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Chris Kelly AP European History Matrix Terms and Definitions Unit 1: Renaissance and Exploration --Know-1.

Italian Humanism- Italian Humanism was a literary movement different from writing from late Middle Ages in both its subject content and the practitioners. It was different in subject content in that it dealt with issues of politics and personal concern outside the ideology of religion; it was different in practitioners in that it was laypeople who considered writing a profession rather than a pursuit of the clergy. These practitioners drew on antiquity, which was maintained by the same monks that were copying the ancient manuscripts by hand. In addition, they wrote in Italian rather than Latin, whereby creating the first European vernacular literature. 2. Christian Humanism-This form developed as thinkers and writers in Northern Europe adopted a Renaissance curiosity for knowledge. However they based their research solely on Hebrew and Greek vernacular of the bible. On the other hand, Italians applied their interests for knowledge to earlier pagans texts of ancient Greece and Rome. 3. Civic Humanism- Civic humanism deals with civic humanists was a group of wealthy and young Florentines who were inspired by Petrarch. These specific humanists perceived Cicero’s involvement in political causes as a substantiated justification to employ their each individual classical education for the betterment of the public good. For public good, they served the city if Florence as diplomats and worked in the chancellery office. In addition, they surpassed their inspiration, Petrarch, by studying classical Greek, a language that was almost lost in western Europe. 4. Medici Family (Cosimo and Lorenzo)- The Medici family was the most famous dynasty of the merchants and bankers who used their vast wealth to govern city-states and to patronize the makers of art. They ruled the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, of which Florence was the principal city, well into the 18th century. Cosimo de’ Medici was the son of Giovanni Medici and he used the family fortune to exploit the lack of national monarchy. Once Cosimo created an alliance between the other power Florence families, Cosimo became “unofficial ruler of the republic.” Lorenzo the Magnificent was Cosimo’s grandson. He was the republic’s ruler in addition to being a lavish aficionado of the arts. Lorenzo was the icon for the Renaissance attitude of living life rather than waiting for the fulfillment after death. 5. Pope Julius II- He was a leader who saw to the needs of the Renaissance flock. The pope decided to rebuild St. Peter’s Basilica, and patronized Raphael, Michelangelo, Bramante, and others. 6. Baldassare Castiglione- He is the author of The Book of the Courtier. This is the first book detailing the etiquette for nobles. 7. Machiavelli- His book, The Prince, is the first political science work, a viewpoint of how governments actually rule without moral judgment or exhortation. He discovered that the successful governments of his times, whether they are Italian city-states or national monarchies, acted in their own political interests. 8. Petrarch- Petrarch is the father of humanism and is considered the first “modern” writer. He wrote works in Italian vernacular and used the writing to delineate the flow of his life and the human condition itself.

9. Italian Wars (Hapsburg-Valois Wars) Causes and Effects- There were disputes over the Duchy of Milan and the Kingdom of Naples which sparked the wars beginning in 1494. By the end of the wars in 1559, Habsburg Spain was the stable power of Europe and the states of Europe were either majorly reduced or destroyed. In a celebration, French ruler Henry II died and his 15 year old son soon died as well, sending France into turmoil. 10. Lorenzo Valla- He is a leading Renaissance humanist most famous for “On Pleasure,” which is his piece about the Epicureans. 11. Johannes Gutenberg-He is often credited with being the first to produce books with moveable lead type around 1450. 12. Donatello- He was a Florence sculptor. His bronze David was the first freestanding bronze statue of a human created in Europe since antiquity. 13. Leonardo da Vinci- Da Vinci was a Florence painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and scientist. He is the painter of The Last Supper, Mona Lisa, and many other masterpieces, he was an engineer who designed flying machines and tanks. He was a rival of Michelangelo; his patrons were Lorenzo the Magnificent of the Medici family and Lodovico Sforza. 14. Michelangelo- He was a painter, sculptor, architect, and poet. Michelangelo was famous for painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel for Pope Julius II. His great sculptures included Pieta, David, and Moses. He was the greatest sculptor of hands and was part of the selective group of great 15th century artists. 15. Raphael- Raphael was an Urbino and an Italian painter. He was the chief architect of St Peter’s Basilica in Rome and master of frescoes such as The School of Athens, he is noted for his madonnas. He was part of the selective group of great 15th century artists. 16. Jan Van Eyck- Jan was a Dutch painter of the 15th century known as one of the great masters. He was most notable for his excellence in, with much symbolism, oil paintings with meticulous detail that focused on either religious or secular themes. 17. Rembrandt- He is known as a master and one of the greatest painters and printmakers. He is most known for his of chiaroscuro, a mix of dark and light paints. 18. Albrecht Durer- Durer was one of the master artists in his time. His self-portraits and woodblock prints are still admired today. He once was a mathematician who painted landscapes and self-portraits at a very young age. Some of his paintings depicted ordinary peoples, which contested the notion of the Italian Renaissance that art should solely concentrate on religious and aristocratic subjects. 19. Ferdinand and Isabella- The marriage of Ferdinand (King of Aragon) and Isabella (Queen of Castile) in 1469 led to the consolidation of the Spanish peninsula. Four years before the marriage, the final stage of the Reconquista was enacted. The same year, 1492, marks the beginning of the new wave of religious bigotry, as Catholic Ferdinand and Isabella ordered religious conformity in their lands and expelled the Jewish population. 20. Reconquista- The armies of Ferdinand and Isabella conquered the last independent Islamic outpost in Spain, Grenada. 21. Expulsion of the Jews from Spain- The Jews and Moors who converted so they could remain in Spain were later hounded by the Spanish Inquisition. 22. Henry VII (England)- Henry was considered levelheaded and tightfisted. He was the first of the Tudor monarchs, settled a strong and centralized government even though many regarded the family as usurpers invited to the throne as an expedient compromise to end a small war. Henry VII raised the revenues from the prosperous middle class by

regulating trade and intrinsic commerce through monopolies, charters, and licenses. This money helped him to finance a standing army and keep the nobility in check. 23. Henry VIII (England)- Unlike his father, Henry VII was an impetuous, extravagant, passionate man whose temper, ambitions, and appetites were amazingly legendary. In need of a male heir, Henry VIII made certain decisions that led to the English Reformation. 24. Pope Leo X- He saw to the need of the Renaissance flock. Pope Leo X was the second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent and the most lavish, opulent pope. He failed to realize the importance of the Reformation and issued the bull excommunicating Luther. 25. Prince Henry the Navigator- From mid to late 15th century, the Portuguese explored South Atlantic, supported by their highly capable leader, Prince Henry the Navigator. 26. Christopher Columbus- While seeking a direct route to Asia for the Spanish ruling crown, he discovered the Western Hemisphere. Though he opened the “New World,” he also laid the rudimentary aspects for Europeans oppression and exploitation of natives. 27. Ferdinand Magellan- He circumnavigated the globe for Spain. 28. Hernando Cortes- He conquered the Aztecs. He opened up trade routes for new products on three continents, partly thanks to Ferdinand Magellan because of his circumnavigation. 29. Montezuma- The Aztecs viewed the Spaniards as gods. At first, Montezuma (the Aztec ruler), tried to appease the “gods” with gifts of gold. However, the Spanish declined violently and took Montezuma hostage and eventually died. 30. Francisco Pizarro- He was a Spanish soldier and set out for Peru with a small force. Pizarro captured the Incan emperor and eventually killed him. 31. Atahualpa- He was the Incan emperor who had his subjects raise vast amounts of gold for ransom. 32. Triangular Trade- a pattern of colonial commerce in which slaves were bought on African gold coast with New England rum and then traded in West Indies for molasses or sugar, then it was brought back to New England to be made into rum. 33. Columbian Exchange-The exchange of valuable goods and resources from each continent was known as the Columbian Exchange and this trade brought European made goods and alcohol to Africa and America and other items such as lumber, potatoes, and gold to Europe. 34. Erasmus- He was a Catholic author and scholar. His new Greek and Latin translations of the New Testament led him to write a couple of books. He was an enemy of Luther and a friend to More. Erasmus wanted reform within the Catholic Church and was a leader in Renaissance learning in North Europe. 35. Sir Thomas More- Thomas More was from England and wrote Utopia. He opposed Henry VIII’s break from the Catholic Church though he was the chancellor of England. In the end, he was killed because of his principles. 36. Italian diplomacy- Many modern traditions of diplomacy began in Italy, such as presentation of an ambassador's credentials to the head of state ---Recall--37. Hanseatic League- A medieval league of towns of northern Germany and adjacent countries for the promotion and protection of commerce-

38. Papal States- The areas consisting of a large district in central Italy ruled as a temporal domain by popes from 755 until annexation 1860, by Victor Emmanuel II. The remaining part, Rome was absorbed into the kingdom of Italy in 1870. 39. Florence- Papal state in northern Italy 40. Milan- Papal state in northern Italy 41. Venice- Papal state in northern Italy 42. Naples- It was an Italian city and was enemies with Milan of Florence. 43. Leon Batista Alberti- He was an architect that studied ancient Roman buildings and used their principles of design to build cathedrals. 44. Francesco Sforza- Social tensions led to a rise of a tyrant and the city of Milan eventually came to be dominated by the family of a mercenary named Sforza. 45. Isabella d’Este- She was married to Giovanni Gonzaga and was an outstanding diplomat and patron of learning. She turned Mantua into the center of learning and thought. 46. Borgia Family- Cesare and Lucretia were the children of Pope Alexander VI. 47. Leonardi Bruni- His history of Florence is noted for a new sense of the need for authentic sources in examining history. He translated Plutarch, Demosthenes, Aristotle, and Plato from Greek into Latin. 48. Masaccio- He considered “The Father of Modern Art.” His Expulsion and Holy Trinity mark the advance from Medieval to Renaissance painting due to the use of anatomy and perspective. 49. Louis XI (the spider)- He was a strong king who reduced the power of the nobility, firmed up the structure of the modern nation-state, and brought the middle class into government as advisors. 50. Charles the Bold- He was last Valois Duke of Burgundy from 1467 to 1477 and his enemies called him Charles the Terrible, but after his death Burgundy began to disintegrate. 51. Ivan III (Great) Russia- He is credited with forming the modern nation of Russia and the earliest king of the test makers would consider putting on the test. 52. Ivan IV (Terrible)- He was an autocratic expansionist who limited the power of the nobles, expanded the realm, and solidified the role of the czar. 53. Mehmed II- He was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1444-1446. He conquered Constantinople and ended the Byzantine Empire and is regarded as national hero in Turkey. 54. Oligarchy- A form of government in which all power is given to a few people or in a dominant class or clique. 55. Conversos- Spanish name for Jews or Muslims who converted to Catholicism in Spain or Portugal in the 14th and 15th centuries. 56. Treaty of Tordesillas- Agreement between Spain and Portugal aimed at settling conflicts over lands explored by voyagers of the late 15th century.