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Chris Kelly AP European History Summer Assignment The Black Death 1.

The Black Plague was a type of bacterial disease. The primary mode of transmission was likely small rodents, specifically rats, rather than human to human transmission. These rodents carried the disease and then small parasites such as fleas would transmit the Black Plague to the human population. 2. Originating in Central Asia, the disease was carried down the Silk Road. Trade was 3. almost certainly a major factor in the spread of the disease. Certain areas such as the Netherlands avoided this tragedy, perhaps because of isolation from other areas or an absence of small rodents. 4. Boccoccio talks of two very different reactions to the Black Plague. One group believed that the best way to prevent contamination of their family was to completely isolate themselves from the sick. The other reaction to the disease is that people believed they should “drink and be merry.” These people lived up their lives and hoped for the best. They lived carefree and did not worry about the disease. 5. Doctors – if they can be called such a name – tried myriad different remedies for the patients suffering with this disease. They tried ridiculous things, such as throwing sweet smelling herbs onto the fire to clean the air, carrying pockets of sweet-smelling herbs plague-proofing homes by putting glazes over southern windows to block the polluted southern wind, sitting in a sewer so the bad air of the plague is driven off by the even worse one of the sewer, drinking a medicine of ten year old treacle, bloodletting, and swallowing crushed emerald powder. 6. Many people during this time period viewed the plague as a punishment from God for wicked deeds of mankind. Men and women often prayed and became more religious as a result of the plague in an attempt to spare them from it. 7. The Black Plague caused widespread chaos and eventually the church power declined causing the king to be more powerful. The feudal system also began to fail and nationstates developed. 8. Some positive results of the Black Death were an increased food supply and sanitary living areas for the survivors. Because people were better nourished and living in better

conditions, the disease could not spread as easily. In addition, since a myriad of innocent citizens died from the virulent disease, there was not so much concentration of the disease on any specific areas. The Impact of the Hundred Years’ War 1. One cause for the war was that King Edward III of England declared that because Charles IV died, France and England could be united. However, the French were outraged and exclaimed that they did not want a foreigner as their king. Another reason for war was a simple dispute over territory. 2. At the time of the war, the French not only had to deal with England but also with other outside enemies and the French used fighting men not loyal to their country. 3. One strong military advantage England has was that they did not have mercenaries so their fighting men were more loyal to their own country. In addition, England had more quickness in short raids and England had the longbow which was more penetrating than the crossbow of the French. 4. The loss of the Battle of Crecy became an astounding surprise to the nobility. Their reputation was severely damaged from this incredible loss. 5. The rebelling peasants destroyed tax records, killed judges and lawyers, released prisoners, and burned government buildings. Their most serious act was the beheading of two government officials on Tower Hill. The purpose of the revolt had originally been to have the one shilling poll tax removed, and the peasants succeeded in doing so. Burgundy formed an alliance with England against the French. In 1435, however, Burgundy abandoned England and signed a treaty with the French. 6. Joan of Arc claimed to have heard messages from God telling her to help drive the English from France. She went to Orleans for help. It was the last great city the French held, and it had been held for 7 months. After only nine days of fighting, Joan somehow managed to get back the strongest fort. At Patay, Joan led the French into a battle that destroyed the English while the French suffered minor losses. However, her incredible winning streak failed when she was captured by Burgundy in 1430. Burgundy then transferred Joan to England for a large sum of money. Later that year, she was taken back to Rouen where the King put her on trial for heresy and eventually executed. 7. England encountered a decrease in feudalism and increase in centralized monarchy. Before, all of the land in France had been too much for the English monarchy to handle.

The war established a Parliament. However, the war had a negative effect on England’s economy. Over five million pounds were spent on the war in total. The Fracturing of the Catholic Church 1. The Petrine Doctrine is created on the basis of Catholic tradition. This tradition proclaims the verisimilitude and superiority of the Pope above the bishops within the Catholic Church. The doctrine is founded on the book of Matthew in the Bible. This is a source of power for the Catholic Papacy because the Pope is in complete control of the church. 2. A benefice is a position granted to a minister or spiritual office that guarantees a fixed amount of property or income. The Rota Romana is the highest court made up of 12 Catholic prelates belonging to the Roman Catholic Church. Unam Sanctam was one of the most extreme statements of Papal spiritual supremacy that was ever spoken. It lays down specific propositions on the unity of the Catholic Church-the need to belong to the church for eternal salvation, the position of the pope as supreme head of the Church, and the duty arising of submission to the pope in order to belong to the Church and gain absolute salvation. 3. The Waldensians were Protestants who believed in poverty, public preaching, and personal study of the scripture. Albignesians were people who formed a party in opposition to the Catholic Church, protesting what they believed to be the moral, spiritual, and political corruption of the Church. The weakened the Papacy because the Church saw them as heretics and threats to their power, so they attempted to destroy them. 4. The French had a much stronger influence over the Papacy than the English. The English saw this as a threat. In 1353 the two countries attempted to hold a conference between them; however, this conference failed. 5. The Avignon Papacy was a time period of seven popes residing in Avignon instead of Rome. The “Great Schism” was a dividing of the Catholic Church into the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox branches of the church. During this time period church power greatly diminished due to greedy acts of leaders in the church and loss of respect from the people. 6. This was a series of church councils that tried to ratify and unify the church doctrine. Some results were the election of a new leader who dissolved the council at Constance. This movement, along with the great schism did a great deal to weaken papal power.