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Fall

11

ECE 445 Senior Design Project
EWB Solar Cooker Project
Akshay Gupta, Arjun Malhotra and Muhammad Shahid Khan

DESIGN REVIEW

Contents
Purpose and Motivation: ....................................................................................................... 2 Objectives ............................................................................................................................. 2 1.2.1 Goals ........................................................................................................................ 2 Benefits ............................................................................................................................. 3 Features............................................................................................................................. 3 Overall Design: ..................................................................................................................... 4 Solar Tracking Theory:...................................................................................................... 4 Block Description.............................................................................................................. 7 Microcontroller ............................................................................................................. 7 Power System.................................................................................................................... 8 Power Requirement ....................................................................................................... 8 Power Generation and Storage:...................................................................................... 8 Safety System: .................................................................................................................. 9 Tracker:............................................................................................................................. 9 Performance Requirements ................................................................................................. 12 Contingency Plan ................................................................................................................ 13 Parts Ordered ...................................................................................................................... 15 Parts Needed ....................................................................................................................... 15 Labor: ................................................................................................................................. 16

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INTRODUCTION:
The project is being undertaken in conjunction with a Mechanical Engineering Senior Design team, jointly working to develop a Solar Cooker for the Engineers Without Borders (EWB) UIUC Chapter. EWB is a non-profit humanitarian organization that works to develop sustainable solutions to improve the quality of life for residents in developing communities worldwide. The Project is sponsored by Shell Oil Company, a subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell.

Purpose and Motivation:
Remote and developing communities often do not have access to electricity and fossil fuels in the form of gasoline or natural gas. Cooking therefore is mostly done by burning woods and/or coal. Solar cookers are an environmentally friendly, cheap and sustainable alternative solution that eliminate the need of any fossil fuel, do not emit any hazardous byproducts and utilize the available solar energy for daily cooking purposes. Many designs have earlier been prepared by groups at the University for a Solar Cooker too. However, they have suffered from a multitude of problems, especially high cost and convenience constraints. The aim, therefore, is to develop an entirely new design, make sure it is an efficient one that overcomes earlier problems and meets all necessary specifications, and then prototype it. The Solar Tracking system is a robust implementation and can be reprogrammed with very minimal problems to track the sun for all solar purposes, like PV modules.

Objectives
1.2.1 Goals
 Design a tracking system for the Sun that orients the heliostat in a way that it concentrates sunlight at a stationary target every 5 minutes.

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  

Make the design as rigid, reliable, sustainable, and cheap so that it can be deployed in communities globally and in remote locations. Develop a PV power system for the motors of the solar tracker and the entire electronic assembly. Implement a safety system that prevents overheating of the cooking fuel beyond a certain threshold.

Benefits
     Eliminates the use of fossil fuels and uses available energy without negative environmental effects. Does not require any external power as it generates power for its own use using integrated PV module. Saves the user cost of buying/labor for procuring fossil fuels. Design can be readily manufactured and provided for use in developing communities worldwide. Saves from possible over-heating and damage hence caused.

Features
    Affordable. Requires no user input of location to track the sun efficiently. Requires no external power source for the motors. Tracker can be easily programmed to work for other Solar projects (PV power generation).

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DESIGN:
Overall Design:

The basic design of the heliostat will be similar to the one above. Our teams’ objective is to create a two axis tracking system that can track the sun in the horizontal axis of rotation as well as the tilt angle. This tracking system will be in the form of two motors and a PIC16F877A microcontroller. The entire system would be powered by a Lead Acid battery charged by a PV module. The safety system would be deployed at the location of the cooker which would be about 15ft from the heliostat. This would be a thermocouple that would disable the heliostat concentrating the rays at the cooker above a temperature of 250 o C.

Solar Tracking Theory:
In order to know the position of the sun in the sky at any given point one would require the tilt angle and the azimuth angle of the sun. The position of the sun would change at different latitudes and during different periods of the year. The position of the sun can be calculated using a set of mathematical equations. These equations would be programmed into the microcontroller. The GPS module would provide the latitude and time at the specific location. Using this data and the solar position equations the microcontroller would send the Page | 4

output to the motors which would the move accordingly. As a design requirement the sun must be tracked every 5 minutes in the sky.

In equation (1) and (2)

is the solar altitude angle, L is the latitude, is the solar azimuth angle.

is the solar declination,

H is the solar hour angle and finally The solar declination can be given by

The hour angle H

Therefore using the above equation we will be able to calculate the exact position of the sun every 5 minutes, every day of the year, at any place, without needing manual input for reorienting the heliostat our even location data from the user. The block level implementation of our circuit and the design requirements and calculations done for each part are shown on the next couple of pages.

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BLOCK DIAGRAM

Power System

PV MODULE

Charge Controller

Battery

GPS Module

Microcontroller

Thermocouple

H-Bridge

Safety System
Tracking Motors

Tracking System

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Block Description
Microcontroller
The microcontroller, a PIC16F877A, is the brain of the design. It gets location data from a GPS module and calculates a sun location table using programmed equations discussed in the solar theory section above. It reorients the heliostat at small intervals by sending signals to the motors. These signals will be determined by the difference of angle between the current position and the calculated position where it needs to next move on to. This difference would be then relayed to the motors which would move to the new position by moving by the angle calculated. The microcontroller control signal would be relayed to the motors through an HBridge. The microcontroller also processes data coming from the thermocouple. Once the thermocouple senses a temperature beyond the safety threshold, the microcontroller will disengage the heliostat by changing its direction to the opposite direction. A flowchart of the microcontroller programming design in presented below.

Wait 5 minutes Sleep/end

Disengage heliostat Power down and disengage heliostat YES YES Get GPS data over Serial Port Filter GPS data to get Latitude, Longitude, Date and Time Calculate Solar Tables for location and date Get Temperature from Thermocouple ADC over Serial Port Is the temperature higher than the safety limit?

Sunset Time?

NO

YES

NO Calculate motor movements necessary at current time from solar table

Sunrise time saved from previous day (from GPS)

Save Sunrise time for tomorrow and Sunset

Moved once previously in current cycle?

NO

Send H-Bridge signal to power azimuth motor and relevant encoder signal to motor

Send H-Bridge signal to power elevation motor and relevant encoder signal to motor

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Power System
The heliostat design is not yet in prototype stage however, we have an estimate weight of 40lbs upon which we have based many of our calculations and power considerations. We have chosen to have a fair amount of leeway above the minimum power estimations, and in the end when we have absolutely accurate power requirements based on the design, smaller battery, solar panels and motors can be replaced for reducing cost for deployment in the developing world.

Power Requirement
One of the primary performance requirements is that the heliostat should be adjusted every 5 minutes keeping in line with the tracking mechanism. This gives us the following daily power usage for the motors:          Number of movements/hour = 60/5 = 12 movements/hour Time of each movement = ~30 seconds Total time of motor movement/hour = Number of movements/hour * Time of each movement= 6 minutes/hour Number of hours/day of tracking = ~10 hours Total time of motor movement/day = Total time of motor movement/hour * Number of hours/day of tracking = 60 minutes = 1hour/day Absolute average current pulled by 1 motor = ~2A Motor voltage requirement = 12 V Number of motors = 2 Total Daily Power consumed by motors/day = Total time of motor movement/day * Absolute average current pulled by 1 motor * Number of motors * Motor voltage requirement = 1 hour * 2 A * 2 * 12 V = 48 Wh

Besides the motors, the GPS, the microcontroller, the charge controller circuit, the H-bridge and some other small circuits will require power too. However these are dwarfed by the motor power requirements. Our estimation is that a maximum of 60Wh will be utilized every day by the cooker.

Power Generation and Storage:
To provide 60Wh of power, we will be using prefabricated module of photovoltaic cells to generate electric power and store it in a battery. Keeping in mind cost effectiveness and other Page | 8

Jet pump (1/3 hp) (ac) 750 1400 Submersible pump (ac) 1000 6000 Clothes washer (vertical axis) 650 1150 Clothes washer (horizontal 250 750 axis) Dryer (gas) 500 1800 considerations, especially going above and beyond power use requirements, we will utilize a Furnace fan 1/4 hp 600 1000 Furnace fan 1/3 hp 700 1400 SUN-30 PV Module developed by Sunelec that is rated to provide 30W of power. At any Furnace fan 1/2 hp 875 2350 given day, consideringconditioner, alignment (not maximum power1500 the solar panels will one), Air imperfect window 1200 10 kBtu generate power much greater than 100Wh, which is more than our average power use Worm drive 7 1/4 saw 1800 3000 estimated above. Table saw, 10 1800 4500
Source: Real Goods (2002).

The electric power will be stored in a deep cycle Lead-Acid battery. The battery type has been chosen9.14 a cost and pro-con analysis as shown below. a TABLE after Rough Comparison of Battery Characteristics
Energy Density Cycle Life (cycles) 500 1000 2000 1000–2000 1000–2000 Calendar Efficiencies Cost Life (years) Ah % Wh % ($/kWh) 1–2 3–5 7–10 10–15 8–10 90 90 90 70 70 75 75 75 60 65 50 60 100 1000 1200

Battery Lead-acid, SLI Lead-acid, golf cart Lead-acid, deep-cycle Nickel –cadmium Nickel –metal hydride
a Actual

Max Depth Discharge (Wh/kg) 20% 80% 80% 100% 100% 50 45 35 20 50

performance depends greatly on how they are used. Source: Linden (1995) and Patel (1999).

A 12V battery, rated at but this may change in the of 108Wh and supply the high current lead-acid batteries, 9Ah, will store a maximum near future due to the surge of interest and development in new battery technologies for electric and hybrid required for motors as well. vehicles. Table 9.14 summarizes typical values of some of the important characteristics of these three Safety System: battery technologies. Lead-acid batteries are listed in lightcategories: conventional automobile batteries for engine starting, vehicle The ing, andSystem will incorporate low-cost, deep-cycle batteries that will send a in Safety engine ignition (SLI); a temperature sensing system typically used warning golf carts; and longer-lifetime, true deep-cycle batteries. Two other battery types signal to the microcontroller in case of an emergency. For our design we are using a SEN00251 K-Type Thermocouple that can measure temperature upto 350 oC. This thermocouple requires a MAX6675 Thermocouple to digital converter that would then send the signal to the microcontroller if the cooking fluid temperature rises beyond 250 oC. Once the microcontroller has this data it would send a signal to the tracking motors to change the direction of the heliostat to move away from the cooker and point directly back to the sun.

Tracker:
The actual tracking motion would be performed by two stepper motors which would be connected to the microcontroller through an H-Bridge setup. As the tracking required is twoaxis, one motor will track the elevation angle and the other will track the azimuth angle . The motors required need to support a large weight. The elevation axis motor will support the Page | 9

entire assembly mount, perhaps even 40lbs. The azimuth axis motor will support the assembly of semi-concave mirrors that make up the heliostat. We plan to use the same motors for both at this point. However, if need be, a smaller azimuth axis motor can be used if it works and thus valuable product cost can be reduced. By our estimation, a motor that supplies 5kg-cm of torque would be fine for moving the heliostat. Sure-step STP-MTR-17048 supplies the necessary torque at 12V and nominally 2A current.

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DESIGN SCHEMATICS:
Schematics for the H-bridge and the charge controller for the battery are presented below. The H-Bridge and the charge controller have been adapted from popular ones available on DIY tutorials.

FIGURE 2: Charge Controller Schematic

FIGURE 3: H-Bridge Page | 11

Testing and Verification Plan
For the purpose of testing, since the final design and prototype of the heliostat will not be ready at a time when we can test the tracking system, the Mechanical Engineering Senior Design Team has graciously agreed to fabricate a small scale, single mirror mount that will serve as the heliostat. We will use small DC Stepper Motors to move it according to tracking requirements, but since it will allow us to test our tracking algorithm and power and safety systems, it will be a fair testing and debugging platform.

Performance Requirements
Requirement 1. Reorient the heliostat position every five minutes for optimal cooking performance a. Obtain location data from GPS at daily startup b. Calculate relevant chart of solar movement c. Send control data to Hbridge d. Power motor to move exactly the amount that heliostat needs to be positioned at Verification 1. The heliostat is mounted on a platform and needs to be adjusted for focusing sunlight on a cooking platform placed some 10-15 feet away. a. GPS module will be interfaced with the microcontroller and location/date/time data will be recorded to the built-in memory and verified if interface is working properly b. Solar tracking theory provides us with relevant formulae. Based on heliostat mount and orientation, solar tables will be calculated and ultimately tested after motor has been interfaced c. H-Bridge will be assembled on a breadboard and control data will be sent by the microcontroller and verified if bridge is working properly by connecting it to a small DC stepper motor available in the parts shop d. Motors will be powered by a lab power supply and the interface of the microcontroller-H bridge-motor will be verified by running it in both directions and for significant movements. 2. Testing and verification would necessitate knowledge of the final power requirements, which are all dependent on the mechanical design being done by the other team associate with the project. However, we are going to work with a ballpark figure and adjust the design for affordability if our setup generates and stores power way beyond the average use

2. Generate enough on-site electric power to run the entire tracking system assembly a. PV modules should generate enough power daily for cooking use b. Batteries should be able to store and deliver the

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power at the peak motor current requirements c. System should retain enough power for startup and minimal work for next day d. Do not let the battery overcharge

3. Check temperature of cooking fluid every 10 minutes and disengage system if a situation arises

4. Design should be able to withstand all weather conditions

5. Design should be affordable and sustainable.

of the system a. PV modules will be arranged around the heliostat and average power generation in an hour and day will be recorded b. Charge controller connected battery will be connected to PV modules and we will record what power it was able to store and monitor power delivery once connected to the entire system c. Testing will be done to measure what percentage power is required for the system to startup and perform basic functions before PV modules start generating significant power. An LED will be used to display that minimum charge is being retained d. Charge Controller circuit will be tested to start charging the battery at 11.8V and stop charging at 14.5V 3. Thermocouple will be interfaced with the microcontroller and programmed to disengage cooking by reorienting itself upward (and hence focusing the sunlight away from the cooker) if a temperature beyond the safety limit is recorded. The requisite voltage that corresponds to an unsafe temperature will be provided to thermocouple ADC and the system will be checked if it does indeed fulfill safety system requirements. 4. Electric assembly will be done inside weatherproof boxes and installed behind the heliostat so that it is protected from weather conditions. Heliostat design should withstand high winds and such precautions will be incorporated into design by the Mechanical Engineering Senior Design Team. 5. When the entire assembly has been done, the system will be run down through a necessaryparts-only check and PV modules/battery use recommendation will be adjusted properly to save valuable production cost. All parts used will not be hazardous and disposal considerations will be incorporated into design parameters.

Contingency Plan
We have thought of contingency plans keyed to our requirements as well. 1. If the H-Bridge does not work, a commercially available dual motor control IC can be used. The LM298 is a popular one. Page | 13

2. Charge controllers available from Sunelec can be used in case our circuit fails to perform admirably. 3. The PIC microcontroller’s internal ADC can be used to do the thermocouple to digital conversion instead of the IC used at this time.

Ethical Implications:
This project takes into account the ethical implications that might be relevant to it in reference to the IEEE code of ethics as follows:  to accept responsibility in making decisions consistent with the safety, health and welfare of the public, and to disclose promptly factors that might endanger the public or the environment; We will make sure that our project takes into account all the safety measures possible. The safety system design for overheating cooking fluid will be tested thoroughly to make sure it would function as required.  to be honest and realistic in stating claims or estimates based on available data; We will thoroughly test our design before making any claims on its performance parameters. Performance will be supported by simulations, data and preliminary testing results.  to maintain and improve our technical competence and to undertake technological tasks for others only if qualified by training or experience, or after full disclosure of pertinent limitations; We have undertaken this project along with the Mechanical Engineering Team as we feel we are capable of designing a tracking system that would be useful to the entire project and would function as desired by the sponsor of this project.  to assist colleagues and co-workers in their professional development and to support them in following this code of ethics. We will work as a team to fulfill this project and would collectively solve problems, design issues and errors when faced.

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Cost Analysis
Parts Ordered
Part PIC 16F877A LD1117V33 LM7805 TIP107 TIP102 NE555 IRF540 2N2222 PS-182L R R R C C R C Description Microcontroller Voltage Regulator Voltage Regulator PNP Power Darlington Transistor NPN Power Darlington Transistor Timer Power MOSFET NPN Transistor Sealed Lead Acid Battery 560Ω metal film resistor 10kΩ metal film resistor 1kΩ metal film resistor 0.1µF Ceramic Capacitor 0.33µF Ceramic Capacitor Associated Resistors Associated Capacitors Total For Primary Control Device GPS Module Microcontroller/Charge Controller H-Bridge H-Bridge Charge Controller Charge Controller Charge Controller Power Storage H-Bridge H-Bridge Charge Controller/H-Bridge Charge Controller Charge Controller Various circuits Various circuits 0.87 0.69 0.95 0.89 0.62 30.00 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 10 2 2 10 5 1.84 1.38 0.95 0.89 0.62 30.00 0.05 0.15 0.50 0.10 0.10 0.50 0.15 $46.63 Price 4.95 1.95 1.25 Qty 1 1 2 Total 4.95 1.95 2.50

Parts Needed
Part
PS2501-4 SEN-00251 MAX6675 Venus 634FLPX SUN-30 STP-MTR-17048

Description
Quad Opto-coupler K-type Thermocouple Thermocouple to Digital Converter GPS Module Photovoltaic Module DC Steptter Motors 40 A SPDT Relay Total

For
H-Bridge Safety System Safety System Tracking System Power System Tracking System Charge Controller

Price Qty Total
2.25 13.95 11.95 39.95 77.70 20.00 3.00 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2.25 13.95 11.95 39.95 77.70 40.00 3.00 $188.81

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Labor:
Name Akshay Gupta Muhammad Shahid Khan Arjun Malhotra Rate $40/hr $40/hr $40/hr Hours 200 200 200 Total $8,000 $8,000 $8,000 Total Multiplier (x2.5) $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $60,000

Total Cost: 60,000 + 46.63 + 188.88 = $60,235.51

SCHEDULE:
Date (Week) 9/12 – 9/18 Task Finish Proposal Research GPS Module Research Solar Array Research Stepper Motor 9/19 – 9/25 Sign Up for Design Review Order Parts Power System Design Focusing Mechanism/Tracking System Design Test Charge Controller 9/26 – 10/2 Design Review Design Safety System Test H-Bridge Interface Thermocouple 10/3 -10/9 Finalize Design of Heliostat Interface GPS Analyze GPS Data Test PV modules and Power Generation Test Safety System 10/10 – 10/16 Integrate GPS into Control Debugging on demonstration scale heliostat 10/17-10/23 10/24 – 10/30 Debugging Prepare for Demo Individual Progress Reports Member Khan Khan Malhotra Gupta Malhotra Khan/Malhotra/Gupta Malhotra/Gupta Khan/Malhotra/Gupta Khan Khan/Malhotra/Gupta Khan/Gupta Gupta Malhotra MechE Team Khan Khan Gupta/Malhotra Khan/Malhotra Khan/Gupta/Malhotra Khan/Gupta/Malhotra/MechE Khan/Gupta/Malhotra Khan/Gupta/Malhotra Khan/Gupta/Malhotra

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10/31 – 11/6

Sign Up for Mock Presentation Mock Up Demo

Khan Khan/Gupta/Malhotra Khan/Gupta/Malhotra Malhotra

11/7 – 11/13 11/14- 11/20 11/21- 11/27 11/28 – 12/4 12/5 – 12/11

Mock Up Presentation Demo and Presentation Sign up Thanksgiving Demo Presentation Final Paper Due Lab Notebooks Due

Khan/Gupta/Malhotra Khan/Gupta/Malhotra Khan/Gupta/Malhotra Khan/Gupta/Malhotra

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