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I feel immense pleasure and privilege to express my deep sense of gratitude and thankfulness towards all the respected persons of ECL,Haldia Works,who have helped, inspired and encouraged by spending a lot of precious time with me and they have made me an even more experienced person.

Firstly,I would like to thank Mr.Piyush Karnti Khila,senior executive HR Manager of ECL,Haldia Works for his constant effort during the training period.Next I would like to thank Mr.Soubhik Dutta Gupta,Senior Manager P&A, Mr. Abhishek Dasgupta,Deputy manager P&IR, Mr. Pradip Kr Singh,Manager,Mechanical,COP and Mr. Barun Behera,Assit. manager ,SIP and Debabrata Mondal,Nishit Majee ,G.N Das of PowerPlant unit who were in charge for their selfless and constant effort during the preparation of trainining report.Lastly,I would like to thank the workers and staff members for their relentless co-operation in explaining the details of the various processes of the industry.
In the preparation of training report I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Assit. Prof. T.K.Jana,Head,Mechanical Engg. Department,HIT,who had issued the letter to the organisation as desired by me.


Growing from strength to strength over half a century, Electrosteel Castings Limited is inspired by a strong legacy and motivated by the vision to remain world-class through a focus on quality products and quality services. Today the Company is India’s leading pipeline solution provider. It has a strong brand presence around the globe and has one prevailing aim - to remain the first choice in the market segment by becoming an international benchmark. Thus, for Electrosteel, “Carrying life to people, safe drinking water for all” – is not just a statement of an operational target but also the commitment of a greater responsibility.

Electrosteel has to its distinction, many pioneering "first".  It is the first to set up a Ductile Iron Pipe Plant in India.  It was the first to manufacture Grinding Media in India.  It was the first to introduce Hi-Chrome technology to India for Cement Plant Ball Mill Internals.  It has been a pioneer in the manufacture of Alloy Steel Castings in India.

 Driven by Technology:
Always alert and sensitive about the importance of quality, Electrosteel seeks to present value-added propositions to all customers. It has geared itself by facilitating advanced R&D activities in every area of application to develop best engineered products. Electrosteel has been recognised by numerous national and international agencies working on the public health system for dedicated process orientation and best practice measures in every area of operation.

 Manufacturing Facilities:
The Company’s first manufacturing facility at Khardah is now into production of Ductile Iron Pipes, DI Fittings and Pig Iron. CI spun pipes are now manufactured at the Company facility in Elavur (Tamil Nadu) while Low Ash Metallurgical Coke (LAMC) and Sponge Iron are produced at the Industrial Unit at Haldia (West Bengal).

 Global Presence :
Apart from meeting the growing demand for DI Pipes in India successfully, Electrosteel has established a strong foothold in the international markets. It caters to a large customer base in 35 countries spread across the Indian subcontinent, South East Asia

and the Middle East, Europe, USA, South America and Africa. The Company has positioned itself strongly by setting up foreign subsidiaries and developing strong relations with customers abroad.

 Vision:
We aim to be world-class, committed to customer satisfaction and to encourage the spirit of leadership amongst our dedicated team by creating a healthy environment for continuous growth, profit and prosperity.

 Environment:
Electrosteel's world does not end with the perimeter of its office and factory. It extends beyond: to conducting its various manufacturing processes with adequate respect for a safe and pollution-free environment.

 Teamwork:
The company's ductile pipe was the first of its kind in India. The commissioning and success continues to be the result not of individual brilliance but of a collective initiative.

 Respect for people:
People represent our intellectual capital. Respect for the individual is of paramount importance. We treat our people like members, not employees. We provide an exciting working environment. We recognize that learning is an important part of the growing process.

 Roadmap for the Future:
Electrosteel’s continuous endeavour to emerge as a global leader is characterised by a regular upgradation of manufacturing processes, continuous vigilance on adopting the right culture, extensive research for product development and complete customer orientation through user-friendly services. With the demand for D.I.Pipes increasing across the world with more and more infrastructures projects being implemented, Electrosteel is poised to enlarge its dominion in foreign markets and enter new countries through business dynamics that evolve with time

5 Quality Assurance Parameters 4 .1 Formation of coal 1.2 Coal properties 1.2.5 Quenching 1.4.4 Process Description 1.CONTENTS 1.7 Screening 1.4.Coke Oven Plant: 1.1 Coal Blending 1.3 Water adding point 1.1 Moisture Stamp Charging 1.3 Flow Chart 1.6 Coke cutter for sizing 1.4.2 Crushing of coal 1.4 Fixed Carbon 1.3 Ash Content 1.2 Volatile Matter 1.2.

2 Rotary Kiln 2.4 Product House 2.5.7 Gas Conditioning Tower 2. Sponge Iron Plant: 2.POWER PLANT: Process Description 2.6 After Burning Chamber 2.2 Sponge Iron Properties 2.5.5 Bag Filter 2.5.9 Intermediate Bin 2.5.6 FeT Test 3.1 Stock House 2.1 Introduction 3.8 Electrostatic Precipitator 2.2.1 Introduction 2.3 Raw Materials 2.2 Flow Chart Rotary Cooler 2.5.3 Process Description 5 .4 Process Flow Sheet 2.

3 Deaerator 3.6 Steam Drum 3.8 Turbine Boiler 3.4. Bibliography 6 .4. Conclusion 5.4.2 Boiler Feed Pump 3.4.4 Power Plant Units 3.4.7 ID fan 3.5 Economiser 3.3.4 Superheater 3.9 Generator 4.4.

Moisture may occur in four possible forms within coal :  Surface moisture: water held on the surface of coal particles or macerals. Most coal formation began in the coal-bearing period when large tracts of swampland formed across much of the world.1 Formation of coal: The generally accepted theory of coal formation is that coal is the result of geologic processes occurring over long periods of time to dead plant matter. Groundwater and other extraneous moisture is known as adventitious moisture and is readily evaporated. 7 . BituminousSemi 1.volatile matter content & fixed carbon.  Hydroscopic moisture: water held by capillary action within the microfractures of the coal. The different stages for formation of coal are as follows: Plant(woods)PeatLigniteBrownCoalSub AnthraciteAnthraciteGraphite. as all coals are mined wet. Moisture held within the coal itself is known as inherent moisture and is analysed quantitatively.  Decomposition moisture: water held within the coal's decomposed organic compounds.COKE OVEN PLANT 1.  Mineral moisture: water which comprises part of the crystal structure of hydrous silicates such as clays. 1.1 Moisture: Moisture is an important property of coal.moisture content.2.2 Coal properties: Coal comes in four different forms which differ in the content of different physical properties such as ash content.

from the original mass of the coal sample. This differs from the ultimate carbon content of the coal because some carbon is lost in hydrocarbons with the volatiles.3 Ash Content: Ash content of coal is the non-combustible residue left after coal is burnt.4 Fixed Carbon: The fixed carbon content of the coal is the carbon found in the material which is left after volatile materials are driven off.1. which are liberated at high temperature in the absence of air. This is usually a mixture of short and long chain hydrocarbons. 1. 1.2 Volatile Matter: Volatile matter in coal refers to the components of coal.2. Fixed carbon is determined by removing the mass of volatiles determined by the volatility test. oxygen. aromatic hydrocarbons and some sulfur. except for moisture. Fixed carbon is used as an estimate of the amount of coke that will be yielded from a sample of coal. sulfur and water (including from clays) has been driven off during combustion. above. with the coal thoroughly burnt and the ash material expressed as a percentage of the original weight.2. It represents the bulk mineral matter after carbon. Analysis is fairly straightforward.2. In Australian and British laboratories this involves heating the coal sample to 900 ± 5 °C (1650 ±10 °F) for 10 min. 8 . The volatile matter of coal is determined under rigidly controlled standards.

1.3 Flow Chart: 9 .

the selected coals from specific mines are blended. Coal is carbonized in a reducing atmosphere and the off-gas is collected and sent to the byproduct plant where various by-products are recovered. this process is called by-product cokemaking. pulverized. a) By-product Coke production : The entire cokemaking operation is comprised of the following steps: Before carbonization. The commercial cokemaking process can be broken down into two categories: a) By-product Cokemaking and b) Non-Recovery/Heat Recovery Cokemaking. Hence.4 Process Description: The cokemaking process involves carbonization of coal to high temperatures (1100°C) in an oxygen deficient atmosphere in order to concentrate the carbon. Figure 1: "Coke Side" of a By-Product Coke Oven Battery. The blended coal is charged into a number of slot type ovens wherein each oven shares a common heating flue with the adjacent oven. A brief description of each coking process is presented here. The oven has just been "pushed" and railroad car is full of incandescent coke that will now be taken to the "quench station". 10 . and oiled for proper bulk density control.1.

This blending can be done either at the pithead.It essentialy involves the mixing of good quality coal having low ash content with poor quality coal having low ash content with poor quality coal having high ash content so that the aggregate mixture has an ash content of less than 34%. 11 . the coal mixture is sent to the primary crusher through the coal feed hopper. size of the particles required for coking in the coke oven. originally referred to as beehive ovens. Primary air for combustion is introduced into the oven chamber through several ports located above the charge level in both pusher and coke side doors of the oven. Each block contains seventeen coke ovens.4. of particles attains the basic size of 3mm. Each battery consists of two blocks.4.2 Crushing of coal: Crushing of coal is done in two processes: a) Primary crushing: After the blend has been consists of four batteries. thereby heating the sole of the oven. hence. Since the by-products are not recovered. b) Secondary crushing: It involves further crushing of coal mixture after it has gone through primary crushing. 1.b) Non-Recovery/Heat Recovery Coke Production: In Non-Recovery coke plants. Combusted gases collect in a common tunnel and exit via a stack which creates a natural draft in the oven. the waste gas exits into a waste heat recovery boiler which converts the excess heat into steam for power generation. 1. the coal is carbonized in large oven chambers.This results in 95% of the total aggregate attaining the net basic size of 3mm required for coking. Partially combusted gases exit the top chamber through "down comer" passages in the oven wall and enter the sole flue.The carbonization process takes place from the top by radiant heat transfer and from the bottom by conduction of heat through the sole floor.For ECL. the process is called Non-Recovery cokemaking.the total no. This is the avg.1 Coal Blending: Blending is largely a mechanical process. the process is called Heat Recovery cokemaking. In one case. Considering the heat recovery coke oven observed in ECL.

6 Coke cutter for sizing: This process is implemented to cut and size the lump coke into the required size.4. where it is cooled to the temperature about 180-250°C. Coal moisture is maintained at 810% for the cake formation.-3mm) by mechanically stamping(hydrolic pressure 125 bar) outside the oven and pushing the cake thus formed inside the oven for carbonization. 1. Due to stamping.1.Then it is conveyed by the belt conveyor to the coke cutter for sizing. In rotary screen 6mm and 25mm is screened there.4.4. 1. 1. lump coke in the quenching car is pushed into the hopper by the stationary pusher.7 Screening: The sized coke is screened using 70mm screen and 25mm screen respectively.Undersize of 25mm screen coke is screened in the rotary screen.3 Water adding point: Water is added to the blended.The coke size required by ECL is 70-25mm(B.From the quenching station.5 Quenching: After coke pushing into quenching car the coke is transported for wet quenching.crushed coal in order to allow the formation of coke for carbonization.4 Stamp Charging: It basically involves formation of a stable cake with finely crushed coal(95%.quenching tower. Wet coke quenching assumes spraying over burning coke of water in special facility .bulk density increases by 30-35%. The coke of +70mm to +25mm is the B.4. It is very important to guarantee constant humidity of cooled coke.4. 1.F coke.F coke: 25mm to 70mm(stored in the coke bunker)  Pearl coke: 6mm to 25mm  Dust coke: 0 to 6mm 12 . From the screen house three types of coke are obtained:  B.F coke).

This are measured in weight percent. Air-dried basis neglects the presence of moistures other than inherent moisture while dry basis leaves out all moisture including surface moisture and inherent moisture. which is the temperature of the vessel as shown by the thermocouple. 1 gm of crushed coal is taken in a crucible at a uniform level. c) Volatile Matter content. ash content. The objective of the proximate analysis is to determine the moisture content. It is then charged to a muffle furnace for 2. The vessel is then put into the furnace . b) Ash content. volatile matter content and fixed carbon content within the coal sample. We set the furnace temperature to 11500C which is recorded by the safety controller. CRI-CSR(Coke Reactivity Index and Coke Strength after Reaction): 200 gm of coal balls is put in the basket inside the vessel. Then N 2 gas is passed through the furnace to inert atmosphere.5 Quality Assurance Parameters: Quality parameters for the coking coal are analysed as follows: Proximate Analysis a) Moisture content. Dry Mineral Matter Free basis helps to determine the mineral matters present in the coal. This time is called the Soaking Time. CSN(Crucible Swelling Number): This term is used to determine whether the coal is coking or non-coking.5 minutes at a temperature of 8000C. Dry Ash Free basis helps to determine the ash content in coal. N2 gas is passed for a period of 15 minutes after that N 2 flow is stopped. The temperature reduces to a certain extent due to heat exchange and then recovers. d) Fixed carbon content.1. Then we put the thermocouple over the vessel and tightened the screws. when main controller records 11000C. Then cylinder flow is opened and a 13 . The coal powder swells and gains a shape from which the type of coal is determined.

The quality of sponge iron is primarily ascertained by the percentage of metallization (removal of oxygen). Sponge iron manufacture is highly sensitive to raw material characteristics.preheater is attached. Then it is taken out & final weight is measured. which is the ratio of metallic iron to the total iron present in the product..  Furnace Reaction: C+CO2 2CO In presence of excess O2.)×100% SPONGE IRON PLANT (SIP) 2. In Sponge Iron Plant Directly Reduced Iron (DRI) or sponge Iron are produced from direct reduction of Iron ore. sponge iron in itself is not used. As it reaches the room temperature the coke is taken out & then it is taken to the I-Drum for the loss of weight of the coke due to abrasion. 14 . the reaction & CO2 flow is stopped & N2 is passed through the furnace for cooling down and maintaining the inert atmosphere.)/ Initial wt. After 2 hrs. To measure the coke strength after reaction : ((Initial wt. This sponge iron is used as a raw material for production of steel the CO2 gas is passed from a high pressure to a low pressure region as there is a tendency of forming ice crystals. The rise in price of scrap and other factors have led to the increase in the use of sponge iron for making high quality steel. Made from iron ore. It is further processed to make wrought iron.1 Introduction: Sponge Iron is mainly used as a raw material for speciality steel as well as substitute for scrap.Final wt. The I-Drum is rotated at a set point of 600 times.CO turns into CO2 (2CO+O22CO2) & is sent through a pipe. main product of Electro Steel Castings Limited (ECL).

LOI++ O2 Fe Al2O3. in solid reduction. The term sponge iron justifies due to spongy appearance of porous solid.2 Sponge Iron properties: The iron ore mostly in the name of Haematite and Magnetite are found on earth in oxide form.Cu.S. CaO.Zn. also called sponge iron.Zn. It is attracted by magnet. The reducing gas is a mixture majority of Hydrogen(H 2) and Carbon Monoxide(CO) which acts as reducing agent. Sponge Iron: Direct-reduced iron (DRI).Al2O3. pellets or fines) by a reducing gas produced from natural gas or coal.V. 15 . MgO.MgO.Cu. High grade ore can contain more than 27% oxygen in oxide form. Gangue:SiO2. The Iron oxide (Fe2O3) during reduction is converted to metallic Fe which is turned into solid state as sponge and shows highly magnetic property.Pb. V.Composition of iron ore are as follows: Fe. This oxygen is removed.P. 2. SiO2. O2++.CaO. Iron ore is not attracted by magnets . Trace element:Pb. When oxygen combines with gaseous reductants. Gangue P.V. Zn. During reduction reaction only O2 and LOI are removed from Ore body. Other properties of sponge iron are as follows:     Sponge Fe contains low O2 and Feo. S. It looks black with metallic lectures. leaves the iron surface. Highly reactive with moisture. creating number of micro holes of cavities in solid. Cu. This process of directly reducing the iron ore in solid form by reducing gases is called direct reduction. Pb. is produced from direct reduction of iron ore(in the form of lumps.

CaCO3). (different grades mostly Haematite).2.3 Raw materials: mainly used raw materials for the production of sponge iron are as follows:  Non coking coal(Must have low ash content and non sticky in nature).  Dolomite(MgCO3.  Iron ore. 16 .

2. Zones T2 T4 T6 E S P T7 (Fine coals are injected) Bag Filter and chimney Water Belt Conveyer Fans Rotary Cooler T5 T1 T3 I Bin Rotary Kiln Sponge Iron Plant (SIP) Magnetic Separator Product House (for storing mixture or sponge iron and char) Screen Coarse Fines Sponge Iron Char 17 .Iron ore & Dolomite Waste Heat Boiler A B C Chamber G C T Different Temp.4 Process Flow Sheet: Screen Screen Screen Crusher Crusher Crusher Non Coking Coal Iron Ore (Hematite) Dolomite Power Plant Unit Sized Coal.

 If GCT is not used. 18 . waste heat recovery boiler is used to recover heat from hot gas stream and turbine generates the power. Waste hot gases containing the dust particles from the rotary kiln are burned in an ABC(after burning chamber). where some dust particles tickles down and rest are  carried to gas conditioning tower (GCT) where the gas are cooled. Temperature is maintained around 1100 0C.  In rotary kiln haematite is reduced to sponge iron. The condenser condenses the hot gas containing the dust particles and sent through ESP to remove dust and gas is discharged through the chimney. a) Feed Coal b) Coarse Coal c) Fine Coal +8 to -20 mm +4 to -8 mm +0 to -4 mm  Iron ore is sent to crushing unit (jaw crusher) for crushing operation and then screened through a 20 mm and 5 mm size screen to get iron ores of desired size.5 Process Description:  Different types of non coking coals are first stored in bunkers and send through the coal hopper to the crushing section and screened to obtain particles of desired size range.  Dust particles from the mixture are removed by bag filter.  Coal.2.  Then the mixture is sent to the product house where mixture is sent through magnetic separator which separates char from magnetic particles (sponge iron).  Then dust particles are separated from gas in an ESP (Electro static precipitator) by ionizing the dust particle and the gas is discharged through chimney.  Hot mix of sponge iron (FeO+Fe) and char is sent through a rotary cooler to reduce temperature to150 0C. Fine coals are injected at the outlet of kiln to provide sufficient carbon at the time of burning. Iron and dolomite of desired size are mixed together and charged to rotary kiln which is slightly inclined.  Dolomite is sent through hopper by using conveyer belt system. Here sufficient air is supplied to maintain the temperature of the reaction with the help of fans.  Final product is screened to get lump and fine irons.

or may be generated by a flame inside the kiln. 4-8 mm.1 Stock House: Raw materials are generally stored in stock house. Crushed materials are screened and oversize materials are crushed again to obtain particles of desired size range. The hot gases may be generated in an external furnace.5. It is divided in seven temperature zones . Then they charged to crusher where jaw crushers are mainly used for crushing operation. but usually in the opposite direction (counter-current). Thermocouple is present in each zone to measure the tempera tures. Such a flame is projected from a burner-pipe (or "firing pipe") which acts like a large bunsen burner. The material to be processed is fed into the upper end of the cylinder. For iron ore size range is (5-20 mm). 2.2 Rotary Kiln: The kiln is a cylindrical vessel. inclined slightly to the horizontal. The second half of the kiln is called reduction zone where major amount of O 2 contained in the iron ore is removed leaving metallic iron (Fe).Desulphurisation in the rotary kiln is effected by calcined limestone or dolomite. oil or pulverized coal. 19 . material gradually moves down towards the lower end. As the kiln rotates. coal and dolomite are dried and heated to reaction temperature using heat released from the combustion of volatile matter and carbon in the coal. The fuel for this may be gas. approximately half of kiln is called preheating zone where iron ore .For complete combustion O 2 is added through a fan per each zone. 8-20 mm).2. sometimes in the same direction as the process material (co-current). which is rotated slowly about its axis.5.For Coal size range is (0-4 mm. and may undergo a certain amount of stirring and mixing. Temperature T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Temp T1 profile in Reaction 750 860 960 1020 1020 1030 030 the Gas rotary 930 1030 1080 1080 1090 1100 kiln is Bed 850 980 1020 1030 1040 1050 maintain ed as follows: The first section . Hot gases pass along the kiln.

Reaction time. Kiln revolution. 3FeO+3CO2. Cooler discharge temperature. 2Fe3O4+3CO2. Fe+CO2. Coal injection. MgO+CO2. 3Fe2O3+3CO Fe3O4+CO FeO+CO FeS+CaO Control of process Parameter: In the operation of rotary kiln for direct reduction the important process parameters which require close maintaining and control are as follows:        Air profile. Gas pressure in the kiln. FeO+CaS. Temperature profile. Mean particle size. 2CO. 20 .The chemical reaction taking place at different zones in the rotary kiln is given below: C+O2 CaCO3 MgCO3 C+CO2 CO2 CaO+CO2.

By the rotary movement and the conveyor elements the product is conveyed to other end of the cooler. According to requirements Sectional Cooler are built with diameters between 0. This arrangement is completely surround by a water shell. At the ends of the rotor are stiff cases for product feed and outlet. as it is typical for rotary drums.5.3 Rotary Cooler: Sectional Coolers essentially exist of a turning rotor which is mostly driven via chain.8 and 4 m and lengths from 3 to 30 m. The interior of the rotor exists of several section-shaped chambers which are arranged like cake pieces around a central hollow shaft. The product which is to cool usually falls directly into the product feed housing. from 850 0C to 130 0C within a span of two hours. dolomite and sponge iron fines. The rotation causes a permanent mixing of the product in the chambers and hence a good heat transfer. The product at this stage is highly contaminated with char. Water is sprayed in the outer surface of rotary cooler or can be given inside of shell.2. The sponge iron after reduction in rotary kiln is at 1050 0C is discharged to cooler where the hot mixture loses its temp. Depending on the size of the cooler the rotor is pivoted either at the ends of its own shaft (shaft cooler) or is supported on running treads. Sectional Coolers work with indirect water cooling. 21 .

5 Bag Filter: It is one type of Filtration technique Commonly known as bag houses.  Electrostatic forces .  Brownian movement . fabric collectors use filtration to separate dust particulates from dusty gases. 2.5. synthetic. They are one of the most efficient and cost effective types of dust collectors available and can achieve a collection efficiency of more than 99% for very fine particulates. Firstly. or glass-fiber material in either a tube or envelope shape. increasing the probability of contact between the particles and collecting surfaces.The presence of an electrostatic charge on the particles and the filter can increase dust capture. products are stored here and then the magnetic separator separates the DRI of different size range are separated by screening as for requirement and stored at bin.Particles that do not cross the fluid streamlines come in contact with fibers because of the fiber size.Rotary Cooler 2.Dust particles strike the fibers placed perpendicular to the gas-flow direction instead of changing direction with the gas stream. Dust-laden gases enter the bag house and pass through fabric bags that act as filters.  Interception .4 Product House: Products from the rotary cooler are carried through the conveyor belt system to the product house. The bags can be of woven or felted cotton.Submicrometre particles are diffused. 22 . The high efficiency of these collectors is due to the dust cake formed on the surfaces of the bags.5. The fabric primarily provides a surface on which dust particulates collect through the following four mechanisms:  Inertial collection .

handshaker devices to large. compartmentalized units. the airflow can be diverted to other compartments.A combination of these mechanisms results in formation of the dust cake on the filter. Shaker baghouses range in size from small. Vibration produced by a motor-driven shaft and cam creates waves in the bags to shake off the dust cake. Types of bag houses: As classified by cleaning method. there must be no positive pressure inside the bags during the shake cycle. and the dust collects on the inside surface of the bags. The filter must be cleaned periodically. Intermittent units can be used when processes operate on a batch basis-when a batch is completed. wg can interfere with cleaning. when one compartment is being cleaned. Dirty gas enters the bottom of the baghouse and passes through the filter. Continuous processes use compartmentalized baghouses. In shaker baghouses. tubular filter bags are fastened onto a cell plate at the bottom of the baghouse and suspended from horizontal beams at the top.02 in. three common types of baghouses are: Mechanical shaker: In mechanical-shaker baghouses. 23 . Cleaning a mechanical-shaker baghouse is accomplished by shaking the top horizontal bar from which the bags are suspended. the baghouse can be cleaned. Pressures as low as 0. They can operate intermittently or continuously. which eventually increases the resistance to gas flow.

Dirty gas flow normally enters the baghouse and passes through the bag from the inside. they are popular in the minerals processing industry. which pressurizes the compartment. and the compartment is returned to the main stream. rigid rings are sewn into the bags at intervals. At the end of the cleaning cycle. However. Reverse air: In reverse-air baghouses. the bags are fastened onto a cell plate at the bottom of the baghouse and suspended from an adjustable hanger frame at the top. maintenance needs are somewhat greater. Bags are cleaned by injecting clean air into the dust collector in a reverse direction. hence the space requirements are quite high. however. Before a cleaning cycle begins. However. filtration is stopped in the compartment to be cleaned.The air to cloth ratio for shaker baghouses is relatively low. to prevent total collapse and fabric chafing during the cleaning cycle. because of the simplicity of design. The flow of the dirty gas helps maintain the shape of the bag. and the dust collects on the inside of the bags. The pressure makes the bags collapse partially. Reverse-air baghouses are compartmentalized to allow continuous operation. 24 . causing the dust cake to crack and fall into the hopper below. Space requirements for a reverse-air baghouse are comparable to those of a shaker baghouse. reverse airflow is discontinued.

which is fastened onto a cell plate at the top of the baghouse. These collectors provide more complete cleaning and reconditioning of bags than shaker or reverse-air cleaning methods. individual bags are supported by a metal cage. it acts as a rapidly moving air bubble.Reverse jet: In reverse-pulse-jet baghouses. reverse-jet dust collectors are usually not compartmentalized. this timer indicates the solenoid valve to inject the air to the blow pipe. This flexing of the bags breaks the dust cake. traveling through the entire length of the bag and causing the bag surfaces to flex. and the dislodged dust falls into a storage hopper below.1s). 25 . The compressed air is accelerated by a venturi nozzle mounted at the reverse-jet baghouse top of the bag. Reverse-pulse-jet dust collectors can be operated continuously and cleaned without interruption of flow because the burst of compressed air is very small compared with the total volume of dusty air through the collector. Dirty gas enters from the bottom of the baghouse and flows from outside to inside the bags. This cleaning system works with the help of digital sequential timer attached to the fabric filter. Bags are cleaned by a short burst of compressed air injected through a common manifold over a row of bags. The metal cage prevents collapse of the bag. so the space requirements are lower. Also. The short cleaning cycle of reverse-jet collectors reduces recirculation and redeposit of dust. Since the duration of the compressed-air burst is short (0. Because of this continuous-cleaning feature. the continuous-cleaning feature allows them to operate at higher air-to-cloth ratios.

however. moisture. Fluctuation outside of these limits even for a small period of time. pressure drop. resulting in more frequent cleanings and high particle velocity. Opacity is not an exact measurement of the concentration of particles.  Opacity . can weaken. opacity. 26 .Baghouse Performance: Baghouse performance is contingent upon inlet and outlet gas temperature. two factors that shorten bag life. The chemical composition.Fabrics are designed to operate within a certain range of temperature. and gas velocity.  Pressure Drops . acid dew point. These increases require the baghouse to work more strenuously.Baghouses are created to accommodate a range of gas flows. This spectrum is based on a specific gas volumetric flow rate.  Gas Temperature . An increase in gas flow rates causes an increase in operating pressure drop and air-to-cloth ratio.Opacity measures the quantity of light scattering that occurs as a result of the particles in a gas stream. damage. and particle loading and size distribution of the gas stream are essential factors as well. or ruin the bags.Baghouses operate most effectively within a certain pressure drop range. it is a good indicator of the amount of dust leaving the baghouse.  Gas Volumetric Flow Rate .

27 .6 After Burning Chamber: In After Burning Chamber(ABC) combustible constituents of exhaust gases from rotary kiln comprising after burning the exhaust gases from the rotary kiln are burned at a temperature above their ignition temperature in an ABC and supplying O 2 containing gases to said ABC. the improvement comprising burning part of combustible constituents in each of plurality of series connected stages in the gases which is about to enter each succeeding stage by injecting water to a temperature above the ignition temperature of the entrained fine particle.5.2.

7 Gas Conditioning Tower: The gases from ABC are sent to the gas conditioning tower. Then the gases are sent to ESP. The hot gases having temperature of 900-1000 0C are fed to GCT. In GCT hot gases are cooled by spraying water in a controlled way. 28 .ABC chamber 2. The gases are cooled to about 200 0C.5.

Single-stage precipitators combine an ionization and a collection step. to impart a charge to particulates in the gas stream. A number of high-voltage.5. The four main components of all electrostatic precipitators are    Power supply unit.single-stage .  Increasing the gas temperature. direct-current discharge electrodes are placed between grounded collecting electrodes.  An increase in the dust-particle migration velocity to the collecting electrodes increases efficiency. These charged particles are then attracted to a grounded or positively charged electrode and adhere to it.2. A means of removing the collected particulates. Electrostatic precipitators operate on the same principle as home "Ionic" air purifiers. They are commonly referred to as Cottrell precipitators.  Increasing the voltage field. The airborne particles receive a negative charge as they pass through the ionized field between the electrodes. Cleaning a precipitator can usually be done without interrupting the airflow. Ionizing section. Types of precipitators: There are two main types of precipitators:  High-voltage. The following factors affect the efficiency of electrostatic precipitators:  Larger collection-surface areas and lower gas-flow rates increase efficiency because of the increased time available for electrical activity to treat the dust particles. A housing to enclose the precipitator zone. to provide high-voltage DC power. The collected material on the electrodes is removed by rapping or vibrating the collecting electrodes either continuously or at a predetermined interval. 29 .8 Electrostatic Precipitator: Electrostatic precipitators use electrostatic forces to separate dust particles from exhaust gases. The contaminated gases flow through the passage formed by the discharge and collecting electrodes. The migration velocity can be increased by Decreasing the gas viscosity.

two-stage precipitator is generally used for filtration in air-conditioning systems. Collected particles are usually removed by rapping the plates and deposited in bins or hoppers at the base of the precipitator. Described below is the high-voltage. Particles are collected on flat. single-stage precipitator. parallel surfaces that are 8 to 12 in. The charged particles are collected on the grounded walls of the cylinder. which is widely used in minerals processing operations. The collected dust is removed from the bottom of the cylinder. Plate precipitators: The majority of electrostatic precipitators installed are the plate type. The low-voltage. The contaminated gases pass through the passage between the plates.Tubular precipitators are often used for mist or fog collection or for adhesive. and the particles become charged and adhere to the collection plates. (20 to 30 cm) apart. however.Two-stage precipitators use a similar principle. sticky. the ionizing section is followed by collection plates. radioactive. Tubular precipitators: Tubular precipitators consist of cylindrical collection electrodes with discharge electrodes located on the axis of the cylinder.two-stage . The contaminated gases flow around the discharge electrode and up through the inside of the cylinders. Low-voltage. with a series of discharge electrodes spaced along the centerline of two adjacent plates. or extremely toxic materials 30 .

9 Intermediate Bin: The sponge Iron discharged from the cooler can be either stored in the intermediate bin or can directly conveyed to the stored in the intermediate bin or can directly conveyed to the product house. Indicator-BDS(Beryllium diphenyl amine sulphonate) 5-6 drops are added to the mixture. 31 . Titration: Liquid taken in the burette. In the fumes chamber 4 gm of powder is mixed with 100ml (1:1 HCL and Water solution). SnCl2 is added to the hot solution until it turns a colourless solution.5. from this test we can measure percentage of Fe in the Ore sample. Procedure:          Iron ore sample is taken. 4 gm of the Ore sample is taken. (Size. Ore powder is produced. 15ml HgCl2 is added to the solution (it will reduce excess SnCl 2 in the solution and kept for 5 min. After heating for 40-45 min.6 FeT test: This is known as total Fe (Iron) content test.2.It will produce white silk type solution. 20 ml acid mixture is added (1:1 ratio H3PO4 and H2SO4). In a hot plate to dissolve the iron ore powder.K2Cr2O7 . 2-3 drops of SnCl2 is added to the beaker and heated for 40-45 min. During any shut down in the product separation house the material is stored in the intermediate bin for reconveying the same product separation section when it is ready.100 mesh or 150 mic). 2. Change of colour at titration point.White silky to violet. Then it is cooled for 5-6 min & titration is carried out.

Then the deaerated water is sent to the boiler through the boiler feed pump.Calculation: % Fe= Burette reading * f / sample weight.m. The deaerator is used to remove desolved O2 from the water.m and then the pressure is reduce to zero.C. 32 .mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy. Voltage is generated by the rotor which enables the generator to generate 12MW power. where.66kg/cm2.L.S. The governing principle of power generation is the fluid energy(DM Water)is converted to thermal energy(boiler steam is generated) which is further converted to mechanical energy(boiler steam rotates the blades of the turbine) and then finally to electrical energy(generator coupled with turbine).f= strength of K2Cr2O7 . generates a power of 12MW. POWER PLANT 4.1 Introduction: ECL Haldia. 4. As the hot steam rotates the blade of turbine at 3000 r. Exciter converts the DC to AC .E. Steam is generated in the boiler which enters the turbine at 4800C.p.D.3 Process Description: Water from the DM plant enters the deaerator. 2MW power is consumed by the plant itself and 10MW power is sold to the W. The hot steam rotates the blade of the turbine at 3000 r.p.B.

4.2 Flow Chart: 33 .

These are high pressure pumps that use suction from a condensate steam and can be of the centrifugal pump type or positive displacement.4 Power Plant Units: 4.  Eliminates corrosion of the steam turbine.3 Deaerator: It is used to remove the dissolved O2 and CO2 from the boiler feed water to minimize the corrosion using steam stripping.  Reduces steam consumption of the steam turbine. The water may be freshly supplied or returning condensate produced as a result of the condensation of the steam produced by the boiler.4 Superheater: It is used to heat the water to super heated steam which affeacts the improvement and economy in the following ways:  Increases the capacity of the plant.4.1 Boiler: The primary function of the coal burning system in the process of steam generation is to provide controlled and efficent conversion of the chemical energy of fuel into heat energy which is then transferred to the heat absorbing surface of the steam generator.2 Boiler Feed Pump: It is used to pump feed water into a steam boiler. Two boilers near the power plant have a capacity of 23. 4. This steam is used to drive the turbine in the power plant. In this plant we have used the waste heat recovery type boiler which utilizes the waste heat from the coke oven and the sponge iron plant. There are four boilers in the plant.4.4. 4.6 TPH each and the boilers near the sponge iron plant are 10 TPH each.4. 34 .4. 4.

f it works upon the Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction.7 ID fan: There are generally two ID fans per boiler located between the ESP & the chimney.5 Economiser: It reduces the energy consumption by preheating the fluid. These fans used for sucking flue gases from furnace and direct it out through the chimney after proper pollution control these gases are released to the atmosphere.m. 35 . Thus the generator gets excitation and power is generated. It is a reservoir of water/steam at the top end of the water tubes in the water tube boiler.8 Turbine: To excite the generator through steam pressure the driving force is achieved from the turbines. It is basically a heat exchanger. 4. The energy conversion is based on the principle of dynamically induced e. less than the boiling point of that fluid. These are generally similar to fans have huge blades which when acted by steam at proper pressure starts rotating the steam to the turbine enters through the main steam stop valve. 4. This valve controls the steam flow to the turbine thus controlling the speed of rotation of the turbines.4.m. economiser heat fluids. They store the steam generated in the water tubes and act as a phase separator for the steam/water mixture.6 Steam Drum: These are a regular feature of water tube boilers. The shaft of the generator is coupled with the rotating shaft of the turbine.9 Generator: Generator transforms mechanical energy to electrical energy. 4.4.  Rotor—cut the flux to generate induced e.4. usually water.4. A generator requires two basic parts:  Stator—generates the magnetic field. In boilers. 4.4.4.f.

Various processes of water treatment is observed in the demineralisation plant where the demineralised water is the feed for the boiler and the steam produced is used for the production of 12MW power.It produces mainly B. CONCLUSION The time spent at ECL during the training period proved to be fruitful for us. water treatment and power generation.F coke and sponge iron which is the basic raw materials for the manufacturing of pipe lines. Similarly.5.The plant surveys conducted during the training period was an intregal part of gaining the knowledge about the industry.It was most certainly an enriching experience as we got to know more about production of coke and sponge iron. the difference between the coking and non-coking coal is also observed by performing the required test. The amount of iron present in the iron ore is also determined by performing the suitable test. different quality parameters of coke and sponge iron is observed during the training period. Beside this. 36 .

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