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# UNIT 1 1. Define microwave.

Microwaves are generally described as electromagnetic waves with frequencies that range from 1GHz to 300GHz.Because of their inherently high frequencies, they have relatively short wavelengths, hence the name “micro” wave. 2. Define a microwave junction. The point of intersection of two are more microwave devices is called microwave junction 3. Define S-matrix or scattering matrix.(APRIL/MAY 2008) It is square matrix which give all combinations of power relationships between the various input and output port of a microwave junction. 4. Why the s-parameters are used in microwaves? The H, Y, Z and ABCD parameters are difficult at microwave frequencies due to the following reasons. (i)Equipment is not readily available to measure total voltage and total current at the ports of the network. (ii) Short circuit and open circuit are difficult to achieve over a wide range of frequencies. (iii) Presence of active devices makes the circuit unstable for short or open circuit. Therefore microwave circuits are analyzed using scattering or S parameters which linearly relate the reflected wave amplitude with those of incident waves. 5. What are types of waveguide –tees? The two basic types of waveguides are (I) E-plane Tee (series) and (ii)H-plane Tee (shunt) 6. What is H-Plane Tee? It is a wave guide tee in which the axis of the slide arm is shunting the E- field or parallel to the Hfield of the main guide. 7. What is E- plane Tee? It is a wave guide tee in which the axis of the slide arm is parallel to the E-field of the main guide. 8. Why bends are used? Bends are used to alter the direction of propagation in a waveguide system. The reflection due to the bend is a function of its radius. 9. Name some uses of waveguide twists?(NOV/DEC 2009) (i) waveguide twists are used to change the plane of polarization of a propagating wave. (ii) Waveguide twists are helpful in converting vertical to horizontal polarizations or vice versa.

10. Give a note on directional coupler. Directional couplers transmission line devices that couple together to circuits in one direction, while providing a great degree of isolation in the opposite direction 11. What are the .Properties of s-matrix? 1. It possess symmetric property sij =sji 2. It possess unitary property [s][s]*=[i] 12. Why is s-matrix used in MW analysis? S matrix is used in MW analysis to overcome the problems which occurs when H,Y,&Z parameters are used in high frequencies. 1. Equipment is not readily available to measure total voltage &total current at the ports of the network. 2.Short and open circuits are difficult to achieve over a broad band of frequencies. 3.Active devices, such as power transistor &tunnel diodes,frequently won’t have stability for a short or open circuit. 13. Give ABCD matrix for a two port network V1=A B V2 I1 C D -I2 14. What is ABCD matrix? ABCD matrix is a transmission matrix.these parameters express voltage and current at output in terms of those at input port. V1=AV2-BI2 I1=CV2-DI2 15. What are the advantages of ABCD matrix? 1. They are used in power transmission lines. 2 They are very helpful in the case of cascade networks 16. What is the Scattering matrix for N port device? [S]= S11 S12 S13…… S1n S21 S22 …………S2n S31 S32 ………….S3n

The product of any column of the S-matrix with conjugate of this column equals unity. 19. SWR measurement 3. What are the properties of scattering matrix for a lossless junction? 1. Examples: 1. Give the applications of directional coupler 1. 2. Unidirectional power measurement 2.Each junction is represented by a transmission matrix which gives the output quantities interims of input quantities.g. E. 18. Short-circuited co-axial line. Reflectometer 5.17.H-plane Tee Hybrid Tee . Hybrid Ring 23.Plane Tee . The product of any column of the scattering matrix with the complex conjugate of any other column is zero. What is Tee junction? Give two examples In MW circuits a wave guide or coaxial junction with three independent ports is referred to as tee junction. What is transmission matrix? When a number of microwave devices are connected in cascade. The interconnection of two or more microwave may be regarded as MW junction. Eg: E. Give an example for a two port MW device Isolator is an example for a 2 port MW device 21. Balanced duplexer. Give two examples. Define one port circuit. Unidirectional wave launching 4. 20.: Magic Tee.what are junctions? Give some examples A microwave circuit consists of several microwave devices connected in some way to achieve the desired transmission of MW signal. 22. A one port circuit is a circuit for which power can enter or leave through a single wave Guide or transmission line.

Because of this . if two input waves are fed into port 1 and port 2 of the collinear arm .Define difference arm. It is the ratio of forward power to the back power. Four hole directional coupler 28. 34. What are waveguide corners. Brethe hole directional coupler 3. the third port is called difference arm. In a H-plane tee. Gradual twists changes the plane of polarization in a continuous fashion. What are hybrid couplers? Hybrid couplers are interdigitated microstrip couplers consisting of four parallel strip lines with alternate lines tied together. In E –plane tee. 33. Two hole directional coupler 2.Define directivity of directional coupler. What is hybrid ring? Hybrid ring consists of an annular line of proper electrical length to sustain standing waves.third port is called as sum arm. Bend and twist 27. Name some wave guide components used to change the direction of the guide through an arbitrary angle Wave guide corner.24. What is the other name for Hybrid ring? Rat-race circuit. bends and twists? (NOV/DEC 2007) These wave guide components are normally used to change the direction of guide through an arbitrary angle 30. the output wave at port 3 will be in phase and additive. 32. 25. .Define gradual twists. What are the different types of Directional coupler? 1. 26. This type of coupler is called Lange hybrid coupler. the power output of port 3 is proportional to the difference between instantaneous powers entering from port 1 and 2.What is sum arm.to which four arms are connected at proper intervals by means of series or parallel junctions. It has four ports.Therefore . 29.Define coupling factor of directional coupler It is defined as the ratio of incident power to forward power 31.

5. 2. Give the drawbacks of klystron amplifiers. ii) No RF field is excited in repeller space iii) Electrons are not intercepted by the cavity anode grid. Hence it is not used in receivers. . 1) At low frequencies. What are the high frequency effects in conventional tubes? The high frequency effects in conventional tubes are i) Circuit reactance a)Inter electrode capacitance b) Lead inductance ii) Transit time effect iii) Cathode emission iv) Plate heat dissipation area v) Power loss due to skin effect. the grid and anode signals are no longer 180 degree out of phase. iv) No debunching takes place in repeller space. thus causing design problems with feedback in oscillators. 4.UNIT 2 1. 2. 1. 2) The grid begins to take power from the driving source and the power is absorbed even when the grid is negatively biased. radiation and dielectric loss. is small compared to the dc beam voltage VO 3. The multicavity klystron amplifiers suffer from the noise caused because bunching is never complete and electrons arrive at random at catcher cavity. As the oscillator frequency changes then resonator frequency also changes and the feedback path phase shift must be readjusted for a positive feedback. What are the assumptions for calculation of RF power in Reflex Klystron? i) Cavity grids and repeller are plane parallel and very large in extent. What are the applications of reflex klystron? 1) Signal source in MW generator 2) Local oscillators in receivers 3) It is used in FM oscillator in low power MW links. 4) In parametric amplifier as pump source. v) The cavity RF gap voltage amplitude V. What is the effect of transit time? There are two effects.

favoured electrons will fall behind the phase change of electric field across the gaps. 8. i) Helix Traveling wave tube ii) Coupled cavity TWT . 1) Low power.What do you mean by O-type tubes? Name some O-type tubes. Applications: (1) UHF TV Transmitters (2) Long ranger radar (3) Linear particle accelerator (4) Troposcatter links (5) Earth station transmitter. 7. In a TWT. low noise TWT’s used in radar and microwave receivers 2) Laboratory instruments 3) Drivers for more powerful tubes 4) Medium and high power CWTWT’S are used for communication and radar 9.Define phase focusing effect. To prevent these spurious signals some form of attenuator is placed near the input end of the tube which absorb the oscillations. adjacent turns of the helix are so close to each other and hence oscillations are likely to occur. 10. The bunching of electrons in known as “ Phase focusing effect” This effect is important because without it.F field in magnetron 11. How are spurious oscillations generated in TWT amplifier? State the method to suppress it. It is also called as linear beam tube. since the beam can be accelerated only to velocities that are about a fraction of the velocity of light. slow wave structures are used. State the applications of TWT. Such electrons are retarded at each interaction with the R. In TWT. What is the purpose of slow wave structures used in TWT amplifiers? Slow wave structures are special circuits that are used in microwave tubes to reduce wave velocity in a certain direction so that the electron beam and the signal wave can interact. In O – type tube a magnetic field whose axis coincides with that electron beam is used to hold the beam together as it travels the length of the tube.How the klystron amplifier can act as klystron oscillator? What are the applications of klystron amplifier? When the klystron amplifier is given a positive feedback such that the overall phase shift becomes zero 360° and __Av _= I then klystron amplifier acts as an oscillator.6.

e. Compare TWTA Klystron amplifier Klystron amplifier TWTA 1. .iii) Forward wave amplifier iv) Backward wave amplifier v) Backward wave oscillator 12. vii) D. Output circuits. i.5W Efficiency: 20 to 30 16. 3. Narrow band device due to Wide band device because use of use of resonant cavities. T =n + ¾ 13. It also uses a slow wave structure as in TWT to provide a continuous interaction between the electron beam and a moving RF field. 15. Linear beam or ‘O’ type device. it has a magnetron structure to provide an interaction between crossed dc electric and magnetic fields on one hand and an RF field on the other hand. Give the performance Specification of Reflex klystron? Frequency range: 2. Define Transit time in Reflex klystron.C anode voltage viii) Signal amplitude should be such that proper bunching takes place. CFA _Cross Field Amplifier CFA is a microwave power amplifier. Uses cavities for input and Use non resonant wave circuit.200 GHz Band width: + 30 MHz for _ VR = + 10 V Power output: 10 mw – 2. Write the parameters on which bunching depend on? vi) Drift space should be properly adjusted. Linear beam or ‘O’ type device 2. What is CFA? State the applications of CFA. 14. Non-resonant wave circuit. Applications: (1) Radar system (2) Electronic counter measure. The time taken by the electron to travel into the repeller space and back to the gap.. It is a cross between TWT and magnetron in its operation.

Magnetron: Operating frequencies _ 70 GH z Output power _ 40 MW Efficiency _ 40 to 70% 2-cavity klystron: Efficiency _ 40% Power output _ average power _> 500 KW Pulsed power _> 30 MW Power gain _ about 30 db 18. there exists a radial electric field and an axial magnetic field perpendicular to each other and hence magnetron is called as a cross filed device. Higher duty cycle. 2. 21.17. State the applications of magnetrons. What are the principal limitations of conventional negative grid electron tubes? 1) Electron transit time becomes a noticeable proportion at high frequencies. A backward wave oscillator (BWO) is microwave cw oscillator with an enormous tuning and ever all frequency 20. What are the advantages of TWT? 1. High gain 4. . High reliability 3. 19. In cavity magnetron. 2) Lumped electrical reactance and low Q resonant circuit. why magnetron is called as cross filed device? 1) Pulse work in radar 2) Linear particle accelerators. What is frequency pulling and frequency pushing in magnetrons? Frequency pulling is caused by changes in the load impedance reflected into the cavity resonators. Bandwidth is large. Frequency pushing is due to the change in anode voltage which alters the orbital velocity of electron clouds. State the characteristics of magnetron and of 2-cavity klystron amplifier. Constant Performance in space 5.

Narrow band device due to use of resonant cavities.What are the applications of High Q-oscillators and amplifier circuits? They are used in a)Low power transmitters b)Parametric amplifier pumps c)Police radars and intrusion alarms. electrons bunch together in drift space.NO 1. 3. Wide band device because of use of non-resonant wave circuit. those passing through the positive half cycles of gap voltage undergo an increase in velocity: those passing through the negative half cycles of gap voltage undergo an decrease in velocity. This is called bunching. 2. (a) Used in Troposphere scatter –transmitters (b) Satellite communication ground ststions © Used in UHF TV transmitters (d) Radar transmitters 26. it also called as catcher cavity. 27.Define bunching. Define velocity modulation ?(APRIL/MAY 2008) The variation in electron velocity in drift space is known as velocity modulation.What is drift space? The separation between buncher and catcher grids is called as drift space.22.Give the comparison of Klystron amplifier and TWTA SL.Mention the applications of two cavity klystron. . The electrons passing the first cavity gap at zeros of the gap voltage pass through with unchanged velocity. Klystron amplifier Linear beam or ‘O’ type device Uses cavities for input and output circuits. 28. 23. TWTA Linear beam or ‘O’ type device Uses non-resonant wave circuit. As a result of these. 29. Therefore. What do you meant klystrons ? A klystron is a vaccum tube that can be used either as a generater or as an amplifier of power at microwave frequencies operated by the principle of velocity and current modulation 24.What is catcher cavity? The output cavity catches energy from the bunched electron beam. 25 .

Impedance. 3. 4. The low frequency demodulated output is detected using non reciprocal detector diode mounted in the microwave transmission line. What is a VSWR meter? VSWR meter is a highly sensitive. 5. It is a short thin metallic wire sensor with positive temperature coefficient of reistance. absorbing the heat in a f luid and determine the temp.Return loss measurement. What is calorimeter? It is convenient device setup for measuring the high power at microwave which involves conversion of microwave energy in to heat. 5. This meter indicates calibrated VSWR reading fir any loads. the thermistor is sensitive to change in the ambient temp resulting in false Readings . Mention the disadvantages of single bridge circuit ? 1. change in resistance due to mismatch at the microwave input port results in incorrect reading 2. low noise voltage amplifier tuned normally at fixed frequency of 1KHZ of which microwave signals modulated. high theta. Reflection coefficient. 2. 3.For determination of location of voltage standing wave maxima and minima along the line. 7. Wavelength. What is slotted section with line carriage? It is a microwave sectioned coaxial line connecting a coaxial E-field probe which penetrates inside a rectangular waveguide slotted section. 4. Measure the VSWR and standing wave pattern. 6.UNIT 3 1. high gain. What are tunable detectors? The tunable detectors are used to demodulate the signal and couple the required output to high frequency scope analyzer. What is the main purpose of slotted section with line carriage? 1 . The longitudinal slot is cut along the center of the waveguide broad walls. 2. 6. The probe is made to move along the slotted wall which samples the electric field proportional to probe voltage. What is Bolometer? It is a power sensor whose resistance change with changed temperature as it absorb the microwave power.

How will you determine the vswr and return loss in reflecto meter method? The voltage ratio between port3 or port4 is known reflectin coefficient (T) determined we determine VSWR and return loss as VSWR=(1+T)/(1-T) Return loss=-20 log(T) 10. 13. Waveguide method 2 .8. 14 List the methods for measuring dielectric constants? 1. What is radiation efficiency? Radiation efficiency is defined as the ratio of total power radiated to total power accepted at its input .Wavemeter method 2. It has cylindrical cavity with a variable short circuit termination . Define insertion loss? It is defined as difference in power arriving at the terminating load .What is radiation pattern? Radiation pattern is a representation of radiation characteristics of an antenna which is a function of elevation angle azimuth angle for a constant radial distance and frequency.How the S-parameter of a microwave circuit measured? S-parameters are conveniently measured using the deschamps method which utilizes the measured value of complex input reflection coefficient under a number of a reactive terminations. What is a wave meter? It is a device used for frequency measurement in microwave.Slotted line method 3. 16.How do you measure microwave frequency? 1.with or without The network in circuit Insertion loss(db)=10 log(po/pi) 9.Slotted line method 2.Reactor discontructer method 11.It changes the resonant frequency of cavity by changing cavity length.List the different types of Impedance measurement methods? 1.Reflectometer method 3.cavity pertubaration method 15.Downconversion method 12.

Define reflection coefficient. . 18. side bands can also be observed.This slot is roughly 1 mm wide and allows an electric field probe to enter the waveguide for measurement of the relative magnitude of field at the location of the probe. absorbing this heat in a fluid (usually water) and then measuring the temperature rice of the fluid. What is spectrum analyzer? Spectrum analyzer is a broad band super heterodyne receiver which is used to display a wave in frequency domain additionally. How do you measure the polarization? The polarization of an antenna is measured using transmitting mode and probing the polarization by a dipole antenna in the which the dipole is rotated in the plane of polarization and the received voltage pattern is recorded. power measurements. Guide wavelength = 2x distance between two sussessive minima. The ratio of electric field strength of reflected and incident wave. It consists of a section of waveguide section or coaxial line with a longitudinal slot. 27.List the types of spectrum analyzer Real time spectrum analyzer Swept tuned frequency spectrum analyzer 20.Define guide wavelength. What is the principle by which high power measurements could be done by calorimetric method?(APRIL/MAY 2008 The measurement involves conversion of microwave energy into heat. 26. It requires accurate reference signal and a test signal 22. 25. 19. List some application of spectrum analyzer. What is network analyzer? A Network analyzer measures both amplitude and phase of a signal over a wide frequency range.17. • • • • • Identifying frequency terms and their power levels Measuring harmonic distortion in a wave Determine type of wave modulation Signal to noise ratio For identifying wave distortion 21.What is voltage standing wave ratio? It is the ratio of maximum voltage to the minimum voltage.What do you meant by slotted line? It is a fundamental tool for microwave measurements. 24.

the circuit elements are distributed. Distinguish between low frequency measurements and microwave measurements. SL. The incident and reflected waves used to characterize a microwave circuit. 30. (ii) Attenuation loss through the device.NO 1. 2 .28. Low frequency measurements Microwave measurements At low frequency it is convenient to measure At microwave frequencies the amplitude voltage and current and use them to of voltage and current on a transmission calculate power. 31.Define scattering parameters. line are the functions of distance and are not easily measurable.What are the contributions of insertion loss? The insertion loss is contributed by (i) Mismatch loss at input. At low frequency . Scattering parameters are defined as the ratio of outgoing waves to the incident waves.What do you mean by reflection loss? It is a measure of power loss during transmission due to the reflection of the signal as a result of impedance mismatch.circuits use lumped elements. 29. (iii) Mismatch loss at output. At microwave frequencies .

What are the applications of Tunnel Diode? a) used in self excited mixers b) High speed switching and logic operations c) Low power oscillators. 3. 5. What are the Key phenomenon taking places in TRAPATT diode? The Key phenomena are a)Carrier generation by impact ionization producing a current pulse of phase delay of 90 degree. B )An additional phase shift introduced by the drift of carriers. What are the applications of Gunn Diode? The applications are a) Low and medium power oscillators b) Used in high pump frequencies c) Burglar alarms and aircraft rate-of-climb indicators. c)Proxity fuse sources d)Radio altimeters e) Microwave landing systems. 4. 2. 6. What are the applications of TRAPATT devices? The applications are a)Phased-array Radar systems b)Intermediate frequency transmitters.UNIT 4 1. What is the operating frequency of TRAPATT devices? TRAPATT devices operate at frequencies from 400 MHz to about 12GHz. What are the elements that exhibit Gunn effect? The elements are a) Gallium arsenide b )Indium phosphate c) Cadmium telluride d)Indium arsenide. .

Explain plasma formation in TRAPATT diode. What are the factors reducing efficiency of IMPATT diode?(NOV/DEC 2009) 1) Space charge effect 2) Reverse saturation current effect 3) High frequency skin effect 4) Ionization saturation effect. When ‘n0l’product of the device is less than about 10 ^(12)/cm^2 the device exhibits amplification at transit time frequency rather than spontaneous oscillation. According to GUNN. This is called stable amplification mode. 8. Why are FET’s preferred to bipolar transistor at high frequencies? FET’s are preferred over Bipolar transistors at high frequencies as they easily lend themselves more readily to integration. What is negative resistance? Negative resistance is defined as that property of a device which causes the current through it to be 180 degree out of phase with the voltage across it.7. What is MESFET? If the field effect transistor is constructed with metal semiconductor schottky barrier diode. 12. 13. above some critical voltage corresponding to an electric field of 2000-4000v/cm. 15. What are the applications of Backward diode? a) Video detection b) Doppler radar 9. Here n0 is the amount of doping and ‘L’ is the length. What is the main advantage of TRAPATT over IMPATT? TRAPATT diode has much greater efficiency than IMPATT. 10. During the operation of the diode a high field avalanche zone propagates through the depletion region and fills the layer with a dense plasma of electrons and holes which get trapped in the low field region behind the zone . The frequency of oscillation was determined mainly by the specimen and not by the external circuit.the device is called metal-semiconductor field effect transistor. the current in every specimen became a fluctuating fuction of time. 11.(APRIL/MAY 2008) Gun effect was first observed by GUNN in n_type GaAs bulk diode. Define GUNN EFFECT.Explain stable amplification mode. 14.

16. when biased above a threshold value of the electric field.What are the applications of low Q-oscillators and amplifier circuits? a)Final output stage of FM telecommunication transmitter b)Up converter pump c)CW Doppler radar transmitter. b. This behavior is called transferred electron effect 20.What is Transferred electron effect? Some materials like GaAs exhibit negative differential mobility.What is negative resistance in gunn diode? The carrier drift velocity increases linearly from 0 to maximum when the electric field is increased from 0 to threshold value in gunndiodes.? a. low noise applications. 21 . What are time parameter for TED’S a)Domain growth time constant b)Dielectric relaxation time c)transit time. 22. 17. Used in microwave integrated circuits for high power. . Used in broadband amplifier application 18.When the electric field is beyond the threshold value of 3000v/cm the drift velocity is decreased and the diode exhibit negative resistance.What are the applications of TRAPATT? A )Used in airborne b) Marine radar 19.List the type of circuit used for IMPATT diode circuits. a)Broadly tunable circuits b) Low ‘Q’circuits c) high ‘Q’circuits 23.What are the various modes of transferred electron oscillators? a)Transit time mode b)Quenched and delayed domain modes c)limited space charge accumulation mode.What are the applications of GaAsMESFET.

Differentiate baretter and thermistor? Baretter 1. which is reactive parameter.it has thin wire.baretter has positive temperature coefficient.more sensitive.required less bias current Thermistor 1.less sensitive. 26. 4. can be used to produce capacitive or inductive excitation. The word parametric is derived from the parametric excitation.List some of power detecting elements? 1.24.negative temp coefficient. 28. 4.small bead of semi conductor material.baretter 3. What is idler frequency? The difference between the pump frequency and the signal frequency. 3.thermistor 4. 30. . 2. require more sensitive 27. What is parametric device? A parametric device is one that uses a non linear reactance (capacitance or inductance ) or timevarying reactance.Schottky diode 2.thermocouple 25. What is meant by degenerative parametric amplifier? It is defined as a negative resistance amplifier with the signal frequency equal to the idler frequency.What are microwave detector? Microwave detectors are the instruments used to detect the presence of microwave power is a microwave circuit. 3. Give the applications of parametric amplifier. 2. a) space communication systems b) Radio telescopes and c) Torpo-receivers 29.

Define attenuation constant? The sum of dielectric and the ohmic losses may be expressed as losses per unit lenth in terms of attenuation constant 9. 3. particularly used in the fabrication of microwave integrated circuits . Mention the types of losses in micro strip lines. 7. The electromagnetic wave propagates in quasi TEM mode. The dominant mode in strip line is TEM mode.UNIT 5 1. high dielectric constant . 5. What is strip line? The strip line consists of a central conductor called strip and two ground plates. 2. What is parallel strip line? It consist of two perfectly parallel strips separated by a perfect dielectric slab of uniform thickness. Define partially shielded strip line? Its strip conductor embedded in a dielectric medium. 8.Write the advantages of microstripline? (I) They have the power handling capacity of few micro watts which is quite adequate for most microwave circuits. What do u mean by coplanar strip line? It consists of two conducting strips on one substrate surface with one strip grounded. (II) They have low loss. Define microstripline? It consists of a conductor strip and a ground plane. and its top and bottom ground planes have no connection. Define planar transmission? It is a transmission line with conducting metal strips that lie entirely in parallel planes.(NOV/DEC 2009) (i) Dielectric loss (II) Ohmic loss and (iii) Radiation loss 4. 6.

i.. (c)Open strip suffers radiation losses.Distinguish between strip line and microstrip. (a)Higher attenuation compared to wave guide structure. (ii) Realiability is increased than conventional strip line. 11. (a)Higher attenuation compared to waveguide structures .Hence it cannot be used in systems where extremely low loss is requirement.e.. SL. Name some limitations of micro strips.Advantage of coplanar strip line over conventional parallel strip line? (i)The two strips of coplanar striplines are on the same substrate for convenient connections. 1. two ground planes and a strip line.Name some limitations of microstrips. 16. (ii)Standard inverted microstrip (iii)Suspended microstrip . Mention two methods to measure the impedance (NOV?DEC 2007) (i) Slotted line (ii) Reflectometer 12. (b) At high frequency the required dimensions are very small causing fabrication problems.Mention the types of microstrip lines (i)Embedded microstrip . 2. (iii)Reproducibility is enhanced (iv)Production cost is decreased.10. (b) At high frequencies the required dimensions are very small causing fabrication problems. It supports quasi TEM mode of propagation.one ground plane and a microstrip. 13. Strip line Three conductor transmission system. 14. Strip lines Microstrip Slot line Coplanar lines etc. It supports TEM mode of propagation Microstrip Two conductor transmission system i.e. Hence it cannot be used where low loss is requirement.NO. 15.Mention the various configurations in planar transmission line.

What do you mean by a partially shielded strip line? It has its strip conductor embedded in a dielectric medium. Mention few applications of coplanar strip line.balanced modulators etc. 3.What are the disadvantages of strip lines? (i)Greater losses (ii)Lower Q (III)Lower power handling capacity .Coaxial to coplanar and microstrp to coplanar line transitions can be achieved easily. 17. where both balanced and un balanced signals are present. 2. . 19. 20. 1. 18. Balanced mixers.Both balanced and unbalanced modes are possible.(iv)slotted transmission line (v)Parallel strip line 16.Mention the features of coplanar stripline. and its top and bottom planes have no connection.What are the advantages of strip lines over waveguides? (I)Reduced bulk (ii)Greater bandwidth (iii)Greater compatibility.Both series and shunt mounted component can be easily incorporated.