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•
' I
I
•
. .
·,
j
~ ...
··· .,.
••
'
'
y>
 .. ~
INTRODUCT/ON  113
Main factors affecting the rolling parameters
Geometrical factors
Rolling speed
Steel under rolling and
rolling temperature
Rolling rolls
Other factors
• ENTRY EXIT SHAPES AND DIMENSIONS
__ ..,. • CONTACT LENGTH AND CONT ACT AREA
• ENTITY OF REDUCTION (STRAIN)
•
• SPEED OF DEFORMA TION (STRAIN RATE)
• CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
• MECHANICHAL PROPERTIES
• THERMAL PROPERTIES
• CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (mechanical thermal properties)
• ROLLS TEMPERATURE AND SURFACE WEAR
•DIAMETER
• FRICTION BETWEEN ROLLS AND STEEL UNDER ROLLING
• SCALE THICKNESS ON THE BILLET SURFACE
• RECRYSTALLISATION AND GRAIN STRUCTURE EVOLUTION
• TENSION BETWEEN THE ST ANDS
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A., not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
2
INTRODUCTION 213
A good rolling mill simulation program must have
Mechanical
model
Thermal
model
Deformation
model
i ....
•Thern1omechanical properties for different steels
•Yield stess model
• Rolling force  torque  power calculation models
Drop of temperature during the rolling process due to:
• interstand cooling (radiation)
• water cooling effect
• contact with the rolls
• deformation heat
Calculation of grooves shape and dimensions on the stands:
• spread model
• geometrical model
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.,,., .. ,. ,.,_ ...... .. ,, .... ,. '
3
INTRODUCTION 313
IN ANYCASE
'
All the calculation models must be tuned
•USINGROL
•USINGFEM
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4
YIELD STRESS 1114
THE STEEL YIELD STRESS IS FUNCTION OF:
• Chemical composition of the steel
• Strain entity of deformation
• Strain rate speed of deformation
• Temperature
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S. p.A., not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
5
YIELD STRESS 2114
STRAIN DEFINITION
L
" / , ,
/ ,
/
/ ,
/ /
1
1
1
1
From the law of constancy of volume
V
0
=V
1
> h
0
b
0
1
0
=h
1
b
1
1
1
2 DEFINITIONS
 1 \ dh  h,  ho
h¡ dh
= ln(h¡'
rph =
&h 
•
h
h '
ho h. ho
ho
o
o
 1 b¡ db  b,  bo
b ¡ ~ d b
= ln( b,)
rpb =
&b 
b
bo
bo b bo
b¡)
o
 1 \. dl  ll lo
1 1
~ d l l¡
&,  
lo
rp,= = ln( )
l .
l
lo
•
O /
0 lo
With the logarithmic stains it' s possible to ha ve
a better description of the state of deformation
With the logarithmic stains it' s possible to follow
a multiphase deformation as we find on the
rolling milis
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6
YIELD STRESS 3114
INFLUENCE OF STRAIN ON YIELD STRESS
Kan
hu
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A., not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
7
YIELD STRESS 4114
STRAIN RA TE DEFINITION
•dt: time spent to complete the deformation
•d<p: logarithmic strain
•vh: speed of deformation in the h direction
• (INST ANT ANEOUS)
dl h dl h
,  1 t ' 1 t dh
(jJ m   (jJ dl   == 1 Ho
lo lo h t
(AVERAGE)
From the law of conservation of volume: V
0
=V
1
> h
0
b
0
1
0
=h
1
b
1
1
1
+ cp; + == cp; +
(jJ + {jJ + {jJ O => {jJ
, ,
== l(j)lm + {jJ bm
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A., not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
8
YIELD STRESS 5114
INFLUENCE OF STRAIN RATE ON YIELD STRESS
~ h
~ t i < ~ t 2 =>
. ~ t
1
L1h
L1t: time to
complete the
deformation
The strain rate influence increase with the temperature so in hot rolling it assumes a
great importance and takes to a sensible increase in the yield stress of the deformed
steel. At high rolling speeds (i.e. on the finishing passes of wire rod) it has a great
injluence and it 's still difficult to find in literature good material properties curves for
strain rafe values > 100 s
1
.
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A., not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
9
YIELD STRESS 6114
INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON YIELD STRESS
~ h
T: temperature
With an increase in temperature the yield stress decrease. The injluence of temperature
is very strong and affects also the strain rate influence. The temperature has also directs
effects on the steel structure with phase changes and recrystallisation phenomena and
injluences al so the friction coefficient va fue ..
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10
YIELD STRESS 7/14
EXAMPLE of yield stress curve for a low carbon steel
ZD
Z!l
210
:m
100
100
170
100
1s:>
::t::1<Kl
13)
12)
110
100
00
00
70
00
cp=0.4
cp'=IS
!Hl 1aD 1CID 1100 11ffi
T
<ID
270
LOO
21l
ZD
Z!l tr+
210
:m
100
100
S;2100
18)
1<Kl
<p =0.8
<p'=l5
13)
12)
110
100 4+.....:.....f,.........;...:; l"'4"':.....i.....¡.,.,..._,.:._ ;.;,.._ t;;.......,.__,.; ,..''
00
00
70
00
S)
ffi) 9l)
!Hl 1aD 1CID 1100 11ffi
T
This docume
LOO
2S)
240
ZD
Z!l
210
:m
100
100
170
::t::100
18)
140
13)
12)
110
100
00
00
70
00
S)
40
700
T
cp =0.4
cp'='5
11
1aD 1CID 1100 115)
s Reserved.
YIELD STRESS 8114
1
& =
pl E
p
cr
STRESSSTRAIN RELA TIONSHIP
1
1
: 1
1 1
: 1
1
& =
p2 E
p
In the plastic range the deformed
metal flow in certain directions
under the actions of the applied
forces; the relationship between
stresses and strains in the three
main directions can be expressed
with the following expressions:
1
& =
p3 E
p
The coefficient 1/m can be assumed to be equal to 0.5 (m=2)
EP is the modulus of plasticity
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A., not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
12
YIELD STRESS 9/14
YIELD CRITERIA
~ f in laboratory tests represents the stress at the yield point of metal under uniaxial strain
conditions and in ideal contest (low influence of friction) and must be recalculated
according to the actual state of tension using the plasticity criteria (i.e. Von Mises, Nadai).
Por a plain state of strain with no lateral spread (as in flat rolling) whith EP
2
=0 will be:
crccr
3
= 1.15*K
0
f =K
Por cr
2
=cr
3
the yield criterion become:
crccr3 = Kof
In a general case the expression for the yield criterion will be:
crtcr3 ll*Kor K
•11 varies between 1 and 1.155 depending on the deformation method (1.155 plane deformation)
• K = 1 1 ~ f is the constrained yield stress for the given method of working
• Kof is the stress at the yield point of metal under an uniaxial state of stress
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13
•
YIELD STRESS JO/ 14
Resistance of metal to deformation real case
In an ideal situation there is no friction between the working tools and the work piece. In
this case the stress produced by the vertical force gives rise to uniform distributed vertical forces
over the whole cross section and the specimen can deform freely in the lateral direction and it is
valid the precedent expression.
In the real case there is always an influence of friction on the distribution of tensions
inside the specimen. Frictional forces on the surface of specimen restrict the lateral flow of
metal and hence the pressure of the tool must overcome not only the constrained yield stress
11 *Kot but al so the frictional forces.
A complete expression for the yield stress will be then the following:
 ~ : resistance of metal to deformation in the real case
 11K
0
f: constrained yield stress for the given method of working
 Kr: resistance of metal to flow that consider the influence of friction between the
compressive tool and the deformed specimen
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14
YIELD STRESS 11114
Influence of friction
high plastic
deformation region
p
'
1
'
1
1
1
'
1
'
~ m

' 1
' 1
. '
regions influenced by friction
(small in laboratory tests)
compressive tool
neutral plane
relative speed=O
• In the regions influenced by friction the plastic deformation is limited because friction has
a contenitive effect on the plastic flow.
• The contenitive effect decreases if the distance between the pressed faces increases.
• The contenitive effect is at its maximum at the centre of the specimen ( on the neutral plan e)
• Kwm: mean value for the yield stress
•
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15
YIELD STRESS 12114
Influence of friction coefficient ~ V = llKor + Kr
'
1
'
' 1
1
'
1
'
1
' 1
K
''' wl
K
w2
'
1
'
1
'
1
'
1
The region influenced by friction is smaller in 1 than in 2
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16
YIELD STRESS 13114
Influence of the specimen heigth
K
 w2
   
flK
o
1
o
o
1
o
1
o
1
o
1
. '
o o
' '
The region influenced by friction is smaller in 1 than in 2
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17
YIELD STRESS 14114
Influence of the ratio h/b ~ V = TJK
0
r+ Kr

K
___ w l
.
'
1
1
'
'
1
'
• • •
'
' '
> K <K ':::: K <K
... ~ 1 ... ~ 2  wl w2
The region injluenced by friction is smaller in 1 than in 2
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18
FORCE 117
ROLLING FORCE CALCULATION
rolling force
contact area
specific pressure
P=Fd*
(N)
(mm
2
)
(N/mm
2
)
There are a lot of formulae to determine Kwr in sorne of these all the effects describe befo re ( strain 
strain rate temperature friction) are considered separately in others the things are more confused.
Only one thing is certain: none of them is true and none of them gives good results in all the situations .
•
a
x
1
, x
2
, ...• , X
0
are sorne relevant geometrical and physical parameters characterising the rolling process;
for example: x
1
= Ld 1 hm
x
2
= D/hm
x
3
= T (temperature)
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A. , not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
19
FORCE 217
Geometrical definitions
Bite angle:
h h h h !J.h
R cosa = R 
0 1
=> e os a = 1
0 1
= 1
w w 2 2Rw Dw
Contact length:
l =
d
1
 
V
                  ~          ~           ~         
Neutral plane:
Va h
tli n
•
•
At the neutral angle the peripheral roll speed is equal to the workpiece speed:
A
0
*v
0
=An *vn =A
1
*v
1
> h
0
*v
0
= hn *vn= h
1
*v
1
>v
1
>vn>v
0
hn = Dw(lcos8)+h
1
vn vrcos6
Forward slip:
V V V
S= 1 r= 1_1
f V V
s = hn cosb" _
1
f h
1
r r
.
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V

20
FORCE 3/7
Kwr in flat rolling plain deformation
In this case:
• Free spread and very small W
•Ratio wlh very high
• Entry and exit geometry well known
•11=1.15
• Pressure distribution on the width is constant
• 11 *Kof can be considered constant along the
contact length.
• The term has not a constant distribution
along the contact length with a maximum on the
neutral plane
• Kwr is calculated considering a mean value for
( with friction coefficient constant along the contact
length).
friction (Kr)

1
o
1
o
1
o
ho   ;  1r
direction
Wo

R: roll radius
h
0
: entry height
h
1
: exit height
lct: contact length
1
o
1
o
. · neutral plane
0
1
o
o
W¡
 ·
w
0
: entry width
w
1
: exit width
Fct: contact area
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21
FORCE 4/7
Kwr in long products rolling (3axial strain)
In general all the calculation formulae to calculate Kwr have been developed for flat rolling and
must be corrected for long products rolling.
In this case are not satisfied the conditions seen before for flat rolling, in fact:
• NOT free spread in sorne cases, where there is a strong constraint of the lateral spread due
to the grooved rolls, and almost free spread in other cases.
• Ratio w/h small compared to flat rolling ( ~ 1 also <1).
• Entry and exit geometry is not well known.
• 11 value not well defined (1 <11<1.15)
•
With these conditions the rolling
pressure varies not only along the
rolli · · bu
spread direction .
•
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w
22
FORCE 5/7
Kwr in long products rolling (3axial strain)
S
..
ummarizin for Ion roducts:
• In the calculation of Kwr it' s necessaries to consider al so that the shapes of the entry and exit
grooves doesn't have a constant height along the spread direction (equivalent rectangles). This
assumption takes to errors on the calculation of strain and strain rate values and consequently on Kro.
• In the calculations is also necessaries to consideran average diameter (working diameter) because
the height of the billet is not constant along the spread direction (Errors in Kwr and torque
calculation).
• Another factor to consider is the relative change of shape from the entry to the exit plane
(additional friction coefficient like for example in the Siebel's method).
• Also the determination of the contact area is much more complicated than in flat rolling and will
introduce uncertainties on the final calculation of the rolling force.
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23
FORCE 6/7
Equivalent rectangles (LONG PRODUCTS)
A
0
: entry area
1

'
1
1
'
1
' 1
'
1
' 1
'
1
·
1
'
1
'
1
'
1
'
1
'
1
'
1
'
1
Womax
hoeq=Aofw Omax
hleq=A/w lmax
~ H e q = h o e q hleq
 hüeq
~ W eq=W lmax Womax
A
1
: exit area
1
'
1
' 1
'
'
'
1
' 1
' 1
' 1
 r 
1
'
1
' 1
' 1
'
'
' 1
' 1
' 1
wlmax
( equi valent entry height)
(equivalent exit height)
(equivalent draught)
( equivalent spread)
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24
FORCE 717
hlmax
W orking diameter (LONG PRODUCTS)
Dmin
Dmax
G
          ~           
1
'
1
' 1
' 1
' 1
1
'
1
' 1
' 1
<
wlrnax
>
l
deq


1
'
1
'
1
1
' 1
' 1
'
                ~                  ·
<
' 1
'
1
'
1
'
'
1
' 1
wleq
>
D max: nominal diameter of the rolling rolls
G: gap between the rolling rolls
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A., not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
25
•
TORQUE 112
Rolling torque integral method
Elementar rolling torque: dT = r
8
R
2
d<p
a
S
·· ·  
a rp"
Total rolling torque:
T = 2R
2
wrs drp drp = 2R
2
wrs(a 2rpn)
rp/1 o
• 2 is for the 2 rolls
• w average width of the contact area
• <l>n neutral angle
This ·on leads to · becaus
•
and rs it 's d{tficult to express too so usual/y it 's not used.
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A., not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
26
TORQUE 212
Rolling torque simplified method
V ery often in engineering calculations, the roll torque
is calculated with the assumption that the roll force
resultant acts at a distance X from the exit plane.
Total rolling torque:
T=2*P*x
p
R
   
If x is expressed as a fraction of the are of contact:
T 2*P*a*l
d
1
o
1
o
a is the lever arm coefficient that is not a phisically determined quantity, but a coe.fficient
usedfor a simpl{fied calculation procedure.
a is usually set =O. 5 or can be expressed as a function ofR/h ratio or as a .function of
draugth
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A.o not disclosableo not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
27
POWER 111
Calculation of rolling power
 T: rolling torque
 Dw:working diameter > R=DJ2
 v: rolling speed
 ro: rolls speed > ro=v/R (rad/s)
 rolls RPM: N rol= ro *60/2rc = 60*v 1 2nR
Por the calculation of motor RPM:
Nmot =N rol *'t
1: motor gear ratio
Total rolling power:
P = T* ro = T*2 rc *Nrot /60
MOTOR UTILISATION DIAGRAM
+ .1 pavailable
p max
prol 1
o
prol 2
o
base RPM
maxRPM
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A., not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
28
TEMPERATURE 115
THERMAL FACTORS
One of the most important factors in hot rolling is the temperature of the work piece.
Inaccurate estimation of the billet temperature along the rolling train takes to errors in
estimated rolling loads and in the final product requirements ( quality and metallurgical
properties).
A good calculation model of the rolling parameters must ha ve a good thermal model
The principal factors affecting heat balance and thus the temperature
of the rolling billet are:
heat conduction inside the workpiece
radiation loss to the surrounding medium
'
heat conduction to the rolls
heat gained by work done in mechanical deformation
heat loss due to rolls and guides cooling water
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A., not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
29
TEMPERATURE  215
Heat conduction inside the workpiece
The temperature gradient inside the workpiece is a function of time and
can be calculated by solving the heat conduction equation:
k:
p:
e:
d:
at
thermal conductivity
density of the steel
speacific heat
thermal diffusivity
d==
k
pe
(W/m°C)
(kg/m
3
)
(J/kgoC)
(m
2
/s)
This equation can be resolved applingfor example the finite difference method.
The thermal properties of the steel are al! functions of the temperature itself.
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A., not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
30
TEMPERATURE 3/5
Radiation loss to the surrounding medium
The heat radiation loss is the most significant factor affecting the temperature drop
during hot rolling and can be resolved applying the equation of StephanBoltzman:
E:
S:
A:
p:
e:
ar
==
at cVp
steel emissivity
StephanBoltzman constant
area of radiating surface
density of the steel
speacific heat
volume of the billet
billet temperature
ambient temperature
()
(J/m
2
s°K
4
)
(m2)
(kg/m
3
)
(J/kg°C)
(m3)
(oK4)
(oK4)
The heat loss from the surface due to radiation is directly proportional to the emissivity of the steel that
varies depending on temperature and amount of scale present on the surface. In addition to the
radiation loss there is also heat loss due to natural convection
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A., not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
31
TEMPERATURE  4/5
a:
p:
e:
Fct:
T:
Trol:
A:
v:
Heat conduction to the rolls
A*v*p*c
heat transfer coefficient
steel density
speacific heat
contact area
billet temperature
roll temperature
section area ·
rolling speed
(kW/m
2
°C)
(kg/m
3
)
(J/kg°C)
(m2)
(oC)
(oC)
(m2)
(mis)
Heat supplied to the rolls is proportional to the contact area and temperature difference
between the billet and the rolls, and also to the contact time.
The proportional factor is the a heat transfer coefficient of difficult determination and its
value depends by the amount of sea/e present on the two surfaces in contact, by the contact
pressure, by rolls and billet thermal properties.
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A., not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
32
TEMPERATURE 5/5
Heat gained by work done in mechanical deformation
~ :
hl:
h2:
p:
e:
11:
K
w
pe
steel resistance to deformation
entry heigth
exit heigth
steel density
speacific heat
efficiency
(N/mm
2
)
(mm)
(mm)
(kg/m
3
)
(J/kg°C)
()
The temperature gained due to mechanical deformation is a function of the yield
stress of the rolled material and of the reduction ratio.
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A. , not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
33
ANNEXJ 117
N cutral angle
At the neutral angle the peripheral roll speed is not only equal to the workpiece speed but
also another phenomenon occurs, the frictional resistance forces change their direction and
the resistance to deformation of the rolled steel reaches its maximum.
1
o
1
o
1
.
V
                  ~          ~   · ·   ~       ~         
V
'
N cutral plan e:
A
0
*v
0
= An *vn =A
1
*v
1
> h
0
*v
0
= hn *vn = h
1
*v
1
>v
1
>vn>v
0
hn = Dw(lcos8)+h
1
vn vrcos8
•
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A., not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
34
ANNEXJ 217
Friction coefficient influence on neutral angle and yield stress
<
f=O
.
contact length (ld)
neutral plane
position
(fl < f2) > (hnl < hn2) > (82 > 81)> (Sf2 > Sn)
'
Jf friction increases the position of the neutral plane moves toward the entry plane
(forward slip increase) and iffriction decreases the neutral angle decreases. For ¡o
the neutral plane is on the exit plane.
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A., not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
35
ANNEXJ 317
Strain influence on neutral angle and yield stress
1
    neutral plane
position
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A., not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
36
ANNEXJ 417
Roll diameter influence on neutral angle and yield stress

    neutral plane position
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S. p.A. , not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
37
ANNEXJ 517
Forward tension influence on neutral angle and yield stress
O" Al
a Al < a A2 < a A3
O"A2
O"A3
1 1
1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1
An increase of the forward tension (O") moves the neutral plane toward the entry plane.
38
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S. p.A., not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
ANNEXJ 6/7
Backward tension influence on neutral angle and yield stress
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
An increase of the backward tension (a¡) moves the neutral plane toward the exit plane
lf there is contemporary effect of backward and forward tension the relative
diagram will be a combination of the two diagrams se en befo re.
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A. , not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
39
ANNEXJ 7/7
Yield stress function of (ld/hm)
1
1
1
1
1
• 1
.
1 •
•
•
•
1
•.
•
•
•
1
•.
•
•
•
.
1 · ..
· ..
1
• 1
1
THE RATIO IN CREASE
FOR INCREASING FRICTION
.,.." .... 
•
\ .... , .... ' 
...
  ...
.,.,..  ····· .... . .... . ...
 . ...
 . . .. .... . ...
.... ....
 ___ .... . ..
   ... ·····
,.. ....  " ... , .. "
....  ... .... .... . ..
,, , ······
.....  _ ....  ······ ....  ...
_ ....  ....  .... ··
 ....  ... , ..... .
_, ...
....  ······
..... ······
 ...
:""' _ ....  ······ .  ...
 ...
"'1
....
1
.... . ...
 ...
....  .... LINE FOR HOMOGENEOUS
DEFORMA TION
....... "
" . " " ' !:::. ..... " ·"
• • • • • • • . . • 1 .
•
•
•
•
•
LOW INFLUENCE OF INTERNAL
FRICTION AND GREA T INFLUENCE
OF THE DEFORMA TION OF THE
OUTERZONES
The ratio KjK
0
r 1 a1so for l.
•
STRONGER INFLUENCE OF
INTERNAL FRICTION AND NO
INFLUENCE OF THE OUTER ZONES
For all the other conditions the ratio is KjK
0
t> 1; in fact:
Kw = 11 K
0
f + Kr for 1/hm> 1
= 11K
0
f + Kr + Kext for 1/hm<l
Ld/Hm
The diagram that represents a
state of inhomogeneous
deformation is the
combination between the two
red dotted lines that
represents respective1y the
effect of the extema1 zones
and of the intema1 friction on
the ratio KjKm.
For a homogeneous
deformation the ratio is 1
(no friction and no shear
stresses and deformations).
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A., not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
40
ANNEX2 116
GolovinTiagunov
Km: steel resistance at 20°C (function of % C)
f: friction coefficient ( ~ 1 / 3 )
Ct: corrective coefficient for the rolling temperature from diagrams
Notes
•A too much simplified method
• For the calculation of Km only carbon content is considered
• It doesn' t take into consideration the strain rate
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S. p.A., not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
41
ANNEX2 216
Tselikov
S/2
K
1
w
K.r
0
: steel resistance function of %C and temperature
11=1.155
Eh: relative strain
8=2f*lct */L1h
1 *n
2
f: friction coefficient f=(l.050.0005*t) (see Ekelund)
n
2
= 1 per 1 / H m ~ 1
n
2
=(L/Hm)0.4 per L/Hm< 1
n3: tension coefficient
cr A: front tension
crB: back tension
Notes
• A complete formula but difficult to interpret
• With the n2 coefficient it takes into consideration the effect for low lctfhm ratios
• With the n3 coefficient it considers the tension effects
• For the calculation of Km it considers temperature and strain, but there is not a direct reference
to the strain rate effect
•The steel composition is characterised only by the %C content
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A., not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
42
ANNEX2 316
Ekelund
K
0.611h
wr
h
1JV 11hl R
K¡o+
h
m m
11 : plasticity coefficient: 11 = 0.01(140.01 *t)*C
3
C
3
: corrective coefficient of plasticity for the rolling speed
Kro: steel resistance function of o/oC and temperature Kro=(140.0lt)(l.4+C+Mn+0.3Cr)
f: friction coefficient f =C
1
*(1.050.000St) *C
2
C
1
: corrective coefficient for the rolling speed (introduced by Batchinov)
C
2
: corrective coefficient for the roll material (introduced by others)
C
2
= 1 for steel rolls
C
2
=0.8 for hard cast iron rolls
Notes
•A formula difficult to interpret with a lot of corrective coefficients (introduced also
by other authors).
• For the calculation of KfO there is not a direct reference to strain, the strain rate is
considered into the plasticity terms, temperature is considered.
•The steel composition is characterised with a restricted number of chemical
elements.
•However despite these disadvantages, the Ekelund formula gives good results;
that' s why it is widely u sed.
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A., not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
43
1
ANNEX2 416
Geleji
K l+C*
wr
Km: steel resistance Km= 0.015*(1400T)
C: coefficient that takes into consideration the effect of low lihm ratios
f: friction coefficient f =C
1
*(1.050.00051) *C
2
(see Ekelund)
v: rolling speed
Notes
• A too m u eh simplified formula
•Por the calculation of Km only temperature is considered
•The second term represents the friction effect
• It takes into consideration the effect for low ld/hm ratios
This document contains proprietary information of Danieli & C. S.p.A. , not disclosable, not reproducible. All Rights Reserved.
44
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