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International Journal of of Industrial Engineering Research International JournalIndustrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), 6979(Print), ISSN

0976 and Development – 6987(Online)ISSN 0976 –1,6979(Print) (2011), © IAEME (IJIERD), Volume 2, Issue May - October ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2 ©IA Issue 1, May – October (2011), pp. 69-79 © IAEME, http://www.iaeme.com/ijierd.html

IJIERD

ISSN 0976 –

EME

A GENETIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH FOR THE PREDICTION OF THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CERAMIC COATINGS
Prof. Mohammed Yunus1, Dr. J. Fazlur Rahman2 and S.Ferozkhan3 1. Research scholar, Anna University of Technology Coimbatore Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India yunus.mohammed@rediffmail.com 2. Supervisor, Anna University of Technology Coimbatore Professor Emeritus, Department of MechanicalEngineering H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India jfazlu2003@yahoo.co.in 3. Lecturer, Department of Mechanical Engineering, H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India feroz_deen@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT In aerospace industry, the durability and efficiency of high temperature components are improved by the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBC). In order to characterize the TBC, it requires a better understanding of mechanical and tribological properties along with their failure mechanisms which are to be thoroughly investigated to estimate their performance. At high temperature applications, Thermal barrier (TB) and thermal cycling resistance (TCR) parameters play a very important role. In this regard, Thermal tests were carried out on three different types of commonly used industrial ceramic coatings namely, Alumina (A), Alumina-Titania (AT)) and partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ), in the present study. Genetic programming (GP) has proved to be a highly versatile and useful tool for identifying relationships in data for which a more precise theoretical construct is unavailable. This technical paper highlights how we use GP technique in the prediction of maximum thermal barrier (temperature) and thermal cycling resistance (failure) of various ceramic coatings, for different variables, which are used at high temperatures. Commercial Genetic
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Programming (GP) software-Discipulus is used to derive a mathematical modelling of relations for various input and output parameters used in characterisation. A special genetic approach for the modelling of thermal properties in coated components is proposed on the basis of a training data set. Various different genetic models for prediction of different thermal properties with greater accuracy (less than 1%) were also proposed by simulated evolution. Keywords: TBC – Thermal properties - Thermal tests – Thermal Barrier – Thermal cycling resistance – Genetic Programming – Evolutionary Algorithm – GP software Discipulus. 1.1 INTRODUCTION Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) which are ceramic coatings applied on metal substrate have vast applications in aerospace, gas turbine engines, diesel engines and power generators. A TBC protects a metal substrate from high temperature as well as excessive wear and corrosion. TBC has very low thermal conductivity, which insulates the underlying substrate material from high temperature environment. In the case of aerospace and gas turbine application, the thickness of TBC generally varies 100 to 400 microns [1]. At this thickness range, the temperature of insulated super alloy substrate can be reduced up to 2000C enabling that gas turbine engines to function at higher temperature. The characteristic of TBC originates from porosity, micro cracks and toughness of ceramic coatings. Ceramic coatings have applications primarily as wear coatings and thermal barrier coatings. TBCs are usually consisting of two layers; the first layer is a metallic bond coat, whose function is to protect the substrate material against oxidation, corrosion and to provide with a good adhesion to the thermal insulating ceramic layer while the second layer is of ceramic material which acts as TBC. The desirable properties of these include high thermal expansion, low thermal conductivity and good thermal cycling resistance [1]-[8]. 1.2 GENETIC PROGRAMMING (GP) Genetic Programming is a form of machine learning that automatically writes computer programs. It uses the principle of Darwinian Natural [12] Selection to select and reproduce “fitter” programs. GP applies that principle to a population of computer programs and evolves a program that predicts the target output from a data file of inputs and outputs [9-12]. The programs evolved by GP software – Discipulus [13], in this case Java, C/C++ and assembly interpreter programs represents a mapping of input to output data. This is done by Machine Learning that maps a set of input data to known output data. The aims of using the machine learning technique on engineering problems are to determine data mining and knowledge discovery. GP provides a significant benefit in many areas of science and industry[14]. The Discipulus
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

GP [13] system uses AIM Learning Technology. “AIM” stands for “Automatic Induction of Machine Code”. AIM Learning and Discipulus deal with the machine learning speed problem. This speed allows the analyst to able to make many more runs to investigate relationships between data and output, assess information content of data streams, uncover bad data or outliers, assess time lag relationships between inputs and outputs, and the like. The evolved models have been or are being used to develop process prediction or control algorithms. Hence GP technology has been selected for the present work. GP solutions are computer programs that can be easily inspected, documented, evaluated, and tested. The GP solutions are easy to understand the nature of the derived relationship between input and output data and to examine the uncover relationships that were unknown before. Genetic Programming evolves both the structure and the constants to the solution simultaneously. Discipulus GP strongly discriminates between relevant input data and inputs that have no bearing on a solution [13]. In other words, Discipulus performs input variable selection as a by-product of its learning algorithm. The following step by step procedure will be implemented for a steady state GP algorithm [9-13],[14] 1. Initialization of population: Generate an initial population of random compositions of the functions and terminals of the problem (computer programs). 2. Fitness evaluation: Execute each program in the population, randomly it selects some programs and assign it a fitness value according to how well it solves the problem by mapping input data to output data. Some programs are selected as winners (best programs), and the others as losers. 3. Create a new population of computer programs by exchanging parts of the “best” programs with each other (called crossover). 4. Copy the best existing programs. 5. Create new computer programs by randomly changing each of the tournament winners to create two new programs mutation. 6. Iterate Until Convergence. Repeat steps two through four until a program is developed that predicts the behavior sufficiently. GP has been successfully used to solve problems in a wide range of broad categories [15-24]: 1. Systems Modelling, Curve Fitting, Data Modelling, and Symbolic Regression 2. Industrial Process Control 3. Financial Trading, Time Series Prediction and Economic Modelling 4. Optimisation and scheduling 5. Medicine, Biology and Bioinformatics 6. Design 7. Image and Signal processing 8. Entertainment and Computer games
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Three different commercially available ceramic coatings powders namely, Alumina, Alumina-Titania, Partially Stabilized Zirconia of two different thicknesses namely 100 to 250 microns were used for the preparation of coatings. A 40 KW Sulzer,[1]and [8] Metco plasma spray system with 7MB gun is used for this purpose. Mild steel plates of 50x50x6 mm were used as substrate to spray the ceramic oxides. They were grit blasted, degreased and spray coated with a 50 to 100 microns NiCrAl bond coat[. The ceramic TBC were then plasma sprayed according to spray parameters mentioned in table1. In this study, two response parameters such as thermal barrier and thermal cycling tests were considered. 2.1 THERMAL BARRIER TEST Thermal barrier tests were conducted by measuring the temperature of metal substrate using thermocouples, after heating the coating surface with electric heaters, between 7000C and 10000C for a period of half an hour to attain steady state, to get temperature drop across the substrate and ceramic coating. The heat transfer coefficient on the surface of coated plate is very important parameter in the selection of TBC [2]-[6]. This parameter is studied for different heat inputs under natural and forced convection. An electric heater connected with ammeter, voltmeter and a dimmerstat to control the heat input was used in the experimental setup to heat the substrate with coated surface. Two thermocouples of K-type namely chrome-alumel were used to measure the temperature at the substrate surface and as well as on the top of the coating for a given heat input. The temperature on the ceramic coated surface and metal surface is measured for three different coatings namely, Alumina (A), Alumina-Titania (AT) and Partially Stabilized zirconia (PSZ) and the heat transfer coefficients by natural and forced convection on the surface of the coated plate were calculated. In the case of forced convection, a blower was used to blow the air along the coated plate for different air velocities flowing parallel to the surface of the coatings, on three different coatings, heat inputs and the temperatures were measured using thermocouple. 2.2 THERMAL CYCLING TEST (TCT) Thermal cycling test is performed to determine the resistance of coated part for sudden changes in temperature [7] and to examine whether the sprayed coating can withstand severity of thermal cycling. The three different ceramic coatings with different thicknesses were subjected to thermal cycling by exposing to oxyacetylene flame till the coated surface is maintained around 10000C for about 1minute and subsequently cooled down by air till the temperature reaches down to around 1000C in the atmospheric conditions for 1 minute. The thermal cycling process is repeated until coating fails and peels off from the substrate.
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

3. GENETIC PROGRAMMING METHODOLOGY In Genetic programming modelling, it is necessary to select suitable terminal from set F and available terminal genes from set f (0)[15-24]. From these, the evolutionary process will try to build as fit an organism (i.e. mathematical model) as possible for thermal characteristics prediction. The organisms consist of both terminal and function genes and have the nature of computer programs which differ in form and size. In our case the set of terminal genes f (0) is: f (0) = {Process inputs}. The selected set of function genes F is: F = {+, -, *, /}, where +,-,*, / are the mathematical operation of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The quality of the individual organism (i.e. prediction) is found out using fitness function. In our case, four different functions are used. 3.1 Process Inputs Ambient Temperature (0C), Temperature on coating side (0C), Temperature on substrate side (0C), Power (W), Velocity of air (m/sec) Toughness (MPa √m) Thermal conductivity (W/m K) Thermal Diffusivity (x 10-7m2/sec) 3.2 Measured Process Outputs Heat transfer coefficient under Natural convection (W/m2 0K) Heat transfer coefficient under Forced convection (W/m2 0K) Thickness of coating against thermal Barrier (0C) Thermal cycling Resistance (number of cycles withstood)
Table1. Experimental results of Thermal Cycling Resistance Test for different coatings
Sl.No. Thickness of coating in µm (V0) 150 225 300 150 225 300 150 225 300 number of cycles for Alumina-Titania (AT) (f0) Temperature of heating (V4) 700 700 700 850 850 850 1000 1000 1000 Number of cycles for Alumina (A) (f0) 280 290 310 260 270 280 250 260 270 number of cycles for Partial stabilised zirconia(PSZ) (f0) 405 425 445 390 410 425 360 380 400

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

345 360 375 330 345 360 320 330 340

Table 2. Experimental Results of evaluating thickness to withstand Thermal barrier for different coatings
S.No. Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V0) 700 800 900 Thickness of coating in µm(f0) 150 150 150 Temperature difference in 0C for Alumina (V2) 120 125 125 Temperature difference in 0C for Alumina- Titania (V2) 160 165 160 Temperature difference in 0C for PSZ (V2) 190 180 190

1 2 3

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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME
4 5 6 7 8 1000 700 800 900 1000 150 300 300 300 300 120 135 145 140 145 160 170 175 170 175 180 210 215 210 215

Table3. Experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of natural convection for different coatings
Sl.No. Power in W (V0) 5 5.5 6 6.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V1) 69 75 85 94 106 115 174 183 Ambient Temperature in 0 C (V2) 35 40 45 55 85 100 130 164 Thickness of coating in µm (V3) 150 150 150 150 300 300 300 300 H in W/m2K for Alumina (f0) 3.9 4.14 3.95 4.26 3.44 3.44 3.8 3.66 H in W/m2K for AluminaTitania (f0) 3.48 3.65 3.65 3.75 3.25 3.2 3.2 3.4 H in W/m2K for PSZ(f0) 3.29 3.31 3.39 3.23 3.03 3.05 3 3.15

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Table 4. Experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of forced convection for different coatings
.S.N0. Power in W (V3) 5.5 6.5 6 6.5 5 6 6 6.5 5.5 6 5 5 5.5 6 5.5 6.5 6.5 5.5 5 5 6.5 5 6 5.5 6.5 6 5.5 5 6.5 6 5.5 5 Velocity of air in m/sec (V1) 1.401 1.253 1.401 1.085 0.8858 1.085 1.085 1.253 1.253 1.253 1.085 1.253 1.253 1.401 1.401 1.085 0.8858 0.8858 1.253 1.401 0.8858 1.401 1.253 1.085 1.401 0.8858 0.8858 0.8858 1.401 0.8858 1.085 1.085 Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V0) 35 80 70 90 78 85 105 69 40 75 75 56 56 88 46 72 120 65 60 50 88 65 90 48 70 115 55 65 65 90 58 60 Ambient Temperature in 0 C (V7) 30 65 65 70 65 80 60 48 35 70 60 50 50 40 40 52 90 60 55 45 57 50 50 45 50 70 50 60 42 85 55 55 Thickness of coating in µm (V4) 300 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 150 300 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 150 150 150 300 H in W/m2K for Alumina (f0) 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 H in W/m2K for AluminaTitania (f0) 12.75 12.8 13.8 11.84 8.8 11.43 11 13.2 12.05 12.84 9.5 10.75 12.6 13 13.1 12.64 10.72 10.6 11.21 11.64 11.24 12.86 12.45 11.35 13.85 10.25 10 8.4 14.64 10.64 11.64 9 H in W/m2K for PSZ (f0) 8.56 9.3 10.4 11.4 8.05 8.8 10.05 11.05 8.89 9.56 10.85 11.8 8.4 9 10.5 11.5 8.94 10.42 11.9 12.6 8.8 10 11.64 12 9 10.56 11.64 12.89 9.6 10 11.21 12.64

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

4. GENETIC MODELS – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The best accuracy (∆ (i) = 0.175 %, and that of the testing data ∆ (i) = 0. 18%) of the GP model was obtained when the genes function set used and the Output of the discipulus GP is in C program. The C program for the heat transfer coefficient in natural convection as given below:
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

{{ f[0]=f[1]=f[2]=f[3]=f[4]=f[5]=f[6]=f[7]=0; L0: f[0]-=v[7]; L1: f[0]/=v[4]; L2:f[0]+=1.501374244689941f; L3:f[0]*=f[0]; L4: f[0]*=f[0]; L5: f[0]-=1.987620830535889f; L6:f[0]*=v[0]; L7:f[0]*=v[2]; L8:f[0]*=v[5]; L9: f[0]/=v[7]; L10: f[0]/=v[1]; L11: f[0]-=v[6]; L12:f[0]/=v[3]; L13: f[0]-=v[2]; L14: f[0]+=v[1]; L15: f[0]*=0.03275442123413086f; L16:f[0]/=-0.494312047958374f; L17:f[0]+=-1.549970149993897f; L18:f[0]/=v[5]; L19: f[0]+=v[1]; L20: f[0]+=f[0]; L21: f[0]+=f[0]; L22: f[0]+=v[3]; L23:f[0]+=v[1]; L24: f[0]+=v[1]; L25: }} Upon simplification, in case of natural convection, the heat transfer coefficient, h is given by,

Where V4 = Thermal Conductivity, V5= thermal diffusivity and V6=Toughness and Using GP simulation, in case of forced convection, the heat transfer coefficient, h is given by

Where V5 = Thermal Conductivity, V2= thermal diffusivity and V6=Toughness and

Using GP simulation, in case of natural convection, the number of cycles withstood (or thermal cycling resistance), TCR is given by h Where V3 = Thermal Conductivity, V1= thermal diffusivity and V2=Toughness

Using GP simulation, in case of natural convection, the thickness of coating against the thermal barrier ,t is given by
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Where V1 = Thermal Conductivity

and The results for thickness of coating against thermal barrier property simulation are shown in figure 1 and heat transfer coefficient simulation for natural and forced convection are shown in figure 2 and figure 3 and the Thermal cycling resistance are presented in figure 4. The Discipulus GP technique was able to simulate these output variables to within an average of 1.3% of their measured value, with no value exceeding a 0.01% deviation except in case of thickness deviation which is up to 3%.

Figure 1. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of thickness of coating against Thermal Barrier

Figure 2. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Heat Transfer coefficient Data under Natural convection

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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Figure3. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Heat Transfer coefficient Data under Forced convection

Figure 4. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Thermal Cycling Resistance Data.

5. CONCLUSIONS Genetic programming (GP) has proved to be a highly versatile and useful tool for identifying relationships in data for which a more precise theoretical construct is unavailable. The experimental data in this research were in fact the environment to which the population of models had to be adapted as much as possible. The models presented are a result of the self-organization and stochastic processes taking place during simulated evolution. Only four genetically developed models out of many successful solutions are presented here. The accuracies of solutions obtained by GP depend on applied evolutionary parameters and also on the number of measurements and the accuracy of measurement. In general, more measurements supply more information to evolution which improves the structures of models. In this paper, the genetic programming was used for predicting the thermal properties responsible for failure of ceramic coatings. In the proposed concept the mathematical models for verifying the experimental results of thermal characteristics are subject to adaptation. Its reliability is 99.26% in the first three cases and whereas it is 97% in fourth case. In the testing phase, the genetically produced model gives the same result as actually found out during the experiment, thereby with the reliability of cent percent. It is inferred from our research findings that the genetic programming approach could be well
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

used for the prediction thermal characteristics of ceramic coatings without conducting the experiments. This helps to establish efficient planning and optimizing of process for the quality production of ceramic coatings depending upon the functional requirements. Further work is on progress for the prediction/optimization of mechanical and tribological characteristics of ceramic coatings in addition to machinability of industrial ceramic coatings. REFERENCES [1] Dr. J. Fazlur Rahman et. al. and Mohammed Yunus et. al. (2009) , “Benefits of TBC Coatings on Engine applications”, Proceedings of International conference, INCAM 2009 at Kalsalingam University, Tamil Nadu, India. [2] Nusair Khan(2000), “Behaviour of air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings, Subjected to intense thermal cycling”, LASMIS, BP 2060, 12 Rue de Marie curie, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, France. [3] W.F. Calosso and A.R. Nicoll, (1987), Process requirements for plasma sprayed coatings for internal combustion engine components, Energy Sources Technology Conference and Exhibition, (Dallas, TX) 15-20 February, 87-ICE15, ASME, pp. 1-8. [4] Stragman T.E. (1985), Thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoils the Plasma Spray Process, J. Thin Solid Films, 127, pp. 93-105. [5] Dongming Zhu and Robert A. Miller (1998), “Thermal-Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine Engines”. [6] Nitin P. Padture, Maurice Gell, Eric H. Jordan (1998), Thermal Barrier Coatings for gas Turbine Engine Applications, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Material Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT06269-3136, USA. [7] P.Ramaswamy, S. Seetharamu, K. J. Rao, and K. B. R. Varma,(1998) “Thermal shock characteristics of plasma sprayed mullite coatings Technology”, J.Thermal spray Volume 7, Number 4, pp. 497-504(8). [8] Dr.J.Fazlur Rahman and Mohammed Yunus (2008), “Mechanical and Tribological characteristics of Tungsten Carbide Cobalt HVOF coatings”, Proceedings of International conference on MEMS held at Anjuman college of Engineering, Bhatkal, India. [9] Nordin, J.P. and Banzhaf, W. (1996) Controlling an Autonomous Robot with Genetic Programming.In: Proceedings of 1996 AAAI fall symposium on Genetic Programming, Cambridge, USA. [10] Koza, J.R., (1992) Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Natural Selection.MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. [11] J. R. Koza, Genetic programming II, The MIT Press, Massachusetts, 1994. [12] Koza, Bennett, Andre, & Keane, (1999) GENETIC PROGRAMMING III – Darwinian Invention and Problem Solving, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc. pp. 1154.
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

[13] Francone, F., (1998-2000) Discipulus Owner’s Manual and Discipulus Tutorials, Register Machine Learning Technologies, Inc. [14] Spector, L., Langdon, W., B., O’Reilly, U., Angeline, P.J. (1999) Advances in Genetic Programming –Volume 3, MIT Press, pp. 476 [15] Tanguy, B. Besson J., Piques R., Pineau A. (2005), Ductile to brittle transition of an A508 steel characterized by Charpy impact test – Part 1: experimental results, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 72, pp.49 - 72. [16] M. Kovacic, J. Balic and M. Brezocnik, Evolutionary approach for cutting forces prediction in milling, Journal of materials processing technology, 155/156, 2004, pp.1647-1652. [17] H. Kurtaran, B. Ozcelik and T. Erzurumlu, Warpage optimization of a bus ceiling lamp base using neural network model and genetic algorithm, Journal of materials processing technology, 169(2), 2005, pp.314-319. [18] Sette S., Boullart L. Genetic programming: principles and applications, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 14 (2001), pp.727 – 736. [19] Pierreval H., Caux C., Paris J.L., Viguier F. Evolutionary approaches to the design and organization of manufacturing system, Computers & Industrial Engineering 44 (2003), pp.339-364. [20] Gusel L., Brezocnik M. Modeling of impact toughness of cold formed material by genetic programming, Comp. Mat. Sc. 37 (2006), pp.476 – 482. [21] Chang Y.S., Kwang S.P., Kim B.Y. Nonlinear model for ECG R-R interval variation using genetic programming approach, Future Generation Computer Systems 21, pp.1117-1123. [22] Brezocnik M., Gusel L. (2004), Predicting stress distribution in coldformed material with genetic programming, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol 23, pp.467-474. [23] M. Brezocnik, M. Kovacic and M. Ficko (2004), Prediction of surface roughness with genetic programming, Journal of materials processing technology, 157/158, 28-36. [24] M. Brezocnik and M. Kovacic (2003), Integrated genetic programming and genetic algorithm approach to predict surface roughness, Materials and manufacturing processes,18(4), pp.475–491.

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International Journal of of Industrial Engineering Research International JournalIndustrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 and Development – 6987(Online)ISSN 0976 –1,6979(Print) (2011), © IAEME (IJIERD), Volume 2, Issue May - October ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2 ©IA Issue 1, May – October (2011), pp. 69-79 © IAEME, http://www.iaeme.com/ijierd.html

IJIERD

ISSN 0976 –

EME

A GENETIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH FOR THE PREDICTION OF THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CERAMIC COATINGS
Prof. Mohammed Yunus1, Dr. J. Fazlur Rahman2 and S.Ferozkhan3 1. Research scholar, Anna University of Technology Coimbatore Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India yunus.mohammed@rediffmail.com 2. Supervisor, Anna University of Technology Coimbatore Professor Emeritus, Department of MechanicalEngineering H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India jfazlu2003@yahoo.co.in 3. Lecturer, Department of Mechanical Engineering, H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India feroz_deen@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT In aerospace industry, the durability and efficiency of high temperature components are improved by the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBC). In order to characterize the TBC, it requires a better understanding of mechanical and tribological properties along with their failure mechanisms which are to be thoroughly investigated to estimate their performance. At high temperature applications, Thermal barrier (TB) and thermal cycling resistance (TCR) parameters play a very important role. In this regard, Thermal tests were carried out on three different types of commonly used industrial ceramic coatings namely, Alumina (A), Alumina-Titania (AT)) and partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ), in the present study. Genetic programming (GP) has proved to be a highly versatile and useful tool for identifying relationships in data for which a more precise theoretical construct is unavailable. This technical paper highlights how we use GP technique in the prediction of maximum thermal barrier (temperature) and thermal cycling resistance (failure) of various ceramic coatings, for different variables, which are used at high temperatures. Commercial Genetic
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Programming (GP) software-Discipulus is used to derive a mathematical modelling of relations for various input and output parameters used in characterisation. A special genetic approach for the modelling of thermal properties in coated components is proposed on the basis of a training data set. Various different genetic models for prediction of different thermal properties with greater accuracy (less than 1%) were also proposed by simulated evolution. Keywords: TBC – Thermal properties - Thermal tests – Thermal Barrier – Thermal cycling resistance – Genetic Programming – Evolutionary Algorithm – GP software Discipulus. 1.1 INTRODUCTION Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) which are ceramic coatings applied on metal substrate have vast applications in aerospace, gas turbine engines, diesel engines and power generators. A TBC protects a metal substrate from high temperature as well as excessive wear and corrosion. TBC has very low thermal conductivity, which insulates the underlying substrate material from high temperature environment. In the case of aerospace and gas turbine application, the thickness of TBC generally varies 100 to 400 microns [1]. At this thickness range, the temperature of insulated super alloy substrate can be reduced up to 2000C enabling that gas turbine engines to function at higher temperature. The characteristic of TBC originates from porosity, micro cracks and toughness of ceramic coatings. Ceramic coatings have applications primarily as wear coatings and thermal barrier coatings. TBCs are usually consisting of two layers; the first layer is a metallic bond coat, whose function is to protect the substrate material against oxidation, corrosion and to provide with a good adhesion to the thermal insulating ceramic layer while the second layer is of ceramic material which acts as TBC. The desirable properties of these include high thermal expansion, low thermal conductivity and good thermal cycling resistance [1]-[8]. 1.2 GENETIC PROGRAMMING (GP) Genetic Programming is a form of machine learning that automatically writes computer programs. It uses the principle of Darwinian Natural [12] Selection to select and reproduce “fitter” programs. GP applies that principle to a population of computer programs and evolves a program that predicts the target output from a data file of inputs and outputs [9-12]. The programs evolved by GP software – Discipulus [13], in this case Java, C/C++ and assembly interpreter programs represents a mapping of input to output data. This is done by Machine Learning that maps a set of input data to known output data. The aims of using the machine learning technique on engineering problems are to determine data mining and knowledge discovery. GP provides a significant benefit in many areas of science and industry[14]. The Discipulus
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

GP [13] system uses AIM Learning Technology. “AIM” stands for “Automatic Induction of Machine Code”. AIM Learning and Discipulus deal with the machine learning speed problem. This speed allows the analyst to able to make many more runs to investigate relationships between data and output, assess information content of data streams, uncover bad data or outliers, assess time lag relationships between inputs and outputs, and the like. The evolved models have been or are being used to develop process prediction or control algorithms. Hence GP technology has been selected for the present work. GP solutions are computer programs that can be easily inspected, documented, evaluated, and tested. The GP solutions are easy to understand the nature of the derived relationship between input and output data and to examine the uncover relationships that were unknown before. Genetic Programming evolves both the structure and the constants to the solution simultaneously. Discipulus GP strongly discriminates between relevant input data and inputs that have no bearing on a solution [13]. In other words, Discipulus performs input variable selection as a by-product of its learning algorithm. The following step by step procedure will be implemented for a steady state GP algorithm [9-13],[14] 1. Initialization of population: Generate an initial population of random compositions of the functions and terminals of the problem (computer programs). 2. Fitness evaluation: Execute each program in the population, randomly it selects some programs and assign it a fitness value according to how well it solves the problem by mapping input data to output data. Some programs are selected as winners (best programs), and the others as losers. 3. Create a new population of computer programs by exchanging parts of the “best” programs with each other (called crossover). 4. Copy the best existing programs. 5. Create new computer programs by randomly changing each of the tournament winners to create two new programs mutation. 6. Iterate Until Convergence. Repeat steps two through four until a program is developed that predicts the behavior sufficiently. GP has been successfully used to solve problems in a wide range of broad categories [15-24]: 1. Systems Modelling, Curve Fitting, Data Modelling, and Symbolic Regression 2. Industrial Process Control 3. Financial Trading, Time Series Prediction and Economic Modelling 4. Optimisation and scheduling 5. Medicine, Biology and Bioinformatics 6. Design 7. Image and Signal processing 8. Entertainment and Computer games
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Three different commercially available ceramic coatings powders namely, Alumina, Alumina-Titania, Partially Stabilized Zirconia of two different thicknesses namely 100 to 250 microns were used for the preparation of coatings. A 40 KW Sulzer,[1]and [8] Metco plasma spray system with 7MB gun is used for this purpose. Mild steel plates of 50x50x6 mm were used as substrate to spray the ceramic oxides. They were grit blasted, degreased and spray coated with a 50 to 100 microns NiCrAl bond coat[. The ceramic TBC were then plasma sprayed according to spray parameters mentioned in table1. In this study, two response parameters such as thermal barrier and thermal cycling tests were considered. 2.1 THERMAL BARRIER TEST Thermal barrier tests were conducted by measuring the temperature of metal substrate using thermocouples, after heating the coating surface with electric heaters, between 7000C and 10000C for a period of half an hour to attain steady state, to get temperature drop across the substrate and ceramic coating. The heat transfer coefficient on the surface of coated plate is very important parameter in the selection of TBC [2]-[6]. This parameter is studied for different heat inputs under natural and forced convection. An electric heater connected with ammeter, voltmeter and a dimmerstat to control the heat input was used in the experimental setup to heat the substrate with coated surface. Two thermocouples of K-type namely chrome-alumel were used to measure the temperature at the substrate surface and as well as on the top of the coating for a given heat input. The temperature on the ceramic coated surface and metal surface is measured for three different coatings namely, Alumina (A), Alumina-Titania (AT) and Partially Stabilized zirconia (PSZ) and the heat transfer coefficients by natural and forced convection on the surface of the coated plate were calculated. In the case of forced convection, a blower was used to blow the air along the coated plate for different air velocities flowing parallel to the surface of the coatings, on three different coatings, heat inputs and the temperatures were measured using thermocouple. 2.2 THERMAL CYCLING TEST (TCT) Thermal cycling test is performed to determine the resistance of coated part for sudden changes in temperature [7] and to examine whether the sprayed coating can withstand severity of thermal cycling. The three different ceramic coatings with different thicknesses were subjected to thermal cycling by exposing to oxyacetylene flame till the coated surface is maintained around 10000C for about 1minute and subsequently cooled down by air till the temperature reaches down to around 1000C in the atmospheric conditions for 1 minute. The thermal cycling process is repeated until coating fails and peels off from the substrate.
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3. GENETIC PROGRAMMING METHODOLOGY In Genetic programming modelling, it is necessary to select suitable terminal from set F and available terminal genes from set f (0)[15-24]. From these, the evolutionary process will try to build as fit an organism (i.e. mathematical model) as possible for thermal characteristics prediction. The organisms consist of both terminal and function genes and have the nature of computer programs which differ in form and size. In our case the set of terminal genes f (0) is: f (0) = {Process inputs}. The selected set of function genes F is: F = {+, -, *, /}, where +,-,*, / are the mathematical operation of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The quality of the individual organism (i.e. prediction) is found out using fitness function. In our case, four different functions are used. 3.1 Process Inputs Ambient Temperature (0C), Temperature on coating side (0C), Temperature on substrate side (0C), Power (W), Velocity of air (m/sec) Toughness (MPa √m) Thermal conductivity (W/m K) Thermal Diffusivity (x 10-7m2/sec) 3.2 Measured Process Outputs Heat transfer coefficient under Natural convection (W/m2 0K) Heat transfer coefficient under Forced convection (W/m2 0K) Thickness of coating against thermal Barrier (0C) Thermal cycling Resistance (number of cycles withstood)
Table1. Experimental results of Thermal Cycling Resistance Test for different coatings
Sl.No. Thickness of coating in µm (V0) 150 225 300 150 225 300 150 225 300 number of cycles for Alumina-Titania (AT) (f0) Temperature of heating (V4) 700 700 700 850 850 850 1000 1000 1000 Number of cycles for Alumina (A) (f0) 280 290 310 260 270 280 250 260 270 number of cycles for Partial stabilised zirconia(PSZ) (f0) 405 425 445 390 410 425 360 380 400

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

345 360 375 330 345 360 320 330 340

Table 2. Experimental Results of evaluating thickness to withstand Thermal barrier for different coatings
S.No. Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V0) 700 800 900 Thickness of coating in µm(f0) 150 150 150 Temperature difference in 0C for Alumina (V2) 120 125 125 Temperature difference in 0C for Alumina- Titania (V2) 160 165 160 Temperature difference in 0C for PSZ (V2) 190 180 190

1 2 3

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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME
4 5 6 7 8 1000 700 800 900 1000 150 300 300 300 300 120 135 145 140 145 160 170 175 170 175 180 210 215 210 215

Table3. Experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of natural convection for different coatings
Sl.No. Power in W (V0) 5 5.5 6 6.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V1) 69 75 85 94 106 115 174 183 Ambient Temperature in 0 C (V2) 35 40 45 55 85 100 130 164 Thickness of coating in µm (V3) 150 150 150 150 300 300 300 300 H in W/m2K for Alumina (f0) 3.9 4.14 3.95 4.26 3.44 3.44 3.8 3.66 H in W/m2K for AluminaTitania (f0) 3.48 3.65 3.65 3.75 3.25 3.2 3.2 3.4 H in W/m2K for PSZ(f0) 3.29 3.31 3.39 3.23 3.03 3.05 3 3.15

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Table 4. Experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of forced convection for different coatings
.S.N0. Power in W (V3) 5.5 6.5 6 6.5 5 6 6 6.5 5.5 6 5 5 5.5 6 5.5 6.5 6.5 5.5 5 5 6.5 5 6 5.5 6.5 6 5.5 5 6.5 6 5.5 5 Velocity of air in m/sec (V1) 1.401 1.253 1.401 1.085 0.8858 1.085 1.085 1.253 1.253 1.253 1.085 1.253 1.253 1.401 1.401 1.085 0.8858 0.8858 1.253 1.401 0.8858 1.401 1.253 1.085 1.401 0.8858 0.8858 0.8858 1.401 0.8858 1.085 1.085 Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V0) 35 80 70 90 78 85 105 69 40 75 75 56 56 88 46 72 120 65 60 50 88 65 90 48 70 115 55 65 65 90 58 60 Ambient Temperature in 0 C (V7) 30 65 65 70 65 80 60 48 35 70 60 50 50 40 40 52 90 60 55 45 57 50 50 45 50 70 50 60 42 85 55 55 Thickness of coating in µm (V4) 300 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 150 300 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 150 150 150 300 H in W/m2K for Alumina (f0) 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 H in W/m2K for AluminaTitania (f0) 12.75 12.8 13.8 11.84 8.8 11.43 11 13.2 12.05 12.84 9.5 10.75 12.6 13 13.1 12.64 10.72 10.6 11.21 11.64 11.24 12.86 12.45 11.35 13.85 10.25 10 8.4 14.64 10.64 11.64 9 H in W/m2K for PSZ (f0) 8.56 9.3 10.4 11.4 8.05 8.8 10.05 11.05 8.89 9.56 10.85 11.8 8.4 9 10.5 11.5 8.94 10.42 11.9 12.6 8.8 10 11.64 12 9 10.56 11.64 12.89 9.6 10 11.21 12.64

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

4. GENETIC MODELS – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The best accuracy (∆ (i) = 0.175 %, and that of the testing data ∆ (i) = 0. 18%) of the GP model was obtained when the genes function set used and the Output of the discipulus GP is in C program. The C program for the heat transfer coefficient in natural convection as given below:
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

{{ f[0]=f[1]=f[2]=f[3]=f[4]=f[5]=f[6]=f[7]=0; L0: f[0]-=v[7]; L1: f[0]/=v[4]; L2:f[0]+=1.501374244689941f; L3:f[0]*=f[0]; L4: f[0]*=f[0]; L5: f[0]-=1.987620830535889f; L6:f[0]*=v[0]; L7:f[0]*=v[2]; L8:f[0]*=v[5]; L9: f[0]/=v[7]; L10: f[0]/=v[1]; L11: f[0]-=v[6]; L12:f[0]/=v[3]; L13: f[0]-=v[2]; L14: f[0]+=v[1]; L15: f[0]*=0.03275442123413086f; L16:f[0]/=-0.494312047958374f; L17:f[0]+=-1.549970149993897f; L18:f[0]/=v[5]; L19: f[0]+=v[1]; L20: f[0]+=f[0]; L21: f[0]+=f[0]; L22: f[0]+=v[3]; L23:f[0]+=v[1]; L24: f[0]+=v[1]; L25: }} Upon simplification, in case of natural convection, the heat transfer coefficient, h is given by,

Where V4 = Thermal Conductivity, V5= thermal diffusivity and V6=Toughness and Using GP simulation, in case of forced convection, the heat transfer coefficient, h is given by

Where V5 = Thermal Conductivity, V2= thermal diffusivity and V6=Toughness and

Using GP simulation, in case of natural convection, the number of cycles withstood (or thermal cycling resistance), TCR is given by h Where V3 = Thermal Conductivity, V1= thermal diffusivity and V2=Toughness

Using GP simulation, in case of natural convection, the thickness of coating against the thermal barrier ,t is given by
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Where V1 = Thermal Conductivity

and The results for thickness of coating against thermal barrier property simulation are shown in figure 1 and heat transfer coefficient simulation for natural and forced convection are shown in figure 2 and figure 3 and the Thermal cycling resistance are presented in figure 4. The Discipulus GP technique was able to simulate these output variables to within an average of 1.3% of their measured value, with no value exceeding a 0.01% deviation except in case of thickness deviation which is up to 3%.

Figure 1. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of thickness of coating against Thermal Barrier

Figure 2. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Heat Transfer coefficient Data under Natural convection

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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Figure3. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Heat Transfer coefficient Data under Forced convection

Figure 4. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Thermal Cycling Resistance Data.

5. CONCLUSIONS Genetic programming (GP) has proved to be a highly versatile and useful tool for identifying relationships in data for which a more precise theoretical construct is unavailable. The experimental data in this research were in fact the environment to which the population of models had to be adapted as much as possible. The models presented are a result of the self-organization and stochastic processes taking place during simulated evolution. Only four genetically developed models out of many successful solutions are presented here. The accuracies of solutions obtained by GP depend on applied evolutionary parameters and also on the number of measurements and the accuracy of measurement. In general, more measurements supply more information to evolution which improves the structures of models. In this paper, the genetic programming was used for predicting the thermal properties responsible for failure of ceramic coatings. In the proposed concept the mathematical models for verifying the experimental results of thermal characteristics are subject to adaptation. Its reliability is 99.26% in the first three cases and whereas it is 97% in fourth case. In the testing phase, the genetically produced model gives the same result as actually found out during the experiment, thereby with the reliability of cent percent. It is inferred from our research findings that the genetic programming approach could be well
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used for the prediction thermal characteristics of ceramic coatings without conducting the experiments. This helps to establish efficient planning and optimizing of process for the quality production of ceramic coatings depending upon the functional requirements. Further work is on progress for the prediction/optimization of mechanical and tribological characteristics of ceramic coatings in addition to machinability of industrial ceramic coatings. REFERENCES [1] Dr. J. Fazlur Rahman et. al. and Mohammed Yunus et. al. (2009) , “Benefits of TBC Coatings on Engine applications”, Proceedings of International conference, INCAM 2009 at Kalsalingam University, Tamil Nadu, India. [2] Nusair Khan(2000), “Behaviour of air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings, Subjected to intense thermal cycling”, LASMIS, BP 2060, 12 Rue de Marie curie, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, France. [3] W.F. Calosso and A.R. Nicoll, (1987), Process requirements for plasma sprayed coatings for internal combustion engine components, Energy Sources Technology Conference and Exhibition, (Dallas, TX) 15-20 February, 87-ICE15, ASME, pp. 1-8. [4] Stragman T.E. (1985), Thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoils the Plasma Spray Process, J. Thin Solid Films, 127, pp. 93-105. [5] Dongming Zhu and Robert A. Miller (1998), “Thermal-Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine Engines”. [6] Nitin P. Padture, Maurice Gell, Eric H. Jordan (1998), Thermal Barrier Coatings for gas Turbine Engine Applications, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Material Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT06269-3136, USA. [7] P.Ramaswamy, S. Seetharamu, K. J. Rao, and K. B. R. Varma,(1998) “Thermal shock characteristics of plasma sprayed mullite coatings Technology”, J.Thermal spray Volume 7, Number 4, pp. 497-504(8). [8] Dr.J.Fazlur Rahman and Mohammed Yunus (2008), “Mechanical and Tribological characteristics of Tungsten Carbide Cobalt HVOF coatings”, Proceedings of International conference on MEMS held at Anjuman college of Engineering, Bhatkal, India. [9] Nordin, J.P. and Banzhaf, W. (1996) Controlling an Autonomous Robot with Genetic Programming.In: Proceedings of 1996 AAAI fall symposium on Genetic Programming, Cambridge, USA. [10] Koza, J.R., (1992) Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Natural Selection.MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. [11] J. R. Koza, Genetic programming II, The MIT Press, Massachusetts, 1994. [12] Koza, Bennett, Andre, & Keane, (1999) GENETIC PROGRAMMING III – Darwinian Invention and Problem Solving, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc. pp. 1154.
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[13] Francone, F., (1998-2000) Discipulus Owner’s Manual and Discipulus Tutorials, Register Machine Learning Technologies, Inc. [14] Spector, L., Langdon, W., B., O’Reilly, U., Angeline, P.J. (1999) Advances in Genetic Programming –Volume 3, MIT Press, pp. 476 [15] Tanguy, B. Besson J., Piques R., Pineau A. (2005), Ductile to brittle transition of an A508 steel characterized by Charpy impact test – Part 1: experimental results, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 72, pp.49 - 72. [16] M. Kovacic, J. Balic and M. Brezocnik, Evolutionary approach for cutting forces prediction in milling, Journal of materials processing technology, 155/156, 2004, pp.1647-1652. [17] H. Kurtaran, B. Ozcelik and T. Erzurumlu, Warpage optimization of a bus ceiling lamp base using neural network model and genetic algorithm, Journal of materials processing technology, 169(2), 2005, pp.314-319. [18] Sette S., Boullart L. Genetic programming: principles and applications, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 14 (2001), pp.727 – 736. [19] Pierreval H., Caux C., Paris J.L., Viguier F. Evolutionary approaches to the design and organization of manufacturing system, Computers & Industrial Engineering 44 (2003), pp.339-364. [20] Gusel L., Brezocnik M. Modeling of impact toughness of cold formed material by genetic programming, Comp. Mat. Sc. 37 (2006), pp.476 – 482. [21] Chang Y.S., Kwang S.P., Kim B.Y. Nonlinear model for ECG R-R interval variation using genetic programming approach, Future Generation Computer Systems 21, pp.1117-1123. [22] Brezocnik M., Gusel L. (2004), Predicting stress distribution in coldformed material with genetic programming, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol 23, pp.467-474. [23] M. Brezocnik, M. Kovacic and M. Ficko (2004), Prediction of surface roughness with genetic programming, Journal of materials processing technology, 157/158, 28-36. [24] M. Brezocnik and M. Kovacic (2003), Integrated genetic programming and genetic algorithm approach to predict surface roughness, Materials and manufacturing processes,18(4), pp.475–491.

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IJIERD

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A GENETIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH FOR THE PREDICTION OF THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CERAMIC COATINGS
Prof. Mohammed Yunus1, Dr. J. Fazlur Rahman2 and S.Ferozkhan3 1. Research scholar, Anna University of Technology Coimbatore Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India yunus.mohammed@rediffmail.com 2. Supervisor, Anna University of Technology Coimbatore Professor Emeritus, Department of MechanicalEngineering H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India jfazlu2003@yahoo.co.in 3. Lecturer, Department of Mechanical Engineering, H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India feroz_deen@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT In aerospace industry, the durability and efficiency of high temperature components are improved by the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBC). In order to characterize the TBC, it requires a better understanding of mechanical and tribological properties along with their failure mechanisms which are to be thoroughly investigated to estimate their performance. At high temperature applications, Thermal barrier (TB) and thermal cycling resistance (TCR) parameters play a very important role. In this regard, Thermal tests were carried out on three different types of commonly used industrial ceramic coatings namely, Alumina (A), Alumina-Titania (AT)) and partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ), in the present study. Genetic programming (GP) has proved to be a highly versatile and useful tool for identifying relationships in data for which a more precise theoretical construct is unavailable. This technical paper highlights how we use GP technique in the prediction of maximum thermal barrier (temperature) and thermal cycling resistance (failure) of various ceramic coatings, for different variables, which are used at high temperatures. Commercial Genetic
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Programming (GP) software-Discipulus is used to derive a mathematical modelling of relations for various input and output parameters used in characterisation. A special genetic approach for the modelling of thermal properties in coated components is proposed on the basis of a training data set. Various different genetic models for prediction of different thermal properties with greater accuracy (less than 1%) were also proposed by simulated evolution. Keywords: TBC – Thermal properties - Thermal tests – Thermal Barrier – Thermal cycling resistance – Genetic Programming – Evolutionary Algorithm – GP software Discipulus. 1.1 INTRODUCTION Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) which are ceramic coatings applied on metal substrate have vast applications in aerospace, gas turbine engines, diesel engines and power generators. A TBC protects a metal substrate from high temperature as well as excessive wear and corrosion. TBC has very low thermal conductivity, which insulates the underlying substrate material from high temperature environment. In the case of aerospace and gas turbine application, the thickness of TBC generally varies 100 to 400 microns [1]. At this thickness range, the temperature of insulated super alloy substrate can be reduced up to 2000C enabling that gas turbine engines to function at higher temperature. The characteristic of TBC originates from porosity, micro cracks and toughness of ceramic coatings. Ceramic coatings have applications primarily as wear coatings and thermal barrier coatings. TBCs are usually consisting of two layers; the first layer is a metallic bond coat, whose function is to protect the substrate material against oxidation, corrosion and to provide with a good adhesion to the thermal insulating ceramic layer while the second layer is of ceramic material which acts as TBC. The desirable properties of these include high thermal expansion, low thermal conductivity and good thermal cycling resistance [1]-[8]. 1.2 GENETIC PROGRAMMING (GP) Genetic Programming is a form of machine learning that automatically writes computer programs. It uses the principle of Darwinian Natural [12] Selection to select and reproduce “fitter” programs. GP applies that principle to a population of computer programs and evolves a program that predicts the target output from a data file of inputs and outputs [9-12]. The programs evolved by GP software – Discipulus [13], in this case Java, C/C++ and assembly interpreter programs represents a mapping of input to output data. This is done by Machine Learning that maps a set of input data to known output data. The aims of using the machine learning technique on engineering problems are to determine data mining and knowledge discovery. GP provides a significant benefit in many areas of science and industry[14]. The Discipulus
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

GP [13] system uses AIM Learning Technology. “AIM” stands for “Automatic Induction of Machine Code”. AIM Learning and Discipulus deal with the machine learning speed problem. This speed allows the analyst to able to make many more runs to investigate relationships between data and output, assess information content of data streams, uncover bad data or outliers, assess time lag relationships between inputs and outputs, and the like. The evolved models have been or are being used to develop process prediction or control algorithms. Hence GP technology has been selected for the present work. GP solutions are computer programs that can be easily inspected, documented, evaluated, and tested. The GP solutions are easy to understand the nature of the derived relationship between input and output data and to examine the uncover relationships that were unknown before. Genetic Programming evolves both the structure and the constants to the solution simultaneously. Discipulus GP strongly discriminates between relevant input data and inputs that have no bearing on a solution [13]. In other words, Discipulus performs input variable selection as a by-product of its learning algorithm. The following step by step procedure will be implemented for a steady state GP algorithm [9-13],[14] 1. Initialization of population: Generate an initial population of random compositions of the functions and terminals of the problem (computer programs). 2. Fitness evaluation: Execute each program in the population, randomly it selects some programs and assign it a fitness value according to how well it solves the problem by mapping input data to output data. Some programs are selected as winners (best programs), and the others as losers. 3. Create a new population of computer programs by exchanging parts of the “best” programs with each other (called crossover). 4. Copy the best existing programs. 5. Create new computer programs by randomly changing each of the tournament winners to create two new programs mutation. 6. Iterate Until Convergence. Repeat steps two through four until a program is developed that predicts the behavior sufficiently. GP has been successfully used to solve problems in a wide range of broad categories [15-24]: 1. Systems Modelling, Curve Fitting, Data Modelling, and Symbolic Regression 2. Industrial Process Control 3. Financial Trading, Time Series Prediction and Economic Modelling 4. Optimisation and scheduling 5. Medicine, Biology and Bioinformatics 6. Design 7. Image and Signal processing 8. Entertainment and Computer games
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Three different commercially available ceramic coatings powders namely, Alumina, Alumina-Titania, Partially Stabilized Zirconia of two different thicknesses namely 100 to 250 microns were used for the preparation of coatings. A 40 KW Sulzer,[1]and [8] Metco plasma spray system with 7MB gun is used for this purpose. Mild steel plates of 50x50x6 mm were used as substrate to spray the ceramic oxides. They were grit blasted, degreased and spray coated with a 50 to 100 microns NiCrAl bond coat[. The ceramic TBC were then plasma sprayed according to spray parameters mentioned in table1. In this study, two response parameters such as thermal barrier and thermal cycling tests were considered. 2.1 THERMAL BARRIER TEST Thermal barrier tests were conducted by measuring the temperature of metal substrate using thermocouples, after heating the coating surface with electric heaters, between 7000C and 10000C for a period of half an hour to attain steady state, to get temperature drop across the substrate and ceramic coating. The heat transfer coefficient on the surface of coated plate is very important parameter in the selection of TBC [2]-[6]. This parameter is studied for different heat inputs under natural and forced convection. An electric heater connected with ammeter, voltmeter and a dimmerstat to control the heat input was used in the experimental setup to heat the substrate with coated surface. Two thermocouples of K-type namely chrome-alumel were used to measure the temperature at the substrate surface and as well as on the top of the coating for a given heat input. The temperature on the ceramic coated surface and metal surface is measured for three different coatings namely, Alumina (A), Alumina-Titania (AT) and Partially Stabilized zirconia (PSZ) and the heat transfer coefficients by natural and forced convection on the surface of the coated plate were calculated. In the case of forced convection, a blower was used to blow the air along the coated plate for different air velocities flowing parallel to the surface of the coatings, on three different coatings, heat inputs and the temperatures were measured using thermocouple. 2.2 THERMAL CYCLING TEST (TCT) Thermal cycling test is performed to determine the resistance of coated part for sudden changes in temperature [7] and to examine whether the sprayed coating can withstand severity of thermal cycling. The three different ceramic coatings with different thicknesses were subjected to thermal cycling by exposing to oxyacetylene flame till the coated surface is maintained around 10000C for about 1minute and subsequently cooled down by air till the temperature reaches down to around 1000C in the atmospheric conditions for 1 minute. The thermal cycling process is repeated until coating fails and peels off from the substrate.
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3. GENETIC PROGRAMMING METHODOLOGY In Genetic programming modelling, it is necessary to select suitable terminal from set F and available terminal genes from set f (0)[15-24]. From these, the evolutionary process will try to build as fit an organism (i.e. mathematical model) as possible for thermal characteristics prediction. The organisms consist of both terminal and function genes and have the nature of computer programs which differ in form and size. In our case the set of terminal genes f (0) is: f (0) = {Process inputs}. The selected set of function genes F is: F = {+, -, *, /}, where +,-,*, / are the mathematical operation of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The quality of the individual organism (i.e. prediction) is found out using fitness function. In our case, four different functions are used. 3.1 Process Inputs Ambient Temperature (0C), Temperature on coating side (0C), Temperature on substrate side (0C), Power (W), Velocity of air (m/sec) Toughness (MPa √m) Thermal conductivity (W/m K) Thermal Diffusivity (x 10-7m2/sec) 3.2 Measured Process Outputs Heat transfer coefficient under Natural convection (W/m2 0K) Heat transfer coefficient under Forced convection (W/m2 0K) Thickness of coating against thermal Barrier (0C) Thermal cycling Resistance (number of cycles withstood)
Table1. Experimental results of Thermal Cycling Resistance Test for different coatings
Sl.No. Thickness of coating in µm (V0) 150 225 300 150 225 300 150 225 300 number of cycles for Alumina-Titania (AT) (f0) Temperature of heating (V4) 700 700 700 850 850 850 1000 1000 1000 Number of cycles for Alumina (A) (f0) 280 290 310 260 270 280 250 260 270 number of cycles for Partial stabilised zirconia(PSZ) (f0) 405 425 445 390 410 425 360 380 400

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

345 360 375 330 345 360 320 330 340

Table 2. Experimental Results of evaluating thickness to withstand Thermal barrier for different coatings
S.No. Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V0) 700 800 900 Thickness of coating in µm(f0) 150 150 150 Temperature difference in 0C for Alumina (V2) 120 125 125 Temperature difference in 0C for Alumina- Titania (V2) 160 165 160 Temperature difference in 0C for PSZ (V2) 190 180 190

1 2 3

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4 5 6 7 8 1000 700 800 900 1000 150 300 300 300 300 120 135 145 140 145 160 170 175 170 175 180 210 215 210 215

Table3. Experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of natural convection for different coatings
Sl.No. Power in W (V0) 5 5.5 6 6.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V1) 69 75 85 94 106 115 174 183 Ambient Temperature in 0 C (V2) 35 40 45 55 85 100 130 164 Thickness of coating in µm (V3) 150 150 150 150 300 300 300 300 H in W/m2K for Alumina (f0) 3.9 4.14 3.95 4.26 3.44 3.44 3.8 3.66 H in W/m2K for AluminaTitania (f0) 3.48 3.65 3.65 3.75 3.25 3.2 3.2 3.4 H in W/m2K for PSZ(f0) 3.29 3.31 3.39 3.23 3.03 3.05 3 3.15

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Table 4. Experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of forced convection for different coatings
.S.N0. Power in W (V3) 5.5 6.5 6 6.5 5 6 6 6.5 5.5 6 5 5 5.5 6 5.5 6.5 6.5 5.5 5 5 6.5 5 6 5.5 6.5 6 5.5 5 6.5 6 5.5 5 Velocity of air in m/sec (V1) 1.401 1.253 1.401 1.085 0.8858 1.085 1.085 1.253 1.253 1.253 1.085 1.253 1.253 1.401 1.401 1.085 0.8858 0.8858 1.253 1.401 0.8858 1.401 1.253 1.085 1.401 0.8858 0.8858 0.8858 1.401 0.8858 1.085 1.085 Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V0) 35 80 70 90 78 85 105 69 40 75 75 56 56 88 46 72 120 65 60 50 88 65 90 48 70 115 55 65 65 90 58 60 Ambient Temperature in 0 C (V7) 30 65 65 70 65 80 60 48 35 70 60 50 50 40 40 52 90 60 55 45 57 50 50 45 50 70 50 60 42 85 55 55 Thickness of coating in µm (V4) 300 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 150 300 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 150 150 150 300 H in W/m2K for Alumina (f0) 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 H in W/m2K for AluminaTitania (f0) 12.75 12.8 13.8 11.84 8.8 11.43 11 13.2 12.05 12.84 9.5 10.75 12.6 13 13.1 12.64 10.72 10.6 11.21 11.64 11.24 12.86 12.45 11.35 13.85 10.25 10 8.4 14.64 10.64 11.64 9 H in W/m2K for PSZ (f0) 8.56 9.3 10.4 11.4 8.05 8.8 10.05 11.05 8.89 9.56 10.85 11.8 8.4 9 10.5 11.5 8.94 10.42 11.9 12.6 8.8 10 11.64 12 9 10.56 11.64 12.89 9.6 10 11.21 12.64

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

4. GENETIC MODELS – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The best accuracy (∆ (i) = 0.175 %, and that of the testing data ∆ (i) = 0. 18%) of the GP model was obtained when the genes function set used and the Output of the discipulus GP is in C program. The C program for the heat transfer coefficient in natural convection as given below:
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

{{ f[0]=f[1]=f[2]=f[3]=f[4]=f[5]=f[6]=f[7]=0; L0: f[0]-=v[7]; L1: f[0]/=v[4]; L2:f[0]+=1.501374244689941f; L3:f[0]*=f[0]; L4: f[0]*=f[0]; L5: f[0]-=1.987620830535889f; L6:f[0]*=v[0]; L7:f[0]*=v[2]; L8:f[0]*=v[5]; L9: f[0]/=v[7]; L10: f[0]/=v[1]; L11: f[0]-=v[6]; L12:f[0]/=v[3]; L13: f[0]-=v[2]; L14: f[0]+=v[1]; L15: f[0]*=0.03275442123413086f; L16:f[0]/=-0.494312047958374f; L17:f[0]+=-1.549970149993897f; L18:f[0]/=v[5]; L19: f[0]+=v[1]; L20: f[0]+=f[0]; L21: f[0]+=f[0]; L22: f[0]+=v[3]; L23:f[0]+=v[1]; L24: f[0]+=v[1]; L25: }} Upon simplification, in case of natural convection, the heat transfer coefficient, h is given by,

Where V4 = Thermal Conductivity, V5= thermal diffusivity and V6=Toughness and Using GP simulation, in case of forced convection, the heat transfer coefficient, h is given by

Where V5 = Thermal Conductivity, V2= thermal diffusivity and V6=Toughness and

Using GP simulation, in case of natural convection, the number of cycles withstood (or thermal cycling resistance), TCR is given by h Where V3 = Thermal Conductivity, V1= thermal diffusivity and V2=Toughness

Using GP simulation, in case of natural convection, the thickness of coating against the thermal barrier ,t is given by
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Where V1 = Thermal Conductivity

and The results for thickness of coating against thermal barrier property simulation are shown in figure 1 and heat transfer coefficient simulation for natural and forced convection are shown in figure 2 and figure 3 and the Thermal cycling resistance are presented in figure 4. The Discipulus GP technique was able to simulate these output variables to within an average of 1.3% of their measured value, with no value exceeding a 0.01% deviation except in case of thickness deviation which is up to 3%.

Figure 1. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of thickness of coating against Thermal Barrier

Figure 2. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Heat Transfer coefficient Data under Natural convection

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Figure3. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Heat Transfer coefficient Data under Forced convection

Figure 4. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Thermal Cycling Resistance Data.

5. CONCLUSIONS Genetic programming (GP) has proved to be a highly versatile and useful tool for identifying relationships in data for which a more precise theoretical construct is unavailable. The experimental data in this research were in fact the environment to which the population of models had to be adapted as much as possible. The models presented are a result of the self-organization and stochastic processes taking place during simulated evolution. Only four genetically developed models out of many successful solutions are presented here. The accuracies of solutions obtained by GP depend on applied evolutionary parameters and also on the number of measurements and the accuracy of measurement. In general, more measurements supply more information to evolution which improves the structures of models. In this paper, the genetic programming was used for predicting the thermal properties responsible for failure of ceramic coatings. In the proposed concept the mathematical models for verifying the experimental results of thermal characteristics are subject to adaptation. Its reliability is 99.26% in the first three cases and whereas it is 97% in fourth case. In the testing phase, the genetically produced model gives the same result as actually found out during the experiment, thereby with the reliability of cent percent. It is inferred from our research findings that the genetic programming approach could be well
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used for the prediction thermal characteristics of ceramic coatings without conducting the experiments. This helps to establish efficient planning and optimizing of process for the quality production of ceramic coatings depending upon the functional requirements. Further work is on progress for the prediction/optimization of mechanical and tribological characteristics of ceramic coatings in addition to machinability of industrial ceramic coatings. REFERENCES [1] Dr. J. Fazlur Rahman et. al. and Mohammed Yunus et. al. (2009) , “Benefits of TBC Coatings on Engine applications”, Proceedings of International conference, INCAM 2009 at Kalsalingam University, Tamil Nadu, India. [2] Nusair Khan(2000), “Behaviour of air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings, Subjected to intense thermal cycling”, LASMIS, BP 2060, 12 Rue de Marie curie, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, France. [3] W.F. Calosso and A.R. Nicoll, (1987), Process requirements for plasma sprayed coatings for internal combustion engine components, Energy Sources Technology Conference and Exhibition, (Dallas, TX) 15-20 February, 87-ICE15, ASME, pp. 1-8. [4] Stragman T.E. (1985), Thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoils the Plasma Spray Process, J. Thin Solid Films, 127, pp. 93-105. [5] Dongming Zhu and Robert A. Miller (1998), “Thermal-Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine Engines”. [6] Nitin P. Padture, Maurice Gell, Eric H. Jordan (1998), Thermal Barrier Coatings for gas Turbine Engine Applications, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Material Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT06269-3136, USA. [7] P.Ramaswamy, S. Seetharamu, K. J. Rao, and K. B. R. Varma,(1998) “Thermal shock characteristics of plasma sprayed mullite coatings Technology”, J.Thermal spray Volume 7, Number 4, pp. 497-504(8). [8] Dr.J.Fazlur Rahman and Mohammed Yunus (2008), “Mechanical and Tribological characteristics of Tungsten Carbide Cobalt HVOF coatings”, Proceedings of International conference on MEMS held at Anjuman college of Engineering, Bhatkal, India. [9] Nordin, J.P. and Banzhaf, W. (1996) Controlling an Autonomous Robot with Genetic Programming.In: Proceedings of 1996 AAAI fall symposium on Genetic Programming, Cambridge, USA. [10] Koza, J.R., (1992) Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Natural Selection.MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. [11] J. R. Koza, Genetic programming II, The MIT Press, Massachusetts, 1994. [12] Koza, Bennett, Andre, & Keane, (1999) GENETIC PROGRAMMING III – Darwinian Invention and Problem Solving, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc. pp. 1154.
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[13] Francone, F., (1998-2000) Discipulus Owner’s Manual and Discipulus Tutorials, Register Machine Learning Technologies, Inc. [14] Spector, L., Langdon, W., B., O’Reilly, U., Angeline, P.J. (1999) Advances in Genetic Programming –Volume 3, MIT Press, pp. 476 [15] Tanguy, B. Besson J., Piques R., Pineau A. (2005), Ductile to brittle transition of an A508 steel characterized by Charpy impact test – Part 1: experimental results, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 72, pp.49 - 72. [16] M. Kovacic, J. Balic and M. Brezocnik, Evolutionary approach for cutting forces prediction in milling, Journal of materials processing technology, 155/156, 2004, pp.1647-1652. [17] H. Kurtaran, B. Ozcelik and T. Erzurumlu, Warpage optimization of a bus ceiling lamp base using neural network model and genetic algorithm, Journal of materials processing technology, 169(2), 2005, pp.314-319. [18] Sette S., Boullart L. Genetic programming: principles and applications, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 14 (2001), pp.727 – 736. [19] Pierreval H., Caux C., Paris J.L., Viguier F. Evolutionary approaches to the design and organization of manufacturing system, Computers & Industrial Engineering 44 (2003), pp.339-364. [20] Gusel L., Brezocnik M. Modeling of impact toughness of cold formed material by genetic programming, Comp. Mat. Sc. 37 (2006), pp.476 – 482. [21] Chang Y.S., Kwang S.P., Kim B.Y. Nonlinear model for ECG R-R interval variation using genetic programming approach, Future Generation Computer Systems 21, pp.1117-1123. [22] Brezocnik M., Gusel L. (2004), Predicting stress distribution in coldformed material with genetic programming, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol 23, pp.467-474. [23] M. Brezocnik, M. Kovacic and M. Ficko (2004), Prediction of surface roughness with genetic programming, Journal of materials processing technology, 157/158, 28-36. [24] M. Brezocnik and M. Kovacic (2003), Integrated genetic programming and genetic algorithm approach to predict surface roughness, Materials and manufacturing processes,18(4), pp.475–491.

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IJIERD

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A GENETIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH FOR THE PREDICTION OF THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CERAMIC COATINGS
Prof. Mohammed Yunus1, Dr. J. Fazlur Rahman2 and S.Ferozkhan3 1. Research scholar, Anna University of Technology Coimbatore Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India yunus.mohammed@rediffmail.com 2. Supervisor, Anna University of Technology Coimbatore Professor Emeritus, Department of MechanicalEngineering H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India jfazlu2003@yahoo.co.in 3. Lecturer, Department of Mechanical Engineering, H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India feroz_deen@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT In aerospace industry, the durability and efficiency of high temperature components are improved by the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBC). In order to characterize the TBC, it requires a better understanding of mechanical and tribological properties along with their failure mechanisms which are to be thoroughly investigated to estimate their performance. At high temperature applications, Thermal barrier (TB) and thermal cycling resistance (TCR) parameters play a very important role. In this regard, Thermal tests were carried out on three different types of commonly used industrial ceramic coatings namely, Alumina (A), Alumina-Titania (AT)) and partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ), in the present study. Genetic programming (GP) has proved to be a highly versatile and useful tool for identifying relationships in data for which a more precise theoretical construct is unavailable. This technical paper highlights how we use GP technique in the prediction of maximum thermal barrier (temperature) and thermal cycling resistance (failure) of various ceramic coatings, for different variables, which are used at high temperatures. Commercial Genetic
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Programming (GP) software-Discipulus is used to derive a mathematical modelling of relations for various input and output parameters used in characterisation. A special genetic approach for the modelling of thermal properties in coated components is proposed on the basis of a training data set. Various different genetic models for prediction of different thermal properties with greater accuracy (less than 1%) were also proposed by simulated evolution. Keywords: TBC – Thermal properties - Thermal tests – Thermal Barrier – Thermal cycling resistance – Genetic Programming – Evolutionary Algorithm – GP software Discipulus. 1.1 INTRODUCTION Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) which are ceramic coatings applied on metal substrate have vast applications in aerospace, gas turbine engines, diesel engines and power generators. A TBC protects a metal substrate from high temperature as well as excessive wear and corrosion. TBC has very low thermal conductivity, which insulates the underlying substrate material from high temperature environment. In the case of aerospace and gas turbine application, the thickness of TBC generally varies 100 to 400 microns [1]. At this thickness range, the temperature of insulated super alloy substrate can be reduced up to 2000C enabling that gas turbine engines to function at higher temperature. The characteristic of TBC originates from porosity, micro cracks and toughness of ceramic coatings. Ceramic coatings have applications primarily as wear coatings and thermal barrier coatings. TBCs are usually consisting of two layers; the first layer is a metallic bond coat, whose function is to protect the substrate material against oxidation, corrosion and to provide with a good adhesion to the thermal insulating ceramic layer while the second layer is of ceramic material which acts as TBC. The desirable properties of these include high thermal expansion, low thermal conductivity and good thermal cycling resistance [1]-[8]. 1.2 GENETIC PROGRAMMING (GP) Genetic Programming is a form of machine learning that automatically writes computer programs. It uses the principle of Darwinian Natural [12] Selection to select and reproduce “fitter” programs. GP applies that principle to a population of computer programs and evolves a program that predicts the target output from a data file of inputs and outputs [9-12]. The programs evolved by GP software – Discipulus [13], in this case Java, C/C++ and assembly interpreter programs represents a mapping of input to output data. This is done by Machine Learning that maps a set of input data to known output data. The aims of using the machine learning technique on engineering problems are to determine data mining and knowledge discovery. GP provides a significant benefit in many areas of science and industry[14]. The Discipulus
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GP [13] system uses AIM Learning Technology. “AIM” stands for “Automatic Induction of Machine Code”. AIM Learning and Discipulus deal with the machine learning speed problem. This speed allows the analyst to able to make many more runs to investigate relationships between data and output, assess information content of data streams, uncover bad data or outliers, assess time lag relationships between inputs and outputs, and the like. The evolved models have been or are being used to develop process prediction or control algorithms. Hence GP technology has been selected for the present work. GP solutions are computer programs that can be easily inspected, documented, evaluated, and tested. The GP solutions are easy to understand the nature of the derived relationship between input and output data and to examine the uncover relationships that were unknown before. Genetic Programming evolves both the structure and the constants to the solution simultaneously. Discipulus GP strongly discriminates between relevant input data and inputs that have no bearing on a solution [13]. In other words, Discipulus performs input variable selection as a by-product of its learning algorithm. The following step by step procedure will be implemented for a steady state GP algorithm [9-13],[14] 1. Initialization of population: Generate an initial population of random compositions of the functions and terminals of the problem (computer programs). 2. Fitness evaluation: Execute each program in the population, randomly it selects some programs and assign it a fitness value according to how well it solves the problem by mapping input data to output data. Some programs are selected as winners (best programs), and the others as losers. 3. Create a new population of computer programs by exchanging parts of the “best” programs with each other (called crossover). 4. Copy the best existing programs. 5. Create new computer programs by randomly changing each of the tournament winners to create two new programs mutation. 6. Iterate Until Convergence. Repeat steps two through four until a program is developed that predicts the behavior sufficiently. GP has been successfully used to solve problems in a wide range of broad categories [15-24]: 1. Systems Modelling, Curve Fitting, Data Modelling, and Symbolic Regression 2. Industrial Process Control 3. Financial Trading, Time Series Prediction and Economic Modelling 4. Optimisation and scheduling 5. Medicine, Biology and Bioinformatics 6. Design 7. Image and Signal processing 8. Entertainment and Computer games
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2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Three different commercially available ceramic coatings powders namely, Alumina, Alumina-Titania, Partially Stabilized Zirconia of two different thicknesses namely 100 to 250 microns were used for the preparation of coatings. A 40 KW Sulzer,[1]and [8] Metco plasma spray system with 7MB gun is used for this purpose. Mild steel plates of 50x50x6 mm were used as substrate to spray the ceramic oxides. They were grit blasted, degreased and spray coated with a 50 to 100 microns NiCrAl bond coat[. The ceramic TBC were then plasma sprayed according to spray parameters mentioned in table1. In this study, two response parameters such as thermal barrier and thermal cycling tests were considered. 2.1 THERMAL BARRIER TEST Thermal barrier tests were conducted by measuring the temperature of metal substrate using thermocouples, after heating the coating surface with electric heaters, between 7000C and 10000C for a period of half an hour to attain steady state, to get temperature drop across the substrate and ceramic coating. The heat transfer coefficient on the surface of coated plate is very important parameter in the selection of TBC [2]-[6]. This parameter is studied for different heat inputs under natural and forced convection. An electric heater connected with ammeter, voltmeter and a dimmerstat to control the heat input was used in the experimental setup to heat the substrate with coated surface. Two thermocouples of K-type namely chrome-alumel were used to measure the temperature at the substrate surface and as well as on the top of the coating for a given heat input. The temperature on the ceramic coated surface and metal surface is measured for three different coatings namely, Alumina (A), Alumina-Titania (AT) and Partially Stabilized zirconia (PSZ) and the heat transfer coefficients by natural and forced convection on the surface of the coated plate were calculated. In the case of forced convection, a blower was used to blow the air along the coated plate for different air velocities flowing parallel to the surface of the coatings, on three different coatings, heat inputs and the temperatures were measured using thermocouple. 2.2 THERMAL CYCLING TEST (TCT) Thermal cycling test is performed to determine the resistance of coated part for sudden changes in temperature [7] and to examine whether the sprayed coating can withstand severity of thermal cycling. The three different ceramic coatings with different thicknesses were subjected to thermal cycling by exposing to oxyacetylene flame till the coated surface is maintained around 10000C for about 1minute and subsequently cooled down by air till the temperature reaches down to around 1000C in the atmospheric conditions for 1 minute. The thermal cycling process is repeated until coating fails and peels off from the substrate.
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3. GENETIC PROGRAMMING METHODOLOGY In Genetic programming modelling, it is necessary to select suitable terminal from set F and available terminal genes from set f (0)[15-24]. From these, the evolutionary process will try to build as fit an organism (i.e. mathematical model) as possible for thermal characteristics prediction. The organisms consist of both terminal and function genes and have the nature of computer programs which differ in form and size. In our case the set of terminal genes f (0) is: f (0) = {Process inputs}. The selected set of function genes F is: F = {+, -, *, /}, where +,-,*, / are the mathematical operation of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The quality of the individual organism (i.e. prediction) is found out using fitness function. In our case, four different functions are used. 3.1 Process Inputs Ambient Temperature (0C), Temperature on coating side (0C), Temperature on substrate side (0C), Power (W), Velocity of air (m/sec) Toughness (MPa √m) Thermal conductivity (W/m K) Thermal Diffusivity (x 10-7m2/sec) 3.2 Measured Process Outputs Heat transfer coefficient under Natural convection (W/m2 0K) Heat transfer coefficient under Forced convection (W/m2 0K) Thickness of coating against thermal Barrier (0C) Thermal cycling Resistance (number of cycles withstood)
Table1. Experimental results of Thermal Cycling Resistance Test for different coatings
Sl.No. Thickness of coating in µm (V0) 150 225 300 150 225 300 150 225 300 number of cycles for Alumina-Titania (AT) (f0) Temperature of heating (V4) 700 700 700 850 850 850 1000 1000 1000 Number of cycles for Alumina (A) (f0) 280 290 310 260 270 280 250 260 270 number of cycles for Partial stabilised zirconia(PSZ) (f0) 405 425 445 390 410 425 360 380 400

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

345 360 375 330 345 360 320 330 340

Table 2. Experimental Results of evaluating thickness to withstand Thermal barrier for different coatings
S.No. Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V0) 700 800 900 Thickness of coating in µm(f0) 150 150 150 Temperature difference in 0C for Alumina (V2) 120 125 125 Temperature difference in 0C for Alumina- Titania (V2) 160 165 160 Temperature difference in 0C for PSZ (V2) 190 180 190

1 2 3

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4 5 6 7 8 1000 700 800 900 1000 150 300 300 300 300 120 135 145 140 145 160 170 175 170 175 180 210 215 210 215

Table3. Experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of natural convection for different coatings
Sl.No. Power in W (V0) 5 5.5 6 6.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V1) 69 75 85 94 106 115 174 183 Ambient Temperature in 0 C (V2) 35 40 45 55 85 100 130 164 Thickness of coating in µm (V3) 150 150 150 150 300 300 300 300 H in W/m2K for Alumina (f0) 3.9 4.14 3.95 4.26 3.44 3.44 3.8 3.66 H in W/m2K for AluminaTitania (f0) 3.48 3.65 3.65 3.75 3.25 3.2 3.2 3.4 H in W/m2K for PSZ(f0) 3.29 3.31 3.39 3.23 3.03 3.05 3 3.15

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Table 4. Experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of forced convection for different coatings
.S.N0. Power in W (V3) 5.5 6.5 6 6.5 5 6 6 6.5 5.5 6 5 5 5.5 6 5.5 6.5 6.5 5.5 5 5 6.5 5 6 5.5 6.5 6 5.5 5 6.5 6 5.5 5 Velocity of air in m/sec (V1) 1.401 1.253 1.401 1.085 0.8858 1.085 1.085 1.253 1.253 1.253 1.085 1.253 1.253 1.401 1.401 1.085 0.8858 0.8858 1.253 1.401 0.8858 1.401 1.253 1.085 1.401 0.8858 0.8858 0.8858 1.401 0.8858 1.085 1.085 Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V0) 35 80 70 90 78 85 105 69 40 75 75 56 56 88 46 72 120 65 60 50 88 65 90 48 70 115 55 65 65 90 58 60 Ambient Temperature in 0 C (V7) 30 65 65 70 65 80 60 48 35 70 60 50 50 40 40 52 90 60 55 45 57 50 50 45 50 70 50 60 42 85 55 55 Thickness of coating in µm (V4) 300 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 150 300 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 150 150 150 300 H in W/m2K for Alumina (f0) 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 H in W/m2K for AluminaTitania (f0) 12.75 12.8 13.8 11.84 8.8 11.43 11 13.2 12.05 12.84 9.5 10.75 12.6 13 13.1 12.64 10.72 10.6 11.21 11.64 11.24 12.86 12.45 11.35 13.85 10.25 10 8.4 14.64 10.64 11.64 9 H in W/m2K for PSZ (f0) 8.56 9.3 10.4 11.4 8.05 8.8 10.05 11.05 8.89 9.56 10.85 11.8 8.4 9 10.5 11.5 8.94 10.42 11.9 12.6 8.8 10 11.64 12 9 10.56 11.64 12.89 9.6 10 11.21 12.64

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

4. GENETIC MODELS – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The best accuracy (∆ (i) = 0.175 %, and that of the testing data ∆ (i) = 0. 18%) of the GP model was obtained when the genes function set used and the Output of the discipulus GP is in C program. The C program for the heat transfer coefficient in natural convection as given below:
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

{{ f[0]=f[1]=f[2]=f[3]=f[4]=f[5]=f[6]=f[7]=0; L0: f[0]-=v[7]; L1: f[0]/=v[4]; L2:f[0]+=1.501374244689941f; L3:f[0]*=f[0]; L4: f[0]*=f[0]; L5: f[0]-=1.987620830535889f; L6:f[0]*=v[0]; L7:f[0]*=v[2]; L8:f[0]*=v[5]; L9: f[0]/=v[7]; L10: f[0]/=v[1]; L11: f[0]-=v[6]; L12:f[0]/=v[3]; L13: f[0]-=v[2]; L14: f[0]+=v[1]; L15: f[0]*=0.03275442123413086f; L16:f[0]/=-0.494312047958374f; L17:f[0]+=-1.549970149993897f; L18:f[0]/=v[5]; L19: f[0]+=v[1]; L20: f[0]+=f[0]; L21: f[0]+=f[0]; L22: f[0]+=v[3]; L23:f[0]+=v[1]; L24: f[0]+=v[1]; L25: }} Upon simplification, in case of natural convection, the heat transfer coefficient, h is given by,

Where V4 = Thermal Conductivity, V5= thermal diffusivity and V6=Toughness and Using GP simulation, in case of forced convection, the heat transfer coefficient, h is given by

Where V5 = Thermal Conductivity, V2= thermal diffusivity and V6=Toughness and

Using GP simulation, in case of natural convection, the number of cycles withstood (or thermal cycling resistance), TCR is given by h Where V3 = Thermal Conductivity, V1= thermal diffusivity and V2=Toughness

Using GP simulation, in case of natural convection, the thickness of coating against the thermal barrier ,t is given by
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Where V1 = Thermal Conductivity

and The results for thickness of coating against thermal barrier property simulation are shown in figure 1 and heat transfer coefficient simulation for natural and forced convection are shown in figure 2 and figure 3 and the Thermal cycling resistance are presented in figure 4. The Discipulus GP technique was able to simulate these output variables to within an average of 1.3% of their measured value, with no value exceeding a 0.01% deviation except in case of thickness deviation which is up to 3%.

Figure 1. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of thickness of coating against Thermal Barrier

Figure 2. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Heat Transfer coefficient Data under Natural convection

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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Figure3. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Heat Transfer coefficient Data under Forced convection

Figure 4. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Thermal Cycling Resistance Data.

5. CONCLUSIONS Genetic programming (GP) has proved to be a highly versatile and useful tool for identifying relationships in data for which a more precise theoretical construct is unavailable. The experimental data in this research were in fact the environment to which the population of models had to be adapted as much as possible. The models presented are a result of the self-organization and stochastic processes taking place during simulated evolution. Only four genetically developed models out of many successful solutions are presented here. The accuracies of solutions obtained by GP depend on applied evolutionary parameters and also on the number of measurements and the accuracy of measurement. In general, more measurements supply more information to evolution which improves the structures of models. In this paper, the genetic programming was used for predicting the thermal properties responsible for failure of ceramic coatings. In the proposed concept the mathematical models for verifying the experimental results of thermal characteristics are subject to adaptation. Its reliability is 99.26% in the first three cases and whereas it is 97% in fourth case. In the testing phase, the genetically produced model gives the same result as actually found out during the experiment, thereby with the reliability of cent percent. It is inferred from our research findings that the genetic programming approach could be well
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

used for the prediction thermal characteristics of ceramic coatings without conducting the experiments. This helps to establish efficient planning and optimizing of process for the quality production of ceramic coatings depending upon the functional requirements. Further work is on progress for the prediction/optimization of mechanical and tribological characteristics of ceramic coatings in addition to machinability of industrial ceramic coatings. REFERENCES [1] Dr. J. Fazlur Rahman et. al. and Mohammed Yunus et. al. (2009) , “Benefits of TBC Coatings on Engine applications”, Proceedings of International conference, INCAM 2009 at Kalsalingam University, Tamil Nadu, India. [2] Nusair Khan(2000), “Behaviour of air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings, Subjected to intense thermal cycling”, LASMIS, BP 2060, 12 Rue de Marie curie, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, France. [3] W.F. Calosso and A.R. Nicoll, (1987), Process requirements for plasma sprayed coatings for internal combustion engine components, Energy Sources Technology Conference and Exhibition, (Dallas, TX) 15-20 February, 87-ICE15, ASME, pp. 1-8. [4] Stragman T.E. (1985), Thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoils the Plasma Spray Process, J. Thin Solid Films, 127, pp. 93-105. [5] Dongming Zhu and Robert A. Miller (1998), “Thermal-Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine Engines”. [6] Nitin P. Padture, Maurice Gell, Eric H. Jordan (1998), Thermal Barrier Coatings for gas Turbine Engine Applications, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Material Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT06269-3136, USA. [7] P.Ramaswamy, S. Seetharamu, K. J. Rao, and K. B. R. Varma,(1998) “Thermal shock characteristics of plasma sprayed mullite coatings Technology”, J.Thermal spray Volume 7, Number 4, pp. 497-504(8). [8] Dr.J.Fazlur Rahman and Mohammed Yunus (2008), “Mechanical and Tribological characteristics of Tungsten Carbide Cobalt HVOF coatings”, Proceedings of International conference on MEMS held at Anjuman college of Engineering, Bhatkal, India. [9] Nordin, J.P. and Banzhaf, W. (1996) Controlling an Autonomous Robot with Genetic Programming.In: Proceedings of 1996 AAAI fall symposium on Genetic Programming, Cambridge, USA. [10] Koza, J.R., (1992) Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Natural Selection.MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. [11] J. R. Koza, Genetic programming II, The MIT Press, Massachusetts, 1994. [12] Koza, Bennett, Andre, & Keane, (1999) GENETIC PROGRAMMING III – Darwinian Invention and Problem Solving, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc. pp. 1154.
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[13] Francone, F., (1998-2000) Discipulus Owner’s Manual and Discipulus Tutorials, Register Machine Learning Technologies, Inc. [14] Spector, L., Langdon, W., B., O’Reilly, U., Angeline, P.J. (1999) Advances in Genetic Programming –Volume 3, MIT Press, pp. 476 [15] Tanguy, B. Besson J., Piques R., Pineau A. (2005), Ductile to brittle transition of an A508 steel characterized by Charpy impact test – Part 1: experimental results, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 72, pp.49 - 72. [16] M. Kovacic, J. Balic and M. Brezocnik, Evolutionary approach for cutting forces prediction in milling, Journal of materials processing technology, 155/156, 2004, pp.1647-1652. [17] H. Kurtaran, B. Ozcelik and T. Erzurumlu, Warpage optimization of a bus ceiling lamp base using neural network model and genetic algorithm, Journal of materials processing technology, 169(2), 2005, pp.314-319. [18] Sette S., Boullart L. Genetic programming: principles and applications, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 14 (2001), pp.727 – 736. [19] Pierreval H., Caux C., Paris J.L., Viguier F. Evolutionary approaches to the design and organization of manufacturing system, Computers & Industrial Engineering 44 (2003), pp.339-364. [20] Gusel L., Brezocnik M. Modeling of impact toughness of cold formed material by genetic programming, Comp. Mat. Sc. 37 (2006), pp.476 – 482. [21] Chang Y.S., Kwang S.P., Kim B.Y. Nonlinear model for ECG R-R interval variation using genetic programming approach, Future Generation Computer Systems 21, pp.1117-1123. [22] Brezocnik M., Gusel L. (2004), Predicting stress distribution in coldformed material with genetic programming, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol 23, pp.467-474. [23] M. Brezocnik, M. Kovacic and M. Ficko (2004), Prediction of surface roughness with genetic programming, Journal of materials processing technology, 157/158, 28-36. [24] M. Brezocnik and M. Kovacic (2003), Integrated genetic programming and genetic algorithm approach to predict surface roughness, Materials and manufacturing processes,18(4), pp.475–491.

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IJIERD

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A GENETIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH FOR THE PREDICTION OF THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CERAMIC COATINGS
Prof. Mohammed Yunus1, Dr. J. Fazlur Rahman2 and S.Ferozkhan3 1. Research scholar, Anna University of Technology Coimbatore Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India yunus.mohammed@rediffmail.com 2. Supervisor, Anna University of Technology Coimbatore Professor Emeritus, Department of MechanicalEngineering H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India jfazlu2003@yahoo.co.in 3. Lecturer, Department of Mechanical Engineering, H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India feroz_deen@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT In aerospace industry, the durability and efficiency of high temperature components are improved by the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBC). In order to characterize the TBC, it requires a better understanding of mechanical and tribological properties along with their failure mechanisms which are to be thoroughly investigated to estimate their performance. At high temperature applications, Thermal barrier (TB) and thermal cycling resistance (TCR) parameters play a very important role. In this regard, Thermal tests were carried out on three different types of commonly used industrial ceramic coatings namely, Alumina (A), Alumina-Titania (AT)) and partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ), in the present study. Genetic programming (GP) has proved to be a highly versatile and useful tool for identifying relationships in data for which a more precise theoretical construct is unavailable. This technical paper highlights how we use GP technique in the prediction of maximum thermal barrier (temperature) and thermal cycling resistance (failure) of various ceramic coatings, for different variables, which are used at high temperatures. Commercial Genetic
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Programming (GP) software-Discipulus is used to derive a mathematical modelling of relations for various input and output parameters used in characterisation. A special genetic approach for the modelling of thermal properties in coated components is proposed on the basis of a training data set. Various different genetic models for prediction of different thermal properties with greater accuracy (less than 1%) were also proposed by simulated evolution. Keywords: TBC – Thermal properties - Thermal tests – Thermal Barrier – Thermal cycling resistance – Genetic Programming – Evolutionary Algorithm – GP software Discipulus. 1.1 INTRODUCTION Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) which are ceramic coatings applied on metal substrate have vast applications in aerospace, gas turbine engines, diesel engines and power generators. A TBC protects a metal substrate from high temperature as well as excessive wear and corrosion. TBC has very low thermal conductivity, which insulates the underlying substrate material from high temperature environment. In the case of aerospace and gas turbine application, the thickness of TBC generally varies 100 to 400 microns [1]. At this thickness range, the temperature of insulated super alloy substrate can be reduced up to 2000C enabling that gas turbine engines to function at higher temperature. The characteristic of TBC originates from porosity, micro cracks and toughness of ceramic coatings. Ceramic coatings have applications primarily as wear coatings and thermal barrier coatings. TBCs are usually consisting of two layers; the first layer is a metallic bond coat, whose function is to protect the substrate material against oxidation, corrosion and to provide with a good adhesion to the thermal insulating ceramic layer while the second layer is of ceramic material which acts as TBC. The desirable properties of these include high thermal expansion, low thermal conductivity and good thermal cycling resistance [1]-[8]. 1.2 GENETIC PROGRAMMING (GP) Genetic Programming is a form of machine learning that automatically writes computer programs. It uses the principle of Darwinian Natural [12] Selection to select and reproduce “fitter” programs. GP applies that principle to a population of computer programs and evolves a program that predicts the target output from a data file of inputs and outputs [9-12]. The programs evolved by GP software – Discipulus [13], in this case Java, C/C++ and assembly interpreter programs represents a mapping of input to output data. This is done by Machine Learning that maps a set of input data to known output data. The aims of using the machine learning technique on engineering problems are to determine data mining and knowledge discovery. GP provides a significant benefit in many areas of science and industry[14]. The Discipulus
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GP [13] system uses AIM Learning Technology. “AIM” stands for “Automatic Induction of Machine Code”. AIM Learning and Discipulus deal with the machine learning speed problem. This speed allows the analyst to able to make many more runs to investigate relationships between data and output, assess information content of data streams, uncover bad data or outliers, assess time lag relationships between inputs and outputs, and the like. The evolved models have been or are being used to develop process prediction or control algorithms. Hence GP technology has been selected for the present work. GP solutions are computer programs that can be easily inspected, documented, evaluated, and tested. The GP solutions are easy to understand the nature of the derived relationship between input and output data and to examine the uncover relationships that were unknown before. Genetic Programming evolves both the structure and the constants to the solution simultaneously. Discipulus GP strongly discriminates between relevant input data and inputs that have no bearing on a solution [13]. In other words, Discipulus performs input variable selection as a by-product of its learning algorithm. The following step by step procedure will be implemented for a steady state GP algorithm [9-13],[14] 1. Initialization of population: Generate an initial population of random compositions of the functions and terminals of the problem (computer programs). 2. Fitness evaluation: Execute each program in the population, randomly it selects some programs and assign it a fitness value according to how well it solves the problem by mapping input data to output data. Some programs are selected as winners (best programs), and the others as losers. 3. Create a new population of computer programs by exchanging parts of the “best” programs with each other (called crossover). 4. Copy the best existing programs. 5. Create new computer programs by randomly changing each of the tournament winners to create two new programs mutation. 6. Iterate Until Convergence. Repeat steps two through four until a program is developed that predicts the behavior sufficiently. GP has been successfully used to solve problems in a wide range of broad categories [15-24]: 1. Systems Modelling, Curve Fitting, Data Modelling, and Symbolic Regression 2. Industrial Process Control 3. Financial Trading, Time Series Prediction and Economic Modelling 4. Optimisation and scheduling 5. Medicine, Biology and Bioinformatics 6. Design 7. Image and Signal processing 8. Entertainment and Computer games
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2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Three different commercially available ceramic coatings powders namely, Alumina, Alumina-Titania, Partially Stabilized Zirconia of two different thicknesses namely 100 to 250 microns were used for the preparation of coatings. A 40 KW Sulzer,[1]and [8] Metco plasma spray system with 7MB gun is used for this purpose. Mild steel plates of 50x50x6 mm were used as substrate to spray the ceramic oxides. They were grit blasted, degreased and spray coated with a 50 to 100 microns NiCrAl bond coat[. The ceramic TBC were then plasma sprayed according to spray parameters mentioned in table1. In this study, two response parameters such as thermal barrier and thermal cycling tests were considered. 2.1 THERMAL BARRIER TEST Thermal barrier tests were conducted by measuring the temperature of metal substrate using thermocouples, after heating the coating surface with electric heaters, between 7000C and 10000C for a period of half an hour to attain steady state, to get temperature drop across the substrate and ceramic coating. The heat transfer coefficient on the surface of coated plate is very important parameter in the selection of TBC [2]-[6]. This parameter is studied for different heat inputs under natural and forced convection. An electric heater connected with ammeter, voltmeter and a dimmerstat to control the heat input was used in the experimental setup to heat the substrate with coated surface. Two thermocouples of K-type namely chrome-alumel were used to measure the temperature at the substrate surface and as well as on the top of the coating for a given heat input. The temperature on the ceramic coated surface and metal surface is measured for three different coatings namely, Alumina (A), Alumina-Titania (AT) and Partially Stabilized zirconia (PSZ) and the heat transfer coefficients by natural and forced convection on the surface of the coated plate were calculated. In the case of forced convection, a blower was used to blow the air along the coated plate for different air velocities flowing parallel to the surface of the coatings, on three different coatings, heat inputs and the temperatures were measured using thermocouple. 2.2 THERMAL CYCLING TEST (TCT) Thermal cycling test is performed to determine the resistance of coated part for sudden changes in temperature [7] and to examine whether the sprayed coating can withstand severity of thermal cycling. The three different ceramic coatings with different thicknesses were subjected to thermal cycling by exposing to oxyacetylene flame till the coated surface is maintained around 10000C for about 1minute and subsequently cooled down by air till the temperature reaches down to around 1000C in the atmospheric conditions for 1 minute. The thermal cycling process is repeated until coating fails and peels off from the substrate.
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3. GENETIC PROGRAMMING METHODOLOGY In Genetic programming modelling, it is necessary to select suitable terminal from set F and available terminal genes from set f (0)[15-24]. From these, the evolutionary process will try to build as fit an organism (i.e. mathematical model) as possible for thermal characteristics prediction. The organisms consist of both terminal and function genes and have the nature of computer programs which differ in form and size. In our case the set of terminal genes f (0) is: f (0) = {Process inputs}. The selected set of function genes F is: F = {+, -, *, /}, where +,-,*, / are the mathematical operation of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The quality of the individual organism (i.e. prediction) is found out using fitness function. In our case, four different functions are used. 3.1 Process Inputs Ambient Temperature (0C), Temperature on coating side (0C), Temperature on substrate side (0C), Power (W), Velocity of air (m/sec) Toughness (MPa √m) Thermal conductivity (W/m K) Thermal Diffusivity (x 10-7m2/sec) 3.2 Measured Process Outputs Heat transfer coefficient under Natural convection (W/m2 0K) Heat transfer coefficient under Forced convection (W/m2 0K) Thickness of coating against thermal Barrier (0C) Thermal cycling Resistance (number of cycles withstood)
Table1. Experimental results of Thermal Cycling Resistance Test for different coatings
Sl.No. Thickness of coating in µm (V0) 150 225 300 150 225 300 150 225 300 number of cycles for Alumina-Titania (AT) (f0) Temperature of heating (V4) 700 700 700 850 850 850 1000 1000 1000 Number of cycles for Alumina (A) (f0) 280 290 310 260 270 280 250 260 270 number of cycles for Partial stabilised zirconia(PSZ) (f0) 405 425 445 390 410 425 360 380 400

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

345 360 375 330 345 360 320 330 340

Table 2. Experimental Results of evaluating thickness to withstand Thermal barrier for different coatings
S.No. Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V0) 700 800 900 Thickness of coating in µm(f0) 150 150 150 Temperature difference in 0C for Alumina (V2) 120 125 125 Temperature difference in 0C for Alumina- Titania (V2) 160 165 160 Temperature difference in 0C for PSZ (V2) 190 180 190

1 2 3

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4 5 6 7 8 1000 700 800 900 1000 150 300 300 300 300 120 135 145 140 145 160 170 175 170 175 180 210 215 210 215

Table3. Experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of natural convection for different coatings
Sl.No. Power in W (V0) 5 5.5 6 6.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V1) 69 75 85 94 106 115 174 183 Ambient Temperature in 0 C (V2) 35 40 45 55 85 100 130 164 Thickness of coating in µm (V3) 150 150 150 150 300 300 300 300 H in W/m2K for Alumina (f0) 3.9 4.14 3.95 4.26 3.44 3.44 3.8 3.66 H in W/m2K for AluminaTitania (f0) 3.48 3.65 3.65 3.75 3.25 3.2 3.2 3.4 H in W/m2K for PSZ(f0) 3.29 3.31 3.39 3.23 3.03 3.05 3 3.15

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Table 4. Experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of forced convection for different coatings
.S.N0. Power in W (V3) 5.5 6.5 6 6.5 5 6 6 6.5 5.5 6 5 5 5.5 6 5.5 6.5 6.5 5.5 5 5 6.5 5 6 5.5 6.5 6 5.5 5 6.5 6 5.5 5 Velocity of air in m/sec (V1) 1.401 1.253 1.401 1.085 0.8858 1.085 1.085 1.253 1.253 1.253 1.085 1.253 1.253 1.401 1.401 1.085 0.8858 0.8858 1.253 1.401 0.8858 1.401 1.253 1.085 1.401 0.8858 0.8858 0.8858 1.401 0.8858 1.085 1.085 Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V0) 35 80 70 90 78 85 105 69 40 75 75 56 56 88 46 72 120 65 60 50 88 65 90 48 70 115 55 65 65 90 58 60 Ambient Temperature in 0 C (V7) 30 65 65 70 65 80 60 48 35 70 60 50 50 40 40 52 90 60 55 45 57 50 50 45 50 70 50 60 42 85 55 55 Thickness of coating in µm (V4) 300 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 150 300 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 150 150 150 300 H in W/m2K for Alumina (f0) 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 H in W/m2K for AluminaTitania (f0) 12.75 12.8 13.8 11.84 8.8 11.43 11 13.2 12.05 12.84 9.5 10.75 12.6 13 13.1 12.64 10.72 10.6 11.21 11.64 11.24 12.86 12.45 11.35 13.85 10.25 10 8.4 14.64 10.64 11.64 9 H in W/m2K for PSZ (f0) 8.56 9.3 10.4 11.4 8.05 8.8 10.05 11.05 8.89 9.56 10.85 11.8 8.4 9 10.5 11.5 8.94 10.42 11.9 12.6 8.8 10 11.64 12 9 10.56 11.64 12.89 9.6 10 11.21 12.64

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

4. GENETIC MODELS – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The best accuracy (∆ (i) = 0.175 %, and that of the testing data ∆ (i) = 0. 18%) of the GP model was obtained when the genes function set used and the Output of the discipulus GP is in C program. The C program for the heat transfer coefficient in natural convection as given below:
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

{{ f[0]=f[1]=f[2]=f[3]=f[4]=f[5]=f[6]=f[7]=0; L0: f[0]-=v[7]; L1: f[0]/=v[4]; L2:f[0]+=1.501374244689941f; L3:f[0]*=f[0]; L4: f[0]*=f[0]; L5: f[0]-=1.987620830535889f; L6:f[0]*=v[0]; L7:f[0]*=v[2]; L8:f[0]*=v[5]; L9: f[0]/=v[7]; L10: f[0]/=v[1]; L11: f[0]-=v[6]; L12:f[0]/=v[3]; L13: f[0]-=v[2]; L14: f[0]+=v[1]; L15: f[0]*=0.03275442123413086f; L16:f[0]/=-0.494312047958374f; L17:f[0]+=-1.549970149993897f; L18:f[0]/=v[5]; L19: f[0]+=v[1]; L20: f[0]+=f[0]; L21: f[0]+=f[0]; L22: f[0]+=v[3]; L23:f[0]+=v[1]; L24: f[0]+=v[1]; L25: }} Upon simplification, in case of natural convection, the heat transfer coefficient, h is given by,

Where V4 = Thermal Conductivity, V5= thermal diffusivity and V6=Toughness and Using GP simulation, in case of forced convection, the heat transfer coefficient, h is given by

Where V5 = Thermal Conductivity, V2= thermal diffusivity and V6=Toughness and

Using GP simulation, in case of natural convection, the number of cycles withstood (or thermal cycling resistance), TCR is given by h Where V3 = Thermal Conductivity, V1= thermal diffusivity and V2=Toughness

Using GP simulation, in case of natural convection, the thickness of coating against the thermal barrier ,t is given by
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Where V1 = Thermal Conductivity

and The results for thickness of coating against thermal barrier property simulation are shown in figure 1 and heat transfer coefficient simulation for natural and forced convection are shown in figure 2 and figure 3 and the Thermal cycling resistance are presented in figure 4. The Discipulus GP technique was able to simulate these output variables to within an average of 1.3% of their measured value, with no value exceeding a 0.01% deviation except in case of thickness deviation which is up to 3%.

Figure 1. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of thickness of coating against Thermal Barrier

Figure 2. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Heat Transfer coefficient Data under Natural convection

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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Figure3. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Heat Transfer coefficient Data under Forced convection

Figure 4. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Thermal Cycling Resistance Data.

5. CONCLUSIONS Genetic programming (GP) has proved to be a highly versatile and useful tool for identifying relationships in data for which a more precise theoretical construct is unavailable. The experimental data in this research were in fact the environment to which the population of models had to be adapted as much as possible. The models presented are a result of the self-organization and stochastic processes taking place during simulated evolution. Only four genetically developed models out of many successful solutions are presented here. The accuracies of solutions obtained by GP depend on applied evolutionary parameters and also on the number of measurements and the accuracy of measurement. In general, more measurements supply more information to evolution which improves the structures of models. In this paper, the genetic programming was used for predicting the thermal properties responsible for failure of ceramic coatings. In the proposed concept the mathematical models for verifying the experimental results of thermal characteristics are subject to adaptation. Its reliability is 99.26% in the first three cases and whereas it is 97% in fourth case. In the testing phase, the genetically produced model gives the same result as actually found out during the experiment, thereby with the reliability of cent percent. It is inferred from our research findings that the genetic programming approach could be well
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

used for the prediction thermal characteristics of ceramic coatings without conducting the experiments. This helps to establish efficient planning and optimizing of process for the quality production of ceramic coatings depending upon the functional requirements. Further work is on progress for the prediction/optimization of mechanical and tribological characteristics of ceramic coatings in addition to machinability of industrial ceramic coatings. REFERENCES [1] Dr. J. Fazlur Rahman et. al. and Mohammed Yunus et. al. (2009) , “Benefits of TBC Coatings on Engine applications”, Proceedings of International conference, INCAM 2009 at Kalsalingam University, Tamil Nadu, India. [2] Nusair Khan(2000), “Behaviour of air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings, Subjected to intense thermal cycling”, LASMIS, BP 2060, 12 Rue de Marie curie, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, France. [3] W.F. Calosso and A.R. Nicoll, (1987), Process requirements for plasma sprayed coatings for internal combustion engine components, Energy Sources Technology Conference and Exhibition, (Dallas, TX) 15-20 February, 87-ICE15, ASME, pp. 1-8. [4] Stragman T.E. (1985), Thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoils the Plasma Spray Process, J. Thin Solid Films, 127, pp. 93-105. [5] Dongming Zhu and Robert A. Miller (1998), “Thermal-Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine Engines”. [6] Nitin P. Padture, Maurice Gell, Eric H. Jordan (1998), Thermal Barrier Coatings for gas Turbine Engine Applications, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Material Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT06269-3136, USA. [7] P.Ramaswamy, S. Seetharamu, K. J. Rao, and K. B. R. Varma,(1998) “Thermal shock characteristics of plasma sprayed mullite coatings Technology”, J.Thermal spray Volume 7, Number 4, pp. 497-504(8). [8] Dr.J.Fazlur Rahman and Mohammed Yunus (2008), “Mechanical and Tribological characteristics of Tungsten Carbide Cobalt HVOF coatings”, Proceedings of International conference on MEMS held at Anjuman college of Engineering, Bhatkal, India. [9] Nordin, J.P. and Banzhaf, W. (1996) Controlling an Autonomous Robot with Genetic Programming.In: Proceedings of 1996 AAAI fall symposium on Genetic Programming, Cambridge, USA. [10] Koza, J.R., (1992) Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Natural Selection.MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. [11] J. R. Koza, Genetic programming II, The MIT Press, Massachusetts, 1994. [12] Koza, Bennett, Andre, & Keane, (1999) GENETIC PROGRAMMING III – Darwinian Invention and Problem Solving, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc. pp. 1154.
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[13] Francone, F., (1998-2000) Discipulus Owner’s Manual and Discipulus Tutorials, Register Machine Learning Technologies, Inc. [14] Spector, L., Langdon, W., B., O’Reilly, U., Angeline, P.J. (1999) Advances in Genetic Programming –Volume 3, MIT Press, pp. 476 [15] Tanguy, B. Besson J., Piques R., Pineau A. (2005), Ductile to brittle transition of an A508 steel characterized by Charpy impact test – Part 1: experimental results, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 72, pp.49 - 72. [16] M. Kovacic, J. Balic and M. Brezocnik, Evolutionary approach for cutting forces prediction in milling, Journal of materials processing technology, 155/156, 2004, pp.1647-1652. [17] H. Kurtaran, B. Ozcelik and T. Erzurumlu, Warpage optimization of a bus ceiling lamp base using neural network model and genetic algorithm, Journal of materials processing technology, 169(2), 2005, pp.314-319. [18] Sette S., Boullart L. Genetic programming: principles and applications, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 14 (2001), pp.727 – 736. [19] Pierreval H., Caux C., Paris J.L., Viguier F. Evolutionary approaches to the design and organization of manufacturing system, Computers & Industrial Engineering 44 (2003), pp.339-364. [20] Gusel L., Brezocnik M. Modeling of impact toughness of cold formed material by genetic programming, Comp. Mat. Sc. 37 (2006), pp.476 – 482. [21] Chang Y.S., Kwang S.P., Kim B.Y. Nonlinear model for ECG R-R interval variation using genetic programming approach, Future Generation Computer Systems 21, pp.1117-1123. [22] Brezocnik M., Gusel L. (2004), Predicting stress distribution in coldformed material with genetic programming, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol 23, pp.467-474. [23] M. Brezocnik, M. Kovacic and M. Ficko (2004), Prediction of surface roughness with genetic programming, Journal of materials processing technology, 157/158, 28-36. [24] M. Brezocnik and M. Kovacic (2003), Integrated genetic programming and genetic algorithm approach to predict surface roughness, Materials and manufacturing processes,18(4), pp.475–491.

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International Journal of of Industrial Engineering Research International JournalIndustrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 and Development – 6987(Online)ISSN 0976 –1,6979(Print) (2011), © IAEME (IJIERD), Volume 2, Issue May - October ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2 ©IA Issue 1, May – October (2011), pp. 69-79 © IAEME, http://www.iaeme.com/ijierd.html

IJIERD

ISSN 0976 –

EME

A GENETIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH FOR THE PREDICTION OF THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CERAMIC COATINGS
Prof. Mohammed Yunus1, Dr. J. Fazlur Rahman2 and S.Ferozkhan3 1. Research scholar, Anna University of Technology Coimbatore Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India yunus.mohammed@rediffmail.com 2. Supervisor, Anna University of Technology Coimbatore Professor Emeritus, Department of MechanicalEngineering H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India jfazlu2003@yahoo.co.in 3. Lecturer, Department of Mechanical Engineering, H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India feroz_deen@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT In aerospace industry, the durability and efficiency of high temperature components are improved by the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBC). In order to characterize the TBC, it requires a better understanding of mechanical and tribological properties along with their failure mechanisms which are to be thoroughly investigated to estimate their performance. At high temperature applications, Thermal barrier (TB) and thermal cycling resistance (TCR) parameters play a very important role. In this regard, Thermal tests were carried out on three different types of commonly used industrial ceramic coatings namely, Alumina (A), Alumina-Titania (AT)) and partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ), in the present study. Genetic programming (GP) has proved to be a highly versatile and useful tool for identifying relationships in data for which a more precise theoretical construct is unavailable. This technical paper highlights how we use GP technique in the prediction of maximum thermal barrier (temperature) and thermal cycling resistance (failure) of various ceramic coatings, for different variables, which are used at high temperatures. Commercial Genetic
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Programming (GP) software-Discipulus is used to derive a mathematical modelling of relations for various input and output parameters used in characterisation. A special genetic approach for the modelling of thermal properties in coated components is proposed on the basis of a training data set. Various different genetic models for prediction of different thermal properties with greater accuracy (less than 1%) were also proposed by simulated evolution. Keywords: TBC – Thermal properties - Thermal tests – Thermal Barrier – Thermal cycling resistance – Genetic Programming – Evolutionary Algorithm – GP software Discipulus. 1.1 INTRODUCTION Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) which are ceramic coatings applied on metal substrate have vast applications in aerospace, gas turbine engines, diesel engines and power generators. A TBC protects a metal substrate from high temperature as well as excessive wear and corrosion. TBC has very low thermal conductivity, which insulates the underlying substrate material from high temperature environment. In the case of aerospace and gas turbine application, the thickness of TBC generally varies 100 to 400 microns [1]. At this thickness range, the temperature of insulated super alloy substrate can be reduced up to 2000C enabling that gas turbine engines to function at higher temperature. The characteristic of TBC originates from porosity, micro cracks and toughness of ceramic coatings. Ceramic coatings have applications primarily as wear coatings and thermal barrier coatings. TBCs are usually consisting of two layers; the first layer is a metallic bond coat, whose function is to protect the substrate material against oxidation, corrosion and to provide with a good adhesion to the thermal insulating ceramic layer while the second layer is of ceramic material which acts as TBC. The desirable properties of these include high thermal expansion, low thermal conductivity and good thermal cycling resistance [1]-[8]. 1.2 GENETIC PROGRAMMING (GP) Genetic Programming is a form of machine learning that automatically writes computer programs. It uses the principle of Darwinian Natural [12] Selection to select and reproduce “fitter” programs. GP applies that principle to a population of computer programs and evolves a program that predicts the target output from a data file of inputs and outputs [9-12]. The programs evolved by GP software – Discipulus [13], in this case Java, C/C++ and assembly interpreter programs represents a mapping of input to output data. This is done by Machine Learning that maps a set of input data to known output data. The aims of using the machine learning technique on engineering problems are to determine data mining and knowledge discovery. GP provides a significant benefit in many areas of science and industry[14]. The Discipulus
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

GP [13] system uses AIM Learning Technology. “AIM” stands for “Automatic Induction of Machine Code”. AIM Learning and Discipulus deal with the machine learning speed problem. This speed allows the analyst to able to make many more runs to investigate relationships between data and output, assess information content of data streams, uncover bad data or outliers, assess time lag relationships between inputs and outputs, and the like. The evolved models have been or are being used to develop process prediction or control algorithms. Hence GP technology has been selected for the present work. GP solutions are computer programs that can be easily inspected, documented, evaluated, and tested. The GP solutions are easy to understand the nature of the derived relationship between input and output data and to examine the uncover relationships that were unknown before. Genetic Programming evolves both the structure and the constants to the solution simultaneously. Discipulus GP strongly discriminates between relevant input data and inputs that have no bearing on a solution [13]. In other words, Discipulus performs input variable selection as a by-product of its learning algorithm. The following step by step procedure will be implemented for a steady state GP algorithm [9-13],[14] 1. Initialization of population: Generate an initial population of random compositions of the functions and terminals of the problem (computer programs). 2. Fitness evaluation: Execute each program in the population, randomly it selects some programs and assign it a fitness value according to how well it solves the problem by mapping input data to output data. Some programs are selected as winners (best programs), and the others as losers. 3. Create a new population of computer programs by exchanging parts of the “best” programs with each other (called crossover). 4. Copy the best existing programs. 5. Create new computer programs by randomly changing each of the tournament winners to create two new programs mutation. 6. Iterate Until Convergence. Repeat steps two through four until a program is developed that predicts the behavior sufficiently. GP has been successfully used to solve problems in a wide range of broad categories [15-24]: 1. Systems Modelling, Curve Fitting, Data Modelling, and Symbolic Regression 2. Industrial Process Control 3. Financial Trading, Time Series Prediction and Economic Modelling 4. Optimisation and scheduling 5. Medicine, Biology and Bioinformatics 6. Design 7. Image and Signal processing 8. Entertainment and Computer games
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Three different commercially available ceramic coatings powders namely, Alumina, Alumina-Titania, Partially Stabilized Zirconia of two different thicknesses namely 100 to 250 microns were used for the preparation of coatings. A 40 KW Sulzer,[1]and [8] Metco plasma spray system with 7MB gun is used for this purpose. Mild steel plates of 50x50x6 mm were used as substrate to spray the ceramic oxides. They were grit blasted, degreased and spray coated with a 50 to 100 microns NiCrAl bond coat[. The ceramic TBC were then plasma sprayed according to spray parameters mentioned in table1. In this study, two response parameters such as thermal barrier and thermal cycling tests were considered. 2.1 THERMAL BARRIER TEST Thermal barrier tests were conducted by measuring the temperature of metal substrate using thermocouples, after heating the coating surface with electric heaters, between 7000C and 10000C for a period of half an hour to attain steady state, to get temperature drop across the substrate and ceramic coating. The heat transfer coefficient on the surface of coated plate is very important parameter in the selection of TBC [2]-[6]. This parameter is studied for different heat inputs under natural and forced convection. An electric heater connected with ammeter, voltmeter and a dimmerstat to control the heat input was used in the experimental setup to heat the substrate with coated surface. Two thermocouples of K-type namely chrome-alumel were used to measure the temperature at the substrate surface and as well as on the top of the coating for a given heat input. The temperature on the ceramic coated surface and metal surface is measured for three different coatings namely, Alumina (A), Alumina-Titania (AT) and Partially Stabilized zirconia (PSZ) and the heat transfer coefficients by natural and forced convection on the surface of the coated plate were calculated. In the case of forced convection, a blower was used to blow the air along the coated plate for different air velocities flowing parallel to the surface of the coatings, on three different coatings, heat inputs and the temperatures were measured using thermocouple. 2.2 THERMAL CYCLING TEST (TCT) Thermal cycling test is performed to determine the resistance of coated part for sudden changes in temperature [7] and to examine whether the sprayed coating can withstand severity of thermal cycling. The three different ceramic coatings with different thicknesses were subjected to thermal cycling by exposing to oxyacetylene flame till the coated surface is maintained around 10000C for about 1minute and subsequently cooled down by air till the temperature reaches down to around 1000C in the atmospheric conditions for 1 minute. The thermal cycling process is repeated until coating fails and peels off from the substrate.
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

3. GENETIC PROGRAMMING METHODOLOGY In Genetic programming modelling, it is necessary to select suitable terminal from set F and available terminal genes from set f (0)[15-24]. From these, the evolutionary process will try to build as fit an organism (i.e. mathematical model) as possible for thermal characteristics prediction. The organisms consist of both terminal and function genes and have the nature of computer programs which differ in form and size. In our case the set of terminal genes f (0) is: f (0) = {Process inputs}. The selected set of function genes F is: F = {+, -, *, /}, where +,-,*, / are the mathematical operation of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The quality of the individual organism (i.e. prediction) is found out using fitness function. In our case, four different functions are used. 3.1 Process Inputs Ambient Temperature (0C), Temperature on coating side (0C), Temperature on substrate side (0C), Power (W), Velocity of air (m/sec) Toughness (MPa √m) Thermal conductivity (W/m K) Thermal Diffusivity (x 10-7m2/sec) 3.2 Measured Process Outputs Heat transfer coefficient under Natural convection (W/m2 0K) Heat transfer coefficient under Forced convection (W/m2 0K) Thickness of coating against thermal Barrier (0C) Thermal cycling Resistance (number of cycles withstood)
Table1. Experimental results of Thermal Cycling Resistance Test for different coatings
Sl.No. Thickness of coating in µm (V0) 150 225 300 150 225 300 150 225 300 number of cycles for Alumina-Titania (AT) (f0) Temperature of heating (V4) 700 700 700 850 850 850 1000 1000 1000 Number of cycles for Alumina (A) (f0) 280 290 310 260 270 280 250 260 270 number of cycles for Partial stabilised zirconia(PSZ) (f0) 405 425 445 390 410 425 360 380 400

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

345 360 375 330 345 360 320 330 340

Table 2. Experimental Results of evaluating thickness to withstand Thermal barrier for different coatings
S.No. Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V0) 700 800 900 Thickness of coating in µm(f0) 150 150 150 Temperature difference in 0C for Alumina (V2) 120 125 125 Temperature difference in 0C for Alumina- Titania (V2) 160 165 160 Temperature difference in 0C for PSZ (V2) 190 180 190

1 2 3

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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME
4 5 6 7 8 1000 700 800 900 1000 150 300 300 300 300 120 135 145 140 145 160 170 175 170 175 180 210 215 210 215

Table3. Experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of natural convection for different coatings
Sl.No. Power in W (V0) 5 5.5 6 6.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V1) 69 75 85 94 106 115 174 183 Ambient Temperature in 0 C (V2) 35 40 45 55 85 100 130 164 Thickness of coating in µm (V3) 150 150 150 150 300 300 300 300 H in W/m2K for Alumina (f0) 3.9 4.14 3.95 4.26 3.44 3.44 3.8 3.66 H in W/m2K for AluminaTitania (f0) 3.48 3.65 3.65 3.75 3.25 3.2 3.2 3.4 H in W/m2K for PSZ(f0) 3.29 3.31 3.39 3.23 3.03 3.05 3 3.15

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Table 4. Experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of forced convection for different coatings
.S.N0. Power in W (V3) 5.5 6.5 6 6.5 5 6 6 6.5 5.5 6 5 5 5.5 6 5.5 6.5 6.5 5.5 5 5 6.5 5 6 5.5 6.5 6 5.5 5 6.5 6 5.5 5 Velocity of air in m/sec (V1) 1.401 1.253 1.401 1.085 0.8858 1.085 1.085 1.253 1.253 1.253 1.085 1.253 1.253 1.401 1.401 1.085 0.8858 0.8858 1.253 1.401 0.8858 1.401 1.253 1.085 1.401 0.8858 0.8858 0.8858 1.401 0.8858 1.085 1.085 Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V0) 35 80 70 90 78 85 105 69 40 75 75 56 56 88 46 72 120 65 60 50 88 65 90 48 70 115 55 65 65 90 58 60 Ambient Temperature in 0 C (V7) 30 65 65 70 65 80 60 48 35 70 60 50 50 40 40 52 90 60 55 45 57 50 50 45 50 70 50 60 42 85 55 55 Thickness of coating in µm (V4) 300 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 150 300 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 150 150 150 300 H in W/m2K for Alumina (f0) 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 H in W/m2K for AluminaTitania (f0) 12.75 12.8 13.8 11.84 8.8 11.43 11 13.2 12.05 12.84 9.5 10.75 12.6 13 13.1 12.64 10.72 10.6 11.21 11.64 11.24 12.86 12.45 11.35 13.85 10.25 10 8.4 14.64 10.64 11.64 9 H in W/m2K for PSZ (f0) 8.56 9.3 10.4 11.4 8.05 8.8 10.05 11.05 8.89 9.56 10.85 11.8 8.4 9 10.5 11.5 8.94 10.42 11.9 12.6 8.8 10 11.64 12 9 10.56 11.64 12.89 9.6 10 11.21 12.64

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

4. GENETIC MODELS – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The best accuracy (∆ (i) = 0.175 %, and that of the testing data ∆ (i) = 0. 18%) of the GP model was obtained when the genes function set used and the Output of the discipulus GP is in C program. The C program for the heat transfer coefficient in natural convection as given below:
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

{{ f[0]=f[1]=f[2]=f[3]=f[4]=f[5]=f[6]=f[7]=0; L0: f[0]-=v[7]; L1: f[0]/=v[4]; L2:f[0]+=1.501374244689941f; L3:f[0]*=f[0]; L4: f[0]*=f[0]; L5: f[0]-=1.987620830535889f; L6:f[0]*=v[0]; L7:f[0]*=v[2]; L8:f[0]*=v[5]; L9: f[0]/=v[7]; L10: f[0]/=v[1]; L11: f[0]-=v[6]; L12:f[0]/=v[3]; L13: f[0]-=v[2]; L14: f[0]+=v[1]; L15: f[0]*=0.03275442123413086f; L16:f[0]/=-0.494312047958374f; L17:f[0]+=-1.549970149993897f; L18:f[0]/=v[5]; L19: f[0]+=v[1]; L20: f[0]+=f[0]; L21: f[0]+=f[0]; L22: f[0]+=v[3]; L23:f[0]+=v[1]; L24: f[0]+=v[1]; L25: }} Upon simplification, in case of natural convection, the heat transfer coefficient, h is given by,

Where V4 = Thermal Conductivity, V5= thermal diffusivity and V6=Toughness and Using GP simulation, in case of forced convection, the heat transfer coefficient, h is given by

Where V5 = Thermal Conductivity, V2= thermal diffusivity and V6=Toughness and

Using GP simulation, in case of natural convection, the number of cycles withstood (or thermal cycling resistance), TCR is given by h Where V3 = Thermal Conductivity, V1= thermal diffusivity and V2=Toughness

Using GP simulation, in case of natural convection, the thickness of coating against the thermal barrier ,t is given by
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Where V1 = Thermal Conductivity

and The results for thickness of coating against thermal barrier property simulation are shown in figure 1 and heat transfer coefficient simulation for natural and forced convection are shown in figure 2 and figure 3 and the Thermal cycling resistance are presented in figure 4. The Discipulus GP technique was able to simulate these output variables to within an average of 1.3% of their measured value, with no value exceeding a 0.01% deviation except in case of thickness deviation which is up to 3%.

Figure 1. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of thickness of coating against Thermal Barrier

Figure 2. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Heat Transfer coefficient Data under Natural convection

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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Figure3. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Heat Transfer coefficient Data under Forced convection

Figure 4. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Thermal Cycling Resistance Data.

5. CONCLUSIONS Genetic programming (GP) has proved to be a highly versatile and useful tool for identifying relationships in data for which a more precise theoretical construct is unavailable. The experimental data in this research were in fact the environment to which the population of models had to be adapted as much as possible. The models presented are a result of the self-organization and stochastic processes taking place during simulated evolution. Only four genetically developed models out of many successful solutions are presented here. The accuracies of solutions obtained by GP depend on applied evolutionary parameters and also on the number of measurements and the accuracy of measurement. In general, more measurements supply more information to evolution which improves the structures of models. In this paper, the genetic programming was used for predicting the thermal properties responsible for failure of ceramic coatings. In the proposed concept the mathematical models for verifying the experimental results of thermal characteristics are subject to adaptation. Its reliability is 99.26% in the first three cases and whereas it is 97% in fourth case. In the testing phase, the genetically produced model gives the same result as actually found out during the experiment, thereby with the reliability of cent percent. It is inferred from our research findings that the genetic programming approach could be well
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

used for the prediction thermal characteristics of ceramic coatings without conducting the experiments. This helps to establish efficient planning and optimizing of process for the quality production of ceramic coatings depending upon the functional requirements. Further work is on progress for the prediction/optimization of mechanical and tribological characteristics of ceramic coatings in addition to machinability of industrial ceramic coatings. REFERENCES [1] Dr. J. Fazlur Rahman et. al. and Mohammed Yunus et. al. (2009) , “Benefits of TBC Coatings on Engine applications”, Proceedings of International conference, INCAM 2009 at Kalsalingam University, Tamil Nadu, India. [2] Nusair Khan(2000), “Behaviour of air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings, Subjected to intense thermal cycling”, LASMIS, BP 2060, 12 Rue de Marie curie, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, France. [3] W.F. Calosso and A.R. Nicoll, (1987), Process requirements for plasma sprayed coatings for internal combustion engine components, Energy Sources Technology Conference and Exhibition, (Dallas, TX) 15-20 February, 87-ICE15, ASME, pp. 1-8. [4] Stragman T.E. (1985), Thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoils the Plasma Spray Process, J. Thin Solid Films, 127, pp. 93-105. [5] Dongming Zhu and Robert A. Miller (1998), “Thermal-Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine Engines”. [6] Nitin P. Padture, Maurice Gell, Eric H. Jordan (1998), Thermal Barrier Coatings for gas Turbine Engine Applications, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Material Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT06269-3136, USA. [7] P.Ramaswamy, S. Seetharamu, K. J. Rao, and K. B. R. Varma,(1998) “Thermal shock characteristics of plasma sprayed mullite coatings Technology”, J.Thermal spray Volume 7, Number 4, pp. 497-504(8). [8] Dr.J.Fazlur Rahman and Mohammed Yunus (2008), “Mechanical and Tribological characteristics of Tungsten Carbide Cobalt HVOF coatings”, Proceedings of International conference on MEMS held at Anjuman college of Engineering, Bhatkal, India. [9] Nordin, J.P. and Banzhaf, W. (1996) Controlling an Autonomous Robot with Genetic Programming.In: Proceedings of 1996 AAAI fall symposium on Genetic Programming, Cambridge, USA. [10] Koza, J.R., (1992) Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Natural Selection.MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. [11] J. R. Koza, Genetic programming II, The MIT Press, Massachusetts, 1994. [12] Koza, Bennett, Andre, & Keane, (1999) GENETIC PROGRAMMING III – Darwinian Invention and Problem Solving, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc. pp. 1154.
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

[13] Francone, F., (1998-2000) Discipulus Owner’s Manual and Discipulus Tutorials, Register Machine Learning Technologies, Inc. [14] Spector, L., Langdon, W., B., O’Reilly, U., Angeline, P.J. (1999) Advances in Genetic Programming –Volume 3, MIT Press, pp. 476 [15] Tanguy, B. Besson J., Piques R., Pineau A. (2005), Ductile to brittle transition of an A508 steel characterized by Charpy impact test – Part 1: experimental results, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 72, pp.49 - 72. [16] M. Kovacic, J. Balic and M. Brezocnik, Evolutionary approach for cutting forces prediction in milling, Journal of materials processing technology, 155/156, 2004, pp.1647-1652. [17] H. Kurtaran, B. Ozcelik and T. Erzurumlu, Warpage optimization of a bus ceiling lamp base using neural network model and genetic algorithm, Journal of materials processing technology, 169(2), 2005, pp.314-319. [18] Sette S., Boullart L. Genetic programming: principles and applications, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 14 (2001), pp.727 – 736. [19] Pierreval H., Caux C., Paris J.L., Viguier F. Evolutionary approaches to the design and organization of manufacturing system, Computers & Industrial Engineering 44 (2003), pp.339-364. [20] Gusel L., Brezocnik M. Modeling of impact toughness of cold formed material by genetic programming, Comp. Mat. Sc. 37 (2006), pp.476 – 482. [21] Chang Y.S., Kwang S.P., Kim B.Y. Nonlinear model for ECG R-R interval variation using genetic programming approach, Future Generation Computer Systems 21, pp.1117-1123. [22] Brezocnik M., Gusel L. (2004), Predicting stress distribution in coldformed material with genetic programming, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol 23, pp.467-474. [23] M. Brezocnik, M. Kovacic and M. Ficko (2004), Prediction of surface roughness with genetic programming, Journal of materials processing technology, 157/158, 28-36. [24] M. Brezocnik and M. Kovacic (2003), Integrated genetic programming and genetic algorithm approach to predict surface roughness, Materials and manufacturing processes,18(4), pp.475–491.

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International Journal of of Industrial Engineering Research International JournalIndustrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 and Development – 6987(Online)ISSN 0976 –1,6979(Print) (2011), © IAEME (IJIERD), Volume 2, Issue May - October ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2 ©IA Issue 1, May – October (2011), pp. 69-79 © IAEME, http://www.iaeme.com/ijierd.html

IJIERD

ISSN 0976 –

EME

A GENETIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH FOR THE PREDICTION OF THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CERAMIC COATINGS
Prof. Mohammed Yunus1, Dr. J. Fazlur Rahman2 and S.Ferozkhan3 1. Research scholar, Anna University of Technology Coimbatore Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India yunus.mohammed@rediffmail.com 2. Supervisor, Anna University of Technology Coimbatore Professor Emeritus, Department of MechanicalEngineering H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India jfazlu2003@yahoo.co.in 3. Lecturer, Department of Mechanical Engineering, H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India feroz_deen@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT In aerospace industry, the durability and efficiency of high temperature components are improved by the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBC). In order to characterize the TBC, it requires a better understanding of mechanical and tribological properties along with their failure mechanisms which are to be thoroughly investigated to estimate their performance. At high temperature applications, Thermal barrier (TB) and thermal cycling resistance (TCR) parameters play a very important role. In this regard, Thermal tests were carried out on three different types of commonly used industrial ceramic coatings namely, Alumina (A), Alumina-Titania (AT)) and partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ), in the present study. Genetic programming (GP) has proved to be a highly versatile and useful tool for identifying relationships in data for which a more precise theoretical construct is unavailable. This technical paper highlights how we use GP technique in the prediction of maximum thermal barrier (temperature) and thermal cycling resistance (failure) of various ceramic coatings, for different variables, which are used at high temperatures. Commercial Genetic
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Programming (GP) software-Discipulus is used to derive a mathematical modelling of relations for various input and output parameters used in characterisation. A special genetic approach for the modelling of thermal properties in coated components is proposed on the basis of a training data set. Various different genetic models for prediction of different thermal properties with greater accuracy (less than 1%) were also proposed by simulated evolution. Keywords: TBC – Thermal properties - Thermal tests – Thermal Barrier – Thermal cycling resistance – Genetic Programming – Evolutionary Algorithm – GP software Discipulus. 1.1 INTRODUCTION Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) which are ceramic coatings applied on metal substrate have vast applications in aerospace, gas turbine engines, diesel engines and power generators. A TBC protects a metal substrate from high temperature as well as excessive wear and corrosion. TBC has very low thermal conductivity, which insulates the underlying substrate material from high temperature environment. In the case of aerospace and gas turbine application, the thickness of TBC generally varies 100 to 400 microns [1]. At this thickness range, the temperature of insulated super alloy substrate can be reduced up to 2000C enabling that gas turbine engines to function at higher temperature. The characteristic of TBC originates from porosity, micro cracks and toughness of ceramic coatings. Ceramic coatings have applications primarily as wear coatings and thermal barrier coatings. TBCs are usually consisting of two layers; the first layer is a metallic bond coat, whose function is to protect the substrate material against oxidation, corrosion and to provide with a good adhesion to the thermal insulating ceramic layer while the second layer is of ceramic material which acts as TBC. The desirable properties of these include high thermal expansion, low thermal conductivity and good thermal cycling resistance [1]-[8]. 1.2 GENETIC PROGRAMMING (GP) Genetic Programming is a form of machine learning that automatically writes computer programs. It uses the principle of Darwinian Natural [12] Selection to select and reproduce “fitter” programs. GP applies that principle to a population of computer programs and evolves a program that predicts the target output from a data file of inputs and outputs [9-12]. The programs evolved by GP software – Discipulus [13], in this case Java, C/C++ and assembly interpreter programs represents a mapping of input to output data. This is done by Machine Learning that maps a set of input data to known output data. The aims of using the machine learning technique on engineering problems are to determine data mining and knowledge discovery. GP provides a significant benefit in many areas of science and industry[14]. The Discipulus
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

GP [13] system uses AIM Learning Technology. “AIM” stands for “Automatic Induction of Machine Code”. AIM Learning and Discipulus deal with the machine learning speed problem. This speed allows the analyst to able to make many more runs to investigate relationships between data and output, assess information content of data streams, uncover bad data or outliers, assess time lag relationships between inputs and outputs, and the like. The evolved models have been or are being used to develop process prediction or control algorithms. Hence GP technology has been selected for the present work. GP solutions are computer programs that can be easily inspected, documented, evaluated, and tested. The GP solutions are easy to understand the nature of the derived relationship between input and output data and to examine the uncover relationships that were unknown before. Genetic Programming evolves both the structure and the constants to the solution simultaneously. Discipulus GP strongly discriminates between relevant input data and inputs that have no bearing on a solution [13]. In other words, Discipulus performs input variable selection as a by-product of its learning algorithm. The following step by step procedure will be implemented for a steady state GP algorithm [9-13],[14] 1. Initialization of population: Generate an initial population of random compositions of the functions and terminals of the problem (computer programs). 2. Fitness evaluation: Execute each program in the population, randomly it selects some programs and assign it a fitness value according to how well it solves the problem by mapping input data to output data. Some programs are selected as winners (best programs), and the others as losers. 3. Create a new population of computer programs by exchanging parts of the “best” programs with each other (called crossover). 4. Copy the best existing programs. 5. Create new computer programs by randomly changing each of the tournament winners to create two new programs mutation. 6. Iterate Until Convergence. Repeat steps two through four until a program is developed that predicts the behavior sufficiently. GP has been successfully used to solve problems in a wide range of broad categories [15-24]: 1. Systems Modelling, Curve Fitting, Data Modelling, and Symbolic Regression 2. Industrial Process Control 3. Financial Trading, Time Series Prediction and Economic Modelling 4. Optimisation and scheduling 5. Medicine, Biology and Bioinformatics 6. Design 7. Image and Signal processing 8. Entertainment and Computer games
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Three different commercially available ceramic coatings powders namely, Alumina, Alumina-Titania, Partially Stabilized Zirconia of two different thicknesses namely 100 to 250 microns were used for the preparation of coatings. A 40 KW Sulzer,[1]and [8] Metco plasma spray system with 7MB gun is used for this purpose. Mild steel plates of 50x50x6 mm were used as substrate to spray the ceramic oxides. They were grit blasted, degreased and spray coated with a 50 to 100 microns NiCrAl bond coat[. The ceramic TBC were then plasma sprayed according to spray parameters mentioned in table1. In this study, two response parameters such as thermal barrier and thermal cycling tests were considered. 2.1 THERMAL BARRIER TEST Thermal barrier tests were conducted by measuring the temperature of metal substrate using thermocouples, after heating the coating surface with electric heaters, between 7000C and 10000C for a period of half an hour to attain steady state, to get temperature drop across the substrate and ceramic coating. The heat transfer coefficient on the surface of coated plate is very important parameter in the selection of TBC [2]-[6]. This parameter is studied for different heat inputs under natural and forced convection. An electric heater connected with ammeter, voltmeter and a dimmerstat to control the heat input was used in the experimental setup to heat the substrate with coated surface. Two thermocouples of K-type namely chrome-alumel were used to measure the temperature at the substrate surface and as well as on the top of the coating for a given heat input. The temperature on the ceramic coated surface and metal surface is measured for three different coatings namely, Alumina (A), Alumina-Titania (AT) and Partially Stabilized zirconia (PSZ) and the heat transfer coefficients by natural and forced convection on the surface of the coated plate were calculated. In the case of forced convection, a blower was used to blow the air along the coated plate for different air velocities flowing parallel to the surface of the coatings, on three different coatings, heat inputs and the temperatures were measured using thermocouple. 2.2 THERMAL CYCLING TEST (TCT) Thermal cycling test is performed to determine the resistance of coated part for sudden changes in temperature [7] and to examine whether the sprayed coating can withstand severity of thermal cycling. The three different ceramic coatings with different thicknesses were subjected to thermal cycling by exposing to oxyacetylene flame till the coated surface is maintained around 10000C for about 1minute and subsequently cooled down by air till the temperature reaches down to around 1000C in the atmospheric conditions for 1 minute. The thermal cycling process is repeated until coating fails and peels off from the substrate.
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

3. GENETIC PROGRAMMING METHODOLOGY In Genetic programming modelling, it is necessary to select suitable terminal from set F and available terminal genes from set f (0)[15-24]. From these, the evolutionary process will try to build as fit an organism (i.e. mathematical model) as possible for thermal characteristics prediction. The organisms consist of both terminal and function genes and have the nature of computer programs which differ in form and size. In our case the set of terminal genes f (0) is: f (0) = {Process inputs}. The selected set of function genes F is: F = {+, -, *, /}, where +,-,*, / are the mathematical operation of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The quality of the individual organism (i.e. prediction) is found out using fitness function. In our case, four different functions are used. 3.1 Process Inputs Ambient Temperature (0C), Temperature on coating side (0C), Temperature on substrate side (0C), Power (W), Velocity of air (m/sec) Toughness (MPa √m) Thermal conductivity (W/m K) Thermal Diffusivity (x 10-7m2/sec) 3.2 Measured Process Outputs Heat transfer coefficient under Natural convection (W/m2 0K) Heat transfer coefficient under Forced convection (W/m2 0K) Thickness of coating against thermal Barrier (0C) Thermal cycling Resistance (number of cycles withstood)
Table1. Experimental results of Thermal Cycling Resistance Test for different coatings
Sl.No. Thickness of coating in µm (V0) 150 225 300 150 225 300 150 225 300 number of cycles for Alumina-Titania (AT) (f0) Temperature of heating (V4) 700 700 700 850 850 850 1000 1000 1000 Number of cycles for Alumina (A) (f0) 280 290 310 260 270 280 250 260 270 number of cycles for Partial stabilised zirconia(PSZ) (f0) 405 425 445 390 410 425 360 380 400

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

345 360 375 330 345 360 320 330 340

Table 2. Experimental Results of evaluating thickness to withstand Thermal barrier for different coatings
S.No. Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V0) 700 800 900 Thickness of coating in µm(f0) 150 150 150 Temperature difference in 0C for Alumina (V2) 120 125 125 Temperature difference in 0C for Alumina- Titania (V2) 160 165 160 Temperature difference in 0C for PSZ (V2) 190 180 190

1 2 3

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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME
4 5 6 7 8 1000 700 800 900 1000 150 300 300 300 300 120 135 145 140 145 160 170 175 170 175 180 210 215 210 215

Table3. Experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of natural convection for different coatings
Sl.No. Power in W (V0) 5 5.5 6 6.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V1) 69 75 85 94 106 115 174 183 Ambient Temperature in 0 C (V2) 35 40 45 55 85 100 130 164 Thickness of coating in µm (V3) 150 150 150 150 300 300 300 300 H in W/m2K for Alumina (f0) 3.9 4.14 3.95 4.26 3.44 3.44 3.8 3.66 H in W/m2K for AluminaTitania (f0) 3.48 3.65 3.65 3.75 3.25 3.2 3.2 3.4 H in W/m2K for PSZ(f0) 3.29 3.31 3.39 3.23 3.03 3.05 3 3.15

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Table 4. Experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of forced convection for different coatings
.S.N0. Power in W (V3) 5.5 6.5 6 6.5 5 6 6 6.5 5.5 6 5 5 5.5 6 5.5 6.5 6.5 5.5 5 5 6.5 5 6 5.5 6.5 6 5.5 5 6.5 6 5.5 5 Velocity of air in m/sec (V1) 1.401 1.253 1.401 1.085 0.8858 1.085 1.085 1.253 1.253 1.253 1.085 1.253 1.253 1.401 1.401 1.085 0.8858 0.8858 1.253 1.401 0.8858 1.401 1.253 1.085 1.401 0.8858 0.8858 0.8858 1.401 0.8858 1.085 1.085 Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V0) 35 80 70 90 78 85 105 69 40 75 75 56 56 88 46 72 120 65 60 50 88 65 90 48 70 115 55 65 65 90 58 60 Ambient Temperature in 0 C (V7) 30 65 65 70 65 80 60 48 35 70 60 50 50 40 40 52 90 60 55 45 57 50 50 45 50 70 50 60 42 85 55 55 Thickness of coating in µm (V4) 300 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 150 300 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 150 150 150 300 H in W/m2K for Alumina (f0) 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 H in W/m2K for AluminaTitania (f0) 12.75 12.8 13.8 11.84 8.8 11.43 11 13.2 12.05 12.84 9.5 10.75 12.6 13 13.1 12.64 10.72 10.6 11.21 11.64 11.24 12.86 12.45 11.35 13.85 10.25 10 8.4 14.64 10.64 11.64 9 H in W/m2K for PSZ (f0) 8.56 9.3 10.4 11.4 8.05 8.8 10.05 11.05 8.89 9.56 10.85 11.8 8.4 9 10.5 11.5 8.94 10.42 11.9 12.6 8.8 10 11.64 12 9 10.56 11.64 12.89 9.6 10 11.21 12.64

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

4. GENETIC MODELS – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The best accuracy (∆ (i) = 0.175 %, and that of the testing data ∆ (i) = 0. 18%) of the GP model was obtained when the genes function set used and the Output of the discipulus GP is in C program. The C program for the heat transfer coefficient in natural convection as given below:
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

{{ f[0]=f[1]=f[2]=f[3]=f[4]=f[5]=f[6]=f[7]=0; L0: f[0]-=v[7]; L1: f[0]/=v[4]; L2:f[0]+=1.501374244689941f; L3:f[0]*=f[0]; L4: f[0]*=f[0]; L5: f[0]-=1.987620830535889f; L6:f[0]*=v[0]; L7:f[0]*=v[2]; L8:f[0]*=v[5]; L9: f[0]/=v[7]; L10: f[0]/=v[1]; L11: f[0]-=v[6]; L12:f[0]/=v[3]; L13: f[0]-=v[2]; L14: f[0]+=v[1]; L15: f[0]*=0.03275442123413086f; L16:f[0]/=-0.494312047958374f; L17:f[0]+=-1.549970149993897f; L18:f[0]/=v[5]; L19: f[0]+=v[1]; L20: f[0]+=f[0]; L21: f[0]+=f[0]; L22: f[0]+=v[3]; L23:f[0]+=v[1]; L24: f[0]+=v[1]; L25: }} Upon simplification, in case of natural convection, the heat transfer coefficient, h is given by,

Where V4 = Thermal Conductivity, V5= thermal diffusivity and V6=Toughness and Using GP simulation, in case of forced convection, the heat transfer coefficient, h is given by

Where V5 = Thermal Conductivity, V2= thermal diffusivity and V6=Toughness and

Using GP simulation, in case of natural convection, the number of cycles withstood (or thermal cycling resistance), TCR is given by h Where V3 = Thermal Conductivity, V1= thermal diffusivity and V2=Toughness

Using GP simulation, in case of natural convection, the thickness of coating against the thermal barrier ,t is given by
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Where V1 = Thermal Conductivity

and The results for thickness of coating against thermal barrier property simulation are shown in figure 1 and heat transfer coefficient simulation for natural and forced convection are shown in figure 2 and figure 3 and the Thermal cycling resistance are presented in figure 4. The Discipulus GP technique was able to simulate these output variables to within an average of 1.3% of their measured value, with no value exceeding a 0.01% deviation except in case of thickness deviation which is up to 3%.

Figure 1. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of thickness of coating against Thermal Barrier

Figure 2. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Heat Transfer coefficient Data under Natural convection

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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Figure3. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Heat Transfer coefficient Data under Forced convection

Figure 4. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Thermal Cycling Resistance Data.

5. CONCLUSIONS Genetic programming (GP) has proved to be a highly versatile and useful tool for identifying relationships in data for which a more precise theoretical construct is unavailable. The experimental data in this research were in fact the environment to which the population of models had to be adapted as much as possible. The models presented are a result of the self-organization and stochastic processes taking place during simulated evolution. Only four genetically developed models out of many successful solutions are presented here. The accuracies of solutions obtained by GP depend on applied evolutionary parameters and also on the number of measurements and the accuracy of measurement. In general, more measurements supply more information to evolution which improves the structures of models. In this paper, the genetic programming was used for predicting the thermal properties responsible for failure of ceramic coatings. In the proposed concept the mathematical models for verifying the experimental results of thermal characteristics are subject to adaptation. Its reliability is 99.26% in the first three cases and whereas it is 97% in fourth case. In the testing phase, the genetically produced model gives the same result as actually found out during the experiment, thereby with the reliability of cent percent. It is inferred from our research findings that the genetic programming approach could be well
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used for the prediction thermal characteristics of ceramic coatings without conducting the experiments. This helps to establish efficient planning and optimizing of process for the quality production of ceramic coatings depending upon the functional requirements. Further work is on progress for the prediction/optimization of mechanical and tribological characteristics of ceramic coatings in addition to machinability of industrial ceramic coatings. REFERENCES [1] Dr. J. Fazlur Rahman et. al. and Mohammed Yunus et. al. (2009) , “Benefits of TBC Coatings on Engine applications”, Proceedings of International conference, INCAM 2009 at Kalsalingam University, Tamil Nadu, India. [2] Nusair Khan(2000), “Behaviour of air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings, Subjected to intense thermal cycling”, LASMIS, BP 2060, 12 Rue de Marie curie, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, France. [3] W.F. Calosso and A.R. Nicoll, (1987), Process requirements for plasma sprayed coatings for internal combustion engine components, Energy Sources Technology Conference and Exhibition, (Dallas, TX) 15-20 February, 87-ICE15, ASME, pp. 1-8. [4] Stragman T.E. (1985), Thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoils the Plasma Spray Process, J. Thin Solid Films, 127, pp. 93-105. [5] Dongming Zhu and Robert A. Miller (1998), “Thermal-Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine Engines”. [6] Nitin P. Padture, Maurice Gell, Eric H. Jordan (1998), Thermal Barrier Coatings for gas Turbine Engine Applications, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Material Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT06269-3136, USA. [7] P.Ramaswamy, S. Seetharamu, K. J. Rao, and K. B. R. Varma,(1998) “Thermal shock characteristics of plasma sprayed mullite coatings Technology”, J.Thermal spray Volume 7, Number 4, pp. 497-504(8). [8] Dr.J.Fazlur Rahman and Mohammed Yunus (2008), “Mechanical and Tribological characteristics of Tungsten Carbide Cobalt HVOF coatings”, Proceedings of International conference on MEMS held at Anjuman college of Engineering, Bhatkal, India. [9] Nordin, J.P. and Banzhaf, W. (1996) Controlling an Autonomous Robot with Genetic Programming.In: Proceedings of 1996 AAAI fall symposium on Genetic Programming, Cambridge, USA. [10] Koza, J.R., (1992) Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Natural Selection.MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. [11] J. R. Koza, Genetic programming II, The MIT Press, Massachusetts, 1994. [12] Koza, Bennett, Andre, & Keane, (1999) GENETIC PROGRAMMING III – Darwinian Invention and Problem Solving, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc. pp. 1154.
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[13] Francone, F., (1998-2000) Discipulus Owner’s Manual and Discipulus Tutorials, Register Machine Learning Technologies, Inc. [14] Spector, L., Langdon, W., B., O’Reilly, U., Angeline, P.J. (1999) Advances in Genetic Programming –Volume 3, MIT Press, pp. 476 [15] Tanguy, B. Besson J., Piques R., Pineau A. (2005), Ductile to brittle transition of an A508 steel characterized by Charpy impact test – Part 1: experimental results, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 72, pp.49 - 72. [16] M. Kovacic, J. Balic and M. Brezocnik, Evolutionary approach for cutting forces prediction in milling, Journal of materials processing technology, 155/156, 2004, pp.1647-1652. [17] H. Kurtaran, B. Ozcelik and T. Erzurumlu, Warpage optimization of a bus ceiling lamp base using neural network model and genetic algorithm, Journal of materials processing technology, 169(2), 2005, pp.314-319. [18] Sette S., Boullart L. Genetic programming: principles and applications, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 14 (2001), pp.727 – 736. [19] Pierreval H., Caux C., Paris J.L., Viguier F. Evolutionary approaches to the design and organization of manufacturing system, Computers & Industrial Engineering 44 (2003), pp.339-364. [20] Gusel L., Brezocnik M. Modeling of impact toughness of cold formed material by genetic programming, Comp. Mat. Sc. 37 (2006), pp.476 – 482. [21] Chang Y.S., Kwang S.P., Kim B.Y. Nonlinear model for ECG R-R interval variation using genetic programming approach, Future Generation Computer Systems 21, pp.1117-1123. [22] Brezocnik M., Gusel L. (2004), Predicting stress distribution in coldformed material with genetic programming, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol 23, pp.467-474. [23] M. Brezocnik, M. Kovacic and M. Ficko (2004), Prediction of surface roughness with genetic programming, Journal of materials processing technology, 157/158, 28-36. [24] M. Brezocnik and M. Kovacic (2003), Integrated genetic programming and genetic algorithm approach to predict surface roughness, Materials and manufacturing processes,18(4), pp.475–491.

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A GENETIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH FOR THE PREDICTION OF THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CERAMIC COATINGS
Prof. Mohammed Yunus1, Dr. J. Fazlur Rahman2 and S.Ferozkhan3 1. Research scholar, Anna University of Technology Coimbatore Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India yunus.mohammed@rediffmail.com 2. Supervisor, Anna University of Technology Coimbatore Professor Emeritus, Department of MechanicalEngineering H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India jfazlu2003@yahoo.co.in 3. Lecturer, Department of Mechanical Engineering, H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India feroz_deen@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT In aerospace industry, the durability and efficiency of high temperature components are improved by the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBC). In order to characterize the TBC, it requires a better understanding of mechanical and tribological properties along with their failure mechanisms which are to be thoroughly investigated to estimate their performance. At high temperature applications, Thermal barrier (TB) and thermal cycling resistance (TCR) parameters play a very important role. In this regard, Thermal tests were carried out on three different types of commonly used industrial ceramic coatings namely, Alumina (A), Alumina-Titania (AT)) and partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ), in the present study. Genetic programming (GP) has proved to be a highly versatile and useful tool for identifying relationships in data for which a more precise theoretical construct is unavailable. This technical paper highlights how we use GP technique in the prediction of maximum thermal barrier (temperature) and thermal cycling resistance (failure) of various ceramic coatings, for different variables, which are used at high temperatures. Commercial Genetic
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Programming (GP) software-Discipulus is used to derive a mathematical modelling of relations for various input and output parameters used in characterisation. A special genetic approach for the modelling of thermal properties in coated components is proposed on the basis of a training data set. Various different genetic models for prediction of different thermal properties with greater accuracy (less than 1%) were also proposed by simulated evolution. Keywords: TBC – Thermal properties - Thermal tests – Thermal Barrier – Thermal cycling resistance – Genetic Programming – Evolutionary Algorithm – GP software Discipulus. 1.1 INTRODUCTION Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) which are ceramic coatings applied on metal substrate have vast applications in aerospace, gas turbine engines, diesel engines and power generators. A TBC protects a metal substrate from high temperature as well as excessive wear and corrosion. TBC has very low thermal conductivity, which insulates the underlying substrate material from high temperature environment. In the case of aerospace and gas turbine application, the thickness of TBC generally varies 100 to 400 microns [1]. At this thickness range, the temperature of insulated super alloy substrate can be reduced up to 2000C enabling that gas turbine engines to function at higher temperature. The characteristic of TBC originates from porosity, micro cracks and toughness of ceramic coatings. Ceramic coatings have applications primarily as wear coatings and thermal barrier coatings. TBCs are usually consisting of two layers; the first layer is a metallic bond coat, whose function is to protect the substrate material against oxidation, corrosion and to provide with a good adhesion to the thermal insulating ceramic layer while the second layer is of ceramic material which acts as TBC. The desirable properties of these include high thermal expansion, low thermal conductivity and good thermal cycling resistance [1]-[8]. 1.2 GENETIC PROGRAMMING (GP) Genetic Programming is a form of machine learning that automatically writes computer programs. It uses the principle of Darwinian Natural [12] Selection to select and reproduce “fitter” programs. GP applies that principle to a population of computer programs and evolves a program that predicts the target output from a data file of inputs and outputs [9-12]. The programs evolved by GP software – Discipulus [13], in this case Java, C/C++ and assembly interpreter programs represents a mapping of input to output data. This is done by Machine Learning that maps a set of input data to known output data. The aims of using the machine learning technique on engineering problems are to determine data mining and knowledge discovery. GP provides a significant benefit in many areas of science and industry[14]. The Discipulus
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

GP [13] system uses AIM Learning Technology. “AIM” stands for “Automatic Induction of Machine Code”. AIM Learning and Discipulus deal with the machine learning speed problem. This speed allows the analyst to able to make many more runs to investigate relationships between data and output, assess information content of data streams, uncover bad data or outliers, assess time lag relationships between inputs and outputs, and the like. The evolved models have been or are being used to develop process prediction or control algorithms. Hence GP technology has been selected for the present work. GP solutions are computer programs that can be easily inspected, documented, evaluated, and tested. The GP solutions are easy to understand the nature of the derived relationship between input and output data and to examine the uncover relationships that were unknown before. Genetic Programming evolves both the structure and the constants to the solution simultaneously. Discipulus GP strongly discriminates between relevant input data and inputs that have no bearing on a solution [13]. In other words, Discipulus performs input variable selection as a by-product of its learning algorithm. The following step by step procedure will be implemented for a steady state GP algorithm [9-13],[14] 1. Initialization of population: Generate an initial population of random compositions of the functions and terminals of the problem (computer programs). 2. Fitness evaluation: Execute each program in the population, randomly it selects some programs and assign it a fitness value according to how well it solves the problem by mapping input data to output data. Some programs are selected as winners (best programs), and the others as losers. 3. Create a new population of computer programs by exchanging parts of the “best” programs with each other (called crossover). 4. Copy the best existing programs. 5. Create new computer programs by randomly changing each of the tournament winners to create two new programs mutation. 6. Iterate Until Convergence. Repeat steps two through four until a program is developed that predicts the behavior sufficiently. GP has been successfully used to solve problems in a wide range of broad categories [15-24]: 1. Systems Modelling, Curve Fitting, Data Modelling, and Symbolic Regression 2. Industrial Process Control 3. Financial Trading, Time Series Prediction and Economic Modelling 4. Optimisation and scheduling 5. Medicine, Biology and Bioinformatics 6. Design 7. Image and Signal processing 8. Entertainment and Computer games
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Three different commercially available ceramic coatings powders namely, Alumina, Alumina-Titania, Partially Stabilized Zirconia of two different thicknesses namely 100 to 250 microns were used for the preparation of coatings. A 40 KW Sulzer,[1]and [8] Metco plasma spray system with 7MB gun is used for this purpose. Mild steel plates of 50x50x6 mm were used as substrate to spray the ceramic oxides. They were grit blasted, degreased and spray coated with a 50 to 100 microns NiCrAl bond coat[. The ceramic TBC were then plasma sprayed according to spray parameters mentioned in table1. In this study, two response parameters such as thermal barrier and thermal cycling tests were considered. 2.1 THERMAL BARRIER TEST Thermal barrier tests were conducted by measuring the temperature of metal substrate using thermocouples, after heating the coating surface with electric heaters, between 7000C and 10000C for a period of half an hour to attain steady state, to get temperature drop across the substrate and ceramic coating. The heat transfer coefficient on the surface of coated plate is very important parameter in the selection of TBC [2]-[6]. This parameter is studied for different heat inputs under natural and forced convection. An electric heater connected with ammeter, voltmeter and a dimmerstat to control the heat input was used in the experimental setup to heat the substrate with coated surface. Two thermocouples of K-type namely chrome-alumel were used to measure the temperature at the substrate surface and as well as on the top of the coating for a given heat input. The temperature on the ceramic coated surface and metal surface is measured for three different coatings namely, Alumina (A), Alumina-Titania (AT) and Partially Stabilized zirconia (PSZ) and the heat transfer coefficients by natural and forced convection on the surface of the coated plate were calculated. In the case of forced convection, a blower was used to blow the air along the coated plate for different air velocities flowing parallel to the surface of the coatings, on three different coatings, heat inputs and the temperatures were measured using thermocouple. 2.2 THERMAL CYCLING TEST (TCT) Thermal cycling test is performed to determine the resistance of coated part for sudden changes in temperature [7] and to examine whether the sprayed coating can withstand severity of thermal cycling. The three different ceramic coatings with different thicknesses were subjected to thermal cycling by exposing to oxyacetylene flame till the coated surface is maintained around 10000C for about 1minute and subsequently cooled down by air till the temperature reaches down to around 1000C in the atmospheric conditions for 1 minute. The thermal cycling process is repeated until coating fails and peels off from the substrate.
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3. GENETIC PROGRAMMING METHODOLOGY In Genetic programming modelling, it is necessary to select suitable terminal from set F and available terminal genes from set f (0)[15-24]. From these, the evolutionary process will try to build as fit an organism (i.e. mathematical model) as possible for thermal characteristics prediction. The organisms consist of both terminal and function genes and have the nature of computer programs which differ in form and size. In our case the set of terminal genes f (0) is: f (0) = {Process inputs}. The selected set of function genes F is: F = {+, -, *, /}, where +,-,*, / are the mathematical operation of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The quality of the individual organism (i.e. prediction) is found out using fitness function. In our case, four different functions are used. 3.1 Process Inputs Ambient Temperature (0C), Temperature on coating side (0C), Temperature on substrate side (0C), Power (W), Velocity of air (m/sec) Toughness (MPa √m) Thermal conductivity (W/m K) Thermal Diffusivity (x 10-7m2/sec) 3.2 Measured Process Outputs Heat transfer coefficient under Natural convection (W/m2 0K) Heat transfer coefficient under Forced convection (W/m2 0K) Thickness of coating against thermal Barrier (0C) Thermal cycling Resistance (number of cycles withstood)
Table1. Experimental results of Thermal Cycling Resistance Test for different coatings
Sl.No. Thickness of coating in µm (V0) 150 225 300 150 225 300 150 225 300 number of cycles for Alumina-Titania (AT) (f0) Temperature of heating (V4) 700 700 700 850 850 850 1000 1000 1000 Number of cycles for Alumina (A) (f0) 280 290 310 260 270 280 250 260 270 number of cycles for Partial stabilised zirconia(PSZ) (f0) 405 425 445 390 410 425 360 380 400

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

345 360 375 330 345 360 320 330 340

Table 2. Experimental Results of evaluating thickness to withstand Thermal barrier for different coatings
S.No. Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V0) 700 800 900 Thickness of coating in µm(f0) 150 150 150 Temperature difference in 0C for Alumina (V2) 120 125 125 Temperature difference in 0C for Alumina- Titania (V2) 160 165 160 Temperature difference in 0C for PSZ (V2) 190 180 190

1 2 3

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4 5 6 7 8 1000 700 800 900 1000 150 300 300 300 300 120 135 145 140 145 160 170 175 170 175 180 210 215 210 215

Table3. Experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of natural convection for different coatings
Sl.No. Power in W (V0) 5 5.5 6 6.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V1) 69 75 85 94 106 115 174 183 Ambient Temperature in 0 C (V2) 35 40 45 55 85 100 130 164 Thickness of coating in µm (V3) 150 150 150 150 300 300 300 300 H in W/m2K for Alumina (f0) 3.9 4.14 3.95 4.26 3.44 3.44 3.8 3.66 H in W/m2K for AluminaTitania (f0) 3.48 3.65 3.65 3.75 3.25 3.2 3.2 3.4 H in W/m2K for PSZ(f0) 3.29 3.31 3.39 3.23 3.03 3.05 3 3.15

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Table 4. Experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of forced convection for different coatings
.S.N0. Power in W (V3) 5.5 6.5 6 6.5 5 6 6 6.5 5.5 6 5 5 5.5 6 5.5 6.5 6.5 5.5 5 5 6.5 5 6 5.5 6.5 6 5.5 5 6.5 6 5.5 5 Velocity of air in m/sec (V1) 1.401 1.253 1.401 1.085 0.8858 1.085 1.085 1.253 1.253 1.253 1.085 1.253 1.253 1.401 1.401 1.085 0.8858 0.8858 1.253 1.401 0.8858 1.401 1.253 1.085 1.401 0.8858 0.8858 0.8858 1.401 0.8858 1.085 1.085 Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V0) 35 80 70 90 78 85 105 69 40 75 75 56 56 88 46 72 120 65 60 50 88 65 90 48 70 115 55 65 65 90 58 60 Ambient Temperature in 0 C (V7) 30 65 65 70 65 80 60 48 35 70 60 50 50 40 40 52 90 60 55 45 57 50 50 45 50 70 50 60 42 85 55 55 Thickness of coating in µm (V4) 300 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 150 300 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 150 150 150 300 H in W/m2K for Alumina (f0) 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 H in W/m2K for AluminaTitania (f0) 12.75 12.8 13.8 11.84 8.8 11.43 11 13.2 12.05 12.84 9.5 10.75 12.6 13 13.1 12.64 10.72 10.6 11.21 11.64 11.24 12.86 12.45 11.35 13.85 10.25 10 8.4 14.64 10.64 11.64 9 H in W/m2K for PSZ (f0) 8.56 9.3 10.4 11.4 8.05 8.8 10.05 11.05 8.89 9.56 10.85 11.8 8.4 9 10.5 11.5 8.94 10.42 11.9 12.6 8.8 10 11.64 12 9 10.56 11.64 12.89 9.6 10 11.21 12.64

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

4. GENETIC MODELS – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The best accuracy (∆ (i) = 0.175 %, and that of the testing data ∆ (i) = 0. 18%) of the GP model was obtained when the genes function set used and the Output of the discipulus GP is in C program. The C program for the heat transfer coefficient in natural convection as given below:
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

{{ f[0]=f[1]=f[2]=f[3]=f[4]=f[5]=f[6]=f[7]=0; L0: f[0]-=v[7]; L1: f[0]/=v[4]; L2:f[0]+=1.501374244689941f; L3:f[0]*=f[0]; L4: f[0]*=f[0]; L5: f[0]-=1.987620830535889f; L6:f[0]*=v[0]; L7:f[0]*=v[2]; L8:f[0]*=v[5]; L9: f[0]/=v[7]; L10: f[0]/=v[1]; L11: f[0]-=v[6]; L12:f[0]/=v[3]; L13: f[0]-=v[2]; L14: f[0]+=v[1]; L15: f[0]*=0.03275442123413086f; L16:f[0]/=-0.494312047958374f; L17:f[0]+=-1.549970149993897f; L18:f[0]/=v[5]; L19: f[0]+=v[1]; L20: f[0]+=f[0]; L21: f[0]+=f[0]; L22: f[0]+=v[3]; L23:f[0]+=v[1]; L24: f[0]+=v[1]; L25: }} Upon simplification, in case of natural convection, the heat transfer coefficient, h is given by,

Where V4 = Thermal Conductivity, V5= thermal diffusivity and V6=Toughness and Using GP simulation, in case of forced convection, the heat transfer coefficient, h is given by

Where V5 = Thermal Conductivity, V2= thermal diffusivity and V6=Toughness and

Using GP simulation, in case of natural convection, the number of cycles withstood (or thermal cycling resistance), TCR is given by h Where V3 = Thermal Conductivity, V1= thermal diffusivity and V2=Toughness

Using GP simulation, in case of natural convection, the thickness of coating against the thermal barrier ,t is given by
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Where V1 = Thermal Conductivity

and The results for thickness of coating against thermal barrier property simulation are shown in figure 1 and heat transfer coefficient simulation for natural and forced convection are shown in figure 2 and figure 3 and the Thermal cycling resistance are presented in figure 4. The Discipulus GP technique was able to simulate these output variables to within an average of 1.3% of their measured value, with no value exceeding a 0.01% deviation except in case of thickness deviation which is up to 3%.

Figure 1. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of thickness of coating against Thermal Barrier

Figure 2. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Heat Transfer coefficient Data under Natural convection

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Figure3. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Heat Transfer coefficient Data under Forced convection

Figure 4. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Thermal Cycling Resistance Data.

5. CONCLUSIONS Genetic programming (GP) has proved to be a highly versatile and useful tool for identifying relationships in data for which a more precise theoretical construct is unavailable. The experimental data in this research were in fact the environment to which the population of models had to be adapted as much as possible. The models presented are a result of the self-organization and stochastic processes taking place during simulated evolution. Only four genetically developed models out of many successful solutions are presented here. The accuracies of solutions obtained by GP depend on applied evolutionary parameters and also on the number of measurements and the accuracy of measurement. In general, more measurements supply more information to evolution which improves the structures of models. In this paper, the genetic programming was used for predicting the thermal properties responsible for failure of ceramic coatings. In the proposed concept the mathematical models for verifying the experimental results of thermal characteristics are subject to adaptation. Its reliability is 99.26% in the first three cases and whereas it is 97% in fourth case. In the testing phase, the genetically produced model gives the same result as actually found out during the experiment, thereby with the reliability of cent percent. It is inferred from our research findings that the genetic programming approach could be well
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used for the prediction thermal characteristics of ceramic coatings without conducting the experiments. This helps to establish efficient planning and optimizing of process for the quality production of ceramic coatings depending upon the functional requirements. Further work is on progress for the prediction/optimization of mechanical and tribological characteristics of ceramic coatings in addition to machinability of industrial ceramic coatings. REFERENCES [1] Dr. J. Fazlur Rahman et. al. and Mohammed Yunus et. al. (2009) , “Benefits of TBC Coatings on Engine applications”, Proceedings of International conference, INCAM 2009 at Kalsalingam University, Tamil Nadu, India. [2] Nusair Khan(2000), “Behaviour of air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings, Subjected to intense thermal cycling”, LASMIS, BP 2060, 12 Rue de Marie curie, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, France. [3] W.F. Calosso and A.R. Nicoll, (1987), Process requirements for plasma sprayed coatings for internal combustion engine components, Energy Sources Technology Conference and Exhibition, (Dallas, TX) 15-20 February, 87-ICE15, ASME, pp. 1-8. [4] Stragman T.E. (1985), Thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoils the Plasma Spray Process, J. Thin Solid Films, 127, pp. 93-105. [5] Dongming Zhu and Robert A. Miller (1998), “Thermal-Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine Engines”. [6] Nitin P. Padture, Maurice Gell, Eric H. Jordan (1998), Thermal Barrier Coatings for gas Turbine Engine Applications, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Material Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT06269-3136, USA. [7] P.Ramaswamy, S. Seetharamu, K. J. Rao, and K. B. R. Varma,(1998) “Thermal shock characteristics of plasma sprayed mullite coatings Technology”, J.Thermal spray Volume 7, Number 4, pp. 497-504(8). [8] Dr.J.Fazlur Rahman and Mohammed Yunus (2008), “Mechanical and Tribological characteristics of Tungsten Carbide Cobalt HVOF coatings”, Proceedings of International conference on MEMS held at Anjuman college of Engineering, Bhatkal, India. [9] Nordin, J.P. and Banzhaf, W. (1996) Controlling an Autonomous Robot with Genetic Programming.In: Proceedings of 1996 AAAI fall symposium on Genetic Programming, Cambridge, USA. [10] Koza, J.R., (1992) Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Natural Selection.MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. [11] J. R. Koza, Genetic programming II, The MIT Press, Massachusetts, 1994. [12] Koza, Bennett, Andre, & Keane, (1999) GENETIC PROGRAMMING III – Darwinian Invention and Problem Solving, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc. pp. 1154.
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[13] Francone, F., (1998-2000) Discipulus Owner’s Manual and Discipulus Tutorials, Register Machine Learning Technologies, Inc. [14] Spector, L., Langdon, W., B., O’Reilly, U., Angeline, P.J. (1999) Advances in Genetic Programming –Volume 3, MIT Press, pp. 476 [15] Tanguy, B. Besson J., Piques R., Pineau A. (2005), Ductile to brittle transition of an A508 steel characterized by Charpy impact test – Part 1: experimental results, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 72, pp.49 - 72. [16] M. Kovacic, J. Balic and M. Brezocnik, Evolutionary approach for cutting forces prediction in milling, Journal of materials processing technology, 155/156, 2004, pp.1647-1652. [17] H. Kurtaran, B. Ozcelik and T. Erzurumlu, Warpage optimization of a bus ceiling lamp base using neural network model and genetic algorithm, Journal of materials processing technology, 169(2), 2005, pp.314-319. [18] Sette S., Boullart L. Genetic programming: principles and applications, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 14 (2001), pp.727 – 736. [19] Pierreval H., Caux C., Paris J.L., Viguier F. Evolutionary approaches to the design and organization of manufacturing system, Computers & Industrial Engineering 44 (2003), pp.339-364. [20] Gusel L., Brezocnik M. Modeling of impact toughness of cold formed material by genetic programming, Comp. Mat. Sc. 37 (2006), pp.476 – 482. [21] Chang Y.S., Kwang S.P., Kim B.Y. Nonlinear model for ECG R-R interval variation using genetic programming approach, Future Generation Computer Systems 21, pp.1117-1123. [22] Brezocnik M., Gusel L. (2004), Predicting stress distribution in coldformed material with genetic programming, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol 23, pp.467-474. [23] M. Brezocnik, M. Kovacic and M. Ficko (2004), Prediction of surface roughness with genetic programming, Journal of materials processing technology, 157/158, 28-36. [24] M. Brezocnik and M. Kovacic (2003), Integrated genetic programming and genetic algorithm approach to predict surface roughness, Materials and manufacturing processes,18(4), pp.475–491.

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IJIERD

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A GENETIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH FOR THE PREDICTION OF THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CERAMIC COATINGS
Prof. Mohammed Yunus1, Dr. J. Fazlur Rahman2 and S.Ferozkhan3 1. Research scholar, Anna University of Technology Coimbatore Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India yunus.mohammed@rediffmail.com 2. Supervisor, Anna University of Technology Coimbatore Professor Emeritus, Department of MechanicalEngineering H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India jfazlu2003@yahoo.co.in 3. Lecturer, Department of Mechanical Engineering, H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India feroz_deen@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT In aerospace industry, the durability and efficiency of high temperature components are improved by the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBC). In order to characterize the TBC, it requires a better understanding of mechanical and tribological properties along with their failure mechanisms which are to be thoroughly investigated to estimate their performance. At high temperature applications, Thermal barrier (TB) and thermal cycling resistance (TCR) parameters play a very important role. In this regard, Thermal tests were carried out on three different types of commonly used industrial ceramic coatings namely, Alumina (A), Alumina-Titania (AT)) and partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ), in the present study. Genetic programming (GP) has proved to be a highly versatile and useful tool for identifying relationships in data for which a more precise theoretical construct is unavailable. This technical paper highlights how we use GP technique in the prediction of maximum thermal barrier (temperature) and thermal cycling resistance (failure) of various ceramic coatings, for different variables, which are used at high temperatures. Commercial Genetic
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Programming (GP) software-Discipulus is used to derive a mathematical modelling of relations for various input and output parameters used in characterisation. A special genetic approach for the modelling of thermal properties in coated components is proposed on the basis of a training data set. Various different genetic models for prediction of different thermal properties with greater accuracy (less than 1%) were also proposed by simulated evolution. Keywords: TBC – Thermal properties - Thermal tests – Thermal Barrier – Thermal cycling resistance – Genetic Programming – Evolutionary Algorithm – GP software Discipulus. 1.1 INTRODUCTION Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) which are ceramic coatings applied on metal substrate have vast applications in aerospace, gas turbine engines, diesel engines and power generators. A TBC protects a metal substrate from high temperature as well as excessive wear and corrosion. TBC has very low thermal conductivity, which insulates the underlying substrate material from high temperature environment. In the case of aerospace and gas turbine application, the thickness of TBC generally varies 100 to 400 microns [1]. At this thickness range, the temperature of insulated super alloy substrate can be reduced up to 2000C enabling that gas turbine engines to function at higher temperature. The characteristic of TBC originates from porosity, micro cracks and toughness of ceramic coatings. Ceramic coatings have applications primarily as wear coatings and thermal barrier coatings. TBCs are usually consisting of two layers; the first layer is a metallic bond coat, whose function is to protect the substrate material against oxidation, corrosion and to provide with a good adhesion to the thermal insulating ceramic layer while the second layer is of ceramic material which acts as TBC. The desirable properties of these include high thermal expansion, low thermal conductivity and good thermal cycling resistance [1]-[8]. 1.2 GENETIC PROGRAMMING (GP) Genetic Programming is a form of machine learning that automatically writes computer programs. It uses the principle of Darwinian Natural [12] Selection to select and reproduce “fitter” programs. GP applies that principle to a population of computer programs and evolves a program that predicts the target output from a data file of inputs and outputs [9-12]. The programs evolved by GP software – Discipulus [13], in this case Java, C/C++ and assembly interpreter programs represents a mapping of input to output data. This is done by Machine Learning that maps a set of input data to known output data. The aims of using the machine learning technique on engineering problems are to determine data mining and knowledge discovery. GP provides a significant benefit in many areas of science and industry[14]. The Discipulus
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GP [13] system uses AIM Learning Technology. “AIM” stands for “Automatic Induction of Machine Code”. AIM Learning and Discipulus deal with the machine learning speed problem. This speed allows the analyst to able to make many more runs to investigate relationships between data and output, assess information content of data streams, uncover bad data or outliers, assess time lag relationships between inputs and outputs, and the like. The evolved models have been or are being used to develop process prediction or control algorithms. Hence GP technology has been selected for the present work. GP solutions are computer programs that can be easily inspected, documented, evaluated, and tested. The GP solutions are easy to understand the nature of the derived relationship between input and output data and to examine the uncover relationships that were unknown before. Genetic Programming evolves both the structure and the constants to the solution simultaneously. Discipulus GP strongly discriminates between relevant input data and inputs that have no bearing on a solution [13]. In other words, Discipulus performs input variable selection as a by-product of its learning algorithm. The following step by step procedure will be implemented for a steady state GP algorithm [9-13],[14] 1. Initialization of population: Generate an initial population of random compositions of the functions and terminals of the problem (computer programs). 2. Fitness evaluation: Execute each program in the population, randomly it selects some programs and assign it a fitness value according to how well it solves the problem by mapping input data to output data. Some programs are selected as winners (best programs), and the others as losers. 3. Create a new population of computer programs by exchanging parts of the “best” programs with each other (called crossover). 4. Copy the best existing programs. 5. Create new computer programs by randomly changing each of the tournament winners to create two new programs mutation. 6. Iterate Until Convergence. Repeat steps two through four until a program is developed that predicts the behavior sufficiently. GP has been successfully used to solve problems in a wide range of broad categories [15-24]: 1. Systems Modelling, Curve Fitting, Data Modelling, and Symbolic Regression 2. Industrial Process Control 3. Financial Trading, Time Series Prediction and Economic Modelling 4. Optimisation and scheduling 5. Medicine, Biology and Bioinformatics 6. Design 7. Image and Signal processing 8. Entertainment and Computer games
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2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Three different commercially available ceramic coatings powders namely, Alumina, Alumina-Titania, Partially Stabilized Zirconia of two different thicknesses namely 100 to 250 microns were used for the preparation of coatings. A 40 KW Sulzer,[1]and [8] Metco plasma spray system with 7MB gun is used for this purpose. Mild steel plates of 50x50x6 mm were used as substrate to spray the ceramic oxides. They were grit blasted, degreased and spray coated with a 50 to 100 microns NiCrAl bond coat[. The ceramic TBC were then plasma sprayed according to spray parameters mentioned in table1. In this study, two response parameters such as thermal barrier and thermal cycling tests were considered. 2.1 THERMAL BARRIER TEST Thermal barrier tests were conducted by measuring the temperature of metal substrate using thermocouples, after heating the coating surface with electric heaters, between 7000C and 10000C for a period of half an hour to attain steady state, to get temperature drop across the substrate and ceramic coating. The heat transfer coefficient on the surface of coated plate is very important parameter in the selection of TBC [2]-[6]. This parameter is studied for different heat inputs under natural and forced convection. An electric heater connected with ammeter, voltmeter and a dimmerstat to control the heat input was used in the experimental setup to heat the substrate with coated surface. Two thermocouples of K-type namely chrome-alumel were used to measure the temperature at the substrate surface and as well as on the top of the coating for a given heat input. The temperature on the ceramic coated surface and metal surface is measured for three different coatings namely, Alumina (A), Alumina-Titania (AT) and Partially Stabilized zirconia (PSZ) and the heat transfer coefficients by natural and forced convection on the surface of the coated plate were calculated. In the case of forced convection, a blower was used to blow the air along the coated plate for different air velocities flowing parallel to the surface of the coatings, on three different coatings, heat inputs and the temperatures were measured using thermocouple. 2.2 THERMAL CYCLING TEST (TCT) Thermal cycling test is performed to determine the resistance of coated part for sudden changes in temperature [7] and to examine whether the sprayed coating can withstand severity of thermal cycling. The three different ceramic coatings with different thicknesses were subjected to thermal cycling by exposing to oxyacetylene flame till the coated surface is maintained around 10000C for about 1minute and subsequently cooled down by air till the temperature reaches down to around 1000C in the atmospheric conditions for 1 minute. The thermal cycling process is repeated until coating fails and peels off from the substrate.
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3. GENETIC PROGRAMMING METHODOLOGY In Genetic programming modelling, it is necessary to select suitable terminal from set F and available terminal genes from set f (0)[15-24]. From these, the evolutionary process will try to build as fit an organism (i.e. mathematical model) as possible for thermal characteristics prediction. The organisms consist of both terminal and function genes and have the nature of computer programs which differ in form and size. In our case the set of terminal genes f (0) is: f (0) = {Process inputs}. The selected set of function genes F is: F = {+, -, *, /}, where +,-,*, / are the mathematical operation of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The quality of the individual organism (i.e. prediction) is found out using fitness function. In our case, four different functions are used. 3.1 Process Inputs Ambient Temperature (0C), Temperature on coating side (0C), Temperature on substrate side (0C), Power (W), Velocity of air (m/sec) Toughness (MPa √m) Thermal conductivity (W/m K) Thermal Diffusivity (x 10-7m2/sec) 3.2 Measured Process Outputs Heat transfer coefficient under Natural convection (W/m2 0K) Heat transfer coefficient under Forced convection (W/m2 0K) Thickness of coating against thermal Barrier (0C) Thermal cycling Resistance (number of cycles withstood)
Table1. Experimental results of Thermal Cycling Resistance Test for different coatings
Sl.No. Thickness of coating in µm (V0) 150 225 300 150 225 300 150 225 300 number of cycles for Alumina-Titania (AT) (f0) Temperature of heating (V4) 700 700 700 850 850 850 1000 1000 1000 Number of cycles for Alumina (A) (f0) 280 290 310 260 270 280 250 260 270 number of cycles for Partial stabilised zirconia(PSZ) (f0) 405 425 445 390 410 425 360 380 400

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

345 360 375 330 345 360 320 330 340

Table 2. Experimental Results of evaluating thickness to withstand Thermal barrier for different coatings
S.No. Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V0) 700 800 900 Thickness of coating in µm(f0) 150 150 150 Temperature difference in 0C for Alumina (V2) 120 125 125 Temperature difference in 0C for Alumina- Titania (V2) 160 165 160 Temperature difference in 0C for PSZ (V2) 190 180 190

1 2 3

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4 5 6 7 8 1000 700 800 900 1000 150 300 300 300 300 120 135 145 140 145 160 170 175 170 175 180 210 215 210 215

Table3. Experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of natural convection for different coatings
Sl.No. Power in W (V0) 5 5.5 6 6.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V1) 69 75 85 94 106 115 174 183 Ambient Temperature in 0 C (V2) 35 40 45 55 85 100 130 164 Thickness of coating in µm (V3) 150 150 150 150 300 300 300 300 H in W/m2K for Alumina (f0) 3.9 4.14 3.95 4.26 3.44 3.44 3.8 3.66 H in W/m2K for AluminaTitania (f0) 3.48 3.65 3.65 3.75 3.25 3.2 3.2 3.4 H in W/m2K for PSZ(f0) 3.29 3.31 3.39 3.23 3.03 3.05 3 3.15

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Table 4. Experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of forced convection for different coatings
.S.N0. Power in W (V3) 5.5 6.5 6 6.5 5 6 6 6.5 5.5 6 5 5 5.5 6 5.5 6.5 6.5 5.5 5 5 6.5 5 6 5.5 6.5 6 5.5 5 6.5 6 5.5 5 Velocity of air in m/sec (V1) 1.401 1.253 1.401 1.085 0.8858 1.085 1.085 1.253 1.253 1.253 1.085 1.253 1.253 1.401 1.401 1.085 0.8858 0.8858 1.253 1.401 0.8858 1.401 1.253 1.085 1.401 0.8858 0.8858 0.8858 1.401 0.8858 1.085 1.085 Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V0) 35 80 70 90 78 85 105 69 40 75 75 56 56 88 46 72 120 65 60 50 88 65 90 48 70 115 55 65 65 90 58 60 Ambient Temperature in 0 C (V7) 30 65 65 70 65 80 60 48 35 70 60 50 50 40 40 52 90 60 55 45 57 50 50 45 50 70 50 60 42 85 55 55 Thickness of coating in µm (V4) 300 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 150 300 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 150 150 150 300 H in W/m2K for Alumina (f0) 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 H in W/m2K for AluminaTitania (f0) 12.75 12.8 13.8 11.84 8.8 11.43 11 13.2 12.05 12.84 9.5 10.75 12.6 13 13.1 12.64 10.72 10.6 11.21 11.64 11.24 12.86 12.45 11.35 13.85 10.25 10 8.4 14.64 10.64 11.64 9 H in W/m2K for PSZ (f0) 8.56 9.3 10.4 11.4 8.05 8.8 10.05 11.05 8.89 9.56 10.85 11.8 8.4 9 10.5 11.5 8.94 10.42 11.9 12.6 8.8 10 11.64 12 9 10.56 11.64 12.89 9.6 10 11.21 12.64

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

4. GENETIC MODELS – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The best accuracy (∆ (i) = 0.175 %, and that of the testing data ∆ (i) = 0. 18%) of the GP model was obtained when the genes function set used and the Output of the discipulus GP is in C program. The C program for the heat transfer coefficient in natural convection as given below:
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{{ f[0]=f[1]=f[2]=f[3]=f[4]=f[5]=f[6]=f[7]=0; L0: f[0]-=v[7]; L1: f[0]/=v[4]; L2:f[0]+=1.501374244689941f; L3:f[0]*=f[0]; L4: f[0]*=f[0]; L5: f[0]-=1.987620830535889f; L6:f[0]*=v[0]; L7:f[0]*=v[2]; L8:f[0]*=v[5]; L9: f[0]/=v[7]; L10: f[0]/=v[1]; L11: f[0]-=v[6]; L12:f[0]/=v[3]; L13: f[0]-=v[2]; L14: f[0]+=v[1]; L15: f[0]*=0.03275442123413086f; L16:f[0]/=-0.494312047958374f; L17:f[0]+=-1.549970149993897f; L18:f[0]/=v[5]; L19: f[0]+=v[1]; L20: f[0]+=f[0]; L21: f[0]+=f[0]; L22: f[0]+=v[3]; L23:f[0]+=v[1]; L24: f[0]+=v[1]; L25: }} Upon simplification, in case of natural convection, the heat transfer coefficient, h is given by,

Where V4 = Thermal Conductivity, V5= thermal diffusivity and V6=Toughness and Using GP simulation, in case of forced convection, the heat transfer coefficient, h is given by

Where V5 = Thermal Conductivity, V2= thermal diffusivity and V6=Toughness and

Using GP simulation, in case of natural convection, the number of cycles withstood (or thermal cycling resistance), TCR is given by h Where V3 = Thermal Conductivity, V1= thermal diffusivity and V2=Toughness

Using GP simulation, in case of natural convection, the thickness of coating against the thermal barrier ,t is given by
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Where V1 = Thermal Conductivity

and The results for thickness of coating against thermal barrier property simulation are shown in figure 1 and heat transfer coefficient simulation for natural and forced convection are shown in figure 2 and figure 3 and the Thermal cycling resistance are presented in figure 4. The Discipulus GP technique was able to simulate these output variables to within an average of 1.3% of their measured value, with no value exceeding a 0.01% deviation except in case of thickness deviation which is up to 3%.

Figure 1. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of thickness of coating against Thermal Barrier

Figure 2. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Heat Transfer coefficient Data under Natural convection

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Figure3. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Heat Transfer coefficient Data under Forced convection

Figure 4. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Thermal Cycling Resistance Data.

5. CONCLUSIONS Genetic programming (GP) has proved to be a highly versatile and useful tool for identifying relationships in data for which a more precise theoretical construct is unavailable. The experimental data in this research were in fact the environment to which the population of models had to be adapted as much as possible. The models presented are a result of the self-organization and stochastic processes taking place during simulated evolution. Only four genetically developed models out of many successful solutions are presented here. The accuracies of solutions obtained by GP depend on applied evolutionary parameters and also on the number of measurements and the accuracy of measurement. In general, more measurements supply more information to evolution which improves the structures of models. In this paper, the genetic programming was used for predicting the thermal properties responsible for failure of ceramic coatings. In the proposed concept the mathematical models for verifying the experimental results of thermal characteristics are subject to adaptation. Its reliability is 99.26% in the first three cases and whereas it is 97% in fourth case. In the testing phase, the genetically produced model gives the same result as actually found out during the experiment, thereby with the reliability of cent percent. It is inferred from our research findings that the genetic programming approach could be well
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used for the prediction thermal characteristics of ceramic coatings without conducting the experiments. This helps to establish efficient planning and optimizing of process for the quality production of ceramic coatings depending upon the functional requirements. Further work is on progress for the prediction/optimization of mechanical and tribological characteristics of ceramic coatings in addition to machinability of industrial ceramic coatings. REFERENCES [1] Dr. J. Fazlur Rahman et. al. and Mohammed Yunus et. al. (2009) , “Benefits of TBC Coatings on Engine applications”, Proceedings of International conference, INCAM 2009 at Kalsalingam University, Tamil Nadu, India. [2] Nusair Khan(2000), “Behaviour of air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings, Subjected to intense thermal cycling”, LASMIS, BP 2060, 12 Rue de Marie curie, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, France. [3] W.F. Calosso and A.R. Nicoll, (1987), Process requirements for plasma sprayed coatings for internal combustion engine components, Energy Sources Technology Conference and Exhibition, (Dallas, TX) 15-20 February, 87-ICE15, ASME, pp. 1-8. [4] Stragman T.E. (1985), Thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoils the Plasma Spray Process, J. Thin Solid Films, 127, pp. 93-105. [5] Dongming Zhu and Robert A. Miller (1998), “Thermal-Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine Engines”. [6] Nitin P. Padture, Maurice Gell, Eric H. Jordan (1998), Thermal Barrier Coatings for gas Turbine Engine Applications, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Material Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT06269-3136, USA. [7] P.Ramaswamy, S. Seetharamu, K. J. Rao, and K. B. R. Varma,(1998) “Thermal shock characteristics of plasma sprayed mullite coatings Technology”, J.Thermal spray Volume 7, Number 4, pp. 497-504(8). [8] Dr.J.Fazlur Rahman and Mohammed Yunus (2008), “Mechanical and Tribological characteristics of Tungsten Carbide Cobalt HVOF coatings”, Proceedings of International conference on MEMS held at Anjuman college of Engineering, Bhatkal, India. [9] Nordin, J.P. and Banzhaf, W. (1996) Controlling an Autonomous Robot with Genetic Programming.In: Proceedings of 1996 AAAI fall symposium on Genetic Programming, Cambridge, USA. [10] Koza, J.R., (1992) Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Natural Selection.MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. [11] J. R. Koza, Genetic programming II, The MIT Press, Massachusetts, 1994. [12] Koza, Bennett, Andre, & Keane, (1999) GENETIC PROGRAMMING III – Darwinian Invention and Problem Solving, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc. pp. 1154.
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[13] Francone, F., (1998-2000) Discipulus Owner’s Manual and Discipulus Tutorials, Register Machine Learning Technologies, Inc. [14] Spector, L., Langdon, W., B., O’Reilly, U., Angeline, P.J. (1999) Advances in Genetic Programming –Volume 3, MIT Press, pp. 476 [15] Tanguy, B. Besson J., Piques R., Pineau A. (2005), Ductile to brittle transition of an A508 steel characterized by Charpy impact test – Part 1: experimental results, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 72, pp.49 - 72. [16] M. Kovacic, J. Balic and M. Brezocnik, Evolutionary approach for cutting forces prediction in milling, Journal of materials processing technology, 155/156, 2004, pp.1647-1652. [17] H. Kurtaran, B. Ozcelik and T. Erzurumlu, Warpage optimization of a bus ceiling lamp base using neural network model and genetic algorithm, Journal of materials processing technology, 169(2), 2005, pp.314-319. [18] Sette S., Boullart L. Genetic programming: principles and applications, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 14 (2001), pp.727 – 736. [19] Pierreval H., Caux C., Paris J.L., Viguier F. Evolutionary approaches to the design and organization of manufacturing system, Computers & Industrial Engineering 44 (2003), pp.339-364. [20] Gusel L., Brezocnik M. Modeling of impact toughness of cold formed material by genetic programming, Comp. Mat. Sc. 37 (2006), pp.476 – 482. [21] Chang Y.S., Kwang S.P., Kim B.Y. Nonlinear model for ECG R-R interval variation using genetic programming approach, Future Generation Computer Systems 21, pp.1117-1123. [22] Brezocnik M., Gusel L. (2004), Predicting stress distribution in coldformed material with genetic programming, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol 23, pp.467-474. [23] M. Brezocnik, M. Kovacic and M. Ficko (2004), Prediction of surface roughness with genetic programming, Journal of materials processing technology, 157/158, 28-36. [24] M. Brezocnik and M. Kovacic (2003), Integrated genetic programming and genetic algorithm approach to predict surface roughness, Materials and manufacturing processes,18(4), pp.475–491.

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IJIERD

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A GENETIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH FOR THE PREDICTION OF THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CERAMIC COATINGS
Prof. Mohammed Yunus1, Dr. J. Fazlur Rahman2 and S.Ferozkhan3 1. Research scholar, Anna University of Technology Coimbatore Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India yunus.mohammed@rediffmail.com 2. Supervisor, Anna University of Technology Coimbatore Professor Emeritus, Department of MechanicalEngineering H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India jfazlu2003@yahoo.co.in 3. Lecturer, Department of Mechanical Engineering, H.K.B.K.C.E., Bangalore, India feroz_deen@yahoo.co.in ABSTRACT In aerospace industry, the durability and efficiency of high temperature components are improved by the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBC). In order to characterize the TBC, it requires a better understanding of mechanical and tribological properties along with their failure mechanisms which are to be thoroughly investigated to estimate their performance. At high temperature applications, Thermal barrier (TB) and thermal cycling resistance (TCR) parameters play a very important role. In this regard, Thermal tests were carried out on three different types of commonly used industrial ceramic coatings namely, Alumina (A), Alumina-Titania (AT)) and partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ), in the present study. Genetic programming (GP) has proved to be a highly versatile and useful tool for identifying relationships in data for which a more precise theoretical construct is unavailable. This technical paper highlights how we use GP technique in the prediction of maximum thermal barrier (temperature) and thermal cycling resistance (failure) of various ceramic coatings, for different variables, which are used at high temperatures. Commercial Genetic
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Programming (GP) software-Discipulus is used to derive a mathematical modelling of relations for various input and output parameters used in characterisation. A special genetic approach for the modelling of thermal properties in coated components is proposed on the basis of a training data set. Various different genetic models for prediction of different thermal properties with greater accuracy (less than 1%) were also proposed by simulated evolution. Keywords: TBC – Thermal properties - Thermal tests – Thermal Barrier – Thermal cycling resistance – Genetic Programming – Evolutionary Algorithm – GP software Discipulus. 1.1 INTRODUCTION Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) which are ceramic coatings applied on metal substrate have vast applications in aerospace, gas turbine engines, diesel engines and power generators. A TBC protects a metal substrate from high temperature as well as excessive wear and corrosion. TBC has very low thermal conductivity, which insulates the underlying substrate material from high temperature environment. In the case of aerospace and gas turbine application, the thickness of TBC generally varies 100 to 400 microns [1]. At this thickness range, the temperature of insulated super alloy substrate can be reduced up to 2000C enabling that gas turbine engines to function at higher temperature. The characteristic of TBC originates from porosity, micro cracks and toughness of ceramic coatings. Ceramic coatings have applications primarily as wear coatings and thermal barrier coatings. TBCs are usually consisting of two layers; the first layer is a metallic bond coat, whose function is to protect the substrate material against oxidation, corrosion and to provide with a good adhesion to the thermal insulating ceramic layer while the second layer is of ceramic material which acts as TBC. The desirable properties of these include high thermal expansion, low thermal conductivity and good thermal cycling resistance [1]-[8]. 1.2 GENETIC PROGRAMMING (GP) Genetic Programming is a form of machine learning that automatically writes computer programs. It uses the principle of Darwinian Natural [12] Selection to select and reproduce “fitter” programs. GP applies that principle to a population of computer programs and evolves a program that predicts the target output from a data file of inputs and outputs [9-12]. The programs evolved by GP software – Discipulus [13], in this case Java, C/C++ and assembly interpreter programs represents a mapping of input to output data. This is done by Machine Learning that maps a set of input data to known output data. The aims of using the machine learning technique on engineering problems are to determine data mining and knowledge discovery. GP provides a significant benefit in many areas of science and industry[14]. The Discipulus
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GP [13] system uses AIM Learning Technology. “AIM” stands for “Automatic Induction of Machine Code”. AIM Learning and Discipulus deal with the machine learning speed problem. This speed allows the analyst to able to make many more runs to investigate relationships between data and output, assess information content of data streams, uncover bad data or outliers, assess time lag relationships between inputs and outputs, and the like. The evolved models have been or are being used to develop process prediction or control algorithms. Hence GP technology has been selected for the present work. GP solutions are computer programs that can be easily inspected, documented, evaluated, and tested. The GP solutions are easy to understand the nature of the derived relationship between input and output data and to examine the uncover relationships that were unknown before. Genetic Programming evolves both the structure and the constants to the solution simultaneously. Discipulus GP strongly discriminates between relevant input data and inputs that have no bearing on a solution [13]. In other words, Discipulus performs input variable selection as a by-product of its learning algorithm. The following step by step procedure will be implemented for a steady state GP algorithm [9-13],[14] 1. Initialization of population: Generate an initial population of random compositions of the functions and terminals of the problem (computer programs). 2. Fitness evaluation: Execute each program in the population, randomly it selects some programs and assign it a fitness value according to how well it solves the problem by mapping input data to output data. Some programs are selected as winners (best programs), and the others as losers. 3. Create a new population of computer programs by exchanging parts of the “best” programs with each other (called crossover). 4. Copy the best existing programs. 5. Create new computer programs by randomly changing each of the tournament winners to create two new programs mutation. 6. Iterate Until Convergence. Repeat steps two through four until a program is developed that predicts the behavior sufficiently. GP has been successfully used to solve problems in a wide range of broad categories [15-24]: 1. Systems Modelling, Curve Fitting, Data Modelling, and Symbolic Regression 2. Industrial Process Control 3. Financial Trading, Time Series Prediction and Economic Modelling 4. Optimisation and scheduling 5. Medicine, Biology and Bioinformatics 6. Design 7. Image and Signal processing 8. Entertainment and Computer games
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2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Three different commercially available ceramic coatings powders namely, Alumina, Alumina-Titania, Partially Stabilized Zirconia of two different thicknesses namely 100 to 250 microns were used for the preparation of coatings. A 40 KW Sulzer,[1]and [8] Metco plasma spray system with 7MB gun is used for this purpose. Mild steel plates of 50x50x6 mm were used as substrate to spray the ceramic oxides. They were grit blasted, degreased and spray coated with a 50 to 100 microns NiCrAl bond coat[. The ceramic TBC were then plasma sprayed according to spray parameters mentioned in table1. In this study, two response parameters such as thermal barrier and thermal cycling tests were considered. 2.1 THERMAL BARRIER TEST Thermal barrier tests were conducted by measuring the temperature of metal substrate using thermocouples, after heating the coating surface with electric heaters, between 7000C and 10000C for a period of half an hour to attain steady state, to get temperature drop across the substrate and ceramic coating. The heat transfer coefficient on the surface of coated plate is very important parameter in the selection of TBC [2]-[6]. This parameter is studied for different heat inputs under natural and forced convection. An electric heater connected with ammeter, voltmeter and a dimmerstat to control the heat input was used in the experimental setup to heat the substrate with coated surface. Two thermocouples of K-type namely chrome-alumel were used to measure the temperature at the substrate surface and as well as on the top of the coating for a given heat input. The temperature on the ceramic coated surface and metal surface is measured for three different coatings namely, Alumina (A), Alumina-Titania (AT) and Partially Stabilized zirconia (PSZ) and the heat transfer coefficients by natural and forced convection on the surface of the coated plate were calculated. In the case of forced convection, a blower was used to blow the air along the coated plate for different air velocities flowing parallel to the surface of the coatings, on three different coatings, heat inputs and the temperatures were measured using thermocouple. 2.2 THERMAL CYCLING TEST (TCT) Thermal cycling test is performed to determine the resistance of coated part for sudden changes in temperature [7] and to examine whether the sprayed coating can withstand severity of thermal cycling. The three different ceramic coatings with different thicknesses were subjected to thermal cycling by exposing to oxyacetylene flame till the coated surface is maintained around 10000C for about 1minute and subsequently cooled down by air till the temperature reaches down to around 1000C in the atmospheric conditions for 1 minute. The thermal cycling process is repeated until coating fails and peels off from the substrate.
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3. GENETIC PROGRAMMING METHODOLOGY In Genetic programming modelling, it is necessary to select suitable terminal from set F and available terminal genes from set f (0)[15-24]. From these, the evolutionary process will try to build as fit an organism (i.e. mathematical model) as possible for thermal characteristics prediction. The organisms consist of both terminal and function genes and have the nature of computer programs which differ in form and size. In our case the set of terminal genes f (0) is: f (0) = {Process inputs}. The selected set of function genes F is: F = {+, -, *, /}, where +,-,*, / are the mathematical operation of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The quality of the individual organism (i.e. prediction) is found out using fitness function. In our case, four different functions are used. 3.1 Process Inputs Ambient Temperature (0C), Temperature on coating side (0C), Temperature on substrate side (0C), Power (W), Velocity of air (m/sec) Toughness (MPa √m) Thermal conductivity (W/m K) Thermal Diffusivity (x 10-7m2/sec) 3.2 Measured Process Outputs Heat transfer coefficient under Natural convection (W/m2 0K) Heat transfer coefficient under Forced convection (W/m2 0K) Thickness of coating against thermal Barrier (0C) Thermal cycling Resistance (number of cycles withstood)
Table1. Experimental results of Thermal Cycling Resistance Test for different coatings
Sl.No. Thickness of coating in µm (V0) 150 225 300 150 225 300 150 225 300 number of cycles for Alumina-Titania (AT) (f0) Temperature of heating (V4) 700 700 700 850 850 850 1000 1000 1000 Number of cycles for Alumina (A) (f0) 280 290 310 260 270 280 250 260 270 number of cycles for Partial stabilised zirconia(PSZ) (f0) 405 425 445 390 410 425 360 380 400

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

345 360 375 330 345 360 320 330 340

Table 2. Experimental Results of evaluating thickness to withstand Thermal barrier for different coatings
S.No. Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V0) 700 800 900 Thickness of coating in µm(f0) 150 150 150 Temperature difference in 0C for Alumina (V2) 120 125 125 Temperature difference in 0C for Alumina- Titania (V2) 160 165 160 Temperature difference in 0C for PSZ (V2) 190 180 190

1 2 3

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4 5 6 7 8 1000 700 800 900 1000 150 300 300 300 300 120 135 145 140 145 160 170 175 170 175 180 210 215 210 215

Table3. Experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of natural convection for different coatings
Sl.No. Power in W (V0) 5 5.5 6 6.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V1) 69 75 85 94 106 115 174 183 Ambient Temperature in 0 C (V2) 35 40 45 55 85 100 130 164 Thickness of coating in µm (V3) 150 150 150 150 300 300 300 300 H in W/m2K for Alumina (f0) 3.9 4.14 3.95 4.26 3.44 3.44 3.8 3.66 H in W/m2K for AluminaTitania (f0) 3.48 3.65 3.65 3.75 3.25 3.2 3.2 3.4 H in W/m2K for PSZ(f0) 3.29 3.31 3.39 3.23 3.03 3.05 3 3.15

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Table 4. Experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of forced convection for different coatings
.S.N0. Power in W (V3) 5.5 6.5 6 6.5 5 6 6 6.5 5.5 6 5 5 5.5 6 5.5 6.5 6.5 5.5 5 5 6.5 5 6 5.5 6.5 6 5.5 5 6.5 6 5.5 5 Velocity of air in m/sec (V1) 1.401 1.253 1.401 1.085 0.8858 1.085 1.085 1.253 1.253 1.253 1.085 1.253 1.253 1.401 1.401 1.085 0.8858 0.8858 1.253 1.401 0.8858 1.401 1.253 1.085 1.401 0.8858 0.8858 0.8858 1.401 0.8858 1.085 1.085 Coating surface Temperature in 0 C (V0) 35 80 70 90 78 85 105 69 40 75 75 56 56 88 46 72 120 65 60 50 88 65 90 48 70 115 55 65 65 90 58 60 Ambient Temperature in 0 C (V7) 30 65 65 70 65 80 60 48 35 70 60 50 50 40 40 52 90 60 55 45 57 50 50 45 50 70 50 60 42 85 55 55 Thickness of coating in µm (V4) 300 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 300 150 150 300 150 150 300 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 150 150 150 300 H in W/m2K for Alumina (f0) 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 H in W/m2K for AluminaTitania (f0) 12.75 12.8 13.8 11.84 8.8 11.43 11 13.2 12.05 12.84 9.5 10.75 12.6 13 13.1 12.64 10.72 10.6 11.21 11.64 11.24 12.86 12.45 11.35 13.85 10.25 10 8.4 14.64 10.64 11.64 9 H in W/m2K for PSZ (f0) 8.56 9.3 10.4 11.4 8.05 8.8 10.05 11.05 8.89 9.56 10.85 11.8 8.4 9 10.5 11.5 8.94 10.42 11.9 12.6 8.8 10 11.64 12 9 10.56 11.64 12.89 9.6 10 11.21 12.64

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

4. GENETIC MODELS – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The best accuracy (∆ (i) = 0.175 %, and that of the testing data ∆ (i) = 0. 18%) of the GP model was obtained when the genes function set used and the Output of the discipulus GP is in C program. The C program for the heat transfer coefficient in natural convection as given below:
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{{ f[0]=f[1]=f[2]=f[3]=f[4]=f[5]=f[6]=f[7]=0; L0: f[0]-=v[7]; L1: f[0]/=v[4]; L2:f[0]+=1.501374244689941f; L3:f[0]*=f[0]; L4: f[0]*=f[0]; L5: f[0]-=1.987620830535889f; L6:f[0]*=v[0]; L7:f[0]*=v[2]; L8:f[0]*=v[5]; L9: f[0]/=v[7]; L10: f[0]/=v[1]; L11: f[0]-=v[6]; L12:f[0]/=v[3]; L13: f[0]-=v[2]; L14: f[0]+=v[1]; L15: f[0]*=0.03275442123413086f; L16:f[0]/=-0.494312047958374f; L17:f[0]+=-1.549970149993897f; L18:f[0]/=v[5]; L19: f[0]+=v[1]; L20: f[0]+=f[0]; L21: f[0]+=f[0]; L22: f[0]+=v[3]; L23:f[0]+=v[1]; L24: f[0]+=v[1]; L25: }} Upon simplification, in case of natural convection, the heat transfer coefficient, h is given by,

Where V4 = Thermal Conductivity, V5= thermal diffusivity and V6=Toughness and Using GP simulation, in case of forced convection, the heat transfer coefficient, h is given by

Where V5 = Thermal Conductivity, V2= thermal diffusivity and V6=Toughness and

Using GP simulation, in case of natural convection, the number of cycles withstood (or thermal cycling resistance), TCR is given by h Where V3 = Thermal Conductivity, V1= thermal diffusivity and V2=Toughness

Using GP simulation, in case of natural convection, the thickness of coating against the thermal barrier ,t is given by
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

Where V1 = Thermal Conductivity

and The results for thickness of coating against thermal barrier property simulation are shown in figure 1 and heat transfer coefficient simulation for natural and forced convection are shown in figure 2 and figure 3 and the Thermal cycling resistance are presented in figure 4. The Discipulus GP technique was able to simulate these output variables to within an average of 1.3% of their measured value, with no value exceeding a 0.01% deviation except in case of thickness deviation which is up to 3%.

Figure 1. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of thickness of coating against Thermal Barrier

Figure 2. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Heat Transfer coefficient Data under Natural convection

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Figure3. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Heat Transfer coefficient Data under Forced convection

Figure 4. Percentage deviation curve between the best models regarding individual generation and experimental results of Thermal Cycling Resistance Data.

5. CONCLUSIONS Genetic programming (GP) has proved to be a highly versatile and useful tool for identifying relationships in data for which a more precise theoretical construct is unavailable. The experimental data in this research were in fact the environment to which the population of models had to be adapted as much as possible. The models presented are a result of the self-organization and stochastic processes taking place during simulated evolution. Only four genetically developed models out of many successful solutions are presented here. The accuracies of solutions obtained by GP depend on applied evolutionary parameters and also on the number of measurements and the accuracy of measurement. In general, more measurements supply more information to evolution which improves the structures of models. In this paper, the genetic programming was used for predicting the thermal properties responsible for failure of ceramic coatings. In the proposed concept the mathematical models for verifying the experimental results of thermal characteristics are subject to adaptation. Its reliability is 99.26% in the first three cases and whereas it is 97% in fourth case. In the testing phase, the genetically produced model gives the same result as actually found out during the experiment, thereby with the reliability of cent percent. It is inferred from our research findings that the genetic programming approach could be well
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International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 2, Issue 1, May - October (2011), © IAEME

used for the prediction thermal characteristics of ceramic coatings without conducting the experiments. This helps to establish efficient planning and optimizing of process for the quality production of ceramic coatings depending upon the functional requirements. Further work is on progress for the prediction/optimization of mechanical and tribological characteristics of ceramic coatings in addition to machinability of industrial ceramic coatings. REFERENCES [1] Dr. J. Fazlur Rahman et. al. and Mohammed Yunus et. al. (2009) , “Benefits of TBC Coatings on Engine applications”, Proceedings of International conference, INCAM 2009 at Kalsalingam University, Tamil Nadu, India. [2] Nusair Khan(2000), “Behaviour of air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings, Subjected to intense thermal cycling”, LASMIS, BP 2060, 12 Rue de Marie curie, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, France. [3] W.F. Calosso and A.R. Nicoll, (1987), Process requirements for plasma sprayed coatings for internal combustion engine components, Energy Sources Technology Conference and Exhibition, (Dallas, TX) 15-20 February, 87-ICE15, ASME, pp. 1-8. [4] Stragman T.E. (1985), Thermal barrier coatings for turbine airfoils the Plasma Spray Process, J. Thin Solid Films, 127, pp. 93-105. [5] Dongming Zhu and Robert A. Miller (1998), “Thermal-Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine Engines”. [6] Nitin P. Padture, Maurice Gell, Eric H. Jordan (1998), Thermal Barrier Coatings for gas Turbine Engine Applications, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Material Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT06269-3136, USA. [7] P.Ramaswamy, S. Seetharamu, K. J. Rao, and K. B. R. Varma,(1998) “Thermal shock characteristics of plasma sprayed mullite coatings Technology”, J.Thermal spray Volume 7, Number 4, pp. 497-504(8). [8] Dr.J.Fazlur Rahman and Mohammed Yunus (2008), “Mechanical and Tribological characteristics of Tungsten Carbide Cobalt HVOF coatings”, Proceedings of International conference on MEMS held at Anjuman college of Engineering, Bhatkal, India. [9] Nordin, J.P. and Banzhaf, W. (1996) Controlling an Autonomous Robot with Genetic Programming.In: Proceedings of 1996 AAAI fall symposium on Genetic Programming, Cambridge, USA. [10] Koza, J.R., (1992) Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Natural Selection.MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. [11] J. R. Koza, Genetic programming II, The MIT Press, Massachusetts, 1994. [12] Koza, Bennett, Andre, & Keane, (1999) GENETIC PROGRAMMING III – Darwinian Invention and Problem Solving, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc. pp. 1154.
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