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INTERNATIONAL EDITION NEIL R. CARLSON PHYSIOLOGICAL Foundations of Physiological Psychology University of Massachusetts, Amherst Series Editor: Kelly May jes Editorial Assistant: Adam Whitehurst Marketing Manager: Karen Natale ‘Composition and Prepress Buyer: Linda Cox ator: Linda Knowl Photo Researcher: Helane M EditorialProduction Service: Barbara Gracia Text Designer: Carol Somberg Copyeditor: Barbara Willette Mhusteaton: Jay Alexander Electronic Composit ‘Omegatype Typography, uetion Coordinator: Mary Beth Finch Copyright © 2005, 2002, 19 1992, 1985 Pearson Education, Ine Internet: All rights reserved, No part of the material protected by this copy W form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, copying, recording, or by any information storage and ret including pho without written permission from the copyright owner. ‘To obtain permission(s) to use n to Allyn and Bacon, Permissions Departmet ‘or fax your request to 617-848-7320, Berw the time Web site information is gathe wal system, terial from this work, please submit a written request Arlington Street, Boston, MA 02116 ed and published, some sites may have closed, Also the transcription of URLs ean result in typographi (errors, The publisher would appreciate notification where these occur so that they may be corrected in subsequent editions, Library of Congress Cataloging:in Publication Data Carlson, Neil R Foundations of physiological pyychology / Neil R. Carlson. 6th ed. pcm Includes bibliogr ISBN 0-205-427235 1. Psychophysiology. 1 ical references and index. Title larvey/Peter Arnold, Ine p. 2, © Rachel Epstein, PhotoEdit; p. 6, photo courtesy of Neil R. Carlson; p. 17, © Michael Schwarz/The Image Works; p. 26, Jim Karagcorge /Taxi/® Getiylmages, Inc; p. 39, © Clay Wiseman /Animals Animals; p. 51, © R. siter/Animals Animals: p. 61, Ray Massev/ Image Bank/ © Gettylmages, Ine. p. 75, © John Easteott/ Yea Momatiuk/ The Image Works; p. 80, © Myrleen Ferguson Cate/PhotoEdit; ike Powell Allsport Photography/© Geuylmages, Ine.; p. 94, Catherine Ledner/Stone/© Gettylmages, Ine p. 107, © Leonard Lee Rue, IM/Earth Scenes; p. 109, © Tom Preuyman /PhotoEdit; p. 122, © B. Daemmrich, The Image Works; p. 147, © Denis MacDonald/PhotoEdit; p. 150, © Michael Schwar7/The Image Works; p. 154, Anthony Cassidy/ Stone /® Geurylmages, Ine. p. 157, son Baldvsin. Jr. Animals Animals; p. 164, © Richard Kolar Animals Animals; p. 181, © Amwell/ Stone /Geuylmages, Ine; p. 188, Gandlee VasanImage Bank /© Gettylmages, Ine p- 198, © Michael Newman /PhotoEdit; p. 209, © Michael Newman /PhotoFdit; p. 221, © Tom Pretiyman/PhotoEd 1-286, White Packert/ Image Bank/® Gentylmages, Ine: ld/The Image Works; p. 256, Ka ges, Ine:; p. 260, Daly & Newton/ Printed in the United States of America 10987654321 VHP 08 07 06 05 OF 2004014764 Stone /® Gettylmages, Ine; p. 273, © David Joel/Stone; p. 292, Jonathan Skow/Taxi/© Gettylmages, Inc.; p. 299, © Gerald Lacz/Animals Animals; p. 904, © B. Daemmrich/ ‘The Image Works; p. 311, © Robert Brenner/PhotoEdit; p. 821, Alexandra Grablewski /FoodPix/GettyImages, Ine p. 333, © Lawrence Migdale/Stone; p. 349, © Earl Dotter p- 356, Art Montes de Oca/Taxi/© Gettylmages, Inc. p. 371, © Elizabeth Crews/The Image Works; p. 376, Boissavy/Taxi/ © Getrylmages, Inc. p. 385, Elyse Lewin/ Image Bank/© Getiylmages, Inc. p. 398, Hideki Fuyjii/ Image Bank/© Geuyhmages, Ine; p. 401, © Spencer Grant/PhotoEdit; p. 416, © B. Daemmrich/The Image Works; p. 422, © Cameramann/The Image Works; p. 432, © James Shaffer /PhotoEdit; p. 438, © Paul Conklin, PhotoEdit: p. 414, © Ellen p. 460, Color Day Production /Image Bank/© Geuylmages, Inc, p. 467, © Robert Brenner/PhotoEdit; p. 475, © 1993, Eric Nelson Custom Medical Stock Photo: © Phow Rese p-495, Kamil Vo © Genylmages, Inc. p. 497, © Easteott/Mom Image Works; p. 507, © Paul Conklin/PhotoEdit; © Cindy Chatles/PhotoFdit: p. 522, Uwe Krejei/Stone Allstock/© Geutylmages, Inc