and 3 supervisors. The total floor area of finishing department is 9355 square feet.

FINISHING DEPARTMENT PROCESS Garments received from washing Sleeve Placket Marking Collar down Marking Sleeve Placket Button Hole & Buttoning Extra Button Attaching Collar down Button Attaching First Checking (uncut threads, raw edges, broken stitches) Final Checking (fabric defects, shade variations, hand feel, stains) Measurements Checking
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Needle Detecting Thread Checking Ironing Presentation Checking Tagging Packet Stickering Poly Bagging Shade Segregation Carton Making Carton Packing Carton Auditing Final Inspection
After the garments are received from washing, the collar down buttoning and sleeve placket buttoning is done. Then the first checking is done in which the garments are checked for uncut threads, raw edges and broken stitches. The third step is final checking in which garments are checked for fabric defects, shade variations, stains, hand feel and balancing of garment then the measurements are checked against the specification sheet. It is a 100%
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measurements which are checked are as follows:       Collar Length Placket Width, length Pocket placement & measurements Sleeve Length Side seam length Button Placements

The garments from Measurement Checking are fed into the trimming section, where the unwanted or extra threads protruding from the garments are trimmed off with the help of a trimmer. The stained garments are sent to the Stain removing section where the stains (oil, print, mark) are removed by using guns with White Petrol and chemicals. The weaving defects are also mended by a weaver. The garment is then sent to the thread sucking machine for the complete removal of trimmed thread. Then it’s moved to the ironing section. The ironed garment is sent to the packing section where the garments are packed with the poly bag. Before packing, the garments are tagged with the appropriate bar code, tag, label etc. and finally the presentation of the garment is inspected. If it’s not meeting the requirement, then it is sent back to the ironing section for re-ironing. The quality inspection is done according to the AQL level prescribed by the buyer.

Checkers: 50 Measurement checkers: 8 Presentation checkers: 5 Assistant: 1 Stain removal: 2 Alteration tailors: 6 Kaja button tailors: 10 Button markers: 7
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Reporters: 3

Crunch pack: Flat pack: Hanger pack: Abercrombie & Fitch LLBean Kohls Stand up pack: Timberland

Carton sizes:
LLBean: Timberland: 25 ˝×15˝×12˝ (20-50 pcs) 21˝×15˝×12˝ (18 pcs) 15˝×11˝×6˝ (6 pcs) 21˝×15˝×8˝ (12 pcs) Academy: Kohls: 90˝×15˝×27˝ (hanger pack) 23˝×19˝×7.5˝ (12 pcs)

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Each and every garment is checked for quality issues at various stages starting from cutting till packing. Defective garments are sent for mending at the mending section within the finishing section. But if the defect is not mendable, the defective garments are sent back to the production floor to the responsible production line. All the garments are passed through the metal detector for detecting any metal particles inside the garments. Garments with metal parts are directly thrown in the bin provided next to the metal detector. The AQL (Acceptable Quality Level) is 2.5.

Lot size or quantity to audit Less than 151 151-280 281-500 501-12,00 1201-3,200 3201-10000 10001-35000 35001-150000 1500015000000 5000001& over

1.5 Inspect 8 8 32 32 50 80 125 200 315 500

Accept 0 0 1 1 2 3 5 7 10 14

Acceptable Quality level 2.5 Inspect 5 20 20 32 50 80 125 200 315 500

Accept 0 1 1 2 3 5 7 10 14 21

4 Inspect 13 13 20 32 50 80 125 200 315 315

Accept 1 1 2 3 5 7 10 14 21 21

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Quality in Cutting Pre spreading quality checks
1. Cutting department has a big responsibility in taking care of quality because once fabric is cut, it cannot be corrected at all and the losses by losing fabric are high. Every piece re cut costs the factory. 2. The ratio of sizes made during the cut order plan is to minimize fabric loss. 3. The fabric width is constantly checked and the roll width is already noted by the warehouse, and always fabric with same width are spread in the same lay and issue of fabric is done in such a way by the cutting department. 4. The takka number of fabric of same shade and same width is obtained from the material management system which has the data that the warehouse has stored about every takka in the database. 5. The cuttable width of the fabric is always ½” more than the marker made.

Spreading quality checks
1. Perforated paper is laid on the table before spreading fabric to ensure that the lay does not get distorted or fabric is not damaged while moving the lay towards the cutter. 2. The lays are laid taking care of machine capacity in terms of spreaders capacity, cutters capacity and the optimum height to ensure clean cutting without adversely affecting the machines. 3. The laying is done taking care that the takkas of one shade are laid in one lay. Any shade variation is noted on the lay slip, and a paper is laid between the layers to indicated change in shade.
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4. The laying is done only after the QC of the cutting department checks the lay length setting, and the fabric width. 5. The spreaders (operators) have been taught to set fabric tension on the spreaders and it is ensured that the fabric is laid tension free and it does not lean. 6. The spreaders ensure that any holes or major defects evident on the fabric if noticed is immediately cut off and the removed. 7. The number of plies spread is entered into the spreading machine and hence never goes wrong, same way the nap is also entered. 8. The spreaders also ensure that in every roll at least 5 meters of fabric is kept away as end bit. 9. The spreaders make sure to mark on the end bits the takka number and the length of end bit so that re cuts from the same takka is easy

After Spreading Quality checks:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. The lay length, Cuttable width of fabric, Width of marker, Grain of marker, Pieces of marker, Number of pieces of marker, Pattern matching with hard pattern, Number of plies, Lay height, Nap direction, Any skew ness on the fabric lay
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Pre cutting Quality checks
This is done for both the machine and for the lay. The lay is checked to see if the lay is the same as the file entered in the cutting machine for cutting. The marker is checked to confirm which lay is being cut, and noted. The marker is checked if the blade plunging details have been given, if the byte setting has been done. The cutting assembly and blade is checked for change if needed. The compressed height of the lay is checked. The lay is checked if it is properly covered with plastic The power processor settings ensure quality in the pieces during the cutting process. The factors considered are: a. Cutting sequence -The setting of the cutting sequence is done

considering the grip of the vacuum, in order to avoid slippage between plies the pieces with bigger surface area are cut first. b. Blade direction - Setting the blade direction is important as a

quality requirement while cutting parts containing the crotch etc. eg: the right front and the left back should be cut anti – clockwise and vice versa, to ensure uniformity in cutting. c. Blade Plunge - Setting the blade plunge forms a critical area as

well which involves setting the starting point, joining the parts, reducing the gaps and thereby producing neater cutting. Another option is the lift-andplunge for sharp curves and right angled pieces.

Post cutting Quality check

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The cut pieces are checked for even cutting by checking the top, middle and bottom pieces with hard patterns for match. Any discrepancy is immediately corrected by trimming off before sending to bundling.

Panel checking
All the main panels of the garments are checked 100% for fabric and cut defects. Re cuts are done with the end bits immediately Small parts are checked randomly, pocketing fabric etc are also checked only randomly. Fusing is cut and stored buyer wise, style wise in a separate section in bins that is then issued to fusing machines. The number of plies is ensured while ticketing using the starting and ending numbers. To ensure that no mix up in size or shade happens, a lot that is cut is never broken and is moved till the end as a single lot. Number of bundles is counted. Random number of bundles is taken out, and pieces are checked for defects, thoroughly for all parts.

Quality in Sewing In line quality checks
1. The In line quality check points are decided by the IE

department and by the quality department. 2. They are placed strategically at the end of sub assemblies and

after critical operations. 3. 4. In the manual lines, this is done by helpers. The QC’s note these defects in a quality inspection format,

where the location of defect, type and number found in an hour and in a shift is noted. 5. The in line QC’s check the inside as well as outside of the

garment thoroughly in the way its done using the same protocol and
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sequence to ensure they don’t miss anything. This consistency of checking is ensured in the training department 6. The In – line QC’s check for stitching defects, stains, fabric

defects etc. 7. If they miss checking it can become critical as some defects

may not be rectifiable and in such cases the loss may be great.

End line quality checks
The End line quality checkers are one of the most important people in deciding whether the garment will rejected at a later stage. If the end line checkers let some defects unnoticed and send the pieces to the next process, the defect could become worse and lead to rejections. Thus catching a defect as soon as it occurs, and finding its cause so that it doesn’t occur further is the key to maintaining quality. The end line quality checkers along with overall line checkers who occasionally pick random pieces and measure and check for defects are majorly responsible for catching defects, and also help in appraising the efficiency of in-line checkers. The end line checkers check the garment thoroughly and only the pieces that are passed go to the next stage of production. The sewing sections have much more level of quality control than the cutting section. Quality control is normally achieved by following methods: • • Inline inspection End line inspection

INLINE INSPECTION Each production line has continuous quality checking (100 %) at various points where more quality control is required. In this unit there are 2-3 inline checkers in one production line. Normally they are placed at following positions:
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• • • • • • •

Collar checking Cuff checking Sleeve checking Back checking Front checking Feed off arm checking Collar attach checking

These checkers belong to the quality department as such but are considered to be a part of production department. These checkers are placed within the line. They have slanting tables with light on top. They have to work in the standing position. Every bundle has to pass through the checker. Checker is supposed to check each and every piece and return the defective piece back to the concerned operator. END LINE INSPECTION End line inspection, as the name implies, is done at the end of the production line. The person assigned this job belongs to the quality assurance department. A table similar to the one provided to the inline checker. This person is supposed to check each and every piece that is being produced in the line. In this factory, there is one person for end line inspection in each production line. All instructions regarding checking are pasted above the table of the end line checker. After checking the pieces, the checker puts the approved pieces in a plastic bin under the table. From there, the pieces are taken for finishing. Records regarding number of pieces sent to finishing, number of defective pieces, etc is maintained at this location. At this point, only major things are checked and all the parts are not checked very closely for defects. The End Line inspection involves preparing SPC- Attributes Control Chart.

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FABRIC QC • • Receive Head ends of the fabric to be supplied by the suppliers for all the buyers style-wise and arrange for shade and shrinkage tests. Make cards with fabric cutting for face side for the bulk fabric receipts and obtain approval from the BMC. The face side approvals must be handed over to cutting dept via issues section. • Upon the receipt of fabric offered for mandatory inspection by the fabric receiving section, necessary bits for shrinkage and Shade purposes to be removed from the marked rolls and send the same to lab and washing sections for the purpose of shrinkage test and shade banding. • • Shrinkage test for unwashed program to check for 10% and all wash programs for 100% of fabric received. Make shade bands for washed bits and unwashed bits and forward the same for BMC approval/comments. The quantity against each shade should be mentioned in the shade card. • Organize 100% fabric mandatory inspection make checking report on 4 point system. The checking reports are to be sent to the BMC concerned. • All fabric in the roll form should be checked on fabric checkmate machines, fabrics in takka form, lining and pocketing fabrics to check in the tables meant for that purpose. • Monitor the fabric checking in the fabric checkmate machines; collect the cutting of various fabric defects to be sent along with the NCR.

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• •

Mark the rejected fabric rolls with a red tape and keep separately and inform the same to the issues section. Prepare NCR (non conformance report) as per the specified format. The summary of defects with points mentioned, and any major defect has to be highlighted by grading the fabric in the report. The BMC or any competent person’s comments /advice on the NCR to be carefully monitored and the same to be communicated to the factory effectively.

Hand over the face side card, NCR, shrinkage report and shade bands to the fabric issues section for favor of forwarding the same to production units.

TRIMS QC • • Receive the total receipts from the receiving section with the copy of the documents. Receive the master trim card with specimens from trim-receiving section with complete details like description, color, quantity, supplied from, P.O. number, date of receipt, style etc., and upon verification by the Trims-In-Charge. Forward the same to the BMC via the manager warehouse. Proper register is to be maintained in this connection. • • • The minimum qty. to be checked is 10%, subject to enhancement advice by the BMC. At times it may be even 100%. The QC report must highlight the rejections, damages, shortages and the qty unchecked etc. The trims QC section is the custodian of all the approval cards sent by BMC. The approval cards must be accessible at any point of time to refer any dispute/clarification. • All the checked items must be kept in an area allotted for that purpose and plastic pallets have to be used for storing at the QC area. However, the checked goods, including rejections are to be forwarded to the issuing sections within 24 hours of checking. All checked cartons must have proper identification for traceability. Cutting QC
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Cutting QC inspects the lay against the hard patterns. If any defect is found immediately informed to the pattern department to rectifying the same.

• • • •

In cut panel, the top ply is checked with hard pattern for cutting perfection (TOL ± 1/8”) middle and bottom plies with the top ply. To ensure that all notches are in correct position as marked in the hard patterns. In numbering area, to ensure that the cut panel identification numbers are in sequence. In fusing, the fusing quality includes setting the fusing temperature, pressure and time based on the type of fabric and interlining as per the instruction given in the tech pack.

IN LINE CHECK POINTS • • • • Quality manager/garment technician must identify the critical

checkpoints and it is highlighted during preproduction meeting. Line QA explains the key areas to the checkers against approved sample. To ensure the machine setting against approved mock-ups. Line QA analyzing the checkers report about critical defects. If any defect is found from the 7 panels, the QA will stop the operation and the red disc will hang at the concerned sewing machine. END OF LINE QC • • • End of line checkers carry out 100% inspection on hourly production of the line. Follow visual SOP attached on the inspection table. Must have relevant training about the defect analysis prior to carryout any end of line inspection. ROVING QC
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• •

Roving QC to visit each operation and inspect 7 pieces recording all relevant details on the roving QC daily report. The roving QC must start everyday by analyzing the previous day reports to prioritize the critical areas of problem on which he has to conduct the inspection.

• •

The problems found in the inspection should be immediately informed to the line supervisor for corrective action. While inspecting each operator’s pieces, the operator technical standard must be used to carry out a comparison and to ensure that everything is a standard requirement

SEWING AUDIT • Ten garments are randomly pulled out from the hourly production from each line and carryout the audit. If any defects found from the 10 garments the entire hourly returned to the concerned line checker for checking the entire hourly production. FINISHING QC • • To carry out the random audit in the finished product passed by the checkers. To ensure that the critical measurements are within the tolerance.

FINAL AUDIT • • • • Final audit is done as per buyer sampling plan. Every 250, 500 or 1000 pieces lot is inspected by the internal QA on a daily basis. Measurement audit is compulsory in the batch wise/lot wise inspection. Auditors on a daily basis to ensure packed goods are meeting AQL standards and approved to be offer to external QA’s for final inspection of goods.

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Final statistical auditor assists the nominated QA, who is responsible to ensure all the departments are following the buyer specifications and standards in the concerned departments.

After the packaging of the garments, the cartons are put over a strapping roll machine and they are wound by a strap. After this these cartons are arranged buyer wise and kept in the quarantine area and are ready to be dispatched. The process flow of dispatching is as follows: Company CFS (Central freight station) Customs clearance Goods put in the container Closed container Goes to harbor Ship Different buyers have their nominated forwarders for shipping the goods. They are as follows: Timberland: APL Kohls: ECMS (expeditors)
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Academy: ECMS (expeditors) Eddie Bauer: ECMS (expeditors) LLBean: APL

These buyer countries and their code dealt by the company are EU - Europe AP - Asia Pacific AN - Argentina VE - Venejuela PA - Panama BZ - Brazil Software called Sean pack system is used to print the stickers for the Timberland Buyer that uses xml files to print the barcode on the stickers. In this system, the pack one system is used that takes the input of the p.o. and then generates the code.

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AIM: - To observe and understand the processes of the cutting room, improvise the SOP and to find out the problems and suggesting the feasible solutions for the same. Scope of the Project: - The scope of this project was to observe the cutting room for two weeks and get thorough understanding of all the processes going on there. We had to find out the problems in those processes and suggesting the feasible solutions for those problems. Finally, we had to improve the Standard operating procedure being followed in the cutting room of the company. Methodology • • • • • Study all the processes starting from spreading to fusing and then bundling. Note down the causes due to which problem is occurring and that is decreasing the productivity of the cutting room. Think of the possible solutions and document the same. Understand the standard operating procedure being followed. Suggest the improved standard operating procedure.

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Spreading Marker making Cutting Refolding Relaying Ready cutting Ticketing Fusing Bundling

Issue to line

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1. The takka used for spreading are kept on a mat on floor due to which workers have to apply more force to pull the fabric for laying. Moreover the workers pass over the takka which leads to soiling of the fabric.

The takka can be kept on a table which will help the workers in laying and the fabric would also not get dirty. 2. At the time of laying, the spreading operators remove tension using a wooden stick but this does not removes the creases on the layer and they often leave the layer with creases and fabric bulging at some places. This leads to some parts being cut smaller or larger then the actual size and the operators have to do the sizing of the parts with scissors. Bowing also occurs due to uneven tension. As the unit mostly gets the order for checks or plaids, so pin table can be used. By using the pin table bowing and check matching problem will be solved and the cost incurred will be overweighed by the reduced number of processes and it will decrease the chances of panels being cut big or small. It will prove a good return on investment for the company. 3. The end cutting of layers is done manually which causes uneven ends, disturbs the tension and leads to weakening of yarns at the end of the layer. End cutter can be used for cutting the end of each layer which will uniformly cut the fabric. 4. The defects are unprocessed at the time of spreading

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While spreading the full fabric can be seen by the workers which is a good opportunity to spot the defects, so at this time defects can be marked using stickers and the lay number in which the defect occurred can be noted down, so that at the time of panel checking the defects are not overlooked. 5. The end bits that are left after spreading are kept without writing any identification on them. The takka number and the lay from which the end bit is left can be written on the end bit. This will ensure the cutting of the defective part from the same takka avoiding the shade variation between the parts of a garment. 6. The varying width of fabric causes wastage. Marker is made to the cut able width of fabric, but due to the varying width of fabric 2-3% is wasted as end of ply losses and as fabric represents 40-50% of the cost of fabric, so wastage in spreading should be eliminated. This can be done by establishing standards for ends wastage and the practices in cutting room should be regularly monitored and there should be tight control over ply ends maintained. It is better to plan markers according to the varying width of the fabric and to sort the pieces in batches according to the measured width –additional labour cost are outweighed by the material savings.

Marking and Cutting
1. After making the marker the number of parts are not counted and checked due to which some parts are missed out from the marker and that have to be cut separately from the end bits. The pattern pieces should be counted and verified. The grain line should also be checked.

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2. The cut parts that are to be refolded or bundled are stored under the table which leads to soiling, crushing of parts. The parts are kept under any table due to which sometimes workers have to search. The space under the table is also not utilized to its full capacity. The racks can be made under the tables which will help in keeping the parts systematically. The curtains can be made from the unused fabric end bits and can be used at the sides of the table to keep the parts neat and clean. 3. The big panels are heavy and it is difficult for workers to move them from one table to other alone, due to which they have to take the help of some other worker which causes disturbance. Trolley can be used for movement of heavy panels. It will help workers to move the parts alone without disturbing the other operators. 4. For drilling the garment parts, everytime the operators have to bring the cardboard and fix it on the table where drilling has to be done due to which time and resources are wasted. This is done to prevent holes on the table. A cardboard can be fixed in hanging form on one edge of every cutting table which can be lifted up and used at the time of drilling. 5. After band knife cutting, the cut parts are kept on the table itself. For collecting the cut parts the ticketing operator has to come to take those pieces as it hinders the movement of pieces on the band knife table. A rack or table can be installed near the band knife machine, so that after cutting the parts can be kept there.

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Tickets used for different sizes are same which may lead to mixing of sizes. Different colors can be used for different sizes which will avoid the mixing of sizes. 1. Sometimes tickets are removed from the garment parts which lead to mixing and mismatching of parts. Tickets with good adhesive can be used which won’t remove while handling of parts. 2. The workers sticks the unused or damaged tickets on the table which leaves the gum stain on the table and these tickets can also stick to other parts. A polybag should be hanged on the edge of the table near the worker and the worker should be told to dispose the tickets in the polybag.

Assorting and Bundling
1. The bundles ready for sewing are kept in racks. Every rack should contain a card on which the buyer, style number and number of bundles of each part in that rack should be written. Every time a bundle is added or taken should be recorded on the card.

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1. In the cutting room every operator should be allocated a specific job. This will facilitate the supervisor to evaluate each operator according to his job and it will be easy to identify the performance levels of the operators. The operators would also be responsible for the work they do and it will in turn increase their efficiency. 2. As the company is now planning to follow the lean manufacturing, 5S should be followed as it is a part of lean. It is a method of maintaining clean and organized work place. The operators should be educated about this and posters should be put in order to make them understand the objectives of 5S. Kaizen box should be installed in order to get ideas and suggestions from the employees and workers for improving the workplace.

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• • Check the lot nos. of the received fabric. Maintain lay length given in CAD marker leaving 2 cm allowance at two ends. • • • • Check face side of the fabric before spreading. Layer the lot wise fabric for cutting to be cut in desired ratio. Check layer height. Select approval pattern for cutting and confirm style no., width, size and number of parts etc. • • Make the marker on the lay leaving allowance for knife movement. Mark part name and size on each panel for the identification after the panels have been cut. • Before cutting check marker for correction of sizes and parts against lay slip. • • • • Inspect the top, middle, and bottom Panels for the cutting accuracy. Number the panels with size, and panel no. Allot size wise and lot wise serial number before sow bar stickering. Check all major panels for fabric defects and re-cut and replace the defective panels using end bits of same takka/rolls used for lay cutting. • • • Set fusing machine for temperature, pressure and speed as mentioned in interlining test report. Ensure correctness of parts, fusing material to be fused referring R&D comments. Record once in every two hours the standards of temperature, pressure in prescribed format.

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• • •

Test fusing temperature using temperature strip bond strength on actual fabric bit and preserve the same. Bundle the numbered panels. Issue to the production lines.

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1. Check the lot nos. and width of the received fabric and segregate the fabrics with a width difference of more than 2 cm. 2. Maintain lay length given in CAD marker leaving 2 cm allowance at two ends. 3. Check face side of fabric before spreading. 4. Layer the lot wise and width wise fabric for cutting to be cut in desired ratio. Use end cutter for cutting the layer end after spreading each layer. 5. If any defect is found in any layer, put a sticker on the defect and record the style number, color, lay number, layer number and the type of defect found in that layer. 6. Check layer height and tally the number of layers to lay slip given. 7. Write style number, color, takka number, lay number and length of end bit on the end bits of fabric takka used for fabric. 8. Make the marker on the lay leaving allowance for knife movement. 9. Mark part name and size on each panel for the identification after the cut panels. 10. Check style number, color, lay number and number of sizes before cutting. 11. Before cutting check marker for correction of sizes and parts against lay slip. 12. Check for notches of panels and shape of cut panels picking top, middle and bottom panel of each bundle using hard copy of panels.
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13. Adhere to stickering placement as decided in PPM. 14. Use different colored tickets for every size in one style. Check the panels for ticket placement and the numbering on the tickets. 15. Allot size wise and lot wise serial number before sow bar stickering. 16. Check all major panels for fabric defects and re-cut and replace the panels using end bits of same takka/rolls used for lay cutting referring the sticker on the end bits. 17. Set fusing machine for temperature, pressure and speed as mentioned in interlining test report. 18. Ensure correctness of parts, fusing material to be fused referring R&D comments. 19. Record once in every two hours the standards of temperature, pressure in prescribed format. 20. Test fusing temperature using temperature strip bond strength on actual fabric bit and preserve the same. 21. Refer style sample to identify the cut parts before starting and bundling. 22. Keep the bundled parts in assigned racks and update the number of bundles in that rack on the card hanging at each rack. 23. Issue the bundles to the production lines and record the number of bundles sent to the production lines.

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Aim: To study the style changeover process and suggest the ways to minimize the set-up time losses. Scope Of The Project: The scope of the project was to observe the line layout of old style, the setting done for the new style like machine setting, issuing of trims etc. , and the line layout for new style. It also involves observing the internal and external elements, critical areas in the new style, noting the lap time (difference between beginning of new operation and ending of old operation) and style changeover time and suggesting the methods to reduce the set-up time losses. Methodology: • • • Observing the current changeover process and identifying the internal Identifying the cause and effect and analysing them. Optimising start-up time, converting activities from internal to external and external activities.

set up and increasing the efficiency of external and remaining internal activities.

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A changeover is the complete process of changing between the manufacture of one product to the manufacture of an alternative product to the point of meeting specified production and quality rates. It consists of three phases: 1) Run-down period- It is the interval when production of old product is complete but set up for new product cannot be started as some of the pieces of old product are inline for alterations or waiting for some parts/ trims. In ideal situations, run-down period should be zero. For example, production of 5 Pocket Denim Pant is finished but some of the pieces are inline for alterations and for some other pieces waistbands are missing. So Run-down period will stretch till all the pieces are out from the line. 2) Set-up period- It is defined as interval when no manufacturing occurs. In this phase, the equipments are being adjusted to manufacture new product. This interval is critical, because there is no output from the line, and potential revenues are lost. There are two kinds of activities required to carry out a changeover: Internal and External activities. • Internal Activities: These are the activities which are performed in the

interval when no product is being manufactured. For example, when sewing machines present inline are being set for gauge, SPI, folder adjustment etc. for a new style F/S Shirt, at that time no production is happening in line. The time taken to complete all the internal activities constitutes set-up Period.
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External Activities: These are the activities which can be performed

outside the line without disturbing the production inline. For example, pre setting of a sewing machine for the Style B or early loading of cut parts without disturbing the production of running Style A. 3) Run-up period- It starts when production is commenced again and continues until consistent output at full capacity occurs. It is often difficult to determine at what point full production capacity is reached as the line performance is still fluctuating at this time. It is quite likely that the production line will be halted at intervals during the run-up period as adjustments still take place at this point of time. For example, production of denims of new style ‘B’ has started but output from a particular operation is very low because it is a new operation. So, the interval till the consistent output is achieved at that operation constitutes run-up period.

Manufacture of A Manufacture of B reaches set output and quality rates

Full Production of A Manufacture of B commences

Run-Down Period

Run-Up Period

Tc = Total Elapsed Changeover Time

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SMED: Single Minute Exchange of Die
Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) is one of the lean tools for reducing waste in a manufacturing process. It provides a rapid and efficient way of converting a manufacturing process from running the current product to running the next product. This rapid changeover is essential to reduce production lot sizes and thereby improve flow which is a Lean aim. It is also often referred to as Quick Changeover (QCO). The phrase single minute does not mean that all changeovers and startups should take only one minute, but that they should take less than 10 minutes (in other words, "single digit minute"). Shigeo Shingo, who created the SMED approach, claims that in his data from between 1975 and 1985 that average setup times he has dealt with have reduced to 2.5% of the time originally required; a 40 times improvement. However, the power of SMED is that it has a lot of other effects which come from systematically looking at operations; these include: • • • • • • • • • • • Stockless production which drives capital turnover rates, Reduction in footprint of processes with reduced inventory freeing floor space Productivity increases or reduced production time Increased machine work rates from reduced setup times even if number of changeovers increases Elimination of setup errors and elimination of trial runs reduces defect rates Improved quality from fully regulated operating conditions in advance Increased safety from simpler setups Simplified housekeeping from fewer tools and better organisation Lower expense of setups Operator preferred since easier to achieve Lower skill requirements since changes are now designed into the process rather than a matter of skilled judgement
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• • •

Elimination of unusable stock from model changeovers and demand estimate errors Goods are not lost through deterioration Ability to mix production gives flexibility and further inventory reductions as well as opening the door to revolutionised production methods

New attitudes on controlability of work process amongst staff

Steps of SMED
Theoretically SMED is defined in four steps: 1. Suppress useless operations 2. Work together 3. Simplify fittings and fasteners 4. Suppress adjustments and trials SMED methodology can be easily defined in six steps. It consists of: • • • • • • Observing the current changeover process Identifying internal and external activities Converting activities from internal to external set up Increasing efficiency of the remaining internal activities Optimizing the start up time Increasing efficiency of external activities

There are series of activities which should be performed before changeover to reduce the set up time. All these activities are important and should be performed timely by the responsible person. These activities can be divided in three phases:  Planning Phase: The activities in this phase are essential prerequisite to the activities of preparatory phase.  Preparation Phase: The activities in this phase involve completion of external activities.  Operating Phase: The activities in this phase involve execution of changeover.

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Observing the current changeover process and identifying the internal and external activities.
The changeover process of four styles was observed and the lap time between operations was noted down. After that the activities were distinguished between external and internal events. External Operations are those that can be made when the equipment is running. Internal Operations can only be made when the equipment is stopped. The time is reduced by eliminating from the time of internal preparation all the operations that can be made while the equipment is still working. This it is the first step in the improvements. It is a line in which impressive improvements can be achieved.

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Cause and effect analysis- Ishikawa Diagram
Ishikawa diagrams (also called fishbone diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams) are diagrams that show the causes of a certain event. Common uses of the Ishikawa diagram are product design and quality defect prevention, to identify potential factors causing an overall effect. Each cause or reason for imperfection is a source of variation. Causes are usually grouped into major categories to identify these sources of variation. The categories typically include:
• •

Man: Anyone involved with the process Methods: How the process is performed and the specific requirements Machines: Any equipment, computers, tools etc. required to

for doing it, such as policies, procedures, rules, regulations and laws

accomplish the job

Materials: Raw materials, parts, pens, paper, etc. used to produce the

final product The 5 Ms (used in manufacturing)
• • • • •

Machine (technology) Method (process/inspection) Material (raw, consumables etc.) Man Power (physical work)/Mind Power (brain work) Money

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Percentage of 4 M’s in set up time loss Style-1

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Percentage of 4 M’s in set up time loss Style-2

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Percentage of 4 M’s in set up time loss Style-3

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Percentage of 4 M’s in set up time loss Style-4

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STEP – 3
Optimizing start-up time, Converting activities from internal to external set up and increasing the efficiency of external and remaining internal activities.

Line Plan Planning of line plan should be done in a manner that loading of upcoming style will occur four days after receiving updated line plan. Loading of styles similar to previous running styles in the respective lines helps in achieving quicker changeover and better productivity. Operation Bulletin Operation Bulletin of upcoming style should be revised on the basis of line plan by IE 3 days prior to style loading. Operation Bulletin developed at sampling room should be crosschecked with the reference sample by IE executive and updated for required changes. After finalizing operation bulletin, Machine layout should be developed by IE Executive. Mock Sample Supervisor should be informed about upcoming style, on the basis of line plan, 3 days prior to style loading, to prepare the mock sample. It is the replica of upcoming style in terms of design details. The purpose of mock sample preparation is to make supervisor acquainted with all the operations. It is beneficial as it helps in early identification of: • • • Critical operations Necessary templates. Method details

Preparation of mock sample should be completed on the same day.

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Machine Plan Machine Plan preparation is a fundamental planning tool for SMED. It involves internal and external element segregation for new style by comparing operation bulletin of old and new style. It should be prepared 3 days prior to loading. It is a record of: • • • • • • • Operation Type Machine Type (Segregated as internal/external) Machine Number SPI Required Settings Critical/External Independent Operation Additional Operator/Helper

Status Check Status of Cutting and Trims should be checked by the supervisor 3 days prior to loading of new style and related issues should be discussed in Internal PPM. It is necessary to check the status of all the inputs in advance, to prevent off standard time arising due to waiting for raw material inline. Internal Pre Production Meeting or Production startup meeting Internal PPM should be held 2 days prior to style loading, after completion of preliminary activities (OB, Mock sample & Status check). The purpose of Internal PPM is to discuss new style in advance to anticipate problems and their respective measures. The duration of PPM should be less than 10 minutes. Internal Pre Production Meeting is not mandatory for repeat styles. Internal PPM should be held in the presence of: • • • • • • • Production Manager Quality Head Floor In-charge Maintenance Head Industrial Engineer. Supervisor Collar/cuff supervisor
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Line QC

Internal PPM involves discussion on following topics: • Mock Sample: Sample prepared by supervisor should be checked by Quality Head and CTP (Critical to Production) operations should be discussed. • Cutting and Trim status: Cutting and outsourcing status issues should sorted. Trim status issues should be communicated to be discussed and Production Manager should be held responsible to get them • merchandising department by Production Manager. Quality Specifications: CTQ (Critical to Quality) operations and PP comments are discussed by Quality Head. Any changes in the specifications from the reference sample should also be conveyed. • Machine, Folder and Attachment Status: Requirement for any new folder, attachment or machine for new style, analyzed during machine plan preparation, is also discussed by IE in the meeting. The order should be placed for the same after crosschecking with maintenance department on the same day. • • Template Preparation: QC should discuss about templates required. Operator Allocation Plan: Based on the machine plan Floor In-charge

will decide operator allocation. Only discussion for operator allocation at critical operations is held in the meeting. A PPM report should be documented in the meeting by Industrial Engineer and concerned issues are solved by the responsible persons. Machine plan is handed over to maintenance department in the Internal PPM. All the concerns regarding upcoming style are discussed and solved in Internal PPM.

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2. PREPARATION PHASE External Machine Setting External machines should be set by the mechanic according to the machine plan. The settings should be complete a day prior to loading of new style. Machine setting includes: • • • • • Gauge change Folder/ Presser Foot change, Needle addition /removal SPI adjustment Programming

The stitch quality should be approved by Quality Checker. After completion of machine setting the machine should be tagged indicating the line and style for which the machine is set. Preparatory Section Status Preparatory Section status should be checked by supervisor one day prior to style loading and problems should be discussed with preparatory head and solved to get timely loading. Template Preparation Patterns should be issued by supervisor one day prior to style loading. The number of patterns should be checked and requirements of any other pattern should be communicated to CAD/ Sampling room immediately. The templates should be prepared by supervisor and approved by QC. Sketches preparation The technical sketches explaining the critical operations should be prepared by the line incharge one day prior to style loading. These sketches should be hanged at the respective machines at the day of style loading. This will help the operators to clearly understand the operations and they will commit less mistakes.

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Day of Changeover:
Inline Loading Trims Issue Trims like threads, zippers labels, buttons etc. should be issued at least 2 hours before old style ends at first operation. Cut part loading Cut part loading should also be done at the same time. It should be checked by feeding helper while loading if all the parts are present. Parts coming from preparatory section should be counted before loading so that any missing parts can be communicated to preparatory section at the earliest. Early inline loading is necessary to reduce the off standard time. Style Change Analysis Style change analysis report should be documented for each style by IE person to analyze the problems faced during the changeover. All the problems faced during style analysis should be discussed in the style review meeting which will be held a day after completion of changeover.

This phase constitutes the execution of changeover process. In order to reduce the set up time, independent operations should be started before loading of new style and the operators should be involved in the changeover process. Supervisor should be alert and should assure that the mechanic is available on time and the internal setting is being done according to the line plan and machine plan.

Increasing efficiency of internal activities
• • • Template preparation should be done before style loading Cut part and trims should be issued before loading Sketches for critical and difficult operations should be prepared and

given to workers.
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Simplify adjustments and settings by involving the operators in the

task. The operators should be trained to change the presser foot and needle so that they do not have to wait for the mechanic and time can be saved. • There should be a meeting of supervisor with the operators prior to

style loading in which the details about new style should be discussed. This will motivate them and they will like to be a part of the process. • Work group should be formed for each style changeover that will be

fully responsible for that style. Making a team will speed up the task and it will be easy to identify the problem causing element.

Increasing efficiency of External activities
This can be done by following the 5S principle and kaizen. 5S is a process and method for creating and maintaining an organized, clean, and high performance workplace. 5S enables anyone to distinguish between normal and abnormal conditions at a glance. 5S is the foundation for continuous improvement, zero defects, cost reduction, and a safe work area. It is a systematic way to improve the workplace, our processes and our products through production line employee involvement. 5S can be used in Six Sigma for quick wins as well as control. 5S should be one of the Lean tools that should be implemented first. If a process is in total disarray, it does not make sense to work on improvements. The process needs to be first organized (stabilized) and then improved. The 5 S’s are: 1. Sort – Clearly distinguish needed items from unneeded items and eliminate the latter. 2. Straighten / Stabilize / Set in Order – Keep needed items in the correct place to allow for easy and immediate retrieval 3. Shine – Keep the work area clean 4. Standardize – Develop standardized work processes to support the first three steps

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5. Sustain – Put processes in place to ensure that that the first four steps are rigorously followed. Kaizen is a Japanese word that means to break apart to change or modify (Kai) to make things better (Zen). Kaizen is used to make small continuous improvements in the workplace to reduce cost, improve quality and delivery. It is particularly suitable when the solution is simple and can be obtained using a team based approach. Kaizen assembles small cross functional teams aimed at improved a process or problem in a specific area. It is usually a focused 3 to 5 days event that relies on implementing “quick” and “do it now” type solutions. Kaizen focuses on eliminating the wastes in a process so that processes only add value to the customer. Some of the 7 wastes targeted by Kaizen teams are: - Waiting/Idle Time/Search time (look for items, wait for elements or instructions to be delivered) - Correction (defects/rework & scrap ‐ doing the same job more than once) - Transportation (excess movement of material or information) - Over‐production (building more than required) - Over‐processing (processing more than what is required or sufficient) - Excess Motion (excess human movements at workplace) - Storage/warehousing (excess inventory) The benefits of doing Kaizen are less direct or indirect labour requirements, less space requirements, increased flexibility, increased quality, increased responsiveness, and increased employee enthusiasm.

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The eight week internship done at Celebrity Fashions Pvt. Ltd. has been a great learning process for us as an apparel manufacturing students of NIFT. During our stay in the organization we observed different departments and their daily functioning and the process flow. We were also able to work on live projects that has been an immense training value for us and helped us in having better understanding of garment manufacturing process. This internship gave us an opportunity to see in practical whatever we have learnt in theory and to understand the problems faced by different department in meeting the shioppment dates and delivieries, giving us deeper insight to the industry as well as practical experience of working in the industry. It helped us to learn and improve our interpersonal communication skills with colleagues, peer groups and workers.Each and every experience in the company helped us a lot inincreasing the knowledge both theoritically and practically.

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During our internship we were able to inculcate wide range of knowledge about the existing scenario of the garment industry, understanding the functioning and the role played by various departments in meeting the delivery schedules. The various departments that exists in the company from administration to the shipment were thoroughly studied with the good understanding.The conclusion were drawn and suggestions were presented to the management, who humbly accepted them. To conclude, this internship proved to be a great learning in many aspects as it gave us an opportunity to experiment and utilize the inputs imparted by the institute.

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