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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING 6979

(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July-December (2012), © IAEME RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (IJIERD)

ISSN 0976 – 6979 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6987 (Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July-December (2012), pp. 01-09 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijierd.html
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IJIERD
©IAEME

ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS IN DRY TURNING OPERATION OF MILD STEEL
RAHUL DAVIS 1* 1* Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, SSET, SHIATS, Allahabad -211007, Uttar Pradesh, India E-mail: rahuldavis2012@gmail.com MOHAMED ALAZHARI 2 2 Hai Alandolas, Main Street, Tripoli, Libya E-mail: tobzal@yahoo.com ABSTRACT In all the machining operations, surface finish is an essential characteristic of concern for many of the turned workpieces. So it is very important for getting the required surface quality controlled to have the choice of optimized cutting factors. In the present experimental work the optimization of cutting factors (depth of cut, feed rate, spindle speed) has been done in dry turning of mild steel of (0.21% C). In the present work, turning operations were carried out on mild steel by high speed steel cutting tool in dry condition and the combination of the optimal levels of the factors was obtained to get the lowest surface roughness. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Signal-to-Noise ratio were used to study the performance characteristics in turning operation. The results of the analysis show that depth of cut was the only factor found to be significant. Results obtained by Taguchi method match closely with ANOVA and depth of cut is most influencing parameter. The predicted values and measured values are fairly close, which depicts that the developed model can be effectively used to predict the surface roughness in the turning operation. Keywords: Mild steel, Dry turning, Surface Roughness, Taguchi Method 1. INTRODUCTION

Surface finish also known as surface texture, is the characteristics of a surface1 and is a quantity to actuate the machinability of various materials. Surface roughness greatly affects the performance of production expenses as well as the mechanical parts. Optimization of machining factors increases the utility for machining economics and the product quality is also increased to a great extent as well. Mild steel has a relatively low tensile strength, but it is cheap and malleable, surface hardness can be increased through carburizing. Carbon
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July-December (2012), © IAEME

content makes mild steel malleable and ductile, but it cannot be hardened by heat treatment2. Since Turning is the primary operation in most of the production process in the industry, surface finish of turned components has greater influence on the quality of the product3. Surface finish in turning has been found to be influenced in varying amounts by a number of factors such as feed rate, work hardness, unstable built up edge, speed, depth of cut, cutting time, use of cutting fluids etc4. There are three primary input control parameters in the basic turning operations. They are feed, spindle speed and depth of cut. Feed is the rate at which the tool advances along its cutting path. Speed always refers to the spindle and the work piece. Depth of cut is the thickness of the material that is removed by one pass of the cutting tool over the workpiece5. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS The proposed research work comprises of the usage of L27 Taguchi orthogonal design6 in order to study the effect of three different parameters (depth of cut, feed & spindle speed) on the surface roughness of the specimens of mild steel after turning operations were done 27 times in the Students Workshop in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shepherd School of Engineering and Technology, SHIATS, Allahabad (U.P.), India, followed by measurements of surface roughness around the part with the help of workpiece fixture and the measurements of surface roughness were taken across the lay, while the setup was a threejaw chuck in Sparko Engineering Workshop, Allahabad (U.P.) India. The total length of the workpiece (152.4 mm) was divided into 6 equal parts and the surface roughness measurements were taken of each 25.4 mm around each workpiece. The turning operations were performed by high speed steel cutting tool in dry cutting condition. In proposed work, mild steel with carbon (0.21%), manganese (0.64 %) was selected as the specimen material. The values of the input process parameters for the Turning Operation are as under: Table: 2.1 Details of the Turning Operation Factors Level 1 Depth of cut (mm) Feed Rate (mm/rev) Spindle Speed (rpm) 0.5 0.002 14.91

Level 2 1.0 0.011 25.12

Level 3 1.5 0.020 40.03

In the present experimental work, the assignment of factors was carried out using MINITAB-15 Software. The trial runs specified in L27 orthogonal array were conducted on Lathe Machine for turning operations.

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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July-December (2012), © IAEME

Table 2.2: Results of Experimental Trial Runs for Turning Operation Experiment No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Depth of Cut (mm) 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 Feed Rate (mm/rev) 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.011 0.011 0.011 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.011 0.011 0.011 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.011 0.011 0.011 0.020 0.020 0.020 Spindle Speed (rpm) 14.91 25.12 40.03 14.91 25.12 40.03 14.91 25.12 40.03 14.91 25.12 40.03 14.91 25.12 40.03 14.91 25.12 40.03 14.91 25.12 40.03 14.91 25.12 40.03 14.91 25.12 40.03 Surface Roughness (µm) 10.040 3.700 16.930 9.330 1.910 11.010 14.590 4.020 1.880 31.250 26.750 43.370 30.710 15.610 29.620 35.620 45.331 27.040 21.250 63.040 78.120 71.480 54.780 79.180 49.570 45.950 64.250 SN Ratio

-20.0347 -11.3640 -24.5731 -19.3976 -5.6207 -20.8357 -23.2811 -12.0845 -5.4832 -29.8970 -28.5465 -32.7438 -29.7456 -23.8681 -29.4317 -31.0339 -33.1279 -28.6401 -26.5472 -35.9923 -37.8552 -37.0837 -34.7724 -37.9723 -33.9044 -33.2457 -36.1575

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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July-December (2012), © IAEME

Table 2.3: ANOVA Table for Means Parameter Depth of Cut Feed Spindle Speed Depth of Cut * Feed Rate Depth of Cut * Spindle Speed Feed Rate* Spindle Speed Error Total DF 2 2 2 4 4 4 8 26 SS 11478.63 13.30 530.88 635.55 730.54 876.54 781.24 15046.69 MS 5739.32 6.65 265.44 158.89 182.64 219.14 97.65 F 58.77 0.07 2.72 1.63 1.87 2.24 P 0.000 0.935 0.126 0.258 0.209 0.154

Table 2.4: ANOVA Table for Signal-to-Noise Ratios for the Response Data Parameter Depth of Cut Feed Spindle Speed Depth of Cut * Feed Rate Depth of Cut * Spindle Speed Feed Rate* Spindle Speed Error Total DF 2 2 2 4 4 4 8 26 SS 1734.04 7.16 84.48 66.20 150.67 167.35 115.37 2325.28 MS 867.02 3.58 42.24 16.55 37.67 41.84 14.42 F 60.12 0.25 2.93 1.15 2.61 2.90 P 0.000 0.786 0.111 0.401 0.115 0.093

Table 2.5: Response Table for Average Surface Roughness Level 1 2 3 Delta (∆max-min) Rank Depth of Cut (A) 8.157 31.700 58.624 50.468 1 Feed Rate (B) 32.717 33.737 32.028 1.709 3 Spindle Speed (C) 30.427 29.010 39.044 10.034 2

From Table 2.5, Optimal Parameters for Turning Operation were A1, B3 and C2. Table 2.5 shows the SN Ratio (SNR) of the surface roughness for each level of the factors. The difference of SNR between level 1 and 3 indicates that Depth of Cut contributes the highest effect (∆max-min = 50.468) on the surface roughness followed by Feed Rate (∆max-min = 1.709) and Spindle Speed (∆max-min = 10.034). Therefore the Predicted optimum value of Surface Roughness βp (Surface Roughness) = 32.82 + [8.157-32.82) ]+ [32.028-32.82)] + [29.010-32.82)] = 3.555

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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July-December (2012), © IAEME

Table 2.6: Response Table for Signal-to-Noise ratio of Surface Roughness Depth of Cut Feed Spindle Speed Level (A) (B) (C) -27.51 -27.88 1 -15.85 -29.67 -26.53 2 -24.29 -34.84 -28.19 3 -26.33 18.98 1.18 3.90 Delta (∆max-min) 1 3 2 Rank From Table 2.6, Optimal Parameters for Turning Operation were A1, B3 and C2. Table 2.6 shows the SNR of the surface roughness for each level of the factors. The difference of SNR between level 1 and 3 indicates that Depth of Cut contributes the highest effect (∆max-min = 18.98) on the surface roughness followed by Feed Rate (∆max-min = 1.18) and Spindle Speed (∆max-min = 3.90). Therefore the Predicted optimum value of SN Ratio for Turning Operation. ηp (Surface Roughness) = -26.78 + [-15.85-(-26.78)] + [-26.33-(-26.78)] + [-24.29-(-26.78)] = -12.91 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Comparing the F values of ANOVA Table 2.3 and 2.4 of Surface Roughness with the suitable F values of the Factors (F0.05;2;8 = 4.46) and their Interactions (F0.05;4;8 = 3.84) respectively for 95% confidence level respectively show that the Depth of Cut (F = 58.77 and F = 60.12) and was the only significant factor and other two factors Feed (F = 0.07 and F = 0.25) and Spindle Speed (F = 2.72 and F =2.93) are the factors found to be insignificant.
Main Effects Plot for Means
Data Means
Depth of Cut (mm) 60 40 Feed Rate (mm/rev)

Mean of Means

20

0.5 60 40 20

1.0 Spindle Speed (rpm)

1.5

0.002

0.011

0.020

14.91

25.12

40.03

Figure 3.1: Main Effects Plot for Means Main Effects Plot for Means: Fig 3.1 and Fig 3.5 show the effect of the each level of the three factors on surface roughness for the mean values of measured surface roughness at each level for all the 27 trial runs.
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July-December (2012), © IAEME

Interaction Plots: From Table 2.3 and Table 2.4 respectively the interactions between Depth of Cut and Feed (F = 1.63 and F = 1.15), between Depth of Cut and Spindle Speed (F = 1.87 and F = 2.61) and between Feed and Spindle Speed (F = 2.24 and F = 2.90) are found to be insignificant.
Interaction Plot for Means
Data Means 70 60 50 Means 40 30 20 10 0 0.5 1.0 Depth of Cut (mm) 1.5
F eed Rate (mm/rev ) 0.002 0.011 0.020

Figure 3.2: An Interaction Plot of Depth of Cut & Feed Rate
Inter action Plot for Means
Data Means 80 70 60 50 Means 40 30 20 10 0 0.5 1.0 Dept h of Cut (mm) 1.5
S p in d le S p eed (r pm) 14.91 25.12 40.03

Figure 3.3: An Interaction Plot of Depth of Cut & Spindle Speed
Interaction Plot for Means
Data Means 45
S pin d le S peed (rp m) 14.91 25.12 40.03

40

Means

35

30

25

20 0.002 0.011 Feed Rate (mm/rev) 0.020

Figure 3.4: An Interaction Plot for Feed Rate & Spindle Speed
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July-December (2012), © IAEME

Main Effects Plot for SN ratios
Data Means
-15 -20 -25 Depth of Cut (mm) Feed Rate (mm/rev)

Mean of SN ratios

-30 -35 0.5 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 14.91 25.12 40.03 1.0 Spindle Speed (rpm) 1.5 0.002 0.011 0.020

Signal-to-noise: Smaller is better

Figure 3.5: Main Effects Plot for SN ratio
Interaction Plot for SN ratios
Data Means -15 -20 SN ratios -25 -30 -35 -40 0.5 1.0 Depth of Cut (mm) 1.5
F eed Rate (mm/rev ) 0.002 0.011 0.020

Signal-to-noise: Smaller is better

Figure 3.6: An Interaction Depth of Cut and Feed Rate

Interaction Plot for SN ratios
Data Means -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 0.5 Signal-to-noise: Smaller is better 1.0 Depth of Cut (mm) 1.5
Spindle Speed (rpm) 14.91 25.12 40.03

Figure 3.7: An Interaction Plot of Depth of Cut and Spindle Speed

SN ratios

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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July-December (2012), © IAEME

Interaction Plot for SN ratios
Data Means -20 -22 -24 SN ratios -26 -28 -30 -32 0.002 0.011 Feed Rate (mm/rev) 0.020
Spindle Speed (rpm) 14.91 25.12 40.03

Signal-to-noise: Smaller is better

Figure 3.8: An Interaction Plot of Feed Rate and Spindle Speed From Table 2.5, Table 2.6 and Fig 3.1 and Fig 3.5 optimal levels of the parameters for minimum Surface Roughness are first level of Depth of Cut (A1) i.e 0.5 mm, third level of Feed (B3) i.e 0.020 and first level of Spindle Speed i.e 25.12 rpm (C2). So the combination of the factors found in 8th trial in Table 2.2 gives the optimum result. Table 3.1: Results of the Confirmation Tests of the optimal levels of the factors Specimen Trial Run 8 8 Depth of Cut (mm) 0.5 0.5 Feed Rate (mm-rev) 3 3 Spindle Speed (rpm) 14.03 14.03 Surface Roughness (µm) 3.561 3.534

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SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Optimization of the surface roughness was done using taguchi method and predictive equation was obtained. A confirmation test was then performed which depicted that the selected parameters and predictive equation were accurate to within the limits of the measurement instrument. • The obtained results can be recommended to get the lowest surface roughness for further research works.In this research work, the material used is mild steel with 0.21% carbon content. The experimentation can also be done for other materials having more hardness to see the effect of parameters on Surface Roughness. • Interactions of the different levels of the factors can be avoided to see the effect.
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July-December (2012), © IAEME 5. Raghuwanshi, B. S. (2009). A course in Workshop Technology Vol.II (Machine Tools), Dhanpat Rai & Company Pvt. Ltd. 6. Ross, Philip J. (2005). Taguchi Techniques for Quality Engineering, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd. 7. Suhail, Adeel H. et al (2010). Optimization of Cutting Parameters Based on Surface Roughness and Assistance of Workpiece Surface Temperature in Turning Process, American J. of Engineering and Applied Sciences 3 (1): 102-108. 8. Van Luttervelt, C. A. et al (1998). Present situation and future trends in modelling of machining operations, CIRP Ann. 9. Kirby, Daniel (2010). Optimizing the Turning Process toward an Ideal Surface Roughness Target. 10. Selvaraj, D. Philip et al (2010). optimization of surface roughness of aisi 304 austenitic stainless steel in dry turning operation using Taguchi design method Journal of Engineering Science and Technology,Vol. 5, no. 3 293 – 301, © school of engineering, Taylor’s university college. 11. Kirby, E. Daniel (2006). Optimizing surface finish in a turning operation using the Taguchi parameter design method Int J Adv Manuf Technol: 1021–1029. 12. Tzou, Guey-Jiuh and Chen Ding-Yeng (2006). Application of Taguchi method in the optimization of cutting parameters for turning operations. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lunghwa University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, (R.O.C.). 13. Singh, Hari (2008). Optimizing Tool Life of Carbide Inserts for Turned Parts using Taguchi’s design of Experiments Approach, Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists Vol II IMECS 2008, 19-21 March, Hong Kong. 14. Hasegawa. M, et al (1976). Surface roughness model for turning, Tribology International December 285-289. 15. Kandananond, Karin (2009). Characterization of FDB Sleeve Surface Roughness Using the Taguchi Approach, European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.33 No.2 , pp.330337 © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 16. Phadke, Madhav. S. (1989). Quality Engineering using Robust Design. Prentice Hall, Eaglewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 17. Aruna, M. (2010). Wear Analysis of Ceramic Cutting Tools in Finish Turning of Inconel 718. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(9), 2010, 4253-4262. 18. Arbizu, Puertas. I. and Luis Prez, C.J. (2003). Surface roughness prediction by factorial design of experiments in turning processes, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 143- 144 390-396 19. Palanikumar, K. et al (2006). Assessment of factors influencing surface roughness on the machining of glass –reinforced polymer composites, Journal of Materials and Design. 20. Sundaram, R.M., and Lambert, B.K. (1981). Mathematical models to predict surface finish in fine turning of steel, Part II, International Journal of Production Research. 21. Thamizhmanii, S., et al (2006). Analyses of roughness, forces and wear in turning gray cast iron, Journal of achievement in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, 17. 22. Thamizhmanii, S., et al (2006). Analyses of surface roughness by turning process using Taguchi method, journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering. Received 03.11.2006; accepted in revised form 15.11.2006. 23. Yang, W.H. and Y.S. Tarng (1998), Design optimization of cutting parameters for turning operations based on the Taguchi method. Journal of Materials Processing Technology.

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