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**Pascal's Principle; Pressure of an ‘enclosed’ fluid at rest is
**

transmitted to all points in the fluid & acts in all directions.

[ perpendicular to the walls ]

[ consequence of gravity & incompressibility ]

P = F / A A Area F Force P = ρ g h =

PotcntìuI Lnc¡g¡

voIumc

dP/dy = – ρ g ρ density of the liquid

Hydrostatic pressure is due to gravity

We live in the fluid of the atmosphere

Fluids are Liquids, Gases & Plasmas

Units

** Standard Atmospheric Pressure is

1 atm = 760 Torr = 14.696 psi = 1.01325 bar

= 101325 Pa = 1.01 x 10

5

Pa = 101.325 kPa

= 760 mm Hg = 10 m H2O

1 Pa = 1 N / m

2

= 9.87 x 10

–6

Atm

1 Torr = 1 mm Hg , 760 Torr = 760 mm Hg

1 Bar = 10

5

Pa 1 Pa = 1 Pascal

ρ [mercury] = 13.6 x 10

3

kg / m

3

Pressure vs Height in the Atmosphere

P(h) = P

0

e^( – h / H0) H0 = kT/mg = 8000m

h= 2400m P= 0.75 atm H2O boils at 92C

h = 8.9km P = 0.33 atm H20 boils 70C [ Mt Everest ]

h= 30km P = 1/45 atm = 17 mm Hg H2O boils 20C

e 2400/8000 = 1.349 1/1.349 = 0.74 … checks ok

Vacuum levels vs Method

Mechanical Pump 1 Pa; Vapor Diffusion / Jet 10

–8

Pa

Sublimation Pumps 10

–12

Pa

Capillary Action / Capillarity the rise of a liquid in a

fine tube or narrow spaces. Caused by cohesive/adhesive

forces. Height determined by Gravity. Examples 1/ Towel

or hair dipped in water 2/ The wick of an oil lamp 3/ Paint

brush 4/ Transport of water from a plant root to its leaves

Capillary tubes Pascal’s Vases ; P is constant

Pascal’s Vases demonstrate fluid pressure depends only on height;

is independent of volume of fluid above it or shape of the vessel.

Thus a barometer works with any tube diameter or shape

Pascal's Law Pressure at any depth is the same

Integrating dP/dy = – ρ g yields

P1 – P2 = ρ g [ y2 - y1 ]

Pressure increases with depth ! ! [ See picture below ]

Liquid Pressure (P) = Weight Density (ρ g) x Depth (h)

Air pressure at sea level is 1 kg / cm

2

= 1000 kg/m

3

100 kg pressure on your hand both top and bottom

Mercury barometer is 0.76 m high = 760 mm high

Water barometer is 10.33 m high ; 13.6x higher than Hg

10 meters of water produce an overpressure of 1 atm

Pascal's Barrel Experiment; He attached a narrow tube

10 m long to a barrel of H2O, then filled it with water.

It caused the barrel to explode. Why ? The weight [force]

concentrated in a small area large pressure

Snorkel depth of 1 m possible given hydrostatic pressure

To inhale, you must expand your chest & overcome H2O

pressure. Can not inhale (suck in) even at depth of only

1 meter need for pressurized air tank

Letting air out underwater is easy. H2O pressure helps.

Siphon is like making a hole in the water container. The atm

pressure + reduced pressure [Venturi effect] due to flow in

the loop causes pressure differential to keep fluid flowing

Bernoulli Equation; 1/2 m v

2

+ m g h + PV = Constant

Lose P term of Bernoulli's equation since both ends of

tube are at 1 atm. Constant = 0 for static case

Solving for v speed of emptying liquid v = Sqrt [ 2 g h ]

PE converts to KE; Max height of siphon arc < 10m

Heavy chain-pulley analogy + tensile strength is flawed

Straw sucking height limit calculation

Sucking up thru a straw from a height ...limit h = 10.1m

If the pressure P [=F/A] , area A, the work done to raise the

column to h is W = F dot s = PAh/2 The potential energy

of the column is ρAhg (h/2) [c of m is in the middle].

When the column rises its highest, there is no motion, so all

the energy is potential. That means we can equate the

previous two expressions and get h = P/ρ g

h = 1.01 e5 N/m

2

/ 1000 kg/m

3

10 m/s

2

=

= 1.01 e1 N m / kg m / s

2

= 10.1 m

Applications; Auto braking system, Siphon, Hydraulic Jack/Press

Hydraulic Jack / Press Pressure vs Depth

Note that if the vessel at right is dropped and thus is in free fall, the

Equivalence Principle adds an upward pseudo gravity equal to the

downward inertial gravity so there is no longer a differential

pressure. All 3 streams will stop flowing out. The water will fall as

one solid body. No Gravity No Pressure differential with depth

Buoyant Force & Bernoulli’s Equation

Archimedes Principle 3rd century BC

Buoyant Force = weight of displaced fluid

Buoyancy arises due to Gravity causing fluid pressure

[ liquid or gas ] to increase with depth and because

pressure is exerted in all directions (Pascal’s Principle).

Thus there is a net unbalanced upward force on any

submerged object called the Buoyant Force.

** The Buoyant Force is the same at all depths **

Archimedes King’s Crown Density Problem

Famous problem finding density of the King’s crown to

see if it really is gold [ ρ = 19.3 g/cm

3

] or not.

Weight crown in water = w of crown – W of displaced fluid

W of displaced fluid = w of crown – W crown in water

V

cr

ρ

w

g = ρ

cr

V

cr

g – [ known by measurement]

V

cr

= volume of displaced water [ measured ] ρ

cr

Iceberg in water; ρ[ice] = 0.92 g/cm

3

ρ[w] = 1 g/cm

3

Floating w of object = w of displaced water

[M

O

g] V

O

ρ

O

g = [M

UW

g] V

UW

ρ

W

g

V

UW

= V [ice under water] = V

O

ρ

O

/ ρ

W

V

UW

/ V

O

= ρ

O

/ ρ

W

= 0.92 / 1

so … 92% of an iceberg is underwater

Vertical Cylinder [ A x l ] in water; h = length under water

To float ρ[object ] < ρ [fluid] & h < l

Fb = weight of displaced fluid = A h ρ

w

g

If floating Fb = Mg + Air Pressure

A h ρ[fluid] g = A l ρ[object] g + Air P

independent of the shape or volume

Problem; rock in a boat thrown overboard

Water line goes down in pool. Why ??

Answer; smaller volume of water is displaced.

Stability of ships; Center of mass [CM] of ship must be

as low as possible & under CM of the displaced fluid

CM of Fb is at CM of displaced water

CM for mg Force is at CM of the ship;

not same point & not vertically aligned torque

will rotate until the 2 CM’s line up vertically no torque

one causes ship to capsize, the other a balancing restoring force

Standing up in a boat raises CM instability

Balloons Air is a fluid with Buoyancy forces too, like water

Think of a water tank holding an ice cube & rock halfway

down and let go. The ice rises and the rock sinks.

Same with He balloon & apple in air. One rises one falls

Hot Air Balloon

M[total] g = Mass M of gas + M[rest of the materials]

Fb = weight of displaced air = V ρ[air] g

To rise ; Fb > Mg ρ is density

V ρ[air] g > V ρ[gas] g + M[rest]

density of air > density of gas

a necessary but not sufficient condition

This is why hot air balloons are so large; Need big V

Since air ρ decreases with height, a He balloon rises

only to the height where ρ [air] = ρ [He]

Apple & He balloon on strings in outer space

**acceleration in any direction simulates gravity**

** It really creates a pseudo force due to inertia **

1/ In an accelerated box no gravity or air the apple &

balloon move together in the same direction, opposite

acceleration vector , due to inertia.

2/ Same accelerated box , but with Air added

Air sees the “gravity” and wants to move with it

Balloon moves due to differential air [fluid] pressure

Apple moves with the gravity vector [sinks in the fluid]

He balloon moves opposite to the gravity vector [rises]

due to buoyancy made possible by the acceleration

air + acceleration differential pressure buoyancy

no air [fluid] everything falls on Earth, floats in space

3/ Back on Earth, in a car with gravity & air

Hanging apple & Air balloon will go in opposite

directions if you hit the brakes or the gas

Bernoulli's Equation Conservation of Energy

1/2 m v

2

+ m g h + P V = Constant

**Note this concept is highly counter intuitive** ……

HIGH pressure area is where velocity is LOW, not high

Where speed is HIGH / increases, pressure is LOW / drops

Trade speed for height or pressure in a tube of fluid

Examples

1/ Blow up on a funnel with a ping pong ball inside and you

can NOT get it up or out due to the speed causing

a low pressure in the narrow region between wall and

ball. Turn it upside down and you can keep it in the

funnel against gravity; hard to believe until seen

2/ Vacuum hose blow pingpong ball vertically will be very

stable horizontally due to the Bernoulli Effect

as long as LP region is below center of mass. Will

remain so even if the air is at an angle not vertical.

3/ Turn glass of liquid upside down with cardboard on

top and the liquid will not fall down due to the

vacuum in the glass vs the outside air pressure

pushing up underneath the cardboard.

Venturi Effect is the reduction in fluid pressure that results

when a fluid flows through a constricted section of pipe.

As with a funnel the velocity of the fluid increases as the

cross sectional area decreases, with the static pressure

correspondingly decreasing. A fluid's velocity must increase

as it passes through a constriction to satisfy the Principle of

Continuity while its pressure must decrease to satisfy the

Principle of Conservation of Mechanical Energy.

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