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Wireless Information Transmission System Lab.

Multi-Carrier Systems

2006/3/9 王森弘
Institute of Communications Engineering National Sun Yat-sen University

Outline
Multi-Carrier Systems Overview Multi-Carrier System Models
MC-CDMA MC-DS-CDMA MT-CDMA OFDMA

Combining
Equal Gain Combining (EGC) Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) Orthogonality Restoring Combining (ORC)
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Multi-Carrier Systems Overview
Recently, CDMA technique has been considered to be a candidate to support multimedia services in mobile radio communication. On the other hand, the multicarrier modulation scheme, often called orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), has drawn a lot of attention in the field of radio communications.

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Multi-Carrier Systems Overview
It was in 1993, an epoch of CDMA application, that three types of new multiple access schemes based on a combination of code division and OFDM techniques were proposed, such as
Multi-carrier (MC-) CDMA Multi-carrier (MC-) DS-CDMA Multi-tone (MT-) CDMA

The new multiple access scheme based on a combination of frequency division and OFDM techniques were proposed, such as
Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)
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Multi-Carrier Systems Overview
OFDM scheme is robust to frequency selective fading, however, it has sever disadvantages such as sensitivity to frequency offset. Therefore, The multicarrier CDMA schemes inevitably have the same drawbacks. However, the combination of OFDM signaling and CDMA scheme has one major advantage that it can lower the symbol duration makes it easier to quasisynchronize the transmissions.

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Multi-Carrier Systems Overview
The multicarrier CDMA schemes are categorized mainly into two groups.
One spreads the original data stream using a given spreading code, and then modulates a different subcarrier with each chip (in a sense, the spreading operation in the frequency domain), and other spreads the serial-to-parallel (S/P) converted data streams using a given spreading code, and then modulates a different subcarrier with each of the data stream (the spreading operation in the time domain), similar to a normal DS-CDMA scheme.

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Multi-Carrier System

Multi-Carrier System Models
MC-CDMA MC-DS-CDMA MT-CDMA OFDMA

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Multi-Carrier System

MC-CDMA Transmitter
aj

c1j c3j

c2j

Ts

c1j

Frequency

j cN

c2j
j sMC ( t )

aj

j cN

Ts

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MC-CDMA Receiver

c1j

q1j

c2j

q2j

Received Signal

Serial to Parallel Converter

FFT
j cN j qN

Dj

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MC-CDMA
The MC-CDMA transmitter spreads the original data stream over different subcarriers using a given spreading code in the frequency domain. We can use the Hadamard Walsh codes as the given spreading code. The capability of suppressing multiuser interference is determined by the cross-correlation characteristic of the spreading codes. Therefore, the capability of distinguishing one component from other components in the composite received signal is determined by the auto-correlation characteristic of the spreading codes.
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Hadamard Code
Hadamard code is obtained by selecting the rows of a Hadamard matrix. A Hadamard matrix Mn is an n x n matrix that any row differs from any other row in exactly n/2 positions.

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Hadamard Code
Hadamard code of length 8

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Multi-Carrier System Models
MC-CDMA MC-DS-CDMA MT-CDMA OFDMA

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MC-DS-CDMA transmitter
c1j
0

c3j
NTs Time

c2j

j cM

c j (t )

c j (t )

Data Stream
aj
0

Serial to Parallel Converter
c j (t )

IFFT

Parallel to Serial Converter

j sMD ( t )

Ts Time
aj
0

NTs

Time

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MC-DS-CDMA Receiver
c j (t )

c j (t )

Received Signal

Serial to Parallel Converter

FFT
c j (t )

Parallel to Serial Converter

D j (t )

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MC-DS-CDMA
The Multicarrier DS-CDMA transmitter spreads the Serial-to-Parallel converted data streams using a given spreading code in the time domain so that the resulting spectrum of each subcarrier can satisfy the orthogonality condition with the minimum frequency separation. This scheme is originally proposed for a uplink communication channel, because the introduction of OFDM signaling into DS-CDMA scheme is effective for the establishment of a quasi-synchronous channel.

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Multi-Carrier System

Multi-Carrier System Models
MC-CDMA MC-DS-CDMA MT-CDMA OFDMA

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MT-CDMA Transmitter
c1j c3j

Time
c2j
j cM

c j (t )

cos ( 2π f1t )

c j (t )

cos ( 2π f 2t )
j sMT ( t )

Data Stream
aj
Time

Serial to Parallel Converter
c j (t )
cos ( 2π f N t )

aj

Time

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MT-CDMA Receiver
cos ( 2π f1t )

cos ( 2π f 2t )

Rake Combiner 1 Rake Combiner 2

Received Signal
cos ( 2π f N t )

Parallel to Serial Converter

D j (t )

Rake Combiner N

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Conclusion
System features comparison
DS-CDMA Symbol duration TS at subcarrier The number of subcarriers Processing gain Chip duration Subcarrier separation Required bandwidth (main lobe) 2006/3/9 GDS/TS Nyquist filter with rolloff factor = 0 1 GDS TS/ GDS GMC/NCTS (NC +1)/ NC. GDS /TS 20 MC-CDMA NCTS/GMC NC GMC ≈ GDS Multicarrier DSMT-CDMA CDMA NCTS NC GMD = GDS NCTS / GMD GMD/NCTS (NC +1)/ NC. GMD /TS NCTS NC GMT = NC GDS NCTS / GMT 1/NCTS (NC –1+2GMT) /(NCTS)

Multi-Carrier System

Multi-Carrier System Models
MC-CDMA MC-DS-CDMA MT-CDMA OFDMA

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OFDMA Transmitter

User 1's Data

X i1

Subcarriers Placement

IDFT

Add Guard Interval

x1 n

1 hn

DAC

RF Remove Guard Interval

K hn

RF

ADC

r

User K's Data

X iK Subcarriers
Placement

IDFT

Add Guard Interval

K xn

DAC

RF

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OFDMA
In OFDMA, closely spaced and overlapped subcarriers are divided into groups and assigned to multiple users for simultaneous transmissions. The N subcarriers are divided into K groups and assigned to K users. Since one subcarrier is only allocated to one user, each user has a group of subcarriers.

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Multi-Carrier System

Combining
Equal Gain Combining (EGC) Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) Orthogonality Restoring Combining (ORC)

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Combining Overview
In an MC-CDMA receiver the received signal is combined, in a sense, in the frequency domain, therefore, the receiver can always employ all the received signal scattered in the frequency domain. Through a frequency selective fading channel, all the subcarriers have different amplitude level and different phase shift. In this section, we will introduce three different combining techniques.
Equal Gain Combining (EGC) Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) Orthogonality Restoring Combining (ORC)
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MC-CDMA Receiver

c1j

q1j

c2j

q2j

Received Signal

Serial to Parallel Converter

FFT
j cN j qN

Dj

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Combining
Equal Gain Combining (EGC)
The equal gain combining only compensates the channel phase shift. − jθ j The gain for the EGC is given by qm = e m .

Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC)
The maximum ratio combining compensates the channel phase shift and given different weights to each subcarrier. − jθ j The gain for the MRC is given by qm = Am e m . In the case of one user, the maximum ratio combining method can maximum the SNR.

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Multi-Carrier System

Combining
Orthogonality Restoring Combining (ORC)
The orthogonality restoring combining compensates the channel phase shift and the channel amplitude fading. 1 − jθm j The gain for the ORC is given by qm = e . Am However, low level subcarriers tend to be multiplied by high gains, and the noise components are amplified at weaker subcarriers. The noise amplification effect degrades the BER performance.

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Reference
S. Hara and R. Prasad, “Overview of Multicarrier CDMA,” IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 126-133, December 1997. S. Hara and R. Prasad, “DS-CDMA, MC-CDMA and MT-CDMA for Mobile Multi-Media Communications,” Proc. of IEEE VTC ’96, Atlanta, USA, April 1996, pp. 1106-1110.

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