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Lesson 1 The purpose of the course is to give Americans, whether of Irish descent or not, a working knowledge of the Irish

language. This course begins with the basics and is entirely self-contained. We have planned it especially for persons who are studying alone or in small groups without a teacher, books or recordings. To keep your past study lessons handy, each week remove the lesson from the paper and paste or staple it into a notebook, so that you will have the lessons available for review or reference. Pronunciation and study methods are important for you who are learning Irish in this way. We will say a few words about these two subjects first. Pronunciation Americans studying Irish have always learned pronunciation from either an Irish speaker or from one of several recordings accompanying textbooks. Because we will not be able to teach pronunciation in these ways, we will give you a simple pronunciation guide system and then extra instruction from time to time. If you have the chance to listen to a native speaker, however, do so. There are differences in regional pronunciation in Irish, as in other languages, but if the speaker talks slowly and clearly, you should have little trouble in understanding the words you know. The pronunciation given in the guide for this lesson series is not based exclusively on any one region of Ireland. Where the differences are significant, we will give you some of the other pronunciations and usage, to make it easier to talk to all speakers. Study Method Learn the pronunciation guide system and do the practice work for English words that we will give you. For each Irish word, phrase, or sentence, first look at the pronunciation guide (which will always be in parentheses) and say the word or words several times out loud. Then look at the Irish word and pronounce it several more times. After you have gone over the lesson in this way, write the Irish words, copying them from the lesson and saying them out loud as you copy them. Each time you say an Irish word or phrase, try to form a picture in your mind of the meaning. Although this is difficult with some single words, persist and it will become easier as the phrases and sentences become longer. Translation is the next step. Read the Irish word or phrase out loud and then translate it into English. Do this several times, until you are sure that you know it. Then translate the English into Irish several times. If you are learning Irish with others, each person can give another a word or phrase to translate and can take a part in the conversation in the lessons. In the conversation exercises, look first at the pronunciation and meaning, then look up from the lesson before you say the Irish words out loud. Work phrase by phrase at first, until you can memorize entire sentences. If you study with others, take turns in reading what each character says. In the conversation exercises, you will see words and phrases that will seem difficult at first. Memorize them and don’t worry about the grammar. It will be explained later. Pronunciation guide system Most of the symbols are letters and letter groups for sounds common in familiar English words. If you pronounce them in that way for the first few lessons, you will be close enough for a beginning. We will gradually correct you and improve your pronunciation as you advance, so that you will soon have a genuine Irish pronunciation. For most consonants, such as b, d, f, g, h, l, m, n, p, r, s, and t we will use the letters themselves as pronunciation symbols. In the lessons you will get instructions on how to pronounce these sounds in the Irish way. Nearly all these consonants have two sounds in Irish, depending on what vowels are next to them. (English “c” and “g” also have this characteristic. Notice how you start to pronounce “king” and “coat”, and then “give” and “go”.) The vowel symbols may need some explanation, so here are the symbols and description of their pronunciation: Symbols and pronunciation (ah) as in English “ah-hah”. (a) as in English “at”. (aw*) as in English “tot”. but held for a longer time (ay*) as Irish pronounce English “say” without a trace of (ee) as in English “mean”. (i) as in English “pin”. (eye) as in English “eye”. (oh) as in English “toe”, but without the trace of (oo) sound at the end as in English “food”. (oo) as in English “food”. (u) as in English “put”. (uh) as in English “but”. (ou) as in English “shout” We will capitalize the letters in the accented part of the word or phrase. We will use asterisks, as in some symbols above, to indicate a sound fairly different from usual English sounds. Remember, too, that many Irish sounds are not exactly like their English counterparts. Some English sounds, such as “z” and “th” are not in Irish. Now try these English words as practice in using the pronunciation guide system: (boht) (HAM-muhr) (kin) (KUH-stuhm-ayr-ee) (de-LIV-uh-ree) (giv) (trans-LAYT) (ad-MEYE-uhr) (ful-FIL) (fuhn-duh-MENT-uhl) (wohnt) (wawnt) (tawt). The actual English words for these are: boat, hammer, kin, customary, delivery, give, translate, admire, fulfill, fundamental, won’t, want, taught. These sounds are not always exact, as you can see, but are close enough to be understood.

Lesson 2 You are now ready to make a classic entry into the Irish language, by way of an important verb: Tá (taw*). “Tá” serves to tell where something is or what its condition is, and therefore it has some of the functions of English “is”. For the (t) sound next to an “a”, “o” or “u”, put the front part of your tongue up along the top of your mouth, with the tip against the upper front teeth and almost--but not quite--protruding between the teeth. Pronounce the (t) sound a few times. If you extend the tongue too far between the teeth, you will say English “th” as in “that” or “throw”. Irish does not have those sounds. For the (aw*) sound, say the English word “tot”, but start the word with the Irish (t) you have just learned. Repeat several times, then drop the final “t” and lengthen the (aw*) sound. As a check, try making the (aw*) sound in another way: Say English “awful” several times slowly, and notice that your lips are pushed far out. Try the word with your lips held in closer and more rounded. You may recognize the sound as the way some Irish pronounce “awful”. Now learn these words, referring back to the Lesson 1 pronunciation guide as necessary: Tá sé (TAW* shay*) he is, it is tá sí (TAW* shee) she is tá mé (TAW* may) I am fuar (FOO-uhr) cold mór (mohr) big te (te) hot óg (ohg) young sean (shan) old lán (law*n) full Next, learn these sentences, then translate them. Form a mental picture each time. Tá sé fuar. Tá mé mór. Tá sí óg. Tá sé lán. Tá sé te. Tá sí sean. Learn these new words thoroughly: fear (far) man, a man cat (kaht) cat, a cat bean (ban) woman, a woman cailín (kah-LEEN) girl, a girl bord (bohrd) table, a table ard (ahrd) high, tall gairid (GAH-rid) short anseo (un-SHUH) here ansin (un-SHIN) there fada (FAH-duh) long bosca (BOHSK-uh) box, a box íseal (EE-shuhl) low, short sráid (sraw*d) street, a street agus (AH-guhs) and láidir (LAW*-dir) strong tanaí (TAH-nee) thin ramhar (ROU-wuhr) fat cam (koum) crooked We can substitute these into the basic sentence “Tá sé fuar”, he is cold, to make new sentences: Tá fear anseo (taw* FAR un-SHUH). A man is here. Tá Seán anseo (taw* SHAW*N un-SHUH). John is here. Tá bean agus fear ansin (taw* BAN AH-guhs FAR un-SHIN). A women and a man are there. Tá Bríd láidir (taw* BREED LAW*-dir). Bridget is strong. “Tá” is irregular, one of only ten or eleven Irish verbs that are. For the negative of “tá”, the basic word is “níl” (neel). Read these: Níl sé mór (NEEL shay* mohr). He is not big. Níl mé fuar (NEEL may* FOO-uhr). I am not cold. Níl Seán ramhar (NEEL shaw*n ROU-wuhr). John is not fat. For questioning with “tá”, the basic group is “an bhfuil” (un VWIL). In the West of Ireland this may be pronounced (un WIL). Read these: An bhfuil fear ansin? (un vwil FAR un-SHIN) Is a man there? An bhfuil Nóra óg? (un vwil NOH-ruh ohg) Is Nora young? An bhfuil bosca anseo? (un vwil BOHSK-uh un-SHUH) Is there a box here?

Pronunciation Irish t and d. Every Irish consonant has two different sounds. The one selected depends on what kind of vowel is next to the consonant. The vowels “a”, “o” and “u” are called broad and give the broad sound to consonants next to them. The slender vowels are “e”, “i”, “ea” and often “ai”. You learned how to pronounce broad “t” above, in the word “tá”. Pronounce a broad “d” with the front part of the tongue in the same position, along the roof of the mouth, with the tongue tip almost protruding between the teeth. Try: dá (daw*), dó (doh), dún (doon), drom (drohm), dlú (dloo), dath (dah). For slender “d” and “t”, place the tongue tip, and only the tip, on the hard ridge just behind your upper front teeth. Then pronounce the “t “ or “d”. (In the West there is a tendency to pronounce these by sliding the tongue off the ridge, giving sounds closer to ch or j). Practice on these: deil (del), déan(day*n), dílis (DEE-lish), ding (ding), deacair (DAK-uhr), dlí (dlee), te (te), téann (TAY*-uhn), timire (TEEM-i-re), teas (tas). Conversation Read this carefully until you can go from one language to the other quickly, phrase by phrase and sentence by sentence. Do not try to understand the grammar of the words or phrases yet. Pay special attention to “duit”. This is generally pronounced with a (g) sound at the start, and we will do that in this lesson. The letter “u” in the word merely tells you that the “d” or “g” gets its broad sound. The “t” must get a slender sound. Séamas: (SHAY*-muhs): Dia duit, a Nóra (DEE-uh git, uh NOH-ruh). Hello, Nora. Nóra: Dia’s Muire duit, a Shéamais (DEE-uhs MWIR-uh git, uh HAY*-mish). Hello James. Séamas: Conas tá tú? (KUN-uhs TAW*too). How are you? Nóra: Tá mé go maith, agus conas tá tú féin? (TAW* may* goh MAH, AH-guhs KUN-uhs TAW* too fay*n). I am well, and how are you? Séamas: Tá mé go maith, leis. (TAW*may* goh MAH, lesh). I am well, too.

Lesson 3 One of the characteristics of modern printed Irish is the frequency of the letter “h” after consonants in words. Generally the “h” is not sounded by itself but instead indicates a pronunciation change in the consonant directly ahead of it. This change, called “aspiration”, occurs in other languages, too. In English, for example, you know that the word “philosophy” is pronounced with “f” sounds, not “p” sounds. The “h” after the “p” tells you this, as it does in “Philip” and “triumph.” A German pronounces “ach” differently from “ac” or “ak”, too, because he knows that the “h” indicates a change, which we call “aspiration” in Irish. Aspiration is nothing more than a relaxation of the tongue as you say a consonant, so that air can flow out of the mouth more easily. Aspiration can occur for initial consonants under the effect of preceding words or word groups, such as “my” or “in the”. Aspiration can also occur in the middle or at the end of a word. We will now give you an “aspiration vocabulary,” so that you will be able to pronounce aspirated consonants more easily as you read them. Nearly all the aspirated sounds are close to English sounds, but the aspirated “c” sounds are somewhat different. Learn them separately first: When ordinary, unaspirated “c” is next to “a”, “o”, or “u”, pronounce it like the “c” in “coat” or “coal.” This is called “broad c.” Notice that your tongue rises at the back and touches the roof of your mouth for the “c” sound. Try these Irish words: cáil (kaw*l), cóta (KOH-tuh), cúpla (KOOP-luh). To make the aspirated sound, pronounce the “c” without letting the tongue rise so high. Try the German word “ach” first. Then try the aspirated sounds in: lach (lahk*), loch (lohk*), dúchas (DOOK*-uhs). Next, try the sound at the start of words: cháil (k*aw*l), chóta (K*OH-tuh), chúpla (K*OOP-luh). We will use the symbol (K*) for the aspirated “broad c” sound. Pronounce “c” next to “e”, “i”, or before “ea” like the “k” in “kill” or “kit”. Notice that the tongue top touches the roof of the mouth farther forward than for “broad c.” Try these Irish words: ceil (kel), cíos (kees), ceannaigh (KyAN-ee). To aspirate, say the “c” without letting the tongue touch the roof of the mouth. The sound will be like a “y” in English with a slight “h” sound before it; we will use (hy) as the symbol. Try: cheil (hyel), chíos (hyees), cheannaigh (HYAN-ee). In parts of Ireland, the sound is closer to English “h.” Now learn this aspiration vocabulary. (“Mo” means “my” and aspirates the nine aspirable consonants after it.): béal, mo bhéal (bay*l, muh VAY*L) mouth, my mouth. bád, mo bhád (baw*d, muh VAW*D) boat, my boat. cistin, mo chistin (KISH-tin, muh HYISH-tin) kitchen, my kitchen. cóta, mo chóta (KOH-tuh, muh K*OH-tuh) coat, my coat. deis, mo dheis (desh, muh YESH) opportunity, my opportunity. dóthain, mo dhóthain (DOH-hin, muh GOH-hin) enough, enough for me. fear, mo fhear (far, mar) man, my man. fáinne, mo fháinne (FAW*-nye, MAW*nye) ring, my ring. géag, mo ghéag (GAY*-ugh, muh YAY*-uhg) arm, my arm. gairdín, mo ghairdín (gahr-DEEN, muh gahr-DEEN) garden, my garden. mian, mo mhian (MEE-uhn, muh VEE-uhn) wish, my wish. mála, mo mhála (MAW*-luh, muh VWAW*-luh) bag, my bag. peata, mo pheata (PAT-uh, muh FAT-uh) pet, my pet. póca, mo phóca (POH-kuh, muh FOH-kuh) pocket, my pocket. séire, mo shéire (SHAY*-ruh, muh HAY*-ruh) supper, my supper. sál, mo shál (saw*l, muh HAW*L) heel, my heel. tír, mo thír (teer, muh HEER) country, my country. talamh, mo thalamh (TAH-luhv, muh HAH-luhv) land, my land. Conversation After you have learned this conversation, go over it again to look for examples of aspiration in it, and see how the pronunciation is changed. Séamas: (SHAY*-muhs): Dia duit, a Nóra (DEE-uh git, uh NOH-ruh) Hello, Nora. Nóra: Dia’s Muire duit, a Shéamais (DEE-uhs MWIR-uh git, uh HAY*-mish) Hello James. Séamas: Conas tá tú inniu? (KUN-uhs TAW* too in-YOO) How are you today? Nóra: Tá mé go maith, agus conas tá tú féin? (TAW* may* goh MAH, AH-guhs KUN-uhs TAW* too fay*n) I am well, and how are you yourself? Séamas: Tá mé go maith leis, ach níl mé ag obair anois (TAW* may* go MAH lesh, ahk* NEEL may* eg UH-bir uh-NISH) I am well, too, but I am not working now. Nóra: Níl an aimsir go maith inniu (neel un EYEM-sheer goh MAH in-YOO) The weather isn’t good today. Séamas: Tá an ceart agat. Tá sé fuar anseo (taw* un KART uh-GUHT. taw*shay* FOO-uhr uhn-SHUH FRESH-in) You’re right. It is cold here too). Nóra: Níl an seomra te, pé scéal é (neel un SHOHM-ruh shuh te, pay* SHKAY*L ay*) The room isn’t warm. anyway.

Lesson 4 We began on the verb “tá” in Lesson 2, and we will continue with it now. Here is the entire present tense: Tá mé (TAW* may*), I am Tá tú (TAW* too), you (singular) are Tá sé (TAW* shay*), he, (it) is Tá sí (TAW* shee), she is Táimid (TAW* mid), we are Tá sibh (TAW* shiv), you (plural) are Tá siad (taw* SHEE-uhd), they are Níl mé (NEEL may*), I am not Níl tú (NEEL too), you (singular) are not Níl sé (NEEL shay*), he is not Níl sí (NEEL shee), she is not Nílimid (NEEL-i-mid), we are not Níl sibh (NEEL shiv), you (plural) are not Níl siad (neel SHEE-uhd), they are not An bhfuil mé? (un VWIL may*), am I? An bhfuil tú? (un VWIL too), are you? (singular) An bhfuil sé? (un VWIL shay*), is he? An bhfuil sí? (un VWIL shee), is she? An bhfuilimid? (un VWIL-i-mid), are we? An bhfuil sibh? (un VWIL shiv), are you? (plural) An bhfuil siad? (un vwil shee-uhd), are they? To give you fluency and practice in pronunciation, we now introduce a progressive drill. Repeat the drill several times when the lessons call for it. Each time you repeat it, it becomes easier. The drill takes you through a verb or grammar form progressively, changing from question to negative to declarative and back to the question form. Remember to form a mental picture for each sentence. Here is the basic form: An bhfuil mé sa ghairdín? (un VWIL may* suh gahr-DEEN), Am I in the garden? Níl mé sa ghairdín (NEEL may* suh gahr-DEEN), I am not in the garden. Tá tú sa ghairdín (TAW* too suh gahr-DEEN), You are in the garden. An bhfuil tú sa ghairdín? (un VWIL too suh gahr-DEEN), Are you in the garden? Níl tú sa ghairdín (NEEL too suh gahr-DEEN), You are not in the garden. Tá sé sa ghairdín (TAW* shay* suh gahr-DEEN), He is in the garden. An bhfuil sé sa ghairdín? (un VWIL shay* suh ghar-DEEN), Is he in the garden? [note the progression from Mé - Tú - Sé in the above] Go on from here. Your last sentence will be: Tá mé sa ghairdín (TAW* may* suh gahr-DEEN), I am in the garden. Vocabulary The Irish word for “the” is “an”. Irish nouns can be either masculine or feminine, and “an” before a feminine noun aspirates most of the initial consonants that can be aspirated. Exceptions are “d”, “t”, and sometimes “s”. “An” does not aspirate the initial consonant of a masculine noun. Learn this vocabulary: Masculine nouns lá (law*), day clog (kluhg), clock bus (bus), bus Feminine nouns bean, an bhean (ban, un VAN), woman cos, an chos (kuhs, un K*UHS), foot duais, an duais (DOO-ish, un DOO-ish), prize grian, an ghrian (GREE-uhn, un YREE-uhn), sun fuinneog, an fhuinneog (fwin-YOHG, un in-YOHG), window teanga, an teanga (TANG-uh, un TANG-uh), language tír, an tír (teer, un TEER), country Other words and phrases ag dul abhaile (uh duhl uh-VWAHL-e), going home breá (bir-RAW*), fine fliuch (flyuk*), wet tirim (TIR-im), dry álainn (AW*-lin), beautiful fuar (FOO-uhr), cold Conversation

Bríd (breed): Dia duit, a Sheáin (DEE-uh git, uh HYAW*in). Hello John. Seán (shaw*n): Dia’s Muire duit, a Bhríd (DEE-uhs MWIR-uh git, uh VREED) Conas tá sibh go léir? (KUN-uhs TAW* shiv goh lay*r) Hello, Bridget. How are you all? Bríd: Táimid go maith (TAW*-mid goh MAH), agus conas tá tú féin? (AH-guhs KUN-uhs TAW* too fay*n). We are well, and how are you yourself? Seán: Ó, ar fheabhas (oh er OUS). Nach breá an lá é? (nahk* bir-RAW un LAW* ay*). Oh, excellent. Isn’t it a fine day? Bríd: Is breá, go deimhin (is bir-RAW*, goh DEYE-in) Tá an ghrian ag soilsiú. (taw* un YREE-uhn uh SEYEL-shoo), agus tá an aimsir go hálainn. (taw* un EYEM-sheer goh HAW*-lin). It is fine, certainly. The sun is shining and the weather is beautiful. Seán: Níl an aimsir chomh fuar agus a bhí sé inné. (neel un EYEM-sheer hoh FOO-uhr AH-guhs uh vee shay* in-YAY). The weather is not as cold as it was yesterday. Bríd: Agus níl an lá chomh fliuch agus a bhí sé inné. (AH-guhs neel an LAW* hoh flyuk* AH-guhs uh vee shay* in-YAY). And the day is not as wet as it was yesterday. Seán: Tá orm dul abhaile anois, a Bhríd. (TAW* OH-ruhm duhl uh-VWAHL-e uh-NISH, uh VREED). Féach, tá sé a cúig a chlog beagnach. (FAY*-uhk*, TAW* shay* un KOO-ig uh K*LUHG BYUHG-nahk*). I must go home now, Bridget. Look, it is almost five o’clock. Bríd: Slán leat (slaw*n lat) Good-bye. Seán: Slán agat, a Bhríd. ( slaw*n uh-GUHT, uh VREED). Good-bye, Bridget. Note: “Slán agat” (health be at you) is said to someone staying behind. “Slán leat “(health be with you) is said to someone going away.

Lesson 5 You have already noticed the frequent use of what looks like an accent mark over vowels in Irish words. The slanting line (síneadh fada (SHEEN-uh FAH-duh) or sometimes “síneadh”) is not really an accent mark, however, but instead basically indicates the length of time that you pronounce the vowel. For example, the word “pósta” (POHS-tuh), meaning “married”, has the same (oh) sound that is in the word “cnoc” (kuhNOHK), meaning “hill”, but for “pósta” the (oh) sound is held longer. Often a short vowel in an Irish word will sound to an American somewhat like the (uh) in “unfit”. We have represented the sound by (uh) in some cases, because Americans will find the (uh) sound closer to their pronunciation experience. The Irish word “clog” is an example. We represent it by (kluhg), but as your pronunciation improves, you will learn to pronounce it with a short (oh) sound, rounding your lips more than for (uh). Irish makes less use of the (uh) sound than does English, and this is important to remember as you refine your pronunciation. The síneadh fada can indicate significant pronunciation differences. For example, “Seán” is a name, but “sean” means “old”. “Fear” (far) is “man”, but “féar” (fay*r) is “grass”. The word “Éire” (AY-re) means “Ireland”, but “eire” (E-re) is “burden”. On Irish stamps a few years ago, Ireland was called “Eire”, through either ignorance or malice. Grammar In Irish, nearly all adjectives follow the noun, and if the noun is feminine, the initial consonant of the adjective is aspirated. Learn these examples thoroughly: First, masculine nouns: an lá mór (un law* mohr), the big day an fear beag (un far byuhg), the little man bus dearg (bus DYAR-uhg), a red bus an bord mór (un bohrd mohr), the big table mo bhord mór (muh vwohrd mohr), my big table do bhord beag (duh vwohrd byuhg), your little table do bhád beag (duh vwaw*d byuhg), your little boat Next, feminine nouns: bean mhór (ban vwohr), a big woman an bhean mhór (un van vwohr), the big woman fuinneog bheag (fwin-YOHG vyuhg), a little window an fhuinneog bheag (un in-YOHG vyuhg), the little window tír fliuch (teer lyuk*), a wet country an tír fhliuch (un teer lyuk*), the wet country cos fhada (kuhs AH-duh), a long foot an chos fhada (un k*uhs AH-duh), the long foot oíche mhaith (EE-hye vwah), a good night an oíche mhaith (un EE-hye vwah), the good night A few adjectives come before the noun. “Sean” (shan), meaning “old”, is one of these. It aspirates the initial consonant of the noun. Learn these examples: sean-bhord (shan vwohrd), an old table an sean-bhord (un shan vwohrd), the old table an sean-fhear (un shan ar), the old man Practice “Tá X sa chistin (taw* X suh HYISH-tin) means “X is in the kitchen”. With this as the basic sentence, go through the progressive drill that you learned in Lesson 4, inserting these word groups for “X”: bean mhór (ban vwohr), a big woman an bhean bheag (un van vyuhg), the little woman cailín álainn (kah-LEEN AW*-lin), a beautiful girl an fhuinneog mhór (un in-YOHG vwohr), the big window mo bhord íseal (muh vwohrd EE-shuhl), my low table do chat ramhar (duh k*aht ROU-wuhr), your fat cat Start with: An bhfuil bean mhór sa chistin? (un VWIL ban vwohr suh HYISH-tin) Is there a big woman in the kitchen? Níl bean mhór sa chistin. Tá an bhean bheag sa chistin. An bhfuil an bhean bheag sa chistin? And so on. The last two sentences will be: Níl do chat ramhar sa chistin. Tá bean mhór sa chistin. Where you stand You should now know some basic pronunciation of the simpler words. The words that you have learned were given chiefly to illustrate pronunciation. We will devote more space henceforth to vocabulary and grammar. The emphasis will always be on building your speaking ability, with phrases rather than separate words as the basic units. You should also be able to initiate a conversation by now, if you have studied the conversation for each lesson. Conversation

Brian (BREE-uhn): Dia duit, a Phádraig (DEE-uh git, uh FAW*-drig). Hello Patrick Pádraig (PAW*-drig): Dia’s Muire duit, a Bhriain (DEE-uhs MWIR-uh git, uh-VREE-in.) Conas tá tú? (KUN-uhs taw* too) Hello, Brian. How are you? Brian: Tá mé go maith (TAW* may* goh MAH). Agus conas tá tú féin? (AH-guhs KUN-uhs taw* too fay*n) I am well. And how are you yourself? Pádraig: Tá mé go maith, freisin (FRESH-in). Tá báisteach air anois (taw* BAW*SH-tuhk* er uh-NISH). I am well, too. It looks like rain now. Brian: Bhí sé ag cur báistí aréir (vee shay* uh kur BAW*SH-tee uh-RAY*R). Féach! Tá an t-sráid fluich fós (FAY*-ahk*! taw* un traw*d flyuk* fohs). It was raining last night. Look! The street is still wet. Pádraig: Tá an aimsir fuar fliuch, go cinnte (taw* un EYEM-sheer FOO-uhr flyuhk*, goh KIN-te). The weather is cold and wet, certainly.

Lesson 6 Pronunciation The pronunciation of “l” in Irish differs somewhat from English pronunciation of “l”. If the “l” starts a word and is followed by “a”, “o”, or “u”, the tongue is spread wider than for English “l” and is pressed against the upper front teeth. Try: lá (law*), lán (law*n), lón (lohn), lúb (loob). This is the broad sound. In English, you probably point the tongue and touch it to the hard ridge behind the upper front teeth. For an “l” that starts a word but is followed by “e” or “i”, hold the tongue with the tip against the back of the lower front teeth and raise the front of the tongue so that it touches the upper front teeth and the hard ridge behind them. This is a slender “l”. Try: léan (lay*n), léir (lay*r) leis (lesh), leat (lat), lín (leen), lia (LEE-uh), lios (lis), litir (LI-tir). If inside a word, “l’ is more likely to be pronounced with the tongue tip on the hard ridge, much as in English. You should now be able to understand why some Irish persons pronounce English words with “l” as they do. Take “lovely” as an example. Remember what Lesson 5 told you--that in Irish the (uh) sound is not as common as in English. Then try the word “lovely” with the broad “l” you have just learned and with a vowel sound closer to (oh) than to (uh). For another example, try pronouncing English “line” with either the broad “l” or the slender “l” that you have just learned. Most persons learning a foreign language tend to apply the sounds of their native language to the new language. This is what gives us German, French, Russian and Spanish accents. The Irish, similarly, have applied the sounds of Irish to English to create an Irish accent. Do not call it a “brogue.” Vocabulary Masculine Nouns aon duine (ay*n DIN-e), anyone aon rud (ay*n ruhn), anything seomra *SHOM-ruh), room bosca (BOHSK-uh), box bord (bohrd), table Éireannach, an t-Éireannach (AY*R-uh-nahk*, un TAY*R-un-nahk*), Irishman or Irish person Meiriceánach (mer-i-KAW*-nahk*), an American Feminine Nouns oíche, an oíche (EE-hye, un EE-hye), night, the night traein (tray*n) train cathair, an chathair (KAH-hir, un K*AH-hir), city, the city sa seomra (suh SHOHM-ruh), in the room sa bhaile (suh VWAHL-e) at home eile (EL-e), other seo (shuh), this sin (shin), there anseo (un-SHUH), here ansin (un-SHIN), there ag teacht isteach (uh tyahk*t ish-TYAHK*) coming in ag dul amach (uh duhl uh-MAHK*), going out Grammar “Cá bhfuil X?” (kaw* vwil eks) means “Wher is X?” “Nach bhfuil sé anseo?” (nahk* VWIL shay* un-SHUH) means “Isn’t he here?” The complete tense for the “nach bhfuil” form is: Nach bhfuil mé? (nahk VWIL may*) am I not? Nach bhfuil tú? (nahk VWIL too) are you (singular) not? Nach bhfuil sé? (nahk VWIL shay*) isn’t he? Nach bhfuilimid? (nahk VWIL-i-mid) aren’t we? Nach bhfuil sibh? (nahk VWIL shiv) aren’t you (plural)? Nach bhfuil siad? (nahk VWIL SHEE-uhd) aren’t they? To make you more proficient in the vocabulary and verb forms of this lesson, go through this progressive drill: Nach bhfuil Seán anseo? (nahk* vwil SHAW*n un-SHUH) Isn’t John here? Níl sé anseo (NEEL shay* un-SHUH). He’s not here. Tá sé ansin (TAW* shay* un-SHIN) He’s there. Continue with: Nach bhfuil Seán ansin? Níl sé ansin. Tá sé sa seomra. Then continue with: sa bhaile, ag teacht isteach, ag dul amach, ag teacht amach, ag dul isteach. If you have time, replace “Seán” by: an t-Éireannach, an Meiriceánach, an bhean mhór, an fear mór. For the form “Cá bhfuil___?”, go through this progressive drill: Cá bhfuil mé? (kaw* vwil may*) Nach bhfuil mé sa chistin? (nahk* VWIL may* suh HYISH-tin) Níl mé sa chistin (NEEL may* suh HYISH-tin).

Tá tú sa chistin (TAW* too suh HYISH-tin). Continue with: Cá bhfuil tú?, and go through “sé”, “sí”, “__ imid”, “sibh”, and “siad”, coming back to “Tá mé sa chistin.” Conversation Brian: (BREE-uhn): A Phádraig, cá bhfuil an fear a bhí sa seomra eile? (uh FAW*-drig, kaw* vwil un far uh vee suh SHOHM-ruh EL-e) Patrick, where is the man who was in the other room? Pádraig: Níl a fhios agam (neel is uh-GUHM). B’fhéidir go bhfuil sé sa bhaile (BAY*dir goh vwil shay* suh VWAHL-e). I don’t know. Perhaps he is home. Brian: Nach bhfuil tú féin ag dul abhaile anois? (nahk* VWIL too fay*n uh duhl uh-VWAHL-e uh-NISH) Aren’t you yourself going home now? Pádraig: Is dócha (is DOHK*-uh). Féach! (FAY*ahk*) tá bus ag teacht síos an tsráid (taw* BUS uh tyahk*t shees un traw*d). I suppose so. Look! There’s a bus coming down the street. Brian: Isteach leat, a mhic, (ish-TYAHK* lat, uh vik). In with you, son. Notes on conversation “Níl a fhios agam” means literally “There is not its knowledge at me.” “Fios” is “knowledge”, and “agam” is “at me”. Learn it as a phrase and use it as a quick reply to questions. “B’fhéidir” is often followed by “go bhfuil.” Learn it as a phrase, to which you can add other phrases, such as “ __ Seán ag teacht.”

Lesson 7 Pronunciation The sounds of the letter “r” in Irish differ from those of the “r” in English. When next to an “a”, “o”, or “u”, the sound is usually rolled. To pronounce this “r”, bring the tip of the tongue near the hard ridge behind your upper front teeth and vibrate the tongue as you say the “r”. Keep the tongue relaxed. Then try: rá (raw*), rón (rohn), rún (roon). If the “r” begins a word and is followed by “e” or “i”, it usually has this broad sound, too, as in: ré (ray*), rí (ree). The rolling or vibration of the tongue is in the front of the mouth, not in the back as in some other European languages. Inside a word, the broad “r” sound may not be rolled or trilled as much as it is at the beginning of a word. A double “r” next to an “a”, “o”, or “u” is more likely to be rolled, as in: carraig (KAHR-rig). When the “r” is next to an “e” or “i” inside a word or at the end of a word, it gets its slender sound. To make this sound, which is a difficult one for most Americans, place the tongue tip close to the top of your upper teeth and form a shallow pocket or hollow in the tongue tip. Don’t make the hollow too deep. Then pronounce “r” by blowing air at the tongue tip and dropping the tongue tip down. Try this several times, and try saying “tír” (teer). Notice how you start with your tongue tip on the hard ridge behind your upper front teeth and then move the tongue tip forward into position for the slender “r”. The “r” sound may remind you somewhat of the slender “d” of Lesson 2, but there is a clear difference. Now try: fir (fir), mír (meer). Next, try it beside a consonant: trí (tree), briste (BRISH-te), creid (kred). Work on the “t” and “d” in these words, too. See Lesson 2. For a little more help with this sound, think back to the way in which some Irish persons pronounce the sentence “Where is it?” You may have heard this imitated on radio or television by persons attempting to speak with an Irish accent. The sound is the slender “r” of the Irish language, brought by Irish from their own language into the foreign language of English. VOCABULARY Masculine Nouns mac (mahk), son bóthar (BOH-uhr), road carr (kahr), car, automobile doras (DUH-ruhs), door nuachtán (NOO-uhk*-taw*n), newspaper ceacht (kyahk*t), lesson athair, an t-athair (A-hir, un TA-hir), father, the father ag scríobh (uh shkreev), writing ag caint (uh keyent), talking ag rith (uh ri), running ag léamh (uh LAY*-uhv), reading Feminine nouns máthair, an mháthair (MAW*-hir, un VWAW*-hir), mother, the mother iníon, an iníon (in-EEN, un in-EEN), daughter sa bhus (suh vus), in the bus sa charr (suh k*ahr), in the car sa stáisiún (suh STAW*-shoon), in the station sa chathair (suh K*AH-hir), in the city sa tsráid (suh traw*d), in the street sa train (suh tray*n), in the train READING PRACTICE Táimid sa bhaile anois. Níl aon duine sa tsráid inniu. Tá an aimsir go dona (DUHN-uh). Tá sé fuar fliuch, agus tá sé ag cur báistí. Sa teach, tá an seomra seo te tirim. Tá bord sa seomra, agus bord eile sa chistin. Féach! Tá fear ag teacht isteach. M’athair, is dócha, agus tá mo mháthair ansin, freisin. Nach bhfuil siad fliuch? Tá, go cinnte. (TAW*-mid suh VWAHL-e uh-NISH. neel ay*n DIN-e suh traw*d in-YOO. taw* un EYEM-sheer goh DUHN-uh. taw* shay* FOO-uhr flyuk*, Ah-guhs taw* shay* uh kur BAW*SH-tee. suh tyahk*, taw* un SHOHM-ruh shuh te TIR-im. taw* bohrd suh SHOHM-ruh, AH-guhs bohrd ELe suh HYISH-tin.) (FAY*-ahk*! taw* far uh tyahk*t ish-TYAHK*. MA-hir, is DOHK*-uh, AH-guhs taw* muh VWAW*-hir un-SHIN, FRESH-in. nahk* vwil SHEE-uhd flyuk*? taw*, goh KIN-te). We are at home now. There is no one in the street today. The weather is bad. It’s cold and wet, and it’s raining. In the house, this room is warm and dry. There is a table in the room, and another table in the kitchen. Look! A man is coming in. My father, probably, and my mother is there, too. Aren’t they wet? They are, indeed. Notes: In Irish, the word “agus” (AH-guhs), and, is often omitted between adjectives starting with the same letter. “Fuar fliuch” and “te tirim” are examples.

CONVERSATION Liam (LEE-uhm): A Shíle, seo dhuit nuachtán (uh HEEL-uh, shuh git NOO-uhk*taw*n). Sheila, here’s a newspaper for you. Síle (SHEEL-uh): Nuachtán Éireannach, an ea? (NOO-uhk*-taw*n AY*R-uh-nahk*, un a) An Irish paper, is it? Liam: Ní hea, ach nuachtán Meiriceánach, agus tá ceacht Gaeilge ann (nee ha, ahk* NOO-uhk*-taw*n mer-i-KAW*-nahk*, AH-guhs taw* kyahk*t GAY*lig-e OUN). It is not, it’s an American paper, and there’s an Irish lesson in it. Síle: Cá bhfuair tú é? (kaw* VOO-ir too ay*) Where did you get it? Liam: Sa siopa sin, thíos an tsráid (suh SHOHP-uh shin, HEE-uhs un traw*d). In that store, down the street. Notes on the conversation “Ní hea” does not mean “no”. Irish has no words for “yes” and “no”. Instead, the verb or form of the question is always in the answer. For example, you answer, “An bhfuil __ ?” or “Nach bhfuil __?” by “Tá __” or “Níl __”. “Gaeilge” means “Irish language”, or “Irish” for short. The adjective “Irish” is “Éireannach”. “Leabhar Ghaeilge” (LOU-wuhr GAY*-lig-e) is an Irish-language book, but “cóta Éireannach” is an Irish coat.

Lesson 8 Pronunciation You may have wondered about the meaning of the letters “bhf” in “bhfuil”. The basic word is “fuil” (fwil), but Irish speakers change the (f) sound by using the vocal cords, or humming, while they pronounce the “f”, causing a (v) sound. Certain words and phrases, such as “an” or “nach”, or “ar an” (er un), which means “on the”, bring about this change. They also cause the speaker to close off the flow of air somewhat for other consonants, altering the sound to a nasal hum: “d” becomes “n”, and “b” becomes “m”. The changes are called “eclipsis”, but you will learn them easily from the reference list below. You already know the sounds themselves. “Ár” (aw*r) means “our” and is one of the words that cause eclipsis in following initial consonants. bia, ár mbia (BEE-uh, aw*r MEE-uh) food, our food cistin, ár gcistin (KISH-tin, a*wr GISH-tin) kitchen, our kitchen deis, ár ndeis (desh, aw*r nesh) opportunity, our opportunity fear, ár bhfear (far, aw*r var) man, our man peata, ár bpeata (PAT-uh, aw*r BAT-uh) pet, our pet tír, ár dtír (teer, aw*r deer) country, our country pócaí, ár bpócaí (POH-kee, aw*r BOH-kee) pockets, our pockets talamh, ár dtalamh (TAH-luhv, aw*r DAH-luhv) land, our land bád, ár mbád (baw*d, ar*r maw*d) boat, our boat cótaí, ár gcótaí (KOH-tee, aw*r GOH-tee) coats, our coats dóthain, ár ndóthain (DOH-hin, aw*r NOH-hin) enough, enough for us fáinne, ár bhfáinne (FAW*-nye, aw*r VAW*-nye) ring, our ring One more, which will be a little harder for you to pronounce at first, although you know the individual sounds from English: When eclipsed, the initial letter “g” takes the sound of “ng” that is at the end of the English word “sung”. This is a little difficult at first to put before a word. Try this: ár ngeata (aw*rng A-tuh), our gate. Join the (aw*r) sound to the (ng) sound, saying it separately at first and then adding on the (A-tuh). Try “ár ngairdín” (aw*rng ahr-DEEN). Practice on: ár ngluaisteán (aw*rng LOOSH-taw*n), our auto; ár ngrá (aw*rng raw*), our love; ár nguí (aw*rng ee), our prayer; ár ngúnaí (aw*rng OON-ee), our dresses. Vocabulary Masculine Nouns cúpla (KOOP-luh), a couple sneachta (SHNAHK*-tuh), snow staighre (STEYE-ruh), stairs urlár, an t-urlár (oor-LAW*R, un toor-LAW*R) floor uisce, an t-uisce, (ISH-ke, un TISH-ke), water bainne (BAHN-ye), milk Feminine Nouns aimsir (EYEM-sheer), weather maidin, an mhaidin (MAH-din, un VWAH-din), morning lámh (law*v), hand súil, an tsúil (SOO-il, un TOO-il), eye ach (ahk*), but ó shin (oh HIN), ago ach oiread (ahk* IR-uhd), either istigh (ish-TEE), inside amuigh (uh-MWEE), outside ag foghlaim Gaeilge (uh FOU-lim GAY*-lig-e), learning Irish ag dul suas an staighre (uh duhl SOO-uhs un STEYE-ruh), going upstairs ag dul síos (SHEE-uhs) an staighre , going downstairs Tá sé thuas (HOO-uhs) an staighre, He’s upstairs Tá sé thíos (HEE-uhs) an staighre, He’s downstairs GRAMMAR Use the words “isteach” (ish-TYAHK*) and “amach” (uh-MAHK*) when movement is meant. To indicate that someone is remaining inside or outside, use “istigh” and “amuigh”. DRILL translate: a good hand, a good eye, the good eye, a long morning, the long morning, a crooked street, the crooked street. The proper forms are given below, after the conversation. Next, go through a progressive drill on: An bhfuil mé ag dul suas an staighre? Níl mé __. Tá tú __. Etc. Repeat with “síos an staighre”. CONVERSATION Éamann (AY*-muhn): Cá bhfuil Séamas anois? (kaw* vwil SHAY*-muhs uh-NISH) Where is James now? Cáitlín (kaw*t-LEEN): Níl a fhios agam (neel is uh-GUHM).Bhí sé ag dul suas an staighre cúpla noiméad ó shin (vee shay* uh duhl SOO-uhs STEYE-ruh KOOP-luh NOH-may*d oh hin.) I don’t know He was going up the stairs a couple of minutes ago.

Éamann: B’fhéidir go bhfuil sé thuas an staighre anois (BAY*-dir goh vwil shay* HOO-uhs un STEYE-ruh uh-NISH). Perhaps he’s upstairs now. Séamas: Tá mé ag teacht anois (taw* may* uh tyahk*t uh-NISH). Bhí mé istigh an lá go léir (vee may* ish-TEE un law* goh lay*r). I’m coming now. I was inside the whole day. DRILL FORMS: Lámh mhaith (law*v vwah); súil mhaith (SOO-il vwah); an tsúil mhaith (un TOO-il vwah); maidin fhada (MAH-din AH-duh); an mhaidin fhada (un VWAH-din AH-duh); sráid cham (sraw*d k*oum); an tsráid cham (un traw*d k*oum).

Lesson 9 PRONUNCIATION We will now look more closely at some vowel sounds before taking up any more consonants. First comes “o”. We represent its sound by (oh) for simplicity, but the actual Irish sound is noticeably different from English “oh”. To see this, stand before a mirror and watch your lips as you pronounce the word “oh” slowly. You will see them contract and move out to make an (oo) sound at the end. English “oh” is really a diphthong, a close combination of two vowels. The Irish sound is a single vowel, made with lips held rounded. Watch you lips again as you say English “oak” slowly. Then try to say it without contracting your lips. You will have the distinctive sound that has sometimes come into English. Try: óg, ól, ón, ór, ós. This vowel sound should be held longer than in English. If there is no síneadh fada (SHEEN-uh FAH-duh) over an “o” which is nevertheless stressed in a word, pronounce it in the same way but do not hold it as long. Try: obair (OH-bir), oscail (OH-skil), ocht (ohk*t). Notice that this shorter sound may resemble (uh), but in Irish you should not make the error of saying (uh) for this shorter “o”. Keep your lips more rounded and contracted than for (uh). Next, try “ocht” and then “ucht” (uk*t), and notice the difference. REFLEX EXPRESSIONS In everyday speech in any language, there are certain phrases or sentences with which a speaker reacts instantly to given situations. The expressions are closer to reflex action than to careful selection of words. “Níl a fhios agam” (neel is uh-GUHM) is one example. You must learn some of these to be fluent in speech and to understand written and spoken Irish. Ná bac leis (naw* bahk lesh), never mind, don’t worry about it. Buíochas le Dia (BWEE-uhk*-uhs le DEE-uh), Thanks be to God, thank Heaven. Tá go maith (taw* goh mah), All right. Is cuma liom (is KUM-uh luhm), I don’t care, it’s all the same to me. An ndéir tú liom é? (un NAY*R too luhm ay*), You don’t say (literally: Do you say it to me?) Fan go fóill (fahn goh FOH-il), Wait a minute, take it easy. CHECK LIST Are you working on your pronunciation of d, t, c, and g, with the instructions in Lesson 2 and 3? Are you reading aloud? Do you translate back and forth from Irish to English and then from English to Irish in the Vocabulary and Conversation? Do you form a picture in your mind every time you say an Irish word or phrase? If you answered “No” to any of these questions, you can benefit from reading Lessons 1 to 3 over again. GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY To give a command to another person, you must know the imperative form of the verb. This form is almost always the shortest and most basic part of the verb. Later on, you will learn how to change and add to this basic part to tell, for example, that an action happened in the past or will happen in the future. Here are some imperatives to learn. Note that if you want to tell a person not to do something, you put “Ná” (naw*) before the imperative. Déan é (day*n ay*), Do it. Ná déan é (naw* day*n ay*), Don’t do it. Léigh é (lay* ay*), Read it. Ná léigh é (naw* lay* ay*), Don’t read it. Scríobh é (shkreev ay*), Write it. Ná scríobh é (naw* shkreev ay*), Don’t write it. Cuir ar an mbord é (kir er un mohrd ay*), Put it on the table. Ná cuir an bosca ar an mbord (naw* kir un BOHSK-uh er un mohrd), Don’t put the box on the table. Éist liom (ay*sht luhm), Listen to me. Ná héist leis (naw* hay*sht lesh), Don’t listen to him Ól an bainne (ohl un BAHN-ye), Drink the milk. Ná hól an tae (naw hohl un tay), Don’t drink the tea. When “Ná” precedes a verb that starts with a vowel, an “h” is put before the verb, as in two examples above. Note also that “é” (ay*), which means “him” or “it”, and “í” (ee), which means “her” or “it”, are usually put at the end of the sentence. CONVERSATION

Máire (MAW*-re): Ar chuala tú mo chat aréir, a Sheoirse? (er K*OO-uh-luh too muh k*aht uh-RAY*R, uh HYOHR-she) Did you hear my cat last night, George? Seoirse (SHOHR-she): Chuala mé é, go cinnte (K*OO-uh-luh may* ay*, goh KIN-te). I heard it, certainly. Bhí sé ag screadadh an oíche go léir (vee shay* uh SHKRAD-uh un EE-huh goh lay*r). It was screeching the whole night. Agus bhí cat eile ann, freisin (AH-guhs vee kaht EL-e oun, FRESH-in). And there was another cat there, too. Maire: Cara leis, is dócha (KAH-ruh lesh, is DOHK*-uh) A friend of his, I suppose. Seoirse: Codladh sámh agat anocht (KUHL-uh saw*v uh-GUHT uh-NOHK*T). Sound sleep to you tonight. Notes: In pronouncing “Máire”, you must put a faint (i) sound between the (maw*) and the (re) sounds. This makes the word sound somewhat like “Moyra” or “Moira”, English attempts to represent the sound.

Lesson 10 PRONUNCIATION You know by now how to pronounce broad “c” and “g”. These sounds occur when the nearest vowel in the word is “a”, “o”, or “u”. The sounds in general resemble those in the English words “coal” and “go”. In some Irish words, however, a sound resembling the (uh) sound follows the “c” or “g”. The groups “cao” and “caoi” cause this sound to be heard. “Caol”, meaning “slender”, is an example. To learn its pronunciation, first say the English “quail”. Notice how your lips close in to form a “w” sound. Next, try it without closing your lips as much, making a short sound closer to (uh) right after the (k) sound. Now try the Irish word “caol” (kay*l). Extend the lips for the (k) sound, as you did in “quail”, but do not close the lips as you go to the (ay*) sound. Practice with: caoin (keen), weep; caoga (kay*guh), fifty; Caoimhín (kee-VEEN), Kevin; caoch (KAY*-uhk*), blind. Notice that “ao” is pronounced (ay*), but “aoi” is pronounced (ee). For “g,” much of the above holds true. The groups “gao”, “gaoi”, “gae” and “gaoi” all have the slight (uh) sound between “g” and the vowel. To learn this sound, first pronounce English “Guam”, and notice again how your lips close in to form the “w” sound. Next, try it without closing the lips as much after the (g). Then try the Irish word “gaol” (gay*l). Extend the lips as you did in starting to pronounce “Guam”, but do not close them as you go to the (ay*) sound. Then try: gaoth (gay*), wind: gaoithe (GEE-huh), of wind: Gael (gay*l), Gael; gaeilge (GAY*-lig-e), Irish language. GRAMMAR The useful verb “tá” serves to tell where someone is or how he is. Often it answers the question “Cá bhfuil ___ ?” (kaw* vwil), Where? or “Conas tá __ ?” (KUN-uhs taw*), how is? To tell what kind of object something is, we must employ a different verb: is (is). (Never pronounce this (iz); remember that Irish has no (z) sound.) Learn these examples of how to say that a person or thing is in a general class: Is bosca é (is BOHSK-uh ay*), it is a box; that is, it is in the general class of all boxes. Is cat é (is kaht ay*), It is a cat. Is Éireannach í (is AY*R-uh-nahk* ee), She is an Irishwoman, Irish citizen. Usually “is” indicates a permanent state, but you may use it for states that can change slowly, or after a time, or for states that have been attained. For example: Is cailín í (is kah-LEEN ee), She is a girl. Is scoláire tú (is skuh-LAW*-re too), you are a student. Is dochtúir Seán (is dohk*-TOO-ir shaw*n), John is a doctor. Adjectives can make subclasses, as in these examples: Is bosca mór é (is BOHSK-uh MOHR ay*), it’s a big box. Is Éireannach óg mé (is AY*R-uh-nahk* OHG may*), I am a young Irishman, Irish citizen. Is Cailín deas tú (is kah-LEEN DAS too), you are a pretty girl. Is múinteoir maith Seán (is moo-in-TYOHR MAH shaw*n), John is a good teacher. One form of question to be answered by “is” in this way is: Céard é seo? (kay*rd ay* shuh), what is this? Céard é sin? (kay*rd ay* shin), What is that? Correct use of “is” (is) ranks in importance with correct use of “tá”. English does not have two verbs for “to be”, so you will have to do some exercises to familiarize yourself with the Irish verbs. VOCABULARY Masculine nouns arán, an t-arán (uh-RAW*N, un tuh-RAW*N), bread caife (KAH-fe), coffee bainne (BAHN-ye), milk cupán (ku-PAW*N), cup pláta (PLAW*-tuh), plate tar isteach (tahr ish-TYAHK*), come in cheana (HAN-uh), already Feminine nouns spunóg (spun-OHG), spoon scian (SHKEE-uhn), knife léine (LAY*-ne), shirt

glan (gluhn), clean salach (suh-LAHK*), dirty suigh síos (si SHEE-uhs), sit down téigh amach (tay* uh-MAHK*), go outside CONVERSATION Máiréad (maw*-RAY*D): An bhfuil aon duine sa bhaile? (un vwil ay*n DIN-e suh VWAHL-e) Is anyone home? Pól (pohl): Tá mé anseo istigh (taw* may* un-SHUH ish-TEE). Tar isteach (tahr ish-TYAHK*). I’m here inside. Come in. Máiréad: Ó, tá tú ag foghlaim Gaeilge anois (oh, taw* too uh FOU-lim GAY*-lig-e uh-NISH). Céard é seo? (kay*rd ay* shuh). Oh, you’re studying Irish now. What’s this. Pól: Is cupán é. (is ku-PAW*N ay*). It’s a cup. Máiréad: Tá mórán Ghaeilge agat cheana (taw* moh-RAW*N GAY*-lig-e ug-GUHT HAN-uh). You know a lot of Irish already. Pól: Beagáinín gach lá (be-GAW*-neen gahk* law*). A little bit every day.

Lesson 11 PRONUNCIATION The pair of letters “ea” within a word or at a word end often gets an (a) sound like that in the English word “hat”. Examples: fear (far), man; bean (ban), woman; leat (lat), with you; is ea (sha), it is; ní hea (nee HA), it is not. At the beginning of a word, the “ea” often gets the (ah) sound in the English word “psalm”. Examples: eagla (AH-gluh), fear; eaglais (AH-glish), church; each (ahk*), horse. Sometimes “ea” is pronounced (ou), as in English “out”, when it is inside a word. Examples: ceann (kyoun) head; leabhar (LOU-wuhr), book; gleann (gloun), glen; seabhac (shouk), hawk. If in an unaccented syllable, “ea” is usually pronounced (uh). Examples: seisean (SHESH-uhn), he (emphatic); aingeal (ANG-uhl), angel. We will continue to give you the pronunciation guide for all new words and most of the exercises, but you will gradually develop ability to pronounce words by drawing on your experience with similarly spelled words, so that after a time you will not depend on the pronunciation guide. REFLEX EXPRESSIONS Here are several more expressions that you should learn for quick use in conversation and thought. B’fhéidir (BAY*-dir), Perhaps. Gan amhras (guhn OU-ruhs), Without doubt. Fan go bhfeicfidh mé (fahn goh VEK-hee may*), Wait till I see. Is maith é sin (is MAH ay* shin), That’s good. Notice that the second “f” in “bhfeicfidh” is pronounced like an “h”. This letter “f” indicates the future tense. GRAMMAR Last week we learned how to say that a person or thing is in a general class. An example: Is seomra é (is SHOHM-ruh ay*), It is a room. Here are the basic forms for this: Is scoláire mé (is skuh-LAW*-re may*), I am a student. Is scoláire tú (is skuh-LAW*-re too), You are a student. Is scoláire é (is skuh-LAW*-re ay*), He is a student. Is scoláire í (is skuh-LAW*-re ee), She is a student. Is scoláirí sinn(is skuh-LAW*-ree shin), We are students. Is scoláirí sibh (is skuh-LAW*-ree shiv), You (plural) are students Is scoláirí iad (is skuh-LAW*-ree EE-uhd), They are students. VOCABULARY Masculine nouns dinnéar (DIN-yay*r), dinner Im, an t-im (im, un tim), butter, the butter siúcra (SHOOK-ruh), sugar fo-chupán (FOH-k*upaw*n), saucer ith, ag ithe (i, eg I-he), eat, eating éist, ag éisteacht (ay*sht, eg AY*shtyahk*t), listen, listening Feminine nouns scoil, an scoil (skuhl, un skuhl), school, the school subh, an tsubh (soov, un toov), jam, the jam cathaoir, an cathaoir (KAH-heer, un K*AH-heer), chair, the chair ól, ag ól (ohl, eg ohl) drink, drinking milis (MIL-ish), sweet dána (DAW*-nuh), bold DRILL Go through the basic forms for “is” (is), with: dochtúir, dochtúirí (dohk*-TOO-ir, dohk*-TOO-IR-ee), doctor, doctors múinteoir, múinteoirí (moo-in-TYOHR, moo-in-TYOHR-ee), teacher, teachers

péintéir, péintéirí (PAY*N-tay*r, PAY*N-tay*r-ee), painter, painters CONVERSATION Máirín (maw*-REEN), Maureen: Tar isteach sa chistin agus suigh síos (tahr is-TYAHK* suh HYISH-tin AH-guhs si SHEE-uhs). Tá do dhinnéar ullamh (taw* duh YIN-yay*r UL-uhv). Come into the kitchen and sit down. Your dinner is ready. Dónall (DOHN-uhl), Donald: Ach cá bhfuil Pádraigín? (ahk* caw* vwil PAW*-dri-geen) Nach bhfuil sí abhaile ón scoil fós? (nahk* vwil shee uh-VWAHL-e ohn skuhl fohs) But where is Patricia? Isn’t she home from school yet? Máirín: Níl sí (neel shee). Níl a fhios agam cá bhfuil sí (neel is uh GUHM kaw* vwil shee). She’s not. I don’t know where she is. Dónall: Tá gach rud ar an mbord, go cinnte, ach tá an fochupán seo salach (taw* gahk* rud er un mohrd, goh KIN-te, ahk* taw* un FOH-k* upaw*n shuh suh-LAHK*). Everything’s on the table, certainly, but this saucer is dirty. Máirín: Nigh é, mar sin (ni ay*, mahr shin). Tá mé an ghnóthach (taw* may* AHN-gnoh-huhk*). Wash it then. I’m very busy. Dónall: Ó, tá Pádraigín ag teacht anois (oh, taw* PAW*-dri-geen uh tyahk*t uh-NISH). Tá sí ag siúl trí gach áit fhliuch ar an tsráid. (taw* shee uh shool tree gahk* aw*t lyuk* er un traw*d). Oh, Patricia’s coming now. She’s walking through every wet place on the street. Máirín: Agus í gan a buataisí! (AH-guhs ee guhn uh BOO-ti-shee) And she without her boots! Notes: In Irish, “an-” before an adjective means “very”. It usually aspirates the next consonant, as in “an-fhliuch” (AHN-lyuk*), very wet. Accent is usually on the “an-” prefixed to the word.

Lesson 12 The letter pair “eo” usually represents the sound “oh”. Hold it somewhat longer than if it were in an English word, and do not add the short (oo) sound in English (oh). Examples of “eo” beginning a word: eolas (OH-luhs), knowledge; eorna (OHR-nuh), barley. If a consonant comes before the “eo”, the consonant gets its slender sound, and there is often an audible (y) sound, between consonant and “eo”. Examples, with slender consonants you learned to pronounce in Lessons 1 and 2: ceo (kyoh), mist; deo (dyoh), end; geoin (GYOH-in), hum; teo (tyoh), warmth. Other examples: beo (byoh), living; feoil (FYOH-il), meat; meon (myohn), mind; neodrach (NYOH-druhk*), neutral. If an “s” comes before the “eo”, no (y) sound is heard, only the (sh) of slender “s”. Examples: seoid (SHOH-id), jewel; seomra (SHOHM-ruh), room; seó (shoh), show. Do not confuse “seó” with “seo” (shuh), meaning “this”. “Seo” is an exception to the general (oh) pronunciation for “eo”. “Deoch” (dyuhk*), a drink, is also an exception. The word “seomra” is another exception in parts of Ireland, where it is pronounced (SHUHM-ruh). In general, the (oh) sound in “seomra” is not held as long as in most “eo” examples. GRAMMAR To say that a person or object is not in some general class, use these forms: Ní dochtúir mé (nee dohk*-TOO-ir may*), I am not a doctor. Ní dochtúir tú (nee dohk*-TOO-ir too), You are not a doctor. Ní dochtúir é (nee dohk*-TOO-ir ay*), He is not a doctor. Ní dochtúir í (nee dohk*-TOO-ir ee), She is not a doctor. Ní dochtúir sinn (nee dohk*-TOO-ir shin), We are not doctors. Ní dochtúirí sibh (nee dohk*-TOO-ree shiv), You (plural) are not doctors. Ní dochtúirí iad (nee dohk*-TOO-ree EE-uhd), They are not doctors. The questions connected with this are: An dochtúir mé? (un dohk*-TOO-ir may*) Am I a doctor?, etc., and: Nach dochtúir mé? (nahk* dohk*-TOO-ir may*), Am I not a doctor? Etc. To answer these questions , the forms are: Is dochtúir mé, or: Is ea (sha), It is so, I am. The negative answer is: Ní hea (nee HA), It is not so, I am not. A longer answer is: Ní hea, ach múinteoir (nee HA, ahk* moo-inTYOHR), I am not, but I am a teacher. VOCABULARY Masculine nouns páiste (PAW*SH-te), child páistí (PAW*SH-tee), children Éireannaigh (AY*R-uh-nee), Irish persons Meiriceánaigh (mer-uh-KAW*-nee), Americans dlíodóir (dlee-uh-DOH-ir), lawyer dlíodóirí (dlee-uh-DOH-i-ree), lawyers feirmeoir (fer-im-OH-ir) farmer feirmeoirí (fer-im-OH-i-ree) farmers Feminine nouns banaltra, an bhanaltra (BAHN-uhl-truh, un VAHN-uhl-truh), nurse, the nurse banaltraí (BAHN-uhl-tree), nurses buatais, an bhuatais (BOO-tish, un VOO-tish), boot, the boot buataisí (BOO-ti-shee), boots garbh (GAHR-ruhv), rough dona (DUH-nuh), bad; (as weather) go leor (goh lohr), enough ar dtús (er DOOS), at first, first trom (truhm), heavy DRILL Go through “is”, substituting all the nouns above except “buatais”, in the following pattern: An páiste mé?, Ní hea, ach Éireannach. An páiste tú? Ní hea, ach Meiriceánach. An páiste é? Ní hea, ach dlíodóir. Etc. Continue to: An páistí iad? Ní hea, ach Meirceánaigh. Then change to: An Éireannach mé? Ní hea, ach Meirceánach. Etc. In each sentence, make sure that you use the proper number, either singular or plural.

CONVERSATION Pádraigín (PAW*-dri-geen): Dia daoibh, a mham agus a dhaid (DEE-uh-geev, uh vwahm AH-guhs uh gahd). Hello mom and dad. Máirín (maw*-REEN): Dia duit, a stór (DEE-uh git, uh stohr). Conas tá tú? (KUN-uhs taw* too) Hello, dear. How are you? Pádraigín: Tá mé go maith (taw* may* goh mah). Lá garbh sa scoil inniú (law* GAHR-ruhv suh skuhl in-YOO). Céard é sin ar an mbord? (kay*rd ay* shin er un mohrd) I’m well. Rough time in school today. What’s that on the table? Máirín: Is subh í, ach bain diot an cóta agus na bróga, ar dtús (is soov ee, ahk* bwin DEE-uht un KOH-tuh AH-guhs nuh BROHG-uh er DOOS). Tá do chosa fliuch (taw* duh K*UH-suh flyuk*). It’s jam, but take off the coat and shoes first. Your feet are wet. Pádraigín: Tá an aimsir dona go leor (taw* un EYEM-sheer DUH-nuh goh lohr), The weather’s bad enough. Dónall (DOH-nuhl): Suas an staighre leat, agus ná bí ag piocadh ar an arán (SOO-uhs un STEYE-ruh lat, AH-guhs naw* bee uh PIK-uh er un uh-RAW*N). Up the stairs with you, and don’t be picking at the bread. Máirín: Cá bhfuair mé an páiste sin? (kaw* VOO-ir may* un PAW*SH-te shin) Where did I get that child? Note: In the word “aimsir”, the first syllable approximately rhymes with the English word “chime” not with the phrase “buy ‘em”.

Lesson 13 You learned in Lesson 2 that each Irish consonant has two sounds: A broad sound if the nearest vowel in the word is “a”, “o”, or “u”. A slender sound if the nearest vowel in the word is “e”, or “i”. Two closely related consonants, “p” and “b”, are a good example of this. They are closely related because they are pronounced in the same way except that the vocal cords are vibrated for the “b” but mot for the “p”. You can feel the vibration or humming in your vocal cords as you start to say “bet” but not as you start to say “pet”. To pronounce broad “b” or “p”, extend your lips much farther than for the English sounds and round the opening. Then pronounce the letter. Try: bád, bó, bun (bun), bláth (blaw*), blúire (BLOO-i-re), bróg, brú, brád, pá, post, punt (punt), plúir (PLOO-ir), práta (PRAW*-tuh). For the slender sound of “b” and “p”, spread the lips somewhat, as if you were beginning to smile. Try: bean, beir (ber), bí (bee), bith (bi), bliain (BLEE-in), breá (bir-RAW*), bris (brish). Then try “b” next to “eo”, which usually gets a (yoh) sound: beo (byoh), alive. You can now realize the clear difference in Irish between “brách” (braw*k*), meaning “ever”, and “breá” (bir-RAW*), meaning “fine”. “Erin go bragh” is actually a badly anglicized form of “Éire go brách”, meaning “Ireland forever”. In going from a broad “b” or “p” sound to a slender vowel such as “i”, you will naturally make a sound somewhat like English “w”. Try: buí (bwee), bain (bwin). Notice that the “u” and “a” in these words are there chiefly to tell you to make the broad “b” sound instead of the slender, as in bí (bee), beir (ber). Last, try: buíochas (BWEE-uhk*-huhs), thanks. The sounds for “m” are akin to those for “b”, except that air is expelled through the nose for “m”. Protrude and round the lips, then try: mó (moh), mór (mohr), má (maw*), mála (MAW*-luh) múch (mook*), múin (MOO-in), mná (muh-MAW*), mura (MUR-ruh). For slender “m”, hold the lips as for slender “b” and “p” Try: mín (meen), minic (MIN-ik), méad (may*d), Meiriceá (MER-i-kaw*). VOCABULARY Masculine nouns bricfeasta (brik-FAS-tuh), breakfast lón (lohn), lunch tae (tay*), tea trí bhéile bidh (tree VAY*L-uh bee) three meals práta, na prátaí (PRAW*-tuh, nuh PRAW*-tee), potato, the potatoes Feminine nouns feoil, an fheoil (FYOH-il, un OH-il), meat mias, an mhias, na miasa (MEE-uhs, un VEE-uhs, nuh MEE-uhs-uh) dish, the dishes Verbs faigh (feye), get cuir (kir), put ith (i), eat téigh (tay*), go nigh (ni), wash Other words réidh (ray*), ready DRILL To help you learn the difference between “is” and “tá”, do the following drill, either alone or with classmates: Ask “Céard é seo? (kay*rd ay* shuh), pointing to an object or person mentioned in the Vocabularies of the previous lessons. Use drawings if necessary. Answer “Is ____ é”, or “Is ___ í”. Use some adjectives, too. Ask “Nach ___ é?” Answer “Ní hea, ach ____.” (nee HA, ahk*) Ask: “Cá bhfuil sé?”, or Cá bhfuil sí?”, meaning “Where is it?” Answer “Tá sé ___.” Use phrases from past vocabularies. Repeat this for at least ten objects or persons. Some words are: arán, feoil, bainne, uisce, cupán, spúnóg, fear, bean, cailín, páiste, feirmeoir, dochtúir, lámh, súil.

REFLEX EXPRESSIONS Here are additional expressions that you should learn for quick use in conversation and thought. Ceart go leor (kart goh lohr), Right enough Isteach leat anois (ish-TYAHK* lat uh-NISH), In with you now. Ar chor ar bith (er HUHR er BI), at all. (Put at sentence end.) CONVERSATION Seán: An bhfuil an bricfeasta réidh? (un vwil un brik-FAS-tuh ray*) Is the breakfast ready? Bríd: Tá, ach níl na miasa ar an mbord fós (taw*, ahk* neel nuh MEE-uhs-uh er un mohrd fohs) It is, but the dishes are not on the table yet. Cuir ar an mbord iad (kir er un mohrd EE-uhd). Put them on the table. Seán: Déanfaidh mé sin (DAY*N-hee may* shin). I’ll do that. Bríd: go raibh maith agat (gu-ruh MAH huh-guht). Tá mé an-ghnóthach anois (taw* may* AHN-gnoh-huhk* uh-NISH). Faigh spúnóg mhór dom (feye spun-OHG vwohr duhm), más é do thoil é (MAW* shay* duh HIL ay*). Thank you. I am very busy now. Get me a big spoon, please. Seán: Seo duit é (shuh git ay*). Here it is. Bríd: Go raibh maith agat (gu-ruh MAH huh-guht). Cad ba mhaith leat le haghaidh an dinnéir? (kahd buh vwah lat le HEYE-ee un din-YAY*R) Thank you. What would you like for dinner? Seán: Ba mhaith liom feoil, prátaí, agus cabáiste (buh vwah luhm FYOH-il, PRAW*-tee, AH-guhs kuh-BAW*SH-te). I would like meat, potatoes, and cabbage. Nach maith an dinnéar é sin? (nahk* mah un din-YAY*R ay* shin) Isn’t that a good dinner? Bríd: Nach agatsa atá an ceart? (nahk* uh-GUHT-suh uh-TAW* un kart) Aren’t you the one who’s right?

Lesson 14 Irish has two sounds for the letter “n”. If “n” starts a word and is followed by a broad vowel--”a”, “o”, or “u”--then “n” gets its broad sound To learn this sound, place the front part of the tongue along the mouth top, with the tongue end touching the inside of the upper front teeth. Then pronounce “n”. Try: ná (naw*), nach (nach*), náire (NAW*-re), nó (noh), nua (NOO-uh), nóis (NOH-ish), Nollaig (NUHL-ig). If “n” starts a word and is followed by a slender vowel--”e” or “i”--then “n” gets its slender sound. Place the front of the tongue on the hard ridge in the roof of the mouth behind your upper front teeth and pronounce “n”. It will have a faint (yuh) sound at the end as you go to the rest of many words. try: néall (nyay*l), nead (nyad), neamh (nyav), ní (nee), níl (neel), neodrach (NYOH-druhk*). In pronouncing slender “n”, do not pronounce a separate (yuh) sound. For example, don’t pronounce “néall” as (nyuh-AY*L), but as (nyay*l). In “níl”, the faint (yuh) sound disappears in the (eel). If “n” is inside or at the end of a word and has “a”, “o”, or “u” near it, pronounce it more like an English “n”. Examples: bean (ban), bán (baw*n), lón (lohn), dúnadh (DOON-uh). This gives you most of the pronunciation for “n”. One more sidelight will show how noticeable is the difference between broad and slender sounds in Irish. In Lesson 10 you learned that “aoi” is pronounced (ee), as is “í” (ee). If “n” is before “aoi”, the “n” gets its broad sound, made as described in the first paragraph above. Say “naoi” (nee) and then “ní” (nee) with a slender “n”, described in the second paragraph. There is a clear difference. Remember that our simple pronunciation guide does not show this difference, so you must learn to watch for the vowel next to the consonant, as Irish people do when they read Irish. GRAMMAR Before we return to “tá” next week, we will look at another use for “is” (is). Irish speakers often make a statement stronger by “is”. For example, instead of saying “Tá an lá go breá” (taw* un law* goh bir-RAW), meaning “the day is fine”, they will say “Nach breá an lá é?” (nahk* birRAW* un law* ay*), Isn’t it a fine day? The answer is “Is breá, go deimhin” (is bir-RAW* goh DEYE-in), It’s fine, certainly. Here are some examples to repeat until you understand how the Irish do this: Nach fliuch an aimsir í?” (nahk* flyuk* un EYEM-sheer ee) Is fliuch, go deimhin (is flyuk* goh DEYE-in), It is indeed wet. Is deas an cailín í (is das un kah-LEEN ee), She’s a pretty girl. Is deas, go deimhin, She is indeed pretty. Is mór an fear é (is mohr un far ay*), He’s a big man. Is mór, gan amhras (is mohr, guhn OU-ruhs), He’s big, without a doubt. Nach fada an bóthar é seo? (nahk* FAH-duh un BOH-uhr ay* shuh), Isn’t this a long road? Is fada, go cinnte (is FAH-duh, goh KIN-te), It’s long, certainly. Ní dona an lá é (nee DUH-nuh un law* ay*), It’s not a bad day. Ní dona, ar chor ar bith (nee DUH-nuh, er HUHR er BI), it’s not bad at all. This last sentence pair shows you how to disagree with the original statement or question. For example: Nach fuar an lá é? Ní fuar, ar chor ar bith, ach té. Note that in all sentences above, the verb “tá” could have been used, as in “Tá an aimsir fliuch.” Irish speakers like variety, however, and often think that “Tá an aimsir fliuch” will sound flat and dull. They say “Nach fliuch an aimsir í?” instead. CONVERSATION Bríd (breed): Seo duit do uibreacha agus do bhagún (shuh git duh IV-ruh-huh AH-guhs duh vwuh-GOON). tá an bagún beagán dóite, ach ná bac leis (taw* un buh-GOON beg-AW*N DOH-i-te, ahk* naw* bahk lesh). Here are your eggs and bacon. The bacon is a little burned, but don’t worry about it. Seán (shaw*n): Is cuma liom (is KUM-uh luhm). Tá an caife te, ar aon chuma (taw* un KAH-fe te, er AY*N K*UM-uh). Cuir braon bainne air, mas é do thoil é (kir BRAY*-uhn BAHN-ye er, MAW* shay* duh HIL-ay*). I don’t care. The coffee is hot anyway. Put a drop of milk in it, please. Bríd: Déanfaidh mé sin (DYAY*N-hee may* shin). I’ll do that. Seán: Ba mhaith liom sú oráiste (buh VWAH luhm soo oh-RAW*SH-te), mas é do thoil é. I would like orange juice, please. Bríd: seo duit gloine de (shuh git GLIN-e de). Here’s a glass of it. Seán: Go raibh maith agat, a Bhríd (guh ruh MAH huh-guht, uh vreed). Anois, rud amháin eile (uh-NISH, rud uh-WAW*-in EL-e. Cuir chugam píosa arán (kir HOO-uhm PEES-uh uh-RAW*-in), mas é do thoil é. Thank you, Bridget. Now, one other thing. Pass me a piece of bread, please. Bríd: Seo duit é, agus bíodh im agat, freisin (AH-guhs BEE-ohk* im uh-GUHT FRESH-in). Here it is, and have butter, too. Seán: Beidh mé chomh ramhar le muc (beg may* hoh ROU-wuhr le muk). I will be as fat as a pig. Bríd: B’fhéidir (BAY*-dir). Perhaps.

Lesson 15 PRONUNCIATION The Letter “s” in Irish is sounded (s), as Americans pronounce “s” in “sun”, if the nearest vowel in the word is “a”, “o”, or “u”. This is the broad “s”. Try: sál (saw*l), saol (say*l), só (soh), solas (SUH-luhs), sú (soo), súil (SOO-il). If “s” is next to an “e” or an “i”, pronounce it (sh), like the “sh” in English “shawl”. This is the slender “s”. Examples: sean (shan), séid (shay*d), seilide (SHEL-i-de), sín (sheen), siar (SHEE-uhr). If another consonant is between the “s” and the “e” or “i”, the broad sound may be heard. For example: smig (smig), spéir (spay*r), srian (SREE-uhn), stríoc (streek). Remember that “is” is an exception. Always say (is), never (ish), and of course never (iz). GRAMMAR We return to “tá” this week, following your introduction to “is”. Before we take up the new work, review “tá” quickly by reciting “tá mé, tá tú, etc. Níl mé, níl tú, etc. An bhfuil mé, an bhfuil tú, etc. Nach bhfuil mé, nach bhfuil tú, etc.” Review lessons 4 to 6 if you have forgotten any of this. It is vital to know. To say the equivalent of “I am reading” in Irish, we add a word called a verbal noun to “tá mé”, with the preposition “ag”, meaning “at”, before the verbal noun. Learn these examples: Tá mé ag léamh (taw* may* uh LAY*-uhv), I am reading. Níl sé ag scríobh (neel shay* uh shkreev), He is not writing. An bhfuil siad ag imeacht? (un vwil SHEE-uhd eg im-AHK*T), Are they departing? Nach bhfuil tú ag éisteacht? (nahk* vwil too eg AY*SH-tyahk*t), Aren’t you listening? Pronounce the “ag” as (uh) before a verbal noun starting with a consonant, and as (eg) before a verbal noun starting with a vowel. This grammar form serves as in English--to show that an action is going on at present. There is also a way, as in English, to say that an action takes place off and on but may not be going on now. To understand the difference, compare “I am walking” with “I walk”. A few verbs do not follow this pattern.. Irish is much like English in this. In Irish we say: “I understand you”, not “I am understanding you”. “I see it”, not “I am seeing it”. “I hear him”, not “I am hearing him”. The first part of a verbal noun nearly always looks and sounds somewhat like the imperative of the verb, although the verbal noun is usually longer and has an added syllable. From now on, learn the verb’s imperative and verbal noun together, as in the vocabulary below. The term “ag léamh” (uh LAY*-uhv) literally means “at reading”. “I am reading a book” becomes “I am at reading of a book”. The word “book” in this form takes a slightly different look and pronunciation from the one you have learned, (LOU-wuhr). It changes to “leabhair” (LOU-wir), the genitive case. We will introduce you to this by the phrase method, so that you will have a good background and an inventory of examples by the time we begin studying how nouns change. REFLEX EXPRESSIONS Learn these expressions for quick use in thought and speech: Más é do thoil é (MAW* shay* duh HIL ay*), Please. Go raibh maith agat (gu-ruh MAH huh-guht), Thank you. Fáilte romhat (FAW*L-tye ROH-uht), Welcome to you. Go sabhála Dia sinn (goh suh-VWAW*-luh DEE-uh shin), May God save us. VOCABULARY téigh, ag dul (tay*, uh DUHL), go tar, ag teacht (tahr, uh TYAHK*T), come scríobh, ag scríobh (shkreev, uh SHKREEV), write ith, ag ithe (i, eg I-he), eat imigh, ag imeacht (IM-ee, ag im-AHK*T) depart, leave ól, ag ól (ohl, eg OHL), drink faigh, ag fáil (feye, uh FAW*-il), get déan, ag déanamh (day*n, uh DAY*N-uhv) do, make siúil, ag siúl (SHOO-il, uh SHOOL) walk rith, ag rith (ri, uh RI) run éist, ag éisteacht (ay*sht, eg AY*SH-tyahk*t) listen foghlaim, ag foghlaim (FOU-lim, uh FOU-lim), learn fan, ag fanacht (fahn, uh FAHN-uhk*t), wait CONVERSATION Diarmaid (DEER-mwid): A Dhóirín, tá sé ag éirí dorcha (uh GOH-i-reen, taw* shay* eg EYE-ree DUHR-uh-huh). Cá bhfuil Una? (kaw* vwil OON-uh) Jerry: Doreen, It’s getting dark. Where is Una?

Dóirín (DOH-i-reen): Níl a fhios agam (neel is uh-GUHM) cad atá sí a dhéanamh (kahd taw* shee uh YAY*N-uhv). I don’t know what she is doing. Fan nóiméad go bhfeicfidh mé (fahn NOH-may*d go VEK-hee may*) Wait a minute until I see. Go sabhála Dia sinn! (goh suh-VWAW*luh DEE-uh shin) May God save us! Tá sí ag siúl amuigh i lár na sráide! (taw* shee uh SHOOL uh-MWEE i law*r nuh SRAW*-de) She’s walking out in the middle of the street! Diarmaid: Agus tá na gluaisteáin ag dul thairis (AH-guhs taw* nuh GLOOSH-taw*-in uh duhl HA-rish). And the autos are going past her. Téigh amach agus faigh í (tay* uh-MAHK* AH-guhs feye ee). Go out and get her. Dóirín: Tá mé ag dul amach go díreach anois (taw* may* uh duhl uh-MAHK* goh dee-RAHK uh-NISH). I going out right now. Nach díol trua mise? (nahk* DEE-uhl TROO-uh MISH-e). Isn’t it an object of pity that I am?

Lesson 16 PRONUNCIATION The letter “f” in Irish is pronounced almost like the “f” in English, except that you must start with the inside of the lower lip against the edge of the upper front teeth. Then, if “a”, “o” or “u” is the nearest vowel to the “f”, move both lips out for the vowel sound. Examples: fá (faw*), fód (fohd), fuar (FOO-uhr), scríofa (SHKREE-fuh). This is the broad sound of “f”. Start the slender sound the same way, but draw the lower lip back a little to make the vowel sound. Try: fear (far), féin (fay*n), fill (fil), deifir (DE-fir), fliuch (flyuhk*). In some cases “f” is pronounced (h). We will study this later. VOCABULARY Masculine nouns solas (SUH-luhs), light balla (BAHL-luh), wall sorn (SOHR-ruhn), stove cúisneoir (koosh-NYOH-ir), refrigerator gloine (GLIN-e), glass doirteal (DUHRT-uhl), sink forc (fohrk), fork fó-chupán (FOH-k*u-PAW*N), saucer citeal (KIT-uhl), kettle naipcín (nap-KEEN), napkin pota (POHT-uh), pot sconna (SKOHN-uh), faucet éadach boird, an t-eadach boird (AY*-duhk*BWIRD, un TAY*-duhk*BWIRD), tablecloth, the tablecloth oigheann, an t-oigheann (EYE-uhn, un TEYE-uhn), oven, the oven Feminine nouns scian, an scian (SHKEE-uhn), knife síleáil, an tsíleáil (SHEEL-aw*-il, un TEEL-aw*-il), ceiling cathaoir, an chathaoir (KAH-heer, un K*AH-heer), chair Phrases i lár na sráide (i LAW*R nuh SRAW*-de), in the middle of the street ag ól bainne (eg OHL BAHN-ye), drinking milk ag ól tae (eg OHL tay*), drinking tea ag ól uisce (eg OHL ISH-ke), drinking water ag ithe a bhricfeasta (eg I-he uh vrik-FAS-tuh), eating breakfast Go hiontach (goh HOON-tuhk*), Great! DRILLS We will try a vocabulary drill first, to help you learn the larger vocabulary that you are acquiring. Go to the kitchen and begin this drill for each object you can name: Céard é seo? (kay*rd ay* shuh), What is this? Or ( Céard é sin? (shin), What is that? Is ___ é. Tá an ___ anseo (un-SHUH), The ___ is here. Continue for as many objects as you can name. If necessary, replace “anseo” by one of these: ansin (un-SHIN), there; ar an mbord (er un mohrd), on the table; ar an urlár (er un oor-LAW*R), on the floor; ar an mballa (er un MAHL-luh), on the wall. The next drill is a mini-conversation drill. Do these short exercises alone or with another student. Repeat them several times to get the full benefit from them. 1. Cé atá ag teacht? (kay* taw* uh TYAHK*T), Who is coming? Tá Séamas, an ea? (un A) Séamas is it? Is ea (sha), It is. Nach bhfuil Brian ag teacht freisin? (FRESH-in), also. Ó, níl. Tá sé amuigh sa tsráid (uh-MWEE), He’s out in the street. 2. Cé atá imeacht? (eg im-AHK*T), Who is leaving? Tá Ruairí (ROH-i-ree) ag imeacht. Nach bhfuil Seán ag imeacht freisin? Ó, níl. Tá sé sa seomra eile fós (suh SHOHM-ruh EL-e fohs), He’s still in the other room. 3. Cé atá ag ithe a bhricfeasta (eg I-he uh vrik-FAS-tuh), eating his breakfast

Liam, an ea? Is ea. Nach bhfuil sé ag obair fós? (eg OH-bir), Isn’t he at work yet? Níl sé ag obair fós. Tá sé déanach (DAY*N-uhk), He’s late. 4. Céard atá tú a dhéanamh? (uh YAY*N-uhv), What are you doing? Tá mé ag déanamh báid (BAW*-id), I’m making a boat. Bád, an ea? (baw*d, un A), A boat, is it? Is ea. Nach maith an buachaill tú! (BOO-uhk*-il), Aren’t you the good boy! 5. Cá bhfuil Seoirse ag siúl? (SHOHR-she uh SHOOL), Where is George walking? Tá sé ag siúl ar an gcosán (er un guh-SAW*N), He’s walking on the sidewalk. Ar an gcosán, an ea? Is ea. Maith an fear é! (mah un far ay*), He’s a good man! 6. An bhfuil tú ag ól bainne? (eg ohl BAHN-ye), Are you drinking milk? Níl mé ag ól bainne, ar chor ar bith (er HUHR er BI), not at all. Céard atá tú ag ól, mar sin? (mahr shin), What are you drinking, then? Tá mé ag ól uisce (ISH-ke), I am drinking water. Uisce fuar, an ea? Is ea. 7. An bhfuil tú ag scríobh litreach? (uh shkreev LI-trahk*), Are you writing a letter? Níl mé ag scríobh litreach anois (uh-NISH). Tá mé tuirseach (taw* may* toor-SHAHK*), I am tired. Tuirseach, an ea? Is ea. 8. Cé atá ag fanacht amuigh? (uh fahn-uhk*t uh-MWEE), Who is waiting outside? Nach bhfuil do mháthair amuigh ar an gcosán? (duh VWAW*-hir), Isn’t your mother out on the sidewalk? Má tá sí, abair léi teacht isteacht (maw* taw* shee, AH-bir lay* tyahk*t ish-TYAHK*), If she is, tell her to come in. Note: To tell someone to give an order to a man, say “Abair leis” (AH-bir lesh) and add a verbal noun, such as “teacht” or “dul”. An example: Abair leis dul abhaile (uh-VWAHL-e), Tell him to come home.

Lesson 17 PRONUNCIATION You know the basics of pronunciation by now. Although you should be able to sound out most new words, we will continue to give you the pronunciation guide for all new words--and most of the old ones, too--for a few more lessons. We will also begin reviews to help you maintain your pronunciation if you have no speakers, records, or tapes available. We will now begin to take up some of the details of pronunciation and some of the regional variations. First, the word “maith” (mah), good. The “th” at the end of the word means that the vowel sound of (ah) gets cut short, rather than running long as it if were (maaah). We do the same in English sometimes. For example, when you say “ah” to indicate pleasant surprise, the sound is held for a much longer time than when you say “ah” to indicate disgust or impatience. In the second “ah”, you cut the sound off short, as you do for the Irish word “maith”. This cutting short of the sound for “th” also occurs inside words, usually at the end of a syllable before a vowel, as in: leathan (LA-huhn), wide; athair (A-hir), father. We will indicate where this happens from now on. At the start of a word, “th” gets an (h) sound, like English “h”. For example: tharla sé (HAHR-luh shay*), it happened. “Maith” is pronounced (meye) in some parts of Ireland, and you must learn to listen for this. If a speaker says (goh MEYE), you will know that it is the equivalent of the (go MAH) that you have learned. Regional differences exist in Ireland, as in the United States where, for example, the word “rifle” may be pronounced (REYE-fuhl), (RAH-fuhl) or (ROY-fuhl) along the Eastern seaboard alone. GRAMMAR Irish has no word for the verb “to have”. Instead, Irish speakers say the equivalent of “it is at me” or “the book is at him”. The preposition “ag” (eg), at, serves here. “A man has the book” becomes “Tá an leabhar ag fear” (taw* un LOU-wuhr eg far), the book is at a man. This is very annoying at first to the average English speaker, because it requires him to rearrange his thought patterns slightly. WIth a little practice and drill, however, it will become second nature to you. The preposition “ag” combines with “me”, tú”, and other pronouns to form the following, which you should learn now: agam (uh-GUHM), at me agat (uh-GUHT), at you aige (eg-GE), at him aici (a-KI), at her againn (uh-GIN), at us agaibh (uh-GIV), at you (plural) acu (ah-KUH), at them The term “ag an” (eg un) means “at the” and it often causes eclipsis. For example, “at the man” becomes “ag an bhfear” (eg un VAR). We will drill on this to make you fluent in the form. VOCABULARY Masculine Nouns cuirtín (koor-TEEN), curtain sáspan (SAW*S-puhn), saucepan lampa (LAHM-puh), lamp buicéad (bwi-KAY*D), bucket crúscín (kroosh-KEEN), jug, pitcher cófra (KOH-fruh), cupboard buidéal (bwi-DAY*L), bottle ciseán (ki-SHAW*N), basket; ciseán páipéir (paw*-PAY*-ir), wastebasket Feminine Nouns fuinneog, an fhuinneog (fwin-YOHG, un in-YOHG) window scuab, an scuab (SKOO-uhb), broom, brush Verbs faigh, ag fáil (feye, uh FAW*-il), get cuir, ag cur (kir, uh-KUHR), put glan, ag glanadh (gluhn, uh GLUHN-uh), clean tóg, ag tógáil (tohg, uh TOHG-aw*-il), take, lift stad, ag stad (stahd), stop DRILL First, for “have”: Tá cupán agam (taw* ku-PAW*N uh-GUHM), I have a cup. Tá cupán agat (taw* ku-PAW*N uh-GUHT), You have a cup. Tá cupán aige (taw* ku-PAW*N eg-GE), He has a cup. Tá cupán aici (taw* ku-PAW*N a-KI), She has a cup. Tá cupán againn (taw* ku-PAW*N uh-GIN), We have a cup. Tá cupán agaibh (taw* ku-PAW*N uh- GIV), You (pl) have a cup. Tá cupán acu (taw* ku-PAW*N ah- KUH), They have a cup.

Next, go through the negatives: Níl cupán agam (neel ku-PAW*N uh-GUHM), I don’t have a cup. Níl cupán agat (neel ku-PAW*N uh-GUHT), You don’t have a cup. And so on. Then the questions: An bhfuil cupán agam? (un vwil ku-PAW*N uh-GUHM), have I a cup? And so on. Finally, the negative questions: Nach bhfuil cupán agam? (nahk* vwil ku-PAW*N uh-GUHM, Don’t I have a cup? And so on. You are now ready, after a short rest, for a progressive drill. Go through this form: Nach bhfuil leabhar ag Seán? (nahk* vwill LOU-wuhr eg shaw*n), Hasn’t John a book? Níl leabhar ag Seán. An bhfuil leabhar ag Máire? (MAW*-re). Has Mary a book? Tá leabhar ag Máire. Continue with “Máire”, but then substitute: Séamas, Liam, Bríd, Úna and Diarmaid in succession. Your last sentence will be: Tá leabhar ag Seán. Each time you say a sentence, form a picture of a person holding a book or without a book. For the second drill, go to the kitchen again and run through: Céard é seo? or Céard é sin? for each object in the kitchen as given in the vocabularies of Lesson 16 and this lesson. Also, ask the question “cá bhfuil an _____” (kaw* vwil un _____). Where is the _____? for each object and answer by “Tá sé _____”, using the phrases in the drill of Lesson 16. Visualization of the object should be easy, since it will be before you.

Lesson 18 PRONUNCIATION In going from the broad vowel “á” in a word to a slender consonant, such as slender “d”, “r”, “s”, or “t”, the movement of the tongue to get into position for the slender consonant will result in an extra sound between vowel and consonant. The extra sound is called a “glide”. It is usually shown in writing by the letter “i”, and this indicates that the following consonant gets its slender sound. The overall effect can be somewhat like (oy) in English “boy”, but you should not try to pronounce an (oy) for these cases. To see what this means, first review the pronunciation of slender and broad “t” in Lesson 2, and then slowly pronounce: át (aw*t), áit (AW*-it). Notice that in “áit” you make a slight (i) sound as your tongue tip goes to the hard ridge behind your upper teeth. In some parts of Ireland, the word “áit” may even sound like (oych). Here are some examples for practice. Review the pronunciation of slender and broad consonants if necessary, before starting: bád *baw*d); báid (BAW*-id) pád (paw*d); Páid (PAW*-id) lár (law*r); láir (LAW*-ir) pás (paw*s); páis (PAW*-ish); páista (PAW*-ish-te) trád (traw*d); tráid (TRAW*-id) srád (sraw*d); sráid (SRAW*-id) i lár na sráide (i LAW*R nuh SRAW*-id-e) It is a shortcoming of our simplified pronunciation guide that we can not show this transition or glide as well as it should be, so it will be your task to watch for it and make sure that your pronunciation includes it. We will usually show a word like ‘báid” to be pronounced (baw*d), and you must note the “id” at the word end and give the “d” its slender sound, with the tongue tip against the hard ridge behind your upper front teeth. GRAMMAR “Ag” means “at”, and it also serves to express “to have”, as in “Tá cóta ag Seán” (taw* KOH-tuh eg shaw*n), John has a coat. You may think that use of “ag” for these two purposes would be confusing, but that is not so in the actual Irish language. You can tell from the nature of the sentence and the circumstances in which it is used whether “ag” is “at” or is part of the idea of “having”. For example, Tá Seán ag an doras” must mean that John is at the door. Obviously the door does not “have” John. On the other hand, “Tá carr ag Seán” means that John has a car, rather than a car is “at John”, or even at John’s house. Irish has another expression for “at some one’s house”: “tigh Sheáin” (tee HYAW*-in). PROGRESSIVE DRILL Go through the following drill for expressing “to have” in Irish. Remember to recite aloud and form a mental picture for each sentence. An bhfuil nuachtán agam? (un vwil NOO-uhk*-taw*n uh-GUHM). Níl nuachtán agam (neel NOO-uhk*-taw*n uh GUHM) Tá nuachtán agat (uh-GUHT). An bhfuil nuachtán agat? Níl nuachtán agat. Tá nuachtán aige (eg-GE). An bhfuil nuachtán aige? And so on, until you return to “Tá nuachtán agam” as the last sentence. VOCABULARY Here are some phrases to help you learn how “ag an” (eg un), at the, causes eclipses. “Ag an” does not always cause eclipses, especially in the case of words starting with “d” or “t”, but learn the eclipses for all cases initially. bean, ag an mbean (ban, eg un man), woman, at the woman fear, ag an bhfear (far, eg un var), man, at the man doras, ag an ndoras (DUH-ruhs, eg un NUH-ruhs), door, at the door carr, ag an gcarr (kahr, eg un gahr), car, at the car páista, ag an bpáiste (PAW*SH-te, eg un BAW*SH-te), child, at the child geata, ag an ngeata (GAT-uh, eg ung AT-uh), gate, at the gate teach, ag an dteach (tahk*, eg un dyahk*), house, at the house CONVERSATION Pól: (pohl): Dia duit, a Róisín (DEE-uh git, uh roh-SHEEN). Hello, Rose. Róisín: Dia’s Muire duit, a Phóil (DEE-uhs MWIR-uh git, uh FOH-il). Conas tá tú? (KUN-uhs taw* too) Hello, Paul. How are you? Pól: Tá mé go maith (taw* may* goh mah). Agus conas tá tú féin? I am well. And how are you?

Róisín: Tá mé go maith leis (lesh). I am well, too. Pól: An bhfuil aon scéal nua agat? (un vwil ay*n shkay*l NOO-uh uh-GUHT) Have you any news? (“new story,” literally). Róisín: Níl. Ach bhí mé ag léamh an nuachtáin aréir (uh LAY*-uhv un NOO-uhk-taw*-in uh-RAY*R). I don’t. But I was reading the paper last night. Rud suimiúil a chonaic mé (rud sim-OO-il uh K*UHN-ik may*). An interesting thing I saw. Tá raidió agus teilifíseán ag beagnach gach duine sa tír seo (taw* RAH-dee-oh AH-guhs TEL-i-fee-shaw*n eg BYUHG-nahk* gahk* DIN-e suh teer shuh). Nearly everyone in this country has a radio and television set. Pól: Níl teilifíseán agamsa (uh-GUHM-suh). I don’t have a television. An bhfuil teilifíseán agatsa? Have you one? Róisín: O, tá, agus tá ceann (kyoun) ag gach cara eile liom (KAH-ruh EL-e luhm). Oh, I do, and every other friend of mine has one.

Lesson 19 PRONUNCIATION Two letter groups, “adh” and “agh”, are usually pronounced (eye) when in accented syllables inside a word. Here are examples for “adh”: adharc (EYE-uhrk), horn radharc (REYE-uhrk), sight Tadhg (teyeg), Tadhg, a man’s name gadhar (GEYE-uhr), hound fadhb (feyeb), problem Some examples for “agh”: aghaidh (EYE-ee), face laghad (LEYE-uhd), least slaghdán (SLEYE-daw*n), a cold, hay fever Ó Raghallaigh (oh REYE-lee), O’Reilly If the letter group “adh” is at a word end or in an unaccented syllable, it does not take the (eye) sound. For example: samhradh (SOU-ruh), summer; ionadh (OON-uh), wonder. Many verbal nouns are similar: dúnadh (DOON-uh), closing; briseadh (BRISH-uh), breaking; glanadh (GLUHN-uh), cleaning. VOCABULARY Masculine Nouns néal, na néalta (nay*l, nuh NAY*L-tuh), cloud, the clouds biseach (BI-shahk*), recovery slaghdán (SLEYE-daw*n) a cold Feminine Nouns feoil, an fheoil (FYOH-il, un OH-il), meat, the meat beoir, an bheoir (BYOH-ir, un VYOH-ir), beer, the beer bain, ag baineadh (bwin, uh BWIN-uh), cut, reap; also part of expressions such as “bain diot an cóta” (bwin DEE-uht un KOH-tuh), take off your coat. ith, ag ithe (i, eg I-he), eat ag ithe an aráin (un uh-RAW*-in), eating the bread ag ithe an bhricfeasta (vrik-FAS-tuh), eating the breakfast ag ithe mo lóin (muh LOH-in), eating my lunch ag ithe feola (FYOH-luh), eating meat ag ithe prátaí (PRAW*-tee), eating potatoes á ithe (aw* I-he), eating it á ithe sin, eating that á ithe seo, eating this Tá biseach orm (OH-ruhm), I am recovering cnag, ag cnagadh (kuh-NAHG, uh kuh-NAHG-uh), knock; as in “ag cnagadh ar an doras”, knocking at the door ól, ag ól (ohl, eg OHL), drink ag ól bainne (BAHN-ye), drinking milk ag ól tae (tay*), drinking tea ag ól uisce (ISH-ke), drinking water ag ól caife (KAHF-e), drinking coffee ag ól mo chaife (muh K*AHF-e), drinking my coffee ag ól beorach (BYOH-ruhk*), drinking beer á ól (aw* ohl), drinking it á ól sin, drinking that á ól seo, drinking this féach, ag féachaint ar (FAY*-ahk, uh FAY*-uhk*-int er) looking at Tá slaghdán ort (OH-ruht), you have a cold NOTES ON VOCABULARY This vocabulary gives you many phrases combining “ag ithe” and “ag ól” with nouns. The drills for the next few weeks will stress these to familiarize you with ways of phrase formation. The forms “ag ithe”, “ag cur”, etc., are often followed by nouns in the genitive case, becoming in English : “of the _____”. “Ag ithe feola” is literally “at eating of meat”. The genitive case of Irish nouns is formed in several ways. You will gradually learn to recognize these, so that you can form the case for new words. Some nouns don’t change at all for the genitive, such as “bainne”. Others may change a final broad consonant to a slender, such as “lón, an lóin”, or “arán, an aráin”. A few nouns add a syllable, such as “beoir, na beorach” or “feoil, na feola”. In Irish, you don’t “have” illnesses. Instead, they are “on” you. “Tá slaghdán ar Shéamas” means “James has a cold”. Recovery,happiness, sor-

row, anger and the like are also “on” you. CONVERSATION Nioclás (NEE-klaw*s): Éist (ay*sht)! Tá duine éigin ag cnagadh ar an doras (taw* DIN-e AY*-gin uh kuh-NAHG-uh er un DUH-ruhs). Listen! Someone is knocking on the door. Córa (KOH-ruh): Cé hé sin (kay* hay* shin) ag an doras? Who’s that at the door? Seán: Seán anseo. Oscail an doras agus lig isteach sa teach mé. It’s John here. Open the door and let me in the house. Tá sé ag cur báistí amuigh anseo (uh KUR BAW*SH-tee uh MWEE un-SHUH). It’s raining out here. Nioclás: O, tá tú anseo faoi dheireadh (fwee YER-uh). Fan nóiméad, más é do thoil é (fahn NOH-may*d, MAW* shay* duh HIL ay*). -- Isteach leat, a Sheáin (ish-TYAHK* lat, uh HYAW*-in). Oh, you are here at last. Wait a minute please. -- In with you, John. Seán: Dia daoibh, a Niocláis agus a Chóra (DEE-uh yeev, uh NEE-klaw*sh AH-guhs uh K*OH-ruh). Hello, Nicholas and Cora. Córa: Dia’s Muire duit, a Sheáin. Conas tá tú ar chor ar bith? (HUHR er bi) Hello, John. How are you, anyway? Seán: Tá me go maith, agus conas tá sibh (shiv) féin? I am well and how are you yourselves? Nioclás: Táimid go maith leis, ach tá slaghdán ar Chóra. We are well, too, but Cora has a cold. Córa: Tá biseach orm anois (uh-NISH), áfach (AW*-fuhk*). I am recovering now, however. Nioclás: Bain diot an cóta, a Sheáin. Take off your coat, John. Ina dhiaidh sin (in-uh YEE-uh shin), tar amach i seomra an bhidh (tahr uhMAHK* i SHOHM-ruh un VEE), agus bíodh (BEE-ohk*) cupán tae agat (uh-GUHT). After that, come out into the dining room and have a cup of tea. Córa: Oíche dhorcha is ea í (EE-hye GUHR-uh-huh sha ee). Féach ar na néalta dubha (nuh NAY*L-tuh DOOV-uh). A dark night it is. Look at the black clouds.

Lesson 20 PRONUNCIATION The letter group “omh” in a word often gets the sound of (oh). This sound is held for the same length of time as “ó”. Examples are: romham (ROH-uhm), before me; romhat (ROH-uht), before you; comhar (KOH-uhr), aid; comhairle (KOHR-le), council, advice; comhrá (KOH-raw*), conversation; fómhar (FOH-uhr), autumn; comhacht (KOH-uhk*t), power; comhlacht (KOH-luhk*t), a corporation. GRAMMAR To say “I had a book”, rather than “I have a book”, you merely replace “tá” by “bhí”, as in: Bhí leabhar agam (vee LOU-wuhr uh-GUHM), I had a book. The literal meaning is, of course, “There was a book at me”. Forms for “had” parallel those needed to express “have”. Here is practice reading to help you recognize and use the forms. Only the new or less familiar words have a pronunciation guide directly after them. Bhí airgead (AR-i-guhd) agam inné. Nach raibh bainne agat? Níl mórán bainne againn anois. Tá scian ag Tomás. An raibh cóta ag an mac? Nach bhfuil nuachtán agat? Ní raibh cnaipe (kuh-NAHP-e) ag an gcóta. An bhfuil carr aige? Níl caife nó tae aici. Nach raibh bróg ag Peadar? Bhí bord mór acu. An bhfuil léine mhaith aige? Tá leabhar agaibh. An raibh mála bán aici? Nach bhfuil hataí acu? Ní raibh ceann (kyoun) eile agam. The pronunciation guide and translation for these sentences follow: vee AR-i-guhd uh-GUHM in-YAY*. nahk* rev BAHN-ye uh-GUHT? neel moh-RAW*N BAHN-ye uh-GIN uh-NISH. taw* SHKEE-uhn eg toh-MAW*S. un rev KOH-tuh eg un MAHK? nahk* vwil NOO-uhk*-taw*n uh-GUHT? nee rev kuh-NAHP-e eg un GOH-tuh. un vwil KAHR eg-GE? neel KAH-fe noh tay* a-KI. nahk* rev brohg eg PAD-uhr? vee bohrd mohr ah-KUH. un vwil LAY*-ne vwah eg-GE? taw* LOU-wir uh-GIV. un rev MAW*-luh baw*n a-KI? nahk* vwil HAHT-ee ah-KUH? nee rev kyoun EL-e uh-GUHM. I had money yesterday. Didn’t you have milk? We don’t have much milk now. Thomas has a knife. DId the son have a coat? Don’t you have a newspaper? The coat didn’t have a button. Has he a car? She doesn’t have coffee or tea.. Didn’t Peter have a shoe? They had a large table. Has he a good shirt? You have books. Did she have a white bag? Don’t they have hats? I didn’t have another one. DRILL It is necessary for you to practice with masculine and feminine nouns accompanied by adjectives, so that you will be familiar with the changes needed. Here are some drill expressions. Go over them until you are completely in mastery of them: Máthair mhaith (MAW*-hir vwah); an mháthair mhaith (un VWAW*-hir vwah); mo mháthair mhaith (muh VWAW*-hir vwah). cailín maith (kah-LEEN mah); an cailín maith; do chailín maith (duh k*ah-LEEN mah). bróg shalach (brohg huh-LAHK*); an bhróg shalach (un vrohg huh-LAHK*); a bhróg shalach (uh vrohg huh-LAHK*). bord salach; an bord salach; ár mbord salach ( aw*r mohrd suh-LAHK*). traein fhada (tray*n AH-duh); an traein fhada; do thraein fhada. carr fada; an carr fada; mo charr fada ( muh K*AHR FAH-duh). cathaoir chrua (KAH-heer K*ROO-uh), a hard chair; an chathaoir chrua (un K*AH-heer K*ROO-uh); a cathaoir chrua, her hard chair. cóta beag (KOH-tuh byuhg); an cóta beag; mo chóta beag (muh K*OH-tuh byuhg). sráid dheas (sraw*d yas), a nice street; an tsráid dheas (un traw*d yas); a shráid dheas (uh hraw*d yas), his nice street. fuinneog ghlan (fwin-YOHG gluhn); an fhuinneog ghlan (un in-YOHG gluhn); do fhuinneog ghlan (duh in-YOHG gluhn). fear mór (far mohr); an fear mór; do fhear mór (duh ar mohr). scian ghéar (SHKEE-uhn yay*r), a sharp knife; an scian ghéar; mo scian ghéar (muh SHKEE-uhn yay*r). pingin bheag (PEENG-in vyuhg), a small penny; an phingin bheag (un FEENG-in vyuhg); mo phingin bheag. These changes are annoying to you at first, but a little practice will make them seem very natural. Writing them out after you have gone over the pronunciation several times is another good way to become used to the changes required. The verbal nouns with “tá” and “bhí” also require some drilling. Repeat this drill until you can do it with full understanding and without hesitation: Nach bhfuil Seán ag léamh sa chistin? (nahk* vwil shaw*n uh LAY*-uhv suh HYISH-tin). Níl sé ag léamh sa chistin. An bhfuil sé ag léamh thuas an staighre? (HOO-uhs un STEYE-ruh). Tá sé ag léamh ansin. Nach raibh do mháthair ag caint leat? (uh KEYENT lat) Ní raibh sí uh caint liom (luhm) An raibh sí ag caint le Máire? (MAW*-re) Bhí sí ag caint le Máire agus le Bríd, freisin (le BREED FRESH-in). Nach bhfuil ár n-athair ag scríobh na litreach? (nahk* vwil aw*r NA-hir uh SHKREEV nuh LI-trahk*), writing the letter? Níl sé ag scríobh na litreach. An bhfuil sé ag obair sa bhaile? (eg OH-bir suh VWAH-le) Tá sé ag obair sa ghairdín (suh gahr-DEEN). Nach raibh cat agaibh? (uh-GIV) Ní raibh cat againn anuraidh (uh-GINN uh-NOOR-ee), last year. An raibh madra agaibh? Bhí madra álainn

againn anuraidh. Nach bhfuil nuachtán agat? (NOO-uhk*taw*n uh-GUHT) Níl nuachtán ar bith agam. An bhfuil airgead agat (AR-i-guhd uh-GUHT), have you money? Tá mórán airgid agam (moh-RAW*N AR-i-gid uh-GUHM), I have a lot of money. Nach raibh cathaoir eile agat sa teach? (KAH-heer EL-e) Ní raibh ach cathaoir amháin againn (uh-WAW*-in uh-GIN), we had only one chair. An raibh bord agaibh? O, bhí dhá bhord againn (GAW* vwohrd uh-GIN), We had two tables. Note: The word for “two” of anything (escept persons) is “dhá” (gaw*), and it is followed by the aspirated singular. Examples: dhá bhád (gaw* VWAW*D), two boats; dhá léine, two shirts; dhá fháinne (gaw* AW*-nye), two rings; dhá chat (gaw* K*AHT), two cats.

Lesson 21 PRONUNCIATION In this lesson, we will begin a review of the elements of Irish pronunciation that you learned in the first 20 lessons. This will help those of you who did not join the lesson series at the beginning or who missed some of the lessons. Those who have followed all the lessons may benefit from the review, too, because additional notes and pointers will be given. In addition, next week, the complete pronunciation guide (from Lesson 1) will be reprinted. Our pronunciation guide (always in parentheses) represents Irish sounds by closely related English sounds. Where the difference is significant, an asterisk (*) will follow the letter symbol to let you know. Capital letters in the pronunciation guide mean an accented syllable or word. For example, our pronunciation guide would represent the English word “pronunciation” by (proh-NUHN-see-AY-shun). For consonants b, d, f, g, h, l, m, n, p, r, s, and t, the letters themselves serve. (k) is used for “c” where the “c” is pronounced as in English “cold”. All these consonants except “h” have at least two sounds in Irish, depending on whether the nearest consonant is either a, o, u, or else e or i. You will learn these sounds as we progress. Since our pronunciation guide is a simplified compromise, we will run into odd-looking cases at times. For example, (keyent) may look strange at first, but a second look will tell you that it rhymes closely with English “pint”. Then, too, (byuhg) is not (BEYE-uhg) but is closer to (beeUHG) with a very short (ee) sound. Vowel sounds have a little more complicated system. Learn these first: (ah) as in English “ah-hah” (a) as in English “at” (e) as in English “let” (ee) as in English “seen” (i) as in English “pin” (eye) as in English “eye” (oh) as in English “toe” but with out the trace of (oo) at the end (oo) as in English “food” (uh) as in English “run” (u) as in English “put” (ou) as in English “shout” Two other vowel sounds are followed by asterisks to indicate difference from the common English pronunciation of the letters. The first sound is (ay*). Pronounce this like the first part of the vowel group in the English word “say”, but omit the second part, a trace of (ee). Irish persons often carry this pronunciation into English. Recall to yourself how they would pronounce “say”, “day”, “pray”. The second is (aw*). This sound is close to the way many Irish persons pronounce the vowel in “thaw”, “awful”, or “saw”, although most Americans do not pronounce those three words that way. For Americans, the sound (aw*) in words like “tá” is closer to the “o” in “otter”, “top”, or “tot” but is held longer. In Irish spelling, the sound is represented by “á”. Another way to get the (aw*) pronunciation is to watch your lips in a mirror as you say “awful”, noticing that the lips are pushed far out. If you try the word with your lips help in closer and more rounded, you will be very close to the (aw*) in words like “tá”. Now practice (aw*) in these words: ábalta (AW*-buhl-tuh) able, capable ál (aw*l) brood, progeny ár (aw*r) our áras (AW*-ruhs) a dwelling ádh (aw*) luck áit (aw*t) place álainn (AW*-lin) beautiful áil (aw*l) desire arán (uh-RAW*N) bread bán (baw*n) white dá (daw*) if mórán (moh-RAW*N) much GRAMMAR In Lessons 10 to 12, you learned how to answer the questions: Céard é seo? (kay*rd ay* shuh) what is this? Céard é sin? (kay*rd ay* shin) what is that? and to classify, that is, to say that a person or object is in some class or group. For example: “is dochtúir í” (is dohk*-TOO-ir ee ) means “She is a doctor”, and “is bord é” (is bohrd ay*) means “it is a table”.

To identify a person or object as having a name or being the particular one that you are talking about, Irish has a slightly different form. Learn these examples by heart: Is mise Seán (is MISH-e shaw*n), I am John. (“Mise” is the emphatic form of “mé”.) Is tusa Séamus (is TU-suh SHAY*-muhs), You are James. (“Tusa” is the emphatic form of “tú”.) Is sinne na dochtúirí (is SHIN-ye nuh dohk*-TOO-i-ree), We are the doctors. Is sibhse na scoláirí (is SHIV-she nuh skoh-LAW*-ree), You (plural) are the pupils. Note that the word order is reversed from: Is dochtúir mise (is dohk*-TOO-ir MISH-e), I am a doctor. The same is true of “é seo” or “í seo” meaning “this”, and or “é sin” and “í sin” meaning “that”. For example: Is é seo Brian (shay* shuh BREE-uhn), This is Brian. Is í sin Bríd (shee shin breed), That is Bridget. This also holds true for “iad seo” (EE-uhd shuh), these, and “iad sin” (EE-uhd shin), those. An example is: Is iad sin Cormac agus Una (SHEEuhd shin KOHR-muhk AH-guhs OON-uh), Those are Cormac and Una. The annoying part, however, is that with “é”, “í”, and “iad” alone, a doubling of the pronoun occurs, as in: Is é Brian é (shay* BREE-uhn ay*), It’s Brian Is í Máire í (shee MAW*-re ee) It’s Mary. Is iad na fir iad (SHEE-uhd nuh fir EE-uhd), They are the men. Is iad Peadar agus Dónall iad (SHEE-uhd PAD-uhr AH-guhs DOHN- uhl EE-uhd), They are Peter and Donald. This will be clumsy and annoying to you at first, but persevere and you will develop the proper thought pattern, so that the right phrase will come to you quickly in any situation.

Lesson 22 In this issue, we rerun the full pronunciation guide and study method, for the purpose of review and for those readers who have joined recently and need this information. PRONUNCIATION Americans studying Irish have always learned pronunciation from either an Irish speaker or from one of several recordings accompanying textbooks. Because we will not be able to teach pronunciation in these ways, we will give you a simple pronunciation-guide system and then extra instructions from time to time. If you have the chance to listen to a native speaker, however, do so. There are differences in regional pronunciation in Irish, as in other languages, but if the speaker talks slowly and clearly, you should have little trouble in understanding the words you know. The pronunciation given in the guide for this lesson series is not based exclusively on any one region of Ireland. Where the differences are significant, we will give you some of the other pronunciations and usages, to make it easier to talk with all speakers. STUDY METHOD Learn the pronunciation-guide system and do the practice work for English words that we will give you. For each Irish word, phrase or sentence, first look at the pronunciation guide (which will always be in parentheses) and say the word or words several times out loud. Then look at the Irish word and pronounce it several more times. After you have gone over the lesson in this way, write the Irish words, copying them from the lesson and saying them out loud as you copy them. Each time you say an Irish word or phrase, try to form a mental picture in your mind. Although this is difficult with some single words, persist and it will become easier as the phrases and sentences become longer. Translation is the next step. Read the Irish word or phrase out loud and then translate it into English. Do this several times, until you are sure that you know it. Then translate the English into Irish several times. If you are learning Irish with others, each person can give another a word or phrase to translate and can take a part in the conversation in the lessons. In the conversation exercises, look first at the pronunciation and meaning, then look up from the lesson before you say the Irish words out loud. Work phrase by phrase at first, until you can memorize entire sentences. If you study with others, take turns in reading what each character says. In the conversation exercises, you will see words and phrases that will seem difficult at first. Memorize them, and don’t worry about the grammar. It will be explained later. PRONUNCIATION-GUIDE SYSTEM Most of the symbols are letters and letter groups for sounds common in familiar English words. If you pronounce them in that way for the first few lessons, you will be close enough for a beginning. We will gradually correct you and improve your pronunciation as you advance, so that you will soon have a genuine Irish pronunciation. For most consonants, such as b, d, f, g, h, l, m, n, p, r, s and t, we will use the letters themselves as pronunciation symbols. In the lessons, you will get instructions on how to pronounce these sounds in the Irish way. Nearly all these consonants have two sounds in Irish, depending on what vowels are next to them. (English “c” and “g” also have this characteristic. Notice how you statrt to pronounce “king” and “coat”, and then “give” and “go”.) The vowel symbols may need some explanation, so here are the symbols and description of their pronunciation: Symbols and pronunciations: (ah) as in English “ah-hah” (a) as in English “at” (aw*) as in English “tot”, but held for a longer time (ay*) as Irish pronounce English “say”, without a trace of (ee) sound at the end (e) as in English “let” (ee) as in English “mean” (i) as in English “pin” (eye) as in English “eye” (oh) as in English “toe”, but without the trace of (oo) sound at the end (oo) as in English “food” (uh) as in English “run” (u) as in English “put” (ou) as in English “shout” We will capitalize the letters in the accented part of the word or phrase. We will use asterisks, as in some symbols above, to indicate a sound fairly different from usual English sounds. Remember, too, that many Irish sounds are not exactly like their English counterparts. Some English sounds, such as “z” and “th”, are not in Irish. Now try these English words as practice in using the pronunciation-guide system: (boht) (HAM-muhr) (kin) (KUH-stuhm-ayr-ee) (de-LIV-uh-ree) (giv) (trans-LAYT) (ad-MEYE-uhr) (ful-FIL) (fuhn-duh-MENT-uhl) (wohnt)

(wawnt) (tawt) The actual English words for these are: boat, hammer, kin, customary, delivery, give, translate, admire, fulfill, fundamental, won’t, want, taught. These sounds are not always exact, as you can see, but are close enough to be understood.

Lesson 23 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW Our next stage of pronunciation review covers the consonants “c” and “g”. Irish consonants have two sounds, depending on whether the nearest vowel in the word is in the group of “a”, “o”, “u” or in the group of “e”, “i”. The explanation for this (which you need not remember) is that the “a, o, u” group sounds are formed farther back in the mouth than the “e, i” group sounds. The tongue and mouth positions for the two groups’s sounds make it easier for a speaker to pronounce such adjacent letters as “c” and “g” in two different ways. This occurs in English speech, too, although it is not as extensive as in Irish. Notice how differently you pronounce the (k) sound in “king” and in “cold”. The “k” in king is next to an “i”, and it is natural for you to pronounce it differently from a “c” next to an “o”. Now try exchanging the (k) sounds, pronouncing “king” with the (k) from “cold” and “coat” with the (k) from “king”. The consonants adjacent to “a, o, u” vowels are called broad consonants. Slender consonants are near “e, i” vowels. The Irish sounds for “c” and “g” are much like the sounds you already know in English, and you can transfer the English sounds. Later, if you wish to make a minor improvement in your pronunciation of the slender “c” and “g”, pronounce them with the tip of the tongue against the inside of the lower front teeth, which is probably slightly different from your English pronunciation. Here is a practice series of word groups. In each group, an English word comes first and contains the broad or slender (k) sound of the Irish word in the group. Call; cá (kaw*), where; cóta (KOH-tuh), coat; cúig (KOO-ig), five. King; cill (kill), cell; ceart (kart), right; cé (kay*), who. Cold; cos (kuhs), foot; cúpla (KOOP-luh), couple; cupán (ku- PAW*N), cup. Kettle; cinnte (KIN-te), certain; ceil (kel), conceal; cistin (KISH-tin), kitchen. Clod; cluas (KLOO-uhs), ear; clár (klaw*r), board; clois (klish), hear. Clip; clis (klish) fail; cliste (KLISH-te), clever; clé (klay*), left. Now try these words, making sure that you watch to see whether an “a, o, u” or an “e, i” vowel is nearest to the “c”: clós (klohs); céad (KAY*-uhd); cara (KAH-ruh); ceist (kesht); clog (kluhg); cliste (KLISH-te) crua (KROO-uh); cré (kray*). A “g” is pronounced like a “c”, except that the vocal cords are made to hum during the sound. To see how the two sounds of “g” are made, pronounce English “go” and “give”. If the nearest vowel is “a, o, u” pronounce the “g” as in English “go”. If the nearest vowel is “e, i”, pronounce the “g” as in English “give”. Try these: garda (GAHR-duh), guard; geata (GAT-uh), gate; gol (guhl), crying; géar (gay*r) sharp; glan (gluhn), clean; glic (glik), clever; grá (graw*), love; grian (GREE-uhn), sun. Our pronunciation guide usually does not indicate whether the consonants get their broad or slender sound. You must learn to watch for this yourself, noting the nearest vowel in the word. VOCABULARY Masculine Nouns buachaill (BOO-uhk*-il) boy capall (KAHP-uhl) horse cosán (kuh-SAW*N) sidewalk

Feminine Nouns cluas, an chluas (KLOO-uhs, un K*LOO-uhs) ear bó, an bhó (boh, un vwoh) cow bán (baw*n) white gorm (GUH-ruhm) blue buí (bwee) yellow uaine (oo-IN-e) green (for cloth, etc.) dearg (DYAR-uhg) red dubh (doov) black glas (glahs) green (for grass) donn (doun) brown corcra (KOHR-kruh) purple GRAMMAR To use “tá” and “is” confidently, you must have a good idea of the conditions under which you use one or the other of these verbs. “Tá” tells where a person or object is and what it is doing (the verbal noun can follow “tá”). “Tá” also serves to describe a person or object by introducing adjectives. For examples of these usages: Tá sé anseo. He is here. Tá sé ag dul amach. He is going out. Tá sé fuar. It is cold. Select “is” when you want to say that a person or object is in a fairly permanent class, or when you want to identify a person or object as being the specific one about whom you are talking. Céard é seo? (kay*rd ay* shuh) What is this? is one question calling for “is”. Is bosca é, or: is bosca beag é, are answers. Here are other examples: Is feirmeoir Seán (is fer-im-OH-ir shaw*n) John is a farmer. Is garda an fear sin, that man is a guard. Is fear mór Séamas, James is a big man. An Meiriceánach tú? Are you an American? Nach scoláirí sibhse? (nahk* skuh-LAW*-ree SHIV-she), arn’t you students? Note the word order. What the person or thing is comes first, then the person or thing. To give a name to someone, or to say that a person of thing is the specific one, reverse the word order. Examples: Cé tusa? (kay* TU-suh), Who are you? Is míse Máirín. Ní míse Bríd. Cé hé sin? Who is that? Is é sin Brian. Ní hé sin Séamas. Cé hí seo? Who is this? Is í sin Máire. Ní hí seo Nóra. Is é seo mo nuachtán (shay* shuh muh NOO-uhk*-taw*n), this is my paper. Ní hé sin an nuachtán eile (nee hay* shin un NOO- uhk*-taw*n EL-e), that is not the other paper. Notice the difference in word order in: Is bord é sin, that is a table. Is é sin an bord (shay* shin un bohrd), that is the table.

Lesson 24 Pronunciation Review We now review the consonants “t” and “d”. These are related in both English and Irish, because a “d” is pronounced like a “t” except for use of the vocal cords. In Irish, each of these two letters has a broad sound when the nearest vowel in the word is “a, o, u”, and a slender sound when the nearest vowel is “e, i”. For the broad sound, place the tongue front up against or close to the roof of the mouth, behind the upper front teeth and touching the back of them. Then say the “t” or “d” sound. Examples: Tá, tóg, tú, tusa (TU-suh), tamall (TAH-muhl), tosaigh (TUH-see), tús (toos). Dá, dó, dún (doon), dara (DUH-ruh), doras (DUH-ruhs), duine (DIN-e), duibheagán (DIV-uh-gaw*n). Notice that in “duine” and “duibheagán”, the “u” following the “d” tells you to give the “d” its broad sound, even though the next actual vowel sound is for the “i”. A few more examples: trá, trom (truhm), trua (TROO-uh), drad (drahd), dlú (dloo), droch (druhk*). For the slender “t” and “d”, touch the tip of the tongue against the hard ridge behind the upper front teeth. The tongue can be inclined forward and even touch the back of the upper front teeth. The pronounce the “t” or “d”. The sound will have a trace of a “y” sound at the end of it. Try: Te(te), tine (TIN-e), tír (teer), teach (tyahk*), trí (tree). Déan (day*n), dian (DEE-uhn), deas (das), dearg (DYAR-uhg), díol (DEE-uhl), dlí (dlee). In some Irish speech, the traces of the “y” sound may be changed so that a slender “t” sounds like an English “ch”, and a slender “d” like an English “j”. “Tine” may sound like (CHIN-e), and “deas” may sound like (jas). In our pronunciation guide, we sometimes put a (y) in to familiarize you with this feature of Irish. From now on, you must watch to see whether an “a, o, u” or “e, i” is nearest the “t” or “d”, so that you can give the “t” or “d” its proper sound. Vocabulary Masculine nouns leanbh ((LAN-uhv), child airgead, an t-airgead (AR-i-guhd, un TAR-i-guhd), money baile (BAHL-e), town, home ceacht (kyahk*t), lesson cara (KAH-ruh), friend spota (SPOH-tuh), spot Feminine nouns síleáil, an tsíleáil (SHEE-aw*-il, un TEE-aw*-il), ceiling, the ceiling cnámh, un chnámh (kuh-NAW*V, un k*uh-NAW*V), bone, the bone Smig, an smig (smig), chin geal (gal), bright breá (bir-RAW*), fine deas (das), nice, pretty Drill For practice with “is”, do the following drill until you can repeat the groups without hesitation. Céard é seo? (kay*rd ay* shuh), What is this? Is leabhar é (is LOU-whur ay*). An leabhar Gaeilge é? (GAY*-lig-e), Is it an Irish book? Ní hea, ach leabhar Béarla (nee ha, ahk* LOU-wuhr BAY*R-luh). It is not; it is an English book. Céard é sin? Nach baile é? (nahk* BAHL-e ay*) Sea, ach ní baile deas é (sha, ahk* nee BAHL-e das ay*). An fear mór é? Ní hea, ach fear beag (byuhg). Nach cailín deas í sin? Sea, agus cailín galánta freisin (guh-LAW*N-tuh FRESH-in), Yes, and a fashionable girl, too. Cé tusa? (kay* TU-suh), Who are you? Is mise Séan Ó Rian (is MISH-e shaw*n oh REEN), I am John Reen. Cé mise? (kay* MISH-e), Who am I? Is tusa an fear eile (EL-e). Cé sinne? (kay* SHIN-ye), Who are we? Is sibhse na múinteoirí (is SHIV-she nuh moo-in-TYOHR-ee), You are the teachers. Cé hé sin? Who is that?

Is é sin Liam (shay* shin LEE-uhm), That’s William. Agus cé hiad seo? (AH-guhs kay* HEE-uhd shuh) And who are these? Is iad seo Máire agus Séamas (SHEE-uhd shuh MAW*-re AH-guhs SHAY*-muhs), These are Mary and James. Cé hé an fear ag an doras? (kay* hay* un far eg un DUHR-uhs) Who is the man at the door? Is é Brian é (shay* BREE-uhn ay*), It’s Brian. Cé hí an cailín leis? (kay* hee un kah-LEEN lesh) Who is the girl with him? Is í Brid í (shee breed ee), It’s Bridget. Conversation Seán (shaw*n); Táimid ag baile arís (TAW*-mid eg BAHL-e uh-REESH). We’re home again. Máire (MAW*-re): Táimid, tar éis bheith in Éirinn trí mhí (tuhr ay*sh ve in AY*R-in tree vee). We are, after being in Ireland three months. Seán: Céard é sin ar an tsíleáil? (kay*rd ay* sin er un TEEL-aw*-il) What’s that on the ceiling? Máire: Spota uisce, go cinnte (SPOH-tuh ISH-ke, goh KIN-te). A water spot, for sure. Seán: Tá piopa briste thuas an staighre, is dócha (taw* PEEP-uh BRISH-te HOO-uhs un STEYE-ruh, is DOHK*-uh). There’s a pipe broken upstairs, probably.

Lesson 25 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW Three consonants whose pronunciation we can study together are “b, p, m”. If a vowel nearest any of these in a word is “a, o, u”, the consonant gets its broad sound. You make it by protruding the lips, then pronouncing the sound to resemble the corresponding English sound. Try: bád, buan (BOO-uhn), bac (bahk), bocht (bohk*t), bun (bun); blas (blahs), blúire (BLOO-ir-e), bradán (bruh-DAW*N), brón, brú (broo). pá, Pól, púdar (POO-duhr), paca (PAH-kuh), póca (POH-kuh), punt (poont); plab (plahb), pláta (PLAW*-tuh), prás (praw*s), próca (PROHkuh). má, mór, muc (muk), maith (mah), mar (muhr), mol (muhl), mullóg (mu-LOHG), mná (muh-NAW*). Sometimes a slender vowel follows the broad consonant sound, and an “a, o, u” is placed between to indicate this. The result in pronunciation is a sound like that for the English “w” between consonant and vowel. Examples: bain (bwin), buidéal (bwi-DAY*L), buí (bwee), buile (BWIL-e), puinn (pwin), moil (mwil). You can see why this is so when you form the broad “b, p, m” and then change to the (i) or (ee) sound in the examples above. For the slender “b, p, m” sounds, bring the lips in close to the teeth and spread the lips slightly as if you were beginning to smile. Then pronounce the letters. Examples: béal (bay*l), bia (BEE-uh), blian (BLEE-in), bleachtaire (BLAK*-tuhr-e), breac (bir-RAK), bréan (BRAY*-uhn). pé (pay*), pian (PEE-uhn), pic (pik), plé, preab (pir-RAB), príosún (pree-SOON). mé (may*), milis (MIL-ish), mian (MEE-uhn), meil (mel). GRAMMAR With this lesson, we begin the past tense of verbs, so that you will be able to say, “I wrote a letter” or “He ate”. At present, you know how to say “I was writing a letter” and “He was eating”. Remember that the command to a single person is the simplest form of the verb. For example: Léigh (lay*), read. Scríobh é (shkreev ay*), write it. Ol é (ohl ay*), drink it. To form the past tense, merely use this command or imperative, but aspirate the initial consonant, if that is possible. If the imperative form begins with a vowel or an “f”, you must put a (d) sound befor the verb. Here are examples: Bhain sé an cóta de (vwin shay* un KOH-tuh de), He took off his coat. Chuir mé ar an mbord é (k*ir may* er un mohrd ay*), I put it on the table. Dhíol tú é (yeel too ay*), You sold it. D’fhan sé (dahn shay*), He remained. Ghlan mé an fhuinneog (gluhn may* un in-YOHG), I cleaned the window. Léigh sí a leabhar (lay* shee uh LOU-wuhr), She read her book). Mhol mé an cailín (vwuhl may* uh kah-LEEN), I praised the girl. Nigh (ni) sé an carr, He washed the car. Phóg (fohg) sí a máthair (MAW*-hir), She kissed her mother. Rith siad amach (ri SHEE-uhd uh-MAHK*), They ran out. Sheas sé ann (has shay* oun), He stood there. Thóg sibh é (hohg shiv ay*), You took it. Next come examples for verbs beginning with vowels: D’alp sé é (dahlp shay* ay), He gulped it down. D’éist sé liom (day*sht shay* luhm) He listened to me. D’ith (di) siad é, They ate it. D’ol tú an bainne (dohl too un BAHN-ye), You drank the milk. D’ullmhaigh mé (DUL-vwee may*), I prepared. Go over these examples until you are able to read them quickly. Notice that initial “l, n, r” cannot be aspirated and so do not change from the imperative. In some cases, the consonants that can be aspirated are followed by other consonants that would make it difficult for a speaker to aspirate the first consonant. An example: Scríobh (shkreev) sé é, He wrote it. Try aspirating the “s” in “scríobh”. You would have to say (huh-KREEV), which would be too difficult. The examples above give you a good idea of how to form the past tense of most of the verbs you know. You will not be able to form the past tense of the few irregular verbs yet. These you must learn separately, and we will have separate drills for these. “Tá” is one irregular verb whose

past tense, “bhí”, you already know. VOCABULARY caith, ag caitheamh (kah, uh KAH-huhv), throw, wear, spend buail, ag bualadh (BOO-il, uh BOO-luh), strike tuig, ag tuiscint (tig, uh TISH-kint), understand fan, ag fanacht (fahn, uh FAHN-uhk*t), wait creid, ag creidiúint (kred, uh kred-YOO-int), believe scuab, ag scuabadh (SKOO-uhb, uh SKOO-buh), sweep ceannaigh, ag ceannach (KAN-ee, uh KAN-uhk*), buy díol, ag díol (DEE-uhl, uh DEE-uhl), sell ól, ag ól (ohl, eg OHL), drink ith, ag ithe (i, eg I-he), eat DRILL The verbs above are put into the past tense like this: Chaith siad an leabhar (k*ah SHEE-uhd un LOU-uhr), They threw the book. Substitute “mé, tú, sé, sí, sibh (shiv)” for “siad” in this and the following sentences (do not substitute “sinn”, we, yet): Bhuail siad an buachaill (BOO-uhk*-il), They struck the boy. Cheannaigh siad mórán rud (HAN-ee SHEE-uhd moh-RAW*N rud), they bought many things. Thuig siad an fear eile (hig SHEE-uhd un far EL-e), they understood the other man. D’ól siad gloine uisce (dohl SHEE-uhd GLIN-e ISH-ke), They drank a glass of water. Chreid siad an scéal (hyred SHEE-uhd un shkay*l), They believed the story. (Run the “h” and the “y” sounds together for the aspirated “c”.)

Lesson 26 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW The Letter “f” gets two slightly different sounds in Irish, depending on whether the nearest vowel is “a, o, u” or “e, i”. Each sound differs a little from the usual English sound. For the broad sound, near an “a, o, u”, start with the inside of the lower lip against the edge of the upper front teeth. Then move the lips out to an extended, rounded form as you make the sound. Try: fá, fán, fód, fúm (foom), fuar (FOO-uhr), fáilte (FAW*L- tye), faisean (FASH-uhn), folamh (FUHL-uhv), fud (fud). Also: flaith (flah), flós, flúr, fras (frahs), frog (frohg), scríofa (SHKREE-fuh), tógfar (TOHK-fuhr). For the slender sound, near an “e, i”, start with the lower lip in the same position, but then draw it back slightly as you make the “f” sound. Try: féin (fay*n), féach (FAY*-ahk*), fill (fil), fear (far), feirm (FER-im) caithfear (KAH-fuhr). If an (i) sound is to follow a broad (f) sound, a “u” is placed between the “f” and “i”. In pronouncing the combination, you will find that a sound resembling an English “w” comes between. For example: fuil (fwil), fuinneog (fwin-YOHG), fuinneamh (FWIN-yuhv). Make sure you go over the pronunciation sections regularly, so that you will improve your pronunciation and develop the ability to pronounce new words before you look at the pronunciation guide. By now you should be ready to read most of the Irish in these lessons before you look at the pronunciation guide. We will gradually drop more of the pronunciation guide from the Irish words and sentences. GRAMMAR To express the negative in the past tense for most verbs, you must put “níor” (NEE-uhr) before the imperative, and you must also aspirate the imperative’s initial consonant, if possible. For example: Níor dhíol sé an bád (NEE-uhr yeel shay* un baw*d), He didn’t sell the boat. Níor fhan sé liom (NEE-uhr ahn shay* luhm), He didn’t wait for me. Níor ól sé é, He didn’t drink it. To ask a question in the past tense, put “ar” (er) before the imperative and aspirate the imperative’s initial consonant if possible. Some examples: Ar thuig tú í? (er hig too ee), Did you understand her? Ar fhan sibh? (er ahn shiv), Did you wait? Ar ól siad é? (er ohl SHEE-uhd ay*), Did they drink it? To say “Didn’t she put it on the table?”, which is the negative imperative, put “nár” (naw*r) before the imperative and again aspirate the initial consonant if possible, as in: Nár chuir sí ar an mbord é? (naw*r k*ir shee). The answer to this question is either “Chuir sí” or “Níor chuir sí”. DRILL This is a suitable time for a simultaneous drill on aspiration pronunciation and the past tense of irregular verbs. Here is a list of verbs that includes all the aspirated sounds, both broad and slender. Go over them until you can say the past-tense forms, having covered the last three forms (in the third column) and looking only at the imperative (in the second column). Break: Bris!(brish) Bhris mé níor bhris mé ar bhris mé (vrish may*) Strike Buail! (BOO-il) Bhuail mé níor bhuail mé ar bhuail mé? (VOO-il may*) Buy Ceannaigh! (KAN-ee) Cheannaigh mé níor cheannaaigh mé ar cheannaigh mé? (HYAN-ee may*) Put Cuir! (kir) Chuir mé níor chuir mé ar chuir mé? (k*ir may*)

Sell Díol! (DEE-uhl) Dhíol mé níor dhíol mé ar dhíol mé? (YEE-uhl may*) Close Dún! (doon) Dhún mé níor dhún mé ar dhún mé? (GOON may*) Look Féach! (FAY*-ahk*) D’fhéach mé níor fhéach mé ar fhéach mé? (DAY*-ahk* may*) Wait Fan! (fahn) D’fhan mé níor fhan mé ar fhan mé? (DAHN may*; NEE-uhr AHN may*) Cut Gearr! (gyahr) Ghearr mé níor ghearr mé ar ghearr mé? (YAHR may*; NEE-uhr YAHR may*) Clean Glan! (gluhn) Ghlan mé níor ghlan mé ar ghlan mé? (GLUHN may*) Explain Mínigh! (MEEN-ee) Mhínigh mé níor mhínigh mé ar mhínigh mé? (VEEN-ee may*) Teach Múin! (MOO-in) Mhúin mé níor mhúin mé ar mhúin mé? (VOO-in may*) Torture Pian! (PEE-uhn) Phian mé níor phian mé ar phian mé? (FEE-uhn may*) Marry Pós! (pohs) Phós mé níor phós mé ar phós mé? (FOHS may*) Stand Seas! (shas) Sheas mé nior sheas mé ar sheas mé? (HAS may*) Sit Suigh! (si) Shuigh mé níor shuigh mé ar shuigh mé? (HI may*) Drive Tiomáin! (ti-MAW*-in) Thiomáin mé níor thiomáin mé ar thiomáin mé? (hi-MAW*-in may*) Take Tóg! (tohg) Thóg mé níor thóg mé ar thóg mé? (HOHG may*)

Lesson 27 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW To pronounce the letter “l” when it starts a word and is followed by “a, o, u”, spread the tongue somewhat and press it against the upper front teeth while making the sound. This will give the initial broad “l” sound. As examples, try: lá, lán, lón, lúb (loob), lacha (LAHK*-uh), loch (lohk*). Sometimes a slender vowel sound (ay*) or (ee), follows the broad “l” sound. Examples: laoch (LAY*-uhk*), luí (lee). These words begin with the broad “l” sound. When “ll” is adjacent to “a, o, u”, the sound is similar, as in: allas (AHL-uhs), mall (mahl), balla (BAHL-uh). The initial slender “l” sound, before “e, i”, requires you to press your tongue tip against the back of the lower front teeth and raise the front of the tongue to touch both the upper front teeth and the hard ridge behind them. Examples: léamh (LAY*-uhv), lig (lig), lín (leen), leis (lesh), leaba (LA-buh), leath (la), leabhar (LOU-wuhr). When “ll” is next to “e, i”, the sound is similar. Try: caill (keyel), fill (fil), cailleadh (KEYEL-uh), milliún (mil-YOON). Pronunciation of a single “l” inside a word or at the end of it may vary slightly, depending on the word. Often it is pronounced like the English “l”, as in: geal (gal), milis (MIL-ish), álainn (AW*-lin), folamh (FUHL-uhv). In “baile” (BAHL-e), the sound is closer to initial slender “l”, giving a sound resembling (BAHL-ye). GRAMMAR In the past tense of verbs, “we” is indicated by “--amar” or “--eamar” added to the imperative. For example, “d’fhanamar” (DAHN-uh-muhr) means “we stayed,” and “thuigeamar” (HIG-uh-muhr) means “we understood”. One minor point, chiefly involving spelling, concerns this “we” form (i.e., first-person plural): For the two-syllable verbs ending in “--igh”, such as “ceannaigh” and “mínigh”, the “we” form is “cheannaíomar” (hyan-EE-uh-muhr), “mhíníomar” (veen- EE-uh-muhr), etc. “Suigh”, sit, is treated similarly. Years ago, these verb forms were spelled as you would tend to spell them from your present knowledge of the other verbs: “cheannaigheamar”, “mhínigheamar”. A few years ago, however, the spelling was simplified. Verbs of this type have other minor differences that we will study soon. DRILL Here is a complete list of a verb in the past tense, “mol” (muhl), meaning “praise”. Repeat the list several times, and then say the same forms for the verbs in the drill at the end of lesson 26. It will be tedious work, but you will find it of benefit when we begin the reading exercises in a few weeks. mhol mé (vwuhl may*); mhol tú; mhol sé; mholamar (VWUHL-uh-mar); mhol sibh; mhol siad níor mhol mé (NEE-uhr vwuhl); níor mhol tú; níor mhol sé; níor mhol sí; níor mholamar; níor mhol sibh; níor mhol siad ar mhol mé? (er); ar mhol tú?; ar mhol sé?; ar mhol sí?; ar mholamar?; ar mhol sibh?; ar mhol siad? nár mhol mé? (naw*r); nár mhol tú?; nár mhol sé?; nár mhol sí?; nár mholamar?; nár mhol sibh?; nár mhol siad? PRACTICE Read the sentences below out loud and simultaneously form a mental picture of what they mean. At the lesson end there is a translation, but do not look at it unless absolutely necessary. Ceannaigh é (KAN-ee ay*)! Níor cheannaigh mé é (HYAN-ee). Nár cheannaíomar na rudaí eile? Cheannaigh Seán na prátaí. Rith abhaile (uhVWAHL-e) agus cnag ar an doras. Chnagamar (K*NAHG-uh-muhr) ar an doras inné (in-YAY*), ach ní raibh duine ar bith ann. Ná léigh an nuachtán, a Sheáin (uh HYAW*-in)! Chuir do mháthair do bhricfeasta ar an mbord cheana. Léamar an leabhar sin aréir (uh-RAY*R). Nár léigh tú fós é? Níor léigh mé é. Nár mhínigh sí an ceacht duit? Níor thuig (hig) Máire an scéal, agus níor mhíníomar an scéal di (di). Ól an tae anois! Nár ól sibh é? Ar ól na páistí an bainne go léir? D’ól siad cuid de (kid de). Fan anseo. D’fhan d’athair an lá go léir. Nár fhanamar sa teach? Ar fhan an bus leat? Níor fhan sé, ar chor ar bith. D’fhanamar leis go meán-lae (myaw*n lay*). Buy it! I didn’t buy it. Didn’t we buy the other things? John bought the potatoes. Run home and knock on the door. We knocked on the door yesterday, but no one was there. Don’t read the paper, John. Your mother put your breakfast on the table already. We read that book last night. Didn’t you read it yet? I didn’t read it. Didn’t she explain the lesson to you? Mary didn’t understand the story, and we didn’t explain it to her. Drink the tea now! Didn’t you (pl.) drink it? Did the children drink all of the milk? They drank part of it. Stay here! Your father remained all day. Didn’t we stay in the house? Did the bus wait for you? It didn’t wait at all. We waited for it until noon (midday). Lesson 28 PRONUNCIATION GUIDE The letter “n” has two basic sounds. The broad sound, made with the tongue spread soemwhat and pressed against the upper front teeth, occurs when the “n” begins a word and the next vowel is “a, o, u”. Examples: ná, nó, nús, nasc (nahsk), náisiún (naw*-SHOON), nocht (nohk*t). The slender sound of “n” occurs when “n” starts a word in which the first vowel is “e, i”. The “n’ is pronounced with the front of the tongue on the hard rim behind the upper front teeth. There will be a faint sound resembling “yuh” at the end as you begin to pronounce the rest of the word. Do not pronounce a separate (yuh) sound, however. Examples: néid (nyay*d), ní (nee), níl (neel), nead (nyad), neimh (nyev), neoin (NYOH-in). Notice that in “ní” and “níl”, the (yuh) sound trace disappears. If “n” is inside a word or at the end, the pronunciation is usually similar to the American pronunciation of “n”. Compare “ainm” (AN-im) with “anam” (AH-nuhm). See Lesson 25 for the difference in “m” pronunciation. The “m” is slender in “ainm” and broad in “anam”, but the “n” in both words resembles the “n” you know from English. Slender double “n” at a word end after “e, i” can be pronounced either (n) or have a faint (y) sound at the end. The sound may resemble the (ng) sound at the end of English “sing”. Try: sinn (shin); linn (lin), crainn (krin).

Pronounce double “n” broad like a broad “n” that starts a word, such as “ná”. Try: tagann (TAHG-uhn), donn (doun). A slender double “n” inside a word gets a clear (y) sound, as in bainne (BAHN-ye), rinne (RIN-ye), fuinneog (fwin-YOHG). A broad “n” sound can begin a word in which the next vowel sound is slender, (ay*) or (ee). “Naoi” and “naíonán” are examples. A faint, short (uh) sound occurs between the (n) and (ee). Try: naoi (nee), naíonán (NEE-uh-naw*n). This “n” differs from the slender “n” in “ní” or “Nioclás” (NEE-klaw*s). GRAMMAR Although the ending “-amar” or “eamar” is common for indicating “we” in the past tense of verbs, the seperate word “muid” (mwid) is used, too. For example: bhuail muid (VWOO-il mwid), we struck; thuig muid (HIG mwid), we understood; cheannaigh muid (HYAN-ee mwid), we bought. Both ways are acceptable. Most moden grammars give the “-mar” ending for their examples, but you should be familiar with the two forms. VOCABULARY fág, ag fágáil (faw*g, uh FAW*G-aw*-il) leave. Also in: fág fúmsa é (faw*g FOOM-suh ay*), Leave it to me. deisigh, ag deisiú (DESH-ee, uh DESH-yoo) repair, “fix” tóg, ag tógáil (tohg, uh TOHG-aw*-il), take, raise crith, ag crith (kri), shake mag, ag magadh (mahg, uh MAHG-uh) mock, “slag” As in: ag magadh fúm (foom), making fun of me. síl, ag síleadh (sheel, uh SHEEL-uh), think troid, ag troid (trid, uh trid) fight léim, ag léim (lay*m, uh lay*m) jump REFLEX EXPRESSIONS le tamall (le TAH-muhl), for a while is fíor sin (is FEE-uhr shin), That’s true le fada (le FAH-duh), for a long time saor go leor (SAY*-uhr goh LOHR), cheap enough áit éigin (aw*t AY*-gin) some place DRILL We will first review the use of “is” (is). Repeat this sentence group: Céard é seo? (kay*rd) Céard é sin? Is leabhar é. Is sráid é. Ní scoil é. An bosca é? (BOHSK-uh) Ní hea, ach buidéal (nee ha, ahk* bwi- DAY*L). An bord é seo? Is ea. Now substitute into the sentences Irish words for objects you know. Go through the entire sequence for each word. Next, repeat this sentence group: Cé hé seo? (kay* hay* shuh) Cé hí seo? Cé hé sin? Cé hí sin? Is é Seán é (shay* shaw*n ay*). Ní hí Nóra í. Is é Seán an fear (far). Is í Máire an dochtúir (dohk*-TOO-ir). Is é sin Brian (shay* shin BREE-uhn). Is í seo Cáit (kaw*t). Is é seo Liam. Is í sin Bríd (shee shin breed). Now substitute into the sentences Irish names that you know from the conversations, and also nouns with “the” before them, such as: the room, the road, the place, the table, the girl, the car, etc. Then try to add sentences in the past tense to: Is é Seán an fear a --. Example: Is é Seán an fear a cheannaigh an carr nua. Try verbs such as: caith, cuir, rith, scríobh, etc. PRACTICE READING A translation follows this: Tá Liam sa bhaile. Ní raibh sé amuigh inné. Bhí sé ag scríobh litreach. Bhíomar ag féachaint air (FAY*-uhk*-int er). Chuir sé an litir sa phost agus ansin d’ith sé a shuipéar (hu-PAY*R). Thógamar ár mbróga (MROHG-uh) chuig (hig) an gcathair (GAH-hir), agus dheisigh an fear sin iad. D’imíomar linn abhaile ansin. Ag baile, bhí an cat agus an madra ag troid. Throid siad cúpla nóiméad, agus ansin chaitheamar amach iad. [William is at home. He wasn’t out yesterday. He was writing a letter. We were watching him. He put the letter in the post and then he ate his supper. We took our shoes to the city, and that man repaired them. We departed (departed with ourselves) homeward then. At home, the cat and the dog were fighting. They fought for a couple of minutes, and then we threw them out.] (Note: Both “abhaile” (uh-VWAHL-e) and “ag baile” (eg BAHL-e) mean “at home.”)

Lesson 29 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW The letter “r” is pronounced with two principal sounds in Irish, and both sounds differ from the American pronunciation. If the “r” begins a word and is followed by an “a, o, u”, roll the sound by placing the tongue tip near enough to the hard ridge behind the upper front teeth to make the tongue vibrate as you say the “r”. Examples: rás, ramhar (ROU-wuhr), raca (RAHK-uh), ród, roc (rohk), rún (roon), rud (ruhd). Give “r” the same sound when it begins a word and is followed by “e, i”, as in: réim (ray*m), reilig (REL-ig), rí (ree), riamh (reev), rith (ri). The broad “r” sound inside a word or at the end, and near “a, o, u”, is not as likely to be rolled. It often resembles the American pronunciation. A double “r” near “a, o, u”, is rolled, however, as in: barr (bahr), cearr (kyahr), carraig (KAHR-rig), bearraim (BYAHR-rim), borradh (BOHR-ruh). Next to an “e, i” inside or at the end of a word, the “r” gets its slender sound. This is perhaps the most difficult Irish sound for Americans. Place the tongue tip near the top of your upper front teeth and form a shallow pocket in the tongue front. Then pronounce “r”. The air should blow downwards toward the lower lip as you drop the tongue. Try: fir (fir), beirim (BER-im), litir, féir (fay*r), Máire (MAW*-re), creid (kred), Bríd (breed). Compare “féar” with “féir”. The former word has an “r” like the American “r” at its end. The slender “r” faintly resembles a “d” or “zh” sound in English. In parts of Ireland, a word like “Máire” may sound like (MAW*-zhe). Slender “r” after a consonant sometimes seems to add a syllable, as in: breá (bir-RAW*). In Irish, “r” is pronounced in the front of the mouth, never in the back with a guttural rolling as in some other European languages. Grammar Up to now, all the verbs that you have studied, with one exception, have been “regular”. In a regular verb, the forms are based on the imperative, which you can always recognize in the verb form. For instance, “cuir” (kir) means “Put!” In the past tense, “chuir sé” (k*ir shay*) means “he put”. “Chuireann (KIR-uhn) sé” means “he puts”, and “chuirfinn” (K*IR-hin) means “I would put”. All forms are easily recognizable as belonging to “cuir”. The irregular verbs change more in going from tense to tense, and some change going from affirmative to negative. One irregular verb is “tá”. It becomes “níl” and “an bhfuil” in the present, and then changes to “bhí”, “ní raibh”, and “an raibh” in the past. About ten other Irish verbs are irregular, many fewer than in English, but the Irish verbs change more. We will learn them gradually. The first two are “come” and “go”, in the past tense. “Came” is: tháinig mé (HAW*-nig may*), I came tháinig tú, you came tháinig sé, he came tháinig sí, she came thángamar (HAW*NG-uh-muhr), we came tháinig sibh (shiv), you came tháinig siad (SHEE-uhd), they came níor tháinig mé, I didn’t come níor thángamar, we didn’t come níor tháinig tú, etc. ar tháinig mé?, did I come? ar thángamar?, did we come? nár tháinig mé?, didn’t I come? nár thángamar?, did we come? etc. “Went” is: chuaigh mé (K*OO-ig may*), I went chuaigh tú, you went chuaigh sé, he went chuaigh sí, she went chuamar (K*OO-uh-muhr), we went chuaigh sibh, you went chuaigh siad, they went (The word “chuaigh” is pronounced (K*-OO-uh) in parts of Ireland.) ní dheachaigh mé (nee YAK*-hee may*), I didn’t go ní dheachaigh tú, you didn’t go ní dheachaigh sé, he didn’t go ní dheachaigh sí, she didn’t go ní dheachamar (nee YAK*-uh-muhr), we didn’t go ní dheachaigh sibh, you didn’t go ní dheachaigh siad, they didn’t go

an ndeachaigh mé? (un NYAK*-hee may*), did I go? an ndeachamar? (unNYAK*-uh-muhr), did we go? an ndeachaigh tú?, did you go?, etc. nach ndeachaigh mé? (nahk* NYAK*-hee may*), didn’t I go? nach ndeachamar? (nahk* NYAK*-uh-muhr), didn’t we go? etc. Remember that the “ch” next to an “a, o, u” is pronounced by dropping the back of the tongue somewhat while you pronounce the “c” that is in “coat”. The result is a guttural sound like that in the German “ach”. Don’t drop the tongue so far that all you get is an “h” sound. Our phonetic guide employs (k*) for the sound. Drill Go through a progressive drill with each of these two verbs. Start with: Ar tháinig mé? Níor tháinig mé. Tháinig tú. Ar tháinig tú? Níor tháinig tú. Tháinig sé. Continue to the last phrase: Tháinig mé. “Went” requires some alertness. Start with: An ndeachaigh mé? Ní dheachaigh mé. Chuaigh tú. An ndeachaigh tú? Ní dheachaigh tú. Chuaigh sé. Continue to the last phrase: Chuaigh mé. Then join the following phrases to all forms to make sentences: amach; isteach; suas an staighre; síos an staighre; amach sa ghairdín; isteach sa teach; inné; abhaile; inniu. Remember that “I was going” is “Bhí mé ag dúl”, and that “I was coming” is “Bhí mé ag teacht”. “I went” and “I came” are this lesson’s subject.

Lesson 30 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW The letter “s” recieves its broad sound if an “a, o, u” is the nearest vowel in the word. The sound is very close to the American (s), with lips relaxed and a little trace of hissing. Try: sámh (saw*v), sampla (SAHM-pluh), só (soh), sú (soo), súil (SOO-il), san (suhn), saor (say*r), saoirse (SEER-she), slat (slaht), smál (smaw*l), spúnóg (spun-OHG), srón (srohn), stad (stahd), snas (snahs), stró (stroh), bás (baw*s), bosca (BOHSKuh). The slender sound of “s” is (sh), as in the English word “shun”. It is heard when the nearest vowel is “e,i”, unless the combinations “sm”, “sp” or “str” occur. With those combinations, “s” always has its broad sound of (s). First try: sean (shan), séid (shay*d), seift (sheft), síl (sheel), simné (SHIM-nay*), seo (shuh), siopa (SHOHP-uh), leis (lesh), cliste (KLISH-te), slí (shlee), sneachta (SHNAHK*-tuh), stiúir (SHTYOO-ir), scríobh (shkreev). Then, for examples of the exceptions to the slender sound, memorize these words: smig (smig), chin; spéir (spay*r), sky; srian (SREE-uhn), bridle; stríoc (streek) stripe. “Is” is an exception and is pronounced (is). GRAMMAR You know the word “ag” (eg), meaning “at”, and you have learned how it combines with “me, you”, etc., to form “agam, agat” and so on. Other Irish prepositions change similarly. One of these is “le” (le), meaning “with”. Here are some examples of “le” with names and nouns that don’t have “the” before them: le Seán; le Nóra; le fear, with a man; le bróg, with a shoe. “Le” does not cause aspiration or eclipsis. The name or noun (without “the”) is merely added. To say “with me, with you,” etc. these are the forms: liom (luhm) with me leat (lat) with you leis (lesh) with him léi (lay*) with her linn (lin) with us libh (liv) with you (pl) leo (loh) with them Pronounce these with a slender “l” (see Lesson 27). Do not make an audible (y) sound; say (luhm), not (lyuhm). If you want to say “with the man”, or “with the book”, the form is: leis an bhfear (lesh un var), with the man; leis an leabhar (lesh un LOU-wuhr) with the book. Eclipsis often occurs, and here are examples of it: leis an mbád (lesh un maw*d) with the boat leis an gcarr (lesh un gahr) with the car leis an ndoras (lesh un NUH-ruhs) with the door leis an bhfeirm (lesh un VER-im) with the farm leis an ngairdín (lesh uhng ahr-DEEN) with the garden leis an bpáipéar (lesh un baw*-PAY*R) with the paper leis an dteanga (lesh un DYANG-uh) with the tongue (or language) “D” and “t” are not eclipsed by “leis an” as often as are the other letters above. “Leis an doras” and “leis an teanga” are common. VOCABULARY “Le” serves in many expressions in Irish. It commonly follows some important verbs, sometimes being used where English would use “to”. Learn these expressions and verbs: Dúirt sé liom é (DOO-irt shay* luhm ay*), he said it to me. Abair leis dul abhaile (AH-bir lesh duhl uh-VWAHL-e), tell him to go home. Imigh leat (IM-ee lat), be off with you. Dimigh sé leis (DIM-ee shay* lesh), he departed (went off with himself). Tig liom rince (tig luhm RINK-e), I can dance. Ní thig leat léamh (nee hig lat LAY*-uhv), you can’t read. An dtig leat é a dhéanamh? (un dig lat ay* uh YAY*N-uhv), can you do it? Éist liom (ay*sht luhm), listen to me. D’éist sí liom (day*sht shee luhm), she listened to me. Fan liom (fahn luhm), wait for me. Dfhan sé liom (dahn shay* luhm), he waited for me. Níor fhan sé leo (NEE-uhr ahn shay* loh), he didn’t wait for them. DRILL With each of the forms in the Vocabulary (except “imigh” and “d’imigh”), substitute: le Seán; leis an bhfear; leis an gcailín. CONVERSATION

Now that our pronunciation review is largly complete, we will emphasize conversation again. This week, we stress the past tense and “le”. Next week, we will begin conversation drills in which you will take part by forming you own replies and answers. Dónall (DOHN-uhl): Cé bhuail an teach sin? Tá balla leagtha (BAHL-uh LAG-huh). Who hit that house? There’s a wall knocked down. Pól (pohl): Ó, bhí timpist ann aréir (uh-RAY*R). Oh, there was an accident there last night. Chuaigh (K*OO-ig) tiománaí (ti-MAW*-nee) trí solas dearg (DYAR-ruhg) agus carr eile ag teacht go tapaidh (TAHP-ee). Chas an chéad (HYAY*-uhd) charr, ach ní raibh an t-ádh (taw*) air. A driver went through a red light while another car was coming fast. The first car turned, but luck wasn’t with him. Tháinig sé suas ar an gcosán (guh-SAW*N) agus direach isteach sa bhalla. D’éistíomar leis na tiománaithe ag caint le chéile. Drochchaint (druhk*-K*EYENT) ar fad. He came up on the sidewalk and right into the wall. We listened to the drivers talking to each other. Terrible language. Dónall: Cad a tharla (HAHR-luh) ansin? What happened then? Pól: Tháinig cara leis an tiománaí agus tharraing sé an carr briste chuig garáiste (k*ig guh-RAW*SH-te). A friend of the driver came and towed the damaged car to the garage. Dónall: Nach mór an trua é. What a shame.

Lesson 31 PRONUNCIATION Pronounce the letter combination “ng” in Irish with the same two sounds that you use in English. The word “longing” has these two sounds. The first “ng” sound is the broad, near “a, o, u”. The second is the slender, near “e, i”. Examples: long (lohng), ship; ceangail (KYANG-il), bind; teanga (TANG-uh) tongue, language; pingin (PEENG-in), penny. Do not add a “g” after the “ng” sound in Irish, even though you often do that in English, as in the words “English” (ING-glish) and “finger” (FING-guhr). The “ng” sound can start a word in Irish, if eclipsis of a “g” occurs. For this sound, add the “ng” sound to the previous word and then pronounce the rest of the second word without the “g” or the “ng”. Examples: i ngairdín (ing ahr-DEEN), in a garden; ár ngeata (aw*rng AT-uh), our gate; a ngúnaí (uhng OON-ee), their dresses; an nglanann sé é? (uhng LUHN-uhn shay* ay*) Does he clean it? Finally, try a more difficult one: nach nglanann sé é? (nahk*ng LUHN-uhn shay* ay*) Doesn’t he clean it? GRAMMAR We continue with ways to use “le”, meaning “with”. This preposition may serve exactly as it does in English. Examples: tháinig sé liom (HAW*nig shay* luhm), he came with me; chuaigh sí libh (K*OO-ig shee liv), she went with you. We will next look at four ways that differ from English. Possession -- “I own it” - is one use. (Do not confuse “having” something with owning it. “Tá carr agam”, I have a car, may not mean that you own it or possess title to it.) Is liom é (is luhm ay*) means “I own it”. Learn these examples: Cé leis (kay* lesh) an carr seo? Whose car is this? Is liomsa é (is LUHM-suh ay*) It is mine. An leatsa (LAT-suh) é? Is it yours? Ní liomsa é, ach le Seán; It’s not mine, but Seán’s. Is le Seán é; It’s Seán’s. Cé leis é seo? Whose is this? An leis an bhfear seo é; Is it this man’s? Ní leis é, ach leis an gcailín (gah-LEEN) atá sa teach (TAHK*) sin; It’s not, but it belongs to the girl who is in that house. Nach leatsa é? Isn’t it yours? Ní liomsa; it isn’t mine. Practice with objects near you. “Liomsa” and “leatsa” are merely emphatic forms of “liom” and “leat”, said without raising the voice. Liking -- “I like it” -- is another use. Is maith (mah) liom é; I like it. Ní maith leis é; he doesn’t like it. An maith le Nóra an bhróg (vrohg) sin? Does Nora like that shoe? Ní maith leí (lay*); she doesn’t. Nach maith leat an bord seo? Don’t you like this table? The verbal noun is handy here. An maith leat léamh (LAY*-uhv)? Do you like to read? Ní maith liom siúl (shool); I don’t like walking. Is maith liom feoil a ithe (FYOH-il uh I-he); I like to eat meat. Nach maith le Seán litreacha a scríobh? (LI-trahk*-uh uh shkreev) Doesn’t Seán like to write letters? Notice that the object, “feoil” or “litreacha”, come ahead of the verbal noun. Preferring -- “I prefer this” -- is a third use. It is very similar to the “liking” use, but with “fearr” instead of “maith”. “Is fearr liom é” (is fahr luhm ay*); I prefer it. The word “fearr” has a slightly more rolled “r” than does “fear”, man, and sometimes there is a trace of (y) sound in it as if it were (fyahr). Examples: An fearr leat an leabhar seo? Do you prefer this book? Ní fearr leis siúl; he doesn’t prefer walking. Is fearr leo léamh ná caint (keyent); they prefer reading to talking. Nach fearr le Seán bainne le té? Doesn’t Seán prefer milk to tea? Cé acu is fearr leat, bheith anseo no bheith abhaile? (kay* ah-KUH is fahr lat, ve un-SHUH noh ve uh-VWAHL-e) Which do you prefer, being here or being home? Cé acu is fearr le Séamas, bainne nó tea? Which does Séamus prefer, milk or tea? Being able -- “I can” -- is a fourth use. The verbal noun can serve here, too. “Is féidir (FAY*-dir) liom an leabhar a léamh” means “I can read the book”. The object is ahead of the verbal noun. Study these examples: An féidir leat rince? Can you dance? Ní féidir le Nóra mé a thuiscint (HISH-kint); Nora can’t understand me. Nach féidir leo snámh? (snaw*v) Can’t they swim? Is féidir leis an mbuachail (MOO-uhk*-il) é sin a dhéanamh (YAY*N-uhv); the boy can do that. CONVERSATIONAL EXERCISE In this conversation, read what Seán says, then follow the general instructions for what you, “Tú”, are to say. If you can not think of suitable phrases, be sure to say something that would be considered appropriate, in Irish, before you look down at the key. Cover the key below the line that you need. Seán: Dia duit, a chara (K*ahr-uh). Tú: (Answer him.) Seán: Conas tá tú inniu? Tú: (Tell him you are well, and ask him how he is.) Seán: Tá mé go maith leis. Nach breá an lá é? Tú: (Agree with him and ask him where he was yesterday.) Seán: Bhí mé istigh sa teach, ag obair an lá go leir. Tú: (Sympathize with him. Then tell him that you went to the city and bought a coat.)

Seán: Conas a tháinig tú abhaile? Tú: (You came home on the bus, of course. There weren’t many people on the bus last night either.) Seán: Nach fearr leat dul ar an traein? Tú: (You prefer the train to the bus, but there was no train in the station then.) Key: Dia’s Muire duit, a Sheáin. Tá mé go maith, agus conas tá tú féin? Is breá, go deimhin (DEYE-in). Cá raibh tú inné, a Sheáin? Nach mór an trua é sin, anois? Chuaigh mé chuig an gcathair agus cheannaigh (HYAN-ee) mé cóta nua. Tháinig mé abhaile ar an mbus, ar ndóigh (er NOH-ee). Ní raibh mórán duine ar an mbus aréir (uh-RAY*R) ach oiread (IR-uhd). Is fearr liom an traein ná an bus, ach ní raibh traein ar bith ag an stáisiún ansin.

Lesson 32 PRONUNCIATION In Irish, as in English, some of the sounds or syllables in words are dropped out in rapid everyday speech. You must learn to do this yourself and to listen for it in the speech of others. Up to now, these lessons have given you largely the full pronunciation of individual words, even in sentences. We will now begin to indicate how sentences are pronounced in everyday speech. Individual words in vocabularies and examples will still receive their full pronunciations, however. You should learn them thoroughly before using the words in a sentence. Here are examples of word-group pronunciations: Tá a fhios agat (TAW* uh is uh-GUHT) you know, becomes (taw*s uh-GUHT), with the sound for ³a² elided. Fear an tí (far un TEE) man of the house, becomes (far uh TEE). Ban an tí (ban un TEE) woman of the house, becomes (ban uh TEE). Cá bhfuil tú ag dul? (KAW* vwil too uh DUHL) Where are you going? can become (KAW*-il too uh DUHL). Tá an fear anseo (taw* un FAR un-SHUH), The man is here, becomes (taw*n FAR-un-SHUH). We will put this into lessons gradually enough so that you will not become confused. And remember that everyone learning a language with the help of a book tries to sound all the letters in all the words, but native speakers never do. GRAMMAR Another use for ³le², with, is in expressions like: Tá cara liom ansin (taw* KAH-ruh luhm un-SHIN), a friend of mine is there. Leabhar liom (LOU-wuhr luhm), means ³a book of mine². Hata le Seán: one of John¹s hats. Clog le Nóra: one of Nora¹s clocks, or a clock of Nora¹s. This usage implies that the subject spoken of is only one of several in its class. ³Leabhar liom² implies that I have several books. ³Mo leabhar² is ³my book² and does not say whether I have others. REFLEX EXPRESSIONS Is dócha é (is DOHK*-uh ay*) It¹s likely, I suppose so. Maith go leor (mah goh lohr) good enough. Cibé ar bith (KI-bay* er BI) anyway. Anois agus arís (uh-NISH AH-guhs uh-REESH) now and again, now and then. VOCABULARY Masculine Noun pá (paw*), pay Feminine Nouns obair, an obair (OH-bir, un OH-bir), work, the work freagair, ag freagairt (FRAG-ir, uh FRAG-irt) answer d¹fhreagair mé, d¹fhreagraíomar (DRAG-ir may*, drag-REE-uh-muhr), I answered, we answered caill, ag cailleadh (keyel, uh KEYEL-uh), lose tiomáin, ag tiomáint (ti-MAW*-in, uh ti-MAW*NT), drive séan, ag séanadh (shay*n, uh SHAY*N-uh), deny tuill, ag tuilleamh (till, uh TILL-uhv), earn ag déanamh na hoibre (uh DAY*N-uhv nuh HIB-re), doing the work póg, ag pógadh (pohg, uh POHG-uh), kiss croch, ag crochadh (krohk*, uh KROHK*-uh), hang gearán, ag gearán (gyar-AW*N, uh gyar-AW*N), complain tochail, ag tochailt (TOHK*-il, uh TOHK-ilt), dig thochlaíomar (hohk*-LEE-uh-muhr), we dug NOTE: Tá an cóta ar crochadh (the coat is hanging); not ³ag crochadh², because the latter would mean that the coat is actively hanging something or someone. DRILL Go through a progressive drill beginning with the forms: An leabhar liom é seo? Is this a book of mine? Ní leabhar liom é seo. Is leabhar leat é seo. Continue with ³An leabhar leat é seo? Ní leabhar leat é seo.² Etc. The last sentence will be: ³Is leabhar liom é seo.² Repeat this with ³le Seán, le Máire, le dochtúir, leis an bhfear, leis an mbean, leis an gcailín². CONVERSATION EXERCISE Read what Bríd says each time, and follow the instructions for what you are to say. Say something appropriate in Irish before you glance down at

the key, which you should cover until you need a line. Bríd: Dia duit, a Dhónaill. Tú: (Answer her and ask her how she is.) Bríd: Tá mé go han-mhaith (HAHN-un-VWAH), agus conas tá tú féin? Tú: (Tell her that you are well, too. Ask her where Pascal is.) Bríd: O, bhí sé ag obair sa ghairdín an lá go léir, ag tochailt. Tú: He earned his pay, I suppose. Is he still doing the work? Bríd: Tá sé ag obair fós, agus a chóta ar crochadh ar an mballa in aice leis (in AK-e lesh) (meaning ³near him²). Tú: He didn¹t complain yesterday, and the weather as hot as it was. He came home directly. Bríd: Níor chaill sé rud ar bith, bheith ag obair amuigh. Tú: We dug in the garden yesterday. Long work it is. Bríd: Is fíor duit. Níor shéan mé riamh é sin. (I never denied that.) Tú: Tell her you like to be working outside. Key: Dia¹s Muire duit, a Bhríd. Conas tá tú? Tá mé go maith, leis. Cá bhfuil Pascal, cibé ar bith? Thuill sé a phá (faw*), is dócha. An bfuill sé ag déanamh na hoibre fós? Níor ghearán sé inné, agus an aimsir chomh (hoh) te agus a bhí sé. Tháinig sé abhaile go díreach. Thochlaíomar sa ghairdín inné. Obair fhada is ea í. Is maith liom bheith ag obair amuigh.

Lesson 33 PRONUNCIATION The vowel “ó” in Irish is a pure vowel, without the trace of (ay) sound beginning it or (oo) sound following it that the English (o) might have. The Irish sound for “o” usually appears in an accented syllable. The “ó” is held longer than is the (oh) in the English word “roll”, for example. In the south of Ireland, “ó” may be pronounced more like (oo) in words such as: nó, mór, mó, móna. If an accented “o” has no síneadh fada, it gets the same sound as “ó”, but the sound is not held as long. Examples: obair, oscail, ocht, cnoc. Do not substitute an (uh) sound for this vowel. GRAMMAR As English does, Irish forms adjectives from verbs. Usually the basic form of the verb is modified with “‹tá” or “‹te”. Examples: dún (doon), close, gives us dúnta, closed déan, do, gives us déanta, done múin (MOO-in), teach, gives us múinte, taught buail, strike, gives us buailte (BOO-il-te), struck If the last vowel in the verb is “a, o, u” then use “‹ta” because the “t” must be broad. If the last vowel in the word is “e, i” then use “‹te”, because the “t” must be slender. Sometimes the added “t” is aspirated to give a (huh) or (he) sound at word end. In a few cases, such as “scríofa”, the “t” becomes an “f”, because that is the natural sound of “bhth” together: a (v) plus an (h). Here are some of these “verbal adjectives”. Read them and deduce their meanings before you look down at the Key at the end of the Grammar section: bainte (BWIN-te), ceannaithe (KAN-i-he), díolta (DEE-uhl-tuh), creidte (KRED-te), tuigthe (TIG-he), deisithe (DESH-i-he), ólta (OHL-tuh), imithe (IM-i-he). From now on, as you learn new verbs, try to picture the verbal adjective. Although you will be incorrect on the aspiration of the “t” for some of the endings, you will be able to get most of them. These verbal adjectives combine with the word “ag” (eg), at, to allow you to say “I have read the letter” instead of “I read the letter”. The Irish form is “Tá an litir léite agam” (taw* un LI-tir LAY*-te uh-GUHM), meaning literally: “The letter is read at me.” Read these sentences over slowly and note how the word order is changed from English: Tá an bainne ólta agam (taw* un BAHN-ye OHL-tuh uh-GUHM), I have drunk the milk. Tá an bhróg deisithe aige (eg-GE), He has mended the shoe. Níl an scéal creidte ag Bríd, Bridget has not believed the story. An bhfuil do theach (do HAHK*) díolta agat? Have you sold your house? The order is changed in the same way that it is in “Tá bord agam”, meaning literally: “A table is at me”, but actually, “I have a table.” Key: Meanings of the verbal adjectives above: removed or reaped, bought, sold, believed, understood, repaired, drunk, departed or gone. VOCABULARY Masculine nouns buíochas (BWEE-uhk*-uhs), thanks crann (kroun), tree siopa (SHOP-uh), store, shop Feminine nouns aghaidh, an aghaidh (EYE-ee, un EYE-ee), face gruaig, an ghruaig (GROO-ig, un GROO-ig), hair Verbs feic, ag feiceáil (fek, uh FEK-aw*-il), see chonaic mé (k*uh-NIK may*), I saw ní fhaca mé (nee AH-kuh may*), I didn’t see an bhfaca tú? (un VAH-kuh too), did you see? nach bhfaca tú? (nahk* VAH-kah too), didn’t you see? clois, ag cloistéail (klish, uh KLISH-taw*-il) hear chuala mé (K*OO-uh-luh may*), I heard níor chuala mé, I didn’t hear. ar chuala tú? Did you hear? nár chuala tú? Didn’t you hear?

cíor, ag cíoradh (KEE-uhr, uh KEE-uh) comb nigh, ag ní (ni, uh NEE), wash Note: “feic” and “clois” are irregular in the past tense. These are two more to add to “tar”, come, and “téigh”, go. DRILL The irregular verbs with highly different forms in the past tense require considerable drill if you are to become fluent in Irish. 1. Go through a progressive drill with “chonaic”, etc: An bhfaca mé an bhean (van)? Ní fhaca mé an bhean. Chonaic tú an bhean. An bhfaca tú an bhean? Ní fhaca tú an bhean. Chonaic sé an bhean. An bhfaca sé an bhean? Ní fhaca sé an bhean. Etc. The last sentence will be: Chonaic mé an bhean. “Chonaiceamar” and “ní fhacamar” are the “we” forms. 2. Go through a progressive drill with “chuala”, etc.: Ar chuala mé an traein? Níor chuala mé an traein. Chuala tú an traein. Ar chuala tú an traein? Etc. The last sentence will be: Chuala mé an traein. “Chualamar” and “níor chualamar” are the “we” forms. 3. Make sentences of the type, “I have seen the garden”, from these groups of words (Follow this example: dún; dúnta; doras; an cailín. Tá an doras dúnta ag an gcailín; the girl has closed the door.): stad; stadta; carr; mé cíor; cíortha; a gruaig; sí glan; glanta; an tsráid; Seán caill; caillte; a cóta; Úna scríobh; scríofa; scéal; sé feic, feicthe; buachaill; Bríd tuill; tuillte; airgead; sinn tuig; tuigthe; an fear; an leanbh Sample answer: Tá an carr stadta agam. I have stopped the car.

Lesson 34 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW The group “ch” in Irish may still be difficult for you to pronounce. If it is next to a broad vowel, “a, o, u”, it receives the aspirated sound of broad “c”. This sound is like that in the German word “ach”. Pronounce it by lowering the raised back of the tongue somewhat while you pronounce a broad “c”, which is like the (k) in “coat” or “lock”. Try the English word “lock” and then aspirate the (k) sound. This is similar to the Irish word “lách” (law*k*). Then say: loch (lohk*), dúch (dook*), croch (krohk*), gach (gahk*), sách (saw*k*). If the broad “ch” starts a word, it is still pronounced (k*) and not (h) in most cases. Try: cóta (KOH-tuh), chóta (K*OH-tuh), cháil (k*aw*l), chaill (k*eyel), chuaigh (K*OO-ig). We use the symbok (k*) for the pronunciation of this sound. If the “ch” is nest to “e, i”, again lower the tongue somewhat while you pronounce the slender “c”, which is like the (k) sound in the English “kill”. The result will be a sound like “y” in English “you”, but with a slight (h) sound before it. Try: chill (hyil), cheannaigh (HYAN-ee), chéim (hyay*m). Inside or at the end of a word, the sound can be much like an (h), as in: fiche (FI-he), crích (kree). The last word is pronounced differently from “crí” (kree) at its end, but our simplified pronunciation guide does not take this into account. Instead, you must watch for this “--ch” ending yourself. You may have seen anglicized place names and family names with a “gh” group in them, such as “Lough Erne” or “O’Loughlin”. This “gh” was mistakenly adopted in the 19th century as the equivalent of the broad “ch” in Irish. The non-Irish speaker tends to pronounce “lough” as (loh) or (lawk), although it should be pronounced (lohk*), as if it were spelled properly: “loch”, lake. “Lochlainn” means Scandinavia (or Denmark), and a “Lochlannach” is a Scandinavian. VOCABULARY Masculine Nouns hata (HAHT-uh), hat bríste (BREESH-te), trousers ceann (kyoun), head madra (MAH-druh) dog doras (DUH-ruhs) door halla (HAHL-uh), hall Feminine Nouns cuid, an chuid (kwid, un k*wid), part fearthainn, an fhearthainn (FAR-in, un AR-in), rain seachtain, an tseachtain (SHAHK*T-in, un TYAHK*T-in), week Verbs bris, ag briseadh (brish, uh BRISH-uh), break cas, ag casadh (kahs, uh KAHS-uh), turn fill, ag filleadh (fil, uh FIL-uh), return stop, ag stopadh (stohp, uh STOHP-uh), stop tosaigh, ag tosú (TUH-see, uh TUH-soo), begin thosaíomar (huh-SEE-uh-muhr), we began DRILL 1. Review the form “Céard é seo? (kay*rd ay* shuh) Is leabhar é.” “An leabhar mór é? Ní hea, ach leabhar beag.” Go through this with the following groups: bord, bord gorm (GUH-ruhm), bord dearg (DYAR-ruhg) hata, hata bán, hata dubh halla, halla geal, halla dorcha doras, doras dúnta, doras oscailte bríste, bríste nua, seanbhríste madra, madra mór, madra beag 2. We will now work with the Lesson-20 vocabulary for a drill. Verbal adjectives for bain, ith, cnag, and ól are: bainte, ite, cnagtha, ólta “Tá sé ag ithe an aráin” is “He is eating the bread”. Change this to “He ate the bread” and to “He has eaten the bread”. Before you look at the Key below, do the same with:

sí, ag ithe an bricfeasta mé, ag ithe mo lóin sinn, ag ithe feola siad, ag ól bainne tú, ag ól tae mé, ag ól uisce sé, ag ól chaife siad, ag ól beorach Seán, ag ithe aráin Key: D’ith sé an t-arán, tá an t-arán ite aige. D’ith sí an bricfeasta; tá ... aici. D’ith mé mo lón; tá ... agam. D’itheamar feoil; tá ... againn. D’ól siad bainne; tá bainne olta acu. D’ól tú tae; tá ... agat. D’ól mé uisce; tá ... agam. D’ól sé a chaife; tá .. aige. D’ól siad beoir; tá ... acu. D’ith Seán an t-arán; tá ...aige. CONVERSATION Máirín (maw*-REEN): Cá ndeachaigh tú inné? Chonaic mé tú ag dul síos an bóthar go luath. Where did you go yesterday? I saw you going down the road early. Pól (pohl): Chuala mé go raibh éadach saor ag na siopaí sa chathair. Isteach liom ar an traein, ach ní fhaca mé rud ar bith arbh fhiú dom a cheannach. Ní raibh mórán daoine ann, ach oiread. I heard that clothes were cheap at the stores in the city. In I went on the train, but I didn’t see anything worth buying. There weren’t many people there either. Máirín: Nár chuala mé go bhfuil na praghsanna (PREYE-suh-nuh) ag dul síos anois? Didn’t I hear that the prices are going down now? Pól: Níor chuala mé é, agus ní fhaca mé é, ach oiread. Cheannaigh mé léine agus bríste, agus ansin tháinig mé abhaile faoi dheireadh (YER-uh). I didn’t hear it, and I didn’t see it either. I bought a shirt and trousers, and then I came home finally. Máirín: Nach mór an trua é, anois? Isn’t it a pity, now?

Lesson 35 PRONUNCIATION Read the passage in the next paragraph slowly without looking at the key below it. Then read it a second time, making use of the key if you are unsure. Do not try to make sense out of the words; merely concentrate on the pronunciation: Tá sé socraithe agam airgead a iarraidh ón bhfear a thug córas ceoil dom. Nuair a bhí rogha le déanamh, dúirt daoine eile gur chaith siad lón le Gréagaigh cheartradharcacha. I ngach uile cheann, déarfar gur chuir cairde dílse go fóill go bhfuil an méid sin aicme agus dreamanna éagsúla ann nach aon mhaith a bheith a mealladh sa Taispeántas Ealaíne. Key: taw* shay* SOHK-ruh-he uh-GUHM AR-i-guhd uh EER-ee ohn VAR uh hug KOH-ruhs KYOH-il duhm. NOO-ir uh vee ROU-uh le DAY*N-uhv, DOO-irt DEEN-uh EL-e gur k*ah SHEE-uhd lohn le GRAY*-gee hyart-REYE-uhr-KAHK*-uh. ing AHK* IL-e hyoun, DYAY*Rfuhr gur k*ir KAHR-de DEEL-she goh FOH-il goh vwil un may*d shin AK-me AH-gus DRAM-un-nuh ay*g-sool-uh oun nahk* ay*n vwah uh ve uh MYAL-uh suh tash-PAW*N-tuhs AH-leen-e. GRAMMAR The Irish word for “on” is “ar” (er). It usually aspirates the initial consonant of the next word, although there are many exceptions to this, as you will see. Here are examples of usage of “ar”: ar Shéamas (er HAY*-muhs), on James ar charr (er K*AHR), on a car ar mo charr (er muh K*AHR), on my car ar an gcarr, on the car féach ar an mbean (FAY*-uhk* er un MAN), look at the woman In many common expressions, there is no aspiration of the following consonant: ar buile (er BWIL-e), angry ar crocadh (er KROHK*-uh), hanging ar díol (er DEE-uhl), for sale ar ball (er BOUL), presently Like “ag” and “le”, the preposition “ar” joins with “mé, tú, sé”, etc, to form words meaning “on me, on you, on him”, etc. Learn these forms thoroughly now, to be ready for the Drill below. orm (OH-rum), on me ort (OH-ruht), on you air (er), on him uirthí (IR-ee), on her orainn (OH-rin), on us oraibh (OH-riv), on you (pl) orthu (OHR-huh), on them An important use for “ar” is in such expressions as “I am angry” or “he is afraid”. In Irish, these can become “Tá fearg orm” (taw* FAR-uhg OH-ruhm), there is anger on me; and “Tá eagla air” (taw* AH-gluh er), there is fear on him. Often sickness, too, is “on” a person, in sentences such as “Tá slaghdán uirthi” (taw* sleye-DAY*N IR-ee) there is a cold on her. VOCABULARY Masculine nouns mac (mahk), son áthas, an t-áthas (AW*-huhs, un TAW*-huhs), joy, happiness brón (brohn), sorrow ocras, an t-ocras (OHK-ruhs, un TOHK-ruhs), hunger tart (TAHR-ruht), thirst amhras, an t-amhras (OU-ruhs, un TOU-ruhs), doubt ionadh, an t-ionadh (OON-uh, an TOON-uh), surprise Feminine nouns eagla, an eagla (AH-gluh), fear fearg, an fhearg (FAR-ruhg, un AR-ruhg), anger náire (NAW*-re), shame imní, an imní (IM-nee), anxiety iníon, an iníon (in-EEN, un in-EEN), daughter mínigh, ag míniú (uh MEEN-yoo), explain mhíníomar (veen-EE-uh-muhr), we explained cleacht, ag cleachtadh (klak*t, uh KLAK*-tuh), practice glaoigh, ag glaoch (GLAY*-ee, uh GLAY*-uhk) ar (er), call on, telephone anocht (uh-NOHK*T), tonight aréir (uh-RAY*R), last night

anuraidh (un-NOOR-ree), last year DRILL Go through a progressive drill with “ar” and the pronouns, starting with: An bhfuil áthas orm? Níl áthas orm. Tá áthas ort. An bhfuil áthas ort? Níl áthas ort. Tá áthas air. An bhfuil áthas air? etc. Your last sentence will be: Tá áthas orm. Repeat the progressive drill with as many of these words as possible: brón, fearg, eagla, ocras, tart, náire, imní, amhras, ionadh. “Cad tá air?” (kahd taw* er) means “What’s wrong with him?” Aks this question and then answer it with some of the vocabulary words. For example: Cad tá air? Tá brón air. Make use of “Cad tá ort? Cad tá oraibh?” etc. CONVERSATION Sinéad (shin-AY*D): Dia duit, a Réamoinn. Réamonn (RAY*-mohn): Dia’s Muire duit, a Shinéad. Conas tá tú? Sineád: Ó, tá slaghdán orm. Bhí mé istigh an lá go léir inné. Réamonn: Tá brón orm é sin a chloisteáil (K*LISH-taw*-il). Glaoigh (GLAY*-ee) mé ort timpeall (TIM-puhl) a deich a chlog, ach ní bhfuair (VOO-ir) mé freagra ar bith (FRAG-ruh er BI). Sinéad: Chula mé (K*OO-uh-luh may*) an teileafón (TEL-e-fohn), agus ní raibh áthas orm ar chor ar bith é a chloisteáil. Réamonn: Níl ionadh ar bith orm. Féach! Tá dochtúir ag teacht! Janet: Hello, Raymond. Raymond: Hello, Janet. How are you? Janet: Oh, I have a cold. I was inside all day yesterday. Raymond: I’m sorry to hear that. I called you around ten, but I got no answer at all. Janet: I heard the phone, and I wasn’t happy at all to hear it. Raymond: I’m not at all surprised. Look! A doctor’s coming!

Lesson 36 PRONUNCIATION EXERCISE Read this passage slowly without looking at the key below it. Then read it a second time, making use of the key if you are unsure. Do not try to make sense out of the words; concentrate on the pronunciation and on grouping the words into phrases. Chualamar faoi chluiche neamhghnách má thugtar cead a gcinn de fhoireann na hÉireann ag déanamh drochphoiblíochta den chinéal sin. Mheasamar go mbíonn an baile mór go minic ag labhairt le cuairteoirí, ach tá an teilifís san seol ina bhfuilimid ag maireachtáil san agéid cheadúnais mura musclaíonn tú lucht na Gaeilge. Is gnách go mbíonn moill bliana as gach cearn den domhan ag an té a fuair na himleabhair go léir. Key: K*OOL-uh-muhr fwee K*LI-he nyav-GNAW*K* maw* HUG-tuhr kad uh gin DIR-uhn nuh HAY*R-uhn uh DAY*N-uhv druhk*-FWIBlee-uhk* tuh den HYIN-aw*l shin. VAS-uh-muhr goh MEE-uhn un BAHL-e mohr goh MIN-ik uh LOU-irt luh koo-ir-TYOH-ree, ahk* taw* un TEL-i-fees suhn shohl IN-uh VWIL-i-mid uh MAHR-uhk*-taw*-il suhn AH-gay*d hya-DOON-ish MU-ruh mus-KLEE-uhn too luk*t nuh GAY*-lig-e. is gnaw*k* goh MEE-uhn mwil BLEE-uh-nuh as gahk* kyarn den DOH-wuhn eg un tay* uh FOO-ir nuh him-LOU-ir goh lay*r. GRAMMAR The Irish word “ar” (er) is part of expressions that correspond to “to wear” in English. For example: Tá hata ar Nóra; A hat is on Nora, Nora is wearing a hat. Tá léine (LAY*-ne) glan orm; I have a clean shirt on. Ní raibh cóta ná hata air; He wasn’t wearing a coat or hat. Illnesses and sleepiness can also be “ar” a person. Some examples: Tá tinneas cinn orm (TIN-yuhs kin OH-ruhm), I have a headache (lit.: sickness of head upon me). Nach raibh tinneas fiacaile ort? (nahk* rev TIN-yuhs FEE-kuh-le OH-ruht), Didn’t you have a toothache? Bhí fiabhras orthu (vee FEE-vruhs OHR-huh), They had a fever. Tá codladh orm (taw* KUHL-uh OHR-ruhm) I am sleepy. “Ar” follows several verbs, in examples such as: Féach air! (FAY*-ahk* er), Look at him! Tosaigh air! (TUH-see air), Begin it! Glaoigh air! (GLAY*-ee er), Call him! Iarr leabhar air! (EER LOU-uhr er), Ask him for a book! VOCABULARY The cardinal numbers, used only for cases where objects or persons are not mentioned, or for telling time: a haon (uh HAY*N), one a dó (uh DOH), two a trí (uh TREE), three a ceathair ( uh KA-hir), four a cúig(uh KOO-ig), five a sé (uh SHAY*), six a seacht (uh SHAHK*T), seven a hocht (uh HOHK*T), eight a naoi (uh NEE), nine a deich (uh DE), ten a haon-déag (uh HAY*N day*-uhg), eleven a dó-dhéag (a DOH yay*-uhg), twelve These numbers are for counting, as in “one, two, three, four”, or for saying “Bus No. 5” or “Room No. 7”. Also to answer the following question: Cé’n t-am é? (kay*n toum ay*), What time is it? Tá sé a dó a chlog (k*luhg), It is two o’clock. Do not use these numbers to say “three boxes” or “seven boys”. Irish has other forms for these uses. DRILL Count from “a haon” to “a dó-dhéag” until you can do it rapidly and in reverse order. Make use of these numbers during the day to read license plates, house numbers and signs, one numeral at a time. “Zero” is “nialas” (NEELuhs). Next, go through the progressive drills for the following:

An bhfuil an scian ghéar agam? (SHKEE-uhn yay*r uh-GUHM) Níl an scian ghéar agam. Tá an scian ghéar agat. An bhfuil an scian ghéar agat? Níl an scian ghéar agat. Tá an scian ghéar aige. Continue with aici, againn, agaibh, acu. The last sentence will be: Tá an scian ghéar agam. An bhfuil an fear seo chomh (hoh) mór liom? Níl an fear seo chomh mór liom. Tá an fear seo chomh mór leat. Continue with leis, léi, linn, libh, leo. An raibh tinneas cinn orm? (TIN-yuhs kin OH-ruhm) Ní raibh tinneas cinn orm. Bhí tinneas cinn ort. Continue with air, uirthi, orainn, orthu. CONVERSATION Siobhán (shi-VAW*N): Dia duit, a Chiaráin (DEE-uh git, uh hyir-AW*-in). Hello, Kieran. Ciarán (kir-AW*N): Dia’s Muire duit, a Shiobhán (uh hi-VAW*N). Conas tá tú? Hello, Joan. How are you? Siobhán: Tá mé go maith, agus conas tá tú féin? I am well, and how are you? Ciarán: Tá mé go maith leis. Cé hé an fear sin atá ar thaobh eile an halla? I am well, too. Who is that man on the other side of the hall? Siobhán: Is é sin Tadhg Ó Néill (shay* shin teyeg oh NAY*L) That’s Tadhg (anglicized, incorrectly, as either Timothy or Thaddeus) O’Neill. Ciarán: Agus an bhean atá in aice leis? (in A-ke lesh) And the woman next to him? Siobhán: Is í Eibhlín Nic Dhomhnaill í (shee eye-LEEN nik GOHN-il ee). It’s Eileen MacDonnell. Ciarán: Agus cé hiad na páistí iad? And who are the children? Siobhán: Is iad Seán Mac Lochlainn agus Nóra Ní Chonghaile iad (SHEE-uhd shaw*n mahk LOHK*-lin AH-guhs NOH-ruh nee K*OHN-uh-le EE-uhd). They are John MacLoughlin and Nora Connolly.

Lesson 37 PRONUNCIATION The Irish words for “on me, on you”, etc., are examples of several of the pronunciation principles that you have learned. “Orm”, on me, is (OHruhm), with a short (oh) sound that may resemble English (uh). The “r” is broad, with a brief trilled or rolled effect. “Ort”, on you, is (OH-ruht), with the “t” broad. For “air” (er), on him, the “r” is slender (see Lesson 29), but in “ar” (er), the “r” is broad. For “orainn” (OH-rin) and “oraibh” (OH-riv), the first syllable is like that for “orm”. For “orthu”, on them, the word ends in a (huh) sound, (OHR-huh), because of the aspirated “t”. PRONUNCIATION REVIEW Read this passage slowly without looking at the Key below it. Then read it a second time, making use of the Key if you are unsure. Do not try to make sense of the words; concentrate on the pronunciation and on grouping the words into phrases. Dá mba léir, tháinig roinnt iascairí aici, ar an abhainn, níos mó ná riamh, agus a thaithíonn an-chuid téipeanna, le linn an fheachtais seo. Beidh sé chomhpháirteach, a chuireann as go mór, b’fhiú dó a chur go gcaithfeadh sé, go bhfuil leagan amach bunúsach, ar íosmhéid cainte, agus chothaigh sé neamhchinnteacht, ina measc. Key: daw* muh LAY*R, HAW*-nig rint EES-kuh-ree a-KI, er un OU-in, nees moh naw* reev, AH-guhs uh hah-HEE-uhn AHN-k*wid TAY*Puh-nuh, le lin un AK*-tish shuh. be shay* hoh-FAW*R-tyuhk*, uh K*IR-uhn as goh MOHR, byoo doh uh K*UR goh GAH-huhk* shay*, goh vwil LAG-uhn uh-MAHK* bun-OOS-uhk*, er EES-vay*d KEYENT-e, AH-guhs K*OH-hee shay* nyav-HYIN-tyuhk*t, IN-uh mask. Note that the “f” in “caithfeadh” gets only an (h) sound. This occurs in the future tense and in conditional forms of the verbs, which you will soon study. By now, you should be losing your fear of long, new words, and you should be able to give unfamiliar words a nearly correct pronunciation. We will continue with this type of pronunciation exercise for several more lessons. GRAMMAR You know how to say “he is writing”, “he wrote”, and “he was writing” in Irish. “He is writing” means that at this time someone is actually writing. When we say “he writes”, however, we mean that a person writes now and then, more or less frequently, but that he may not be writing at this instant. Irish makes the same distinction, and we say that “he writes” is in the present habitual tense. It forms the imperative, scríobh, and looks like this: scríobhaim (SHKREEV-im), I write scríobhann tú (SHKREEV-uhn too), you write scríobhann sé, he writes scríobhann sí, she writes scríobhaimid (SHKREEV-uh-mid), we write scríobhann shibh (shiv), you (pl) write scríobhann siad (SHEE-uhd), they write For the negative, put a “ní” (nee) before these forms. “Ní” aspirates where possible. The “s” in “scríobh” cannot be aspirated: Ní scríobhaim. With “díol” (DEE-uhl), sell, however: Ní dhíolaim (nee YEE-lim), I don’t sell. For the questions, put “an” (un) or “nach” (nahk*) before the basic forms. Both eclipse wherever possible: An scríobhann tú go minic? Do you write often? Nach ndíolann sé feoil? (nahk* NEE-luhn shay* FYOH-il) Doesn’t he sell meat? VOCABULARY carr (kahr), an auto aon charr amháin (ay*n k*ahr uh-WOYN), only one auto dhá charr (gaw* k*ahr), two autos trí (tree) charr, three autos ceithre (KER-e) charr, four autos cúig (KOO-ig) charr, five autos sé (shay) charr, six autos tóg, ag tógail (tohg, uh TOHG-aw*-il), take, lift scar, ag scaradh (skahr, uh SKAHR-uh), separate bearr, ag bearradh (byahr, uh BYAHR-uh), shave ceap, ag ceapadh (kyap, uh KYAP-uh), think EXERCISES 1. Go through a progressive drill in the present habitual for each of these combinations: bris; cupáin agus plátaí buail; an teach leis an gcarr ceap: é sin cuir; na rudaí sa seomra eile

For example: An mbrisim cupáin agaus plátai? Ní bhrisim (VRISH-im) cupáin agus plátaí. Briseann tú cupáin agus plátaí. An mbriseann tú cupáin agus plátaí? Etc. 2. In answer to the question: “Cén t-am é? (kay*n TOUM ay*) What time is it? go through this drill: Cén t-am é? Tá sé nóiméad (NOH-may*d) roimh (rev) a haon a chlog. What time is it? It is one minute before one o’clock. Cén t-am é? Tá sé nóiméad tar éis (tuhr AY*SH) a dó a chlog. What time is it? It is one minute after two o’clock. Continue with: two minutes before three o’clock; two minutes after four o’clock; three minutes before five o’clock; three minutes after six o’clock, and so on, to six minutes after twelve o’clock. 3. Read these verb forms, deciding quickly whether they give a command, are in the present habitual tense, or are in the past tense: Glan mé. Magaimid. Thuigeamar. Dhíol sé. Closisim. D’ól mé. Siúil! Chrochaigh mé. Deisigh é! Buaileann siad. Key: Clean me. We mock. We understood. He sold. I hear. I drank. Walk! I hung. Repair it! They strike. 4. Review counting from one to twelve.

Lesson 38 PRONUNCIATION EXERCISE Read the phrases below out loud, referring to the pronunciation guide if necessary. When you can read the phrases readily, look at the translation and then go over the phrases again, visualizing the meaning as you say each. dhá bhéile; dhá bhord dhá chiseán; trí chupán ceithre dhinnéar; cúig dhoras sé fheirm; dhá fhuinneog ocht mbricfeasta; ocht mbád seacht gcistin; naoi gclog ocht nduais; deich ndoirteal seacht bhfiacail; naoi bhfadhb gaw* VAY*L-uh; gaw* vohrd gaw* hyish-AW*N; tree k*u-PAW*N KER-e YIN-yay*r; KOO-ig GUH-ruhs shay* ER-im; gaw* in-YOHG ohk*t mrik-FAS-tuh; ohk*t maw*d shahk*t GISH-tin; nee gluhg ohk*t NOO-ish; de NUHRT-uhl shahk*t VEE-kil; nee veyeb two meals; two tables two baskets; three cups four dinners; five doors six farms; two windows eight breakfasts; eight boats seven kitchens; nine clocks eight prizes; ten sinks seven teeth; nine problems Remember that “naoi”, nine, is pronounced with a broad “n”. This means that a faint (uh) sound occurs between the (n) and (ee). Lesson 28 described this. The word may sound a little like (nay*) but there is a clear difference. GRAMMAR In Lessons 29 and 33, you learned the past tense of “Come, go, see, hear”. These are irregular in the past but regular in the present. Tar! (tahr) Come! Tagaim (TAHG-im), I come; tagann tú (TAHG-uhn too), you come, etc. Tagaimid (TAHG-uh-mid), we come. Ní thagaim (nee HAHG-im) I don’t come; ní thagann tú, etc. An dtagaim? (un DAHG-im), do I come? an dtagann tú? etc. Téigh! (tay*) Go! Téim (TAY*-im) I go; téann tú (TAY*-uhn too), you go, etc. Téimid (TAY*-mid), we go. Ní théim (nee HAY*-im), I don’t go. Ní théann tú (nee HAY*- uhn too), you don’t go, etc. Ní théimid (nee HAY*-mid), we don’t go. An dtéim? (un DAY*-im), do I go? an dtéann tú? etc. Feic! (fek) See! Feicim (FEK-im), I see; feiceann tú (FEK-uhn too), you see, etc. Feicimid (FEK-i-mid), we see. Ní fheicim (nee EK-im), I don’t see; ní fheiceann tú (nee EK- uhn too), you don’t see, etc. Ní fheicimid (nee EK-i-mid), we don’t see. An bhfeicim? (un VEK-im) do I see?; an bhfeiceann tú? (un VEK- uhn too) do you see? etc. Clois! (klish) Hear! Cloisim (KLISH-im), I hear; cloiseann tú (KLISH-uhn too), you hear, etc. Cloisimid (KLISH-i-mid), we hear. Ní chloisim (nee K*LISH-im), I don’t hear; ní chloiseann tú, you don’t hear, etc. Ní chloisimid (nee K*LISH-i-mid), we don’t hear. An gcloisim? (un GLISH-im), do I hear? an gcloiseann tú? etc. An gcloisimid? (un GLISH-i-mid), do we hear? Usage of “feic” and clois” resembles that of “see” and hear” in English. Say “Cloisim é” for “I hear him”, not “Tá mé á chloisteáil”, I am hearing him. DRILL Translate the following drills out loud: I came home; does Art come home? He didn’t come home; we come. I went down the road; does Art go down the road? He didn’t go down the road; we go down the road. I saw the school; does Art see the school? He didn’t see the school; we see the school. I heard the train; does Art see the train? He didn’t see the train; we hear the train.

Translation: Tháinig mé abhaile; an dtagann Art abhaile? Níor tháinig sé abhaile; tagaimid abhaile. Chuaigh mé síos an bóthar; an dtéann Art síos an bóthar? Ní dheachaigh sé síos an bóthar; téimid síos an bóthar. Chonaic mé an scoil; an bhfeiceann Art an scoil? Ní fhaca sé an scoil; feicimid an scoil. Chuala mé an traein; an gcloiseann Art an traein? Níor chuala sé an traein; cloisimid an traein. READING EXERCISE D’éirigh mé (DEYE-ree may*) go moch maidin inné. Chuaigh mé amach suas an bóthar. De ghnách (de GNAW*K*) téim chuig (hig) siopa nuachtáin, agus ansin tagaim abhaile timpeall a hocht a chlog. An uair (OO-ir) sin, áfach, ní dheachaigh mé ach cúpla céim (kay*m). Chuala mé madra ag tafann (TAHF-uhn), agus ansin chonaic mé cat i gcrann in aice an chúinne (K*OON-ye). Thuas sa gcrann, bhi an cat ina shui, ag féachaint go ciúin ar an madra. Níor tháinig an cat anuas (uh-NOO-uhs) roimh (rev) am (oum) suipéir. I got up early yesterday morning I went up the road. Usually I go to a paper store, and then I come home around eight o’clock. That time, however, I didn’t go but a couple of steps. I heard a dog barking, and I saw a cat in a tree near the corner. Up in the tree, the cat was sitting, quietly looking at the dog. The cat didn’t come down before suppertime. Note: With a few verbs, like suigh (si), sit, the form is “Tá sé ina shuí”, he is in his sitting, rather than “tá sé ag suí”. “I was sitting” is Bhí mé i mo shuí (i muh HEE). Similar verbs are “luigh” (li), lie; ina luí, in his lying; seas (shas), stand, ina sheasamh (HAS-uhv), in his standing.

Lesson 39 PRONUNCIATION EXERCISE Read the phrases below out loud, referring to the pronunciation guide if necessary. When you can read the phrases readily, look at the translation and then go over the phrases again, visualizing the meaning as you say each. PRONUNCIATION Irish pronunciation of some words varies from region to region, just as in other countries, such as Germany, France, and the United States. Ireland is small in size, compared to those countries, however, and the variations in the pronunciation in Ireland are less evident than in most countries in Europe. If you are working with a fluent or native speaker, you have undoubtedly encountered some differences between our simplified pronunciation guide and the pronunciation of the speaker. Our pronunciation guide tries to give you a system which will be easy to apply, fairly uniform and consistent, and readily understood over as wide an area of Ireland as possible. It is not tied exclusively to any single region. From time to time, we will describe some of the regional variations in pronunciation. There are three basic regions in Ireland, as far as the language is concerned: Munster, in the south; Connaught, in the west; and Ulster, in the north. One general rule on pronunciation difference among the three regions is that accent in a word tends to be toward the end of the word in Munster, toward the front in Ulster, and evenly distributed in Connaught. For example, with “agam”, on me, the Munster pronunciation is (uh-GUHM), and the Ulster pronunciation is (AH-guhm). In Connaught, the pronunciation is (ah-guhm), with a more even distribution of accent. “Thank you” is pronounced (gu-ruh-MAH-huh-guht) in Munster and (gu-ruh-muh-HAH-guht) in Connaught. Brief experience with pronunciation differences of this kind will make them readily understandable, just as they are in English. Whether you say (eye KANT) or (eye KAHNT) for “I can’t”, you will understand (ah KAYNT) from some speakers from the southern United States. PRONUNCIATION EXERCISE Read this passage slowly without looking at the key below it. Then read it a second time, making use of the key if you are unsure. Do not try to make sense of the words; concentrate on the pronunciation and on grouping the words into phrases: Is iad an cineál dreama, gur leag siad síos, an bhunsraith, go bhfaca sé ceadmhach sa dara cás, an smuta mailíseach seo, roimh iarratais ar an bpost, a thug sé formhór a shaoil. As sin amach, gur toradh meatachta is mímhacántachta, agus bíonn na tuismitheoirí as an iarsma, le linn na gcúirteanna dóibh siud a bheidh i láthair. SHEE-uhd un KIN-aw*l DRAM-uh gur lag SHEE-uhd shees uh vun-SRAH, goh VAHK-uh shay* KAD-uh-vwahk* suh DUH-ruh kaw*s, un SMUT-uh mahl-ee-SHAHK* shuh, rev EER-uh-tish er un bohst, uh hug shay* fohr-uh-VWOHR uh HEEL. as shin uh-MAHK*, gur TOHRuh MYA-tuhk*t-uh is mee-vuh-KAW*N-tuhk*t-uh, AH-guhs BEE-uhn nuh toosh-mi-HOH-i-ree as un EERS-muh, le lin nuh GOO-ir-tyan-uh, DOH-iv shood uh ve i LAW*-hir. GRAMMAR In the present habitual tense, some verbs have slightly different forms from the forms that you began to learn last week. These verbs are the same two-syllable ones that you studied in Lesson 27. These verbs have forms like “cheannaíomar” (hyan-EE-uh-muhr), we bought, in the past. To say “I buy”, etc., the forms are: ceannaím (kan-EEM), I buy ceannaíonn (kan-EE-uhn) tú, you buy ceannaíonn sé, he buys ceannaíonn sí, she buys ceannaímid (kan-EE-mid), we buy ceannaíonn sibh, you (pl.) buy ceannaíonn siad, they buy And then: ní cheannaím (nee hyan-EEM), I don’t buy ní cheannaíonn (nee hyan-EE-uhm) tú, you don’t buy, etc. an gceannaím? (un gyan-EEM) do I buy? an gceannaíonn tú? (un gyan-EE-uhn too), do you buy, etc. VOCABULARY seacht gcarr (shahk*t gahr), seven autos ocht gcarr (ohk*t gahr), eight autos naoi gcarr (nee gahr), nine autos deich gcarr (de gahr), ten autos snámh, ag snámh (snaw*v, uh SNAW*V), swim pós, ag pósadh (pohs, uh POHS-uh), marry

clis, ag cliseadh (klish, uh KLISH-uh), fail érigh, ag éirí (EYE-ree, eg EYE-ree), rise, get up DRILL To improve your fluency with the present habitual tense and with aspiration and eclipses of initial “d” and “f”, go through these four progressive drills: An ndíolaim nuachtáin? (un NEE-lim NOO-uhk*-taw*-in) Do I sell newspapers? Ní dhíolaim nuachtáin (nee YEE-lim NOO-uhk*-taw*-in). Díolann tú (DEE-luhn too) nuachtáin. An ndíolann tú nuachtáin? Ní dhíolann tú nuachtáin, etc. The last sentence is: Díolaim nuachtáin. An ndúnaim na fuinneoga? (un NOON-im nuh fwin-YOHG-uh) Do I close the windows? Ní dhúnaim (nee GOON-im) na fuinneoga. Dúnann tú (DOON-uhn too) na fuinneoga, etc. Last sentence: Dúnaim na fuinneoga. An bhfillim abhaile ar a sé a chlog? (un VILL-im uh-VWAHL-e er uh shay* uh k*luhg) Do I return home at six o’clock? Ní fhillim abhaile (nee ILL-im uh-VWAHL-e) ar a sé a chlog. Fillean tú (FILL-uhn too), etc. Last sentence: Fillim abhaile ar a sé a chlog. An bhfanaim leis an bhfearr sin? (un VAHN-im lesh un var shin) Do I wait for that man? Ní fhanaim (nee AHN-im) leis an bhfearr sin. Fanann tú (FAHN-uhn too), etc. Last sentence: Fanaim leis an bhfearr sin. Write or say the “we” form for these verbs: díolaimid (DEEL-uh-mid); dúnaimid (DOON-uh-mid); fillimid (FILL-i-mid); fanaimid (FAHN-uhmid). Count doors and windows from one to ten. Doras, dhá dhoras, trí dhoras, ... seacht ndoras, etc. Fuinneog, dhá fhuinneog, trí fhuinneog, ... seacht bhfuinneog, etc.

Lesson 40 This week we will do heavy memorizing and drilling. The purpose is the thorough learning of aspiration, eclipsis, and some verb forms. PRONUNCIATION EXERCISE Read the Irish phrases below out loud, referring to the pronunciation guide if necessary. When you can read the phrases readily, look at the translation and then go over the phrases again, visualizing the meaning as you say each: trí gheata; ceithre ghúna; sé mhéadar; dhá mhadra; cúig phingin; trí phaidir; dhá sheomra; ceithre sholas; sé thicéad; cúig thoitín naoi ngrian; acht nglas; deich míle; seacht mála; ocht bpíopa; deich bpunt; seacht seál; naoi sac; deich dteach; seacht dtobar (tree YAT-uh; KER-e GOON-uh; shay* VAY*-duhr; gaw* VWAH-druh; KOO-ig FEENG-in; tree FAHD-ir; gaw* HOHM-ruh; KER-e HUHluhs; shay* hi-KAY*D; KOO-ig hi-TYEEN neeng REE-uhn; ohk*t nglahs; de MEEL-e; shahk*t MAW*-luh; ohk*t BEEP-uh; de boont; shahk*t shaw*l; nee sahk; de dyahk*; shak*t DOHbuhr) three gates; four dresses; six meters; two dogs; five cents; three prayers; two rooms; four lights; six tickets; five cigarettes nine suns; eight locks; ten thousand; seven bags; eight pipes; seven pounds; seven shawls; nine sacks; ten houses; seven wells GRAMMAR You know several verbs of two syllables whose endings in some forms differ somewhat from the one-syllable verbs. “Ceannaigh” is an example: “ceannaíonn sé” (kan-EE-uhn shay*) means “he buys”, and “cheannaíomar” (hyan-EE-uh-mar) means “we bought”. Other verbs similar to “ceannaigh” are “imigh”, “éirigh”, and “deisigh”. Many verbs ending in: ----il, ----in, ----ir and ----is are similar. They naturally drop out a syllable in some forms because the omission makes them easier to pronounce. Otherwise, they are very much like “ceannaigh”. Learn the following examples, starting with oscail (OH-skil) open. Present: osclaím (OH-skleem), I open osclaíonn tú (oh-SKLEE-uhn too), you open osclaíonn sé, he opens osclaíonn sí, she opens osclaímid (oh-SKLEE-mid), we open osclaíonn sibh (shiv) you (pl) open osclaíonn siad (SHEE-uhd), they open Ní osclaím, ní osclaíonn tú, ní osclaímid, etc. An osclaím? An osclaíonn tú? an osclaímid? etc. Nach n-osclaím (nahk* NOH-skleem), nach n-osclaíonn tú? etc. Past: d’oscail mé (DOH-skil may*), I opened d’oscail tú, you opened d’oscail sé, he opened d’oscail sí, she opened d’osclaíomar (doh-SKLEE-uh-kuhr), we opened d/oscail sibh, you (pl) opened d’oscail siad, they opened Níor oscail mé, níor oscail tú, níor osclaíomar (NEE-uhr oh-SKLEE-uh--muhr) etc. Ar oscail mé? ar oscail tú? ar osclaíomar? etc Nár oscail mé? nár oscail tú? nár osclaíomar? etc. cosain (KUH-sin) defend Present: Cosnaím (KUHS-neem), cosnaíonn tú (kuhs-NEE-uhn-too), cosnaímid (kuhs-NEE-mid), cosnaíonn sibh, etc Ní chosnaím (nee K*UHS-neem), ní chosnaíonn tú, ní chosnaímid (nee k*uhs-NEE-mid) etc. An gcosnaim? etc. Nach gcosnaim? etc. Past: Chosain mé (K*UH-sin may*) I defend, etc. Chosnaíomar (k*uhs- NEE-uh-muhr), we defend, etc. Níor chosain mé, níor chosain tú, níor chosnaíomar, etc. Ar chosain mé? ar chosnaíomar? (er k*uhs-NEE-uh-muhr) etc.

Nár chosain mé? nár chosnaíomar? etc. Labhair (LOU-ir), speak, becomes “labhraíonn sé” (lou-REE-uhn shay*), he speaks, “labhraíomar” (lou-REE-uh-muhr) we spoke. The basic form of this verb is “labhair”, of course, and “labhair sé” means “he spoke”. Inis (IN-ish), tell, becomes “insíonn sé” (in-SHEE-uhn shay*), he tells, and “d’insíomar” (din-SHEE-uh-muhr), we told. The basic form of the verb is “inis”, and “d’inis sé” means “he told”. For “oscail, cosain, labhair” and “inis,” note the loss of the syllable in pronouncing forms with added suffixes, such as oscail, osclaíonn. DRILL Go through the present and past tenses of these verbs: imigh (IM-ee), depart; tochail (TOHK*-il), dig; cogain (KUHG-in), chew; bagair (BAHGir), threaten. For example: Imím, imíonn tú etc. Ní imím, ní imíonn tú etc. An imím? etc. Nach n-imím? etc. D’imigh mé, etc. Níor imigh mé, etc. Ar imigh mé?, etc. Nár imigh mé?, etc. The key forms are: Imíonn, d’imíomar. Tochlaíonn, thochlaíomar. Cognaionn, chognaíomar. Bagraíonn, bhagraíomar.

Lesson 41 PRONUNCIATION EXERCISE Read the Irish passage below slowly without looking at the key below it. Then read it a second time, making use of the key if you are unsure. Do not try to make sense of the words; concentrate on the pronunciation and on grouping the words into phrases: Má tá am agus dúthracht fagadh, an méid a fuair siad, tamall gearr ó shin. Rinne go leor daoine, as ceantair éagsúla, an ráta malartáin gan an bealach a oscailt. Maraíodh le déanaí, strainséirí agus céad acra faoi ghlasraí, ag tagairt don chuairt. Aeráid chineálta mhuirí agus ordóg airtríteach ag mo chomharsa béal dorais. Más monarchana bróg go dtí fuinneog lán píosaí práis, beartaithe ag cuairteoirí. Key: maw* taw* oum AH-guhs DOO-hrahk*t FAW*G-uh, un may*d uh FOO-ir SHEE-uhd, TAH-muhl gyahr oh hin. RIN-ye goh lohr DEENuh, as KYAN-tir ay*g-SOOL-uh, un RAW*-tuh mah-luhr-TAW*-in guhn un BAL-uhk* uh OH-skilt. MAHR-ee-oh le DAY*N-ee, strahnSHAY*R-ee AH-guhs kay*d AHK-ruh fwee GLAHS-ree, uh TAHG-irt duhn K*OO-ahrt. ay*r-AW*-id hyin-AW*L-tuh VWIR-ee AH-guhs ohr-DOHG ar-TREE-tuhk* ag muh K*OH-uhr-suh bay*l DUH-rish. maw*s MUHN-uhr-k*ahn-uh brohg goh dee fwin-YOHG law*n PEES-ee praw*sh, BYAR-ti-he eg KOO-ahr-TYOH-ree. If you are working with someone else, a possible exercise for you is to listen to the other person reading from the original or the key, and to write in Irish what you hear. This will improve your perception of the language as it is spoken to you. DRILL Go through the present and past tenses of these verbs: Bailigh (BAHL-ee), gather Cuimil (KIM-il), rub Seachain (SHAK*-hin), avoid Freagair (FRAG-ir), answer For example: Bailím (BAHL-eem), I gather; bailíonn tú (bahl-EE-uhn too), you gather, etc. Bailímid (bahl-EE-mid), we gather; bailíonn sibh, etc. Ní bhailím (nee VWAHL-eem), I don¹t gather, etc. An mbailím? (un MAHL-eem), do I gather?, etc. Nach mbailím? (nahk* MAHL-eem), don¹t I gather?, etc. Bhailigh mé (VWAHL-ee may*), I gathered; bhailigh tú (VWAHL-ee too), you gathered, etc. Bhailíomar (vwahl-EE-uh-muhr), we gathered, etc. Níor bhailigh mé, etc. Ar bhailigh mé?, etc. Nár bhailigh mé?, etc. The next three ³syncopate², that is, a syllable drops out as you say the forms. It is easier to say the words when this syllable is absent, as you will readily determine. Cuimlím (KIM-leem), I rub; cuimlíonn tú (kim-LEE-uhn too), you rub, etc. Cuimlímid (kim-LEE-mid), we rub, etc. Chuimil mé (K*IM-il may*), I rubbed, etc. Chuimlíomar (k*im-lee-uh-muhr), we rubbed, etc. Seachnaím (SHAK*-neem), I avoid; seachnaíonn (shak*-NEE-uhn) tú, you avoid, etc. Seachnaímid (shak*-NEE-mid), we avoid, etc. Sheachain mé (HAK*-in may*), I avoided, etc. Sheachaíomar (hak*-NEE-uh-muhr), we avoided, etc. Freagraím (FRAG-reem), I answer; freagraíonn (frag-REE-uhn) tú, you answer, etc. Freagraímid (frag-REE-mid), we answer, etc. D¹fhreagair mé (DRAG-ir may*), I answered, etc. D¹fhreagraíomar (drag-REE-uh-muhr), we answered, etc. This finishes the extensive drill for the present and past tenses. We will do work on the irregular verbs in present and past tenses next. CONVERSATION Pól (pohl): Dia duit, a Úna. Úna (OON-uh): Dia¹s Muire duit, a Phóil (FOH-il). Conas tá tú inniu? Pól: Bhí slaghdán (sleye-DAW*N) trom (truhm) orm inné, ach anois tá biseach (BI-shahk*) orm. Conas tá tú féin? Úna: Tá mé go maith, buíochas le Dia. Tá súil agam (SOO-il) uh-GUHM) go bhfaca tú an díospóireacht (dee-SPOH-i-rahk*t) mhór (vwohr) ar an teilifís aréir. Pól: Ní fhaca mé rud ar bith, Bhí mé i mo chodladh (muh K*UH-luh) ó sheacht a chlog go maidin. Cad a tharla sa díospóireacht mhór? Úna: Ó, labhair an feirmeoir (FER-i-moh-ir) leis an aisteoir (ash-TYOH-ir) le linn (le lin) uaire fada (OO-ir-e FAH-duh), ach níor thuig (hig) mé mórán de. Chuir (k*ir) siad tinneas cinn (TIN-yuhs kin) orm leis na focail mhóra (FOH-kil VWOHR-uh), na smaointe casta (SMWEEN-te KAHS-tuh), agus na figiúirí fada (fig-YOO-i-ree FAHD-uh). Pól: Ná bac leis. Tuigim iad, ar ndóigh (er NOH-ee), agus míneoidh mé (meen-YOH-ee may*) duit gach rud. Úna: Go raibh maith agat (GU-ruh mah huh-GUHT), a Phóil. Fear cliste tusa, gan amhras (OU-ruhs) ar bith. Hello, Una. Hello, Paul. How are you today? I had a heavy cold yesterday, but now there¹s improvement on me. How are you? I am well, thank God. I hope that you saw the big debate on television last night.

I didn¹t see a thing. I was asleep from seven o¹clock until morning. What happened in the big debate? Oh, the farmer talked with the actor during a long hour, but I didn¹t understand much of it. They gave me a headache with the big words, the involved thoughts, and the long figures. Don¹t worry about it. I understand them, of course, and I will explain everything to you. Thank you, Paul. A clever man you are, without any doubt. Notes: A headache is ³put on² a person, rather than ³given² to him. ³Focal mór², a big word, but ³focail mhóra² (VWOHR-uh), big words.

Lesson 42 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW We will review some combinations of sounds this week to improve your knowledge of differences between broad and slender consonants. Lesson 23 gave you the pronunciation of “c” and “g” in broad and slender form. The slender resembles the initial sound of “king” and “give”, while the broad resembles the initial sound of “coat” and “go”. Lessons 7 and 29 give you the pronunciation of “r”. Review that, and then notice the difference between: crí (kree, which may sound a little like “kdee” to you), and croí, which may sound to you a little like “kuh-REE”, with syllables run together. “Crí” begins with the slender “c” sound, and “croí” with the broad. The slender and broad “r” follow naturally. The “ee” sound at the end is the same for both. For “g”, try: gé (also like “gyay”*), as opposed to gaol (which has a slight resemblance to (gway*l)). The broad “g” in “gaol” introduces a faint (oo) sound after the “g”, which may put you in mind of the English “w” in a name like “Gwynn”. The lips are not closed in after the “g”, however, so that the English “w” sound is not fully developed in Irish words like “gaol”. Try “gile” (GIL-e) in contrast to “goile” (with the faint (oo) sound after the “g”). Say “grian” (GREE-uhn), with a slender “g”, and then “grá”, with a broad “g”. In “grá”, the tongue tip is rolled for the broad “r”. GRAMMAR We have studied four of the nine (in addition to “tá”) principal irregular verbs in their past and present tenses: See: feicim, ní fheicim; chonaic mé, ní fhaca mé Hear: cloisim, ní chloisim; chuala mé, níor chuala mé Come: tagaim, ní thagaim; tháinig mé, níor tháinig mé Go: téim, ní théim; chuaigh mé, ní dheachaigh mé Here are the others: Give: tugaim, ní thugaim; thug mé, níor thug mé, ar thug mé? Get: faighim, ní fhaighim (nee EYE-im); fuair mé (FOO-ir-may*), ní bhfuair mé (nee VOO-ir may*), an bhfuair mé? Say, tell: deirim (DER-im), ní deirim (nee DER-im); dúirt mé (DOO-irt may*), ní dúirt mé, an ndúirt mé? Do, make: déanaim (DAY*N-im), ní dhéanaim (nee YAY*N-im); rinne mé (RIN-ye may*). ní dhearna mé (nee YARN-uh may*), an ndearna mé? (un NYARN-uh may*) Catch, take hold of, grab: beirim ar (BER-im er), ní bheirm ar (nee VER-im er); rug (rug) mé ar, níor rug mé ar, ar rug mé ar? You should be able to reason out the forms not given above. Try: we told him; we didn’t get; did we give?; we don’t do; we grabbed him; he does; she takes hold of the plate. Key for these: dúramar leis; ní bhfuaireamar; ar thugamar?; ní dhéanaimid; rugamar air; déanann sé; beireann sí ar an bpláta. We will do intensive drilling on these verbs to make you able to use them with ease. DRILL Give the English for these groups: Tháinig sé abhaile. Chonaic mé é. Beirimid orthu. Níor rug sé air. Nach bhfaca tú mé? Cá bhfuair tú é? Ní fheicimid iad. Chuamar abhaile. Tugann sé duit é. Níor chuala sibh í. Ní fhaigheann siad airgead. An ndeir tú é? Rinne mé é. Ar thug mé duit é? Tagann sé gach lá. An gcloiseann tú iad? Déanaimid é. Ní dúirt mé é. Téimid ar an mbóthar. Note that “deir” (der), meaning “say” or “tell”, changes to “deir tú” and “deir sé”, etc, instead of becoming “deireann tú”, etc. Also, make sure that you add “ar” after “beir”. In Irish, you seize or take hold “on” something. Key to above phrases: He came home. I saw him. We seize them. He didn’t seize it. Didn’t you see me? Where did you get it? We don’t see them. We went home. He gives it to you. You (plural) didn’t hear her. They don’t get money. Do you say it? I did it. Did I give it to you? He comes every day. Do you hear them? We do it. I didn’t say it. We go on the road. Now go from English into Irish: I got the book. I come out. Did we see them? They hear her. She went inside. They get the car. We did the work. Did they seize him? Doesn’t he go out? I don’t see the man. I give money. Didn’t you come back? Did she hear you? He says that. We gave you it. Did he say that? We don’t do the work. He doesn’t take hold of it rightly. Key:Fuair mé an leabhar. Tagaim amach. An bhfacamar iad? Cloiseann siad í. Chuaigh sí isteach. Faigheann siad an carr. Rinneamar an obair. Ar rug siad air? Nach dtéann sé amach? Ní fheicim an fear. Tugaim airgead. Nár tháinig tú ar ais (er ash). Ar chuala sí tú? Deir sé é sin. Thugamar duit é. An ndúirt sé é sin? Ní dhéanaimid an obair. Ní bheireann sé air i gceart (i gyart). We will give further drills on these verbs individually and as a group, so that you will become proficient in them. They are important in everyday speech and in the literature.

CONVERSATION Séamas: A Sheáin (uh HYAW*-in), ní fhaca mé (nee AHK-uh may*) tú le fada anois. John, I didn’t see you for a long time now. Seán: Nach bhfaca tú, a Shéamais? (nahk* VAHK-uh too, uh HAY*-mish) Níor tháinig mé amach inné ar chor ar bith (NEE-uhr HAW*-nig may* uh-MAHK* in-YAY* huhr er BI). Didn’t you, James? I didn’t come out yesterday at all. Séamas: Chuaigh mé féin chuig an ollmhargadh ar maidin (K*OO-ig may* fay*n hig un oul-VWAHR-uh-guh er MAH-din). Is iontach (OONtuhk*) an áit é. I myself went to the supermarket this morning. It’s a wonderful place.

Lesson 43 The numbering system in Irish differentiates among simple cardinals (either stand-alone numbers, such as occur in mathematics, or numbers giving the quantity of some object) and ordinals, which put objects in some order. This will become clear when you study this lesson. Counting These numbers are used in counting, telling time, and when the noun to which they refer goes before them. a haon a dó a trí a ceathair a cúig a sé a seacht a hocht a naoi a deich a haon déag a dó dhéag a trí déag a ceathair déag a cúig déag a sé déag a seacht déag a hocht déag a naoi déag fiche Examples of use: Counting to start a race: a haon, a dó, a trí. Serially numbered objects: seomra a seacht, bad a sé deag. Arithmetical work: a trí agus a naoi, sin é a dó dheag. Giving quantities of some object, with the number preceding the noun: aon bhó amháin, one cow dhá bhó, two cows trí bhó ceithre bhó cúig bhó sé bhó seacht mbó ocht mbó naoi mbó deich mbó aon bhó dhéag dhá bhó dhéag trí bhó dhéag ceithre bhó dhéag cúig bhó dhéag sé bhó dhéag seacht mbó dhéag ocht mbó dhéag naoi mbó dhéag fiche bó In this use, as you can see, aon, one, aspirates, “two” becomes “dhá” and aspirates, “four” has changed slightly, and from 11 on, there is a “dheag”, similar to English “teen”, added on. From 1 to 6, the number causes aspiration (where possible), and from 7 to 10, the number eclipses (where possible). It all sounds complicated, but if you will practice on the lists above, and then try to use the numbers several times a day, say in counting or in reading license plates, one numeral at a time, you will be pleasantly surprised at your facility. Now for a simpler and often-used help: telling time. one o’clock -- Tá sé a haon a chlog two o’clock -- Tá sé a dó a chlog three o’clock -- Tá sé a trí a chlog four o’clock -- Tá sé a ceathair a chlog five o’clock -- Tá sé a cúig a chlog

six o’clock -- Tá sé a sé a chlog seven o’clock -- Tá sé a seacht a chlog eight o’clock -- Tá sé a hocht a chlog nine o’clock -- Tá sé a naoi a chlog ten o’clock -- Tá sé a deich a chlog eleven o’clock -- Tá sé a haon déag a chlog twelve o’clock -- Tá sé a dó dhéag a chlog What time is it? Cén t-am é? a good morning, maidin mhaith good night, oíche mhaith mid-day, meán lae mid-night, meán oíche in the morning, ar maidin in the afternoon, tráthnóna at night, san oíche Days of the week Monday, An Luan On Monday, Dé Luain Tuesday, An Mháirt On Tuesday, Dé Mháirt Wednesday, An Chéadaoin On Wednesday, Dé Chéadaoin Thursday, An Déardaoin On Thursday Friday, An Aoine On Friday, Dé Aoine Saturday, An Satharn On Saturday, Dé Sathairn Sunday, An Domhnach (DOW-nahk*) On Sunday, Dé Domhnaigh (DOW-nee)

Lesson 44 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW We will review the vowel “u” this week. When the “síneadh fada” (SHEEN-uh FAH-duh) mark is over it, making it ú, its sound is usually that of (oo), as in English “food” or “rude”, but the Irish sound is held longer. Examples: lúb (loob); gúna (GOON-uh); dúnaim (DOON-im). Without a síneadh fada, “u” between consonants often has the sound (u), as in English “put”, “foot”, or “should. Examples: gunna (GUN-uh); thug (hug); guthán (gu-HAW*N). The (uh) sound, as in English “run”, “love” “but”, is less common for “u” in Irish. Irish speakers often substitute other sounds for (uh) in English, as you have learned in previous lessons. You may have heard the last three words above pronounced (run, lohv, boht) instead of (ruhn, luhv, buht). Nevertheless, some Irish words have the (uh) sound or a sound close to it. Examples: dul (duhl); agat (uh-GUHT); doras (DUH-ruhs). The (uh) sound is common in unaccented syllables, of course, such as in garda (GAHR-duh) or córas (KOH-ruhs). In “ua”, the “u” can be pronounced (oo), as in: crua (KROO-uh); nuachtan (NOO-uhk*-taw*n); buail (BOO-il). In the west and north, “ua” may be pronounced (oh) in some words, such as “rua”, red-haired. An example: Eoghan Rua (OH-uhn roh) Ó Néill, anglicized as Owen Roe O’Neill. At the beginning of a word, “ua” may sound like (oo) or (woo-uh). Try: uachtar (OO-uhk*-tuhr) and uaim (oo-WIM). In the latter word, the sounds may run together so that they sometimes resemble (wim), but in any case, the word should be pronounced without a pause between the parts of the pronunciation. GRAMMAR Forms such as: He said that they were there They think that it is not here We heard that you bought a house are called indirect speech. Here are examples which are translations of the sentences above: Dúirt sé go raibh siad ansin (DOO-irt shay* goh rev SHEE-uhd un-SHIN). Síleann siad nach bhfuil sé anseo (SHEEL-uhn SHEE-uhd nahk* VWIL shay* un-SHUH). Chualamar gur cheannaigh tú teach (K*OOL-uh-muhr gur HYAN-ee too TAHK*). For the present tense, use “go” or “nach” after the first verb. “Go” introduces an affirmative statement, and “nach” a negative. The first verb can be affirmative I say, you think, etc., or negative, such as: I don’t think. It can also ask a question: An ndeir (ner) tú go bhfuil sé anseo?, Do you say that he is here? When “tá” is the second verb, it is in the “bhfuil” form either “go bhfuil” or “nach bhfuil”. Both “go” and “nach” eclipse. Study these examples: Cloisim go mbaineann sé a chóta de (KLISH-im goh MWIN-uhn shay* uh K*OH-tuh de), I hear that he takes his coat off. Deir sé nach gceannaíonn sé mórán bia (der shay* nahk* gyan-EE-uhn shay* moh-RAW*N BEE-uh), he says that he doesn’t buy much food. Ní shíleann sí go ndíolann Seán leabhair (nee HEEL-uhn shee goh NEEL-uhn shaw*n LOU-wir), she doesn’t think that John sells books. Ní dóigh liom go n-ólann siad mórán bainne (nee DOH-ee luhm goh NOHL-uhn SHEE-uhd moh-RAW*N BAHN-ye), I don’t think that they drink much milk. Note that when a vowel starts the second verb, you must put an “n” before the vowel, as in “go n-itheann sé” or “nach n-itheann sé”. DRILL Make up a sentence for each of the following combinations: Deir sé (der shay*) with: go bhfaigheann sí (goh VWEYE-uhn shee), and nach bhfaigheann sí; go nglanann siad (gohng LUHN-uhn SHEE-uhd), and nach nglanann (nahk*-ung LUHN-uhn) siad; go léann sé, and nach léann sé; go míníonn (meen-EE-uhn) sé and nach míníonn sé. Cloisim with: go níonn sé (goh NEE-uhn shay*), and nach níonn sé; go n-itheann sí, and nach n-itheann sí; go bpósann siad (goh BOHS-uhn SHEE-uhd), and nach bpósann siad; go rithimid, and nach rithimid. Is dóigh liom with: go scríobhann sé, and nach scríobhann sé; go dtéann sé, and nach dtéann sé; go dtagann sé, and nach dtagann sé.

CONVERSATION Mairsile (MAHR-shil-e):Dia dhuit, a Stiofáin (DEE-uh git, uh shtee-FAW*-in). Hello, Stephen. Stiofán (shtee-FAW*N): Dia’s Muire dhuit, a Mhairsile (DEE-uhs MWIR-uh git, uh VWAHR-shil-e). Conas tá tú inniú? Hello, Marcella. How are you today? Mairsile: Tá mé go han-mhaith (goh HAHN-uh VWAH). Agus conas tá tú féin? I am very well. And how are you yourself? Stiofán: Táim go maith leis. Cloisim go bhfuil tú ag foghlaim Gaeilge arís (uh FOU-lim GAY*-li-ge uh-REESH). I am well, too. I hear that you’re studying Irish again. Mairsile: Ó, táim tar éis bheith á foghlaim le fada. Sílim go bhfuil mé ag dul chun cinn anois, (oh, TAW*-im tuhr ay*sh ve aw* FOU-lim luh FAH-duh. SHEEL-im go vwil may* uh duhl hun kin uh*NISH). Oh, I’m after studying it for a long time. I think that I am making progress now. Notes: “Duit” can become “dhuit” (git) in much speech. “dh” before “u” sounds much like English “g” in “go”. “Táim tar éis bheith (ve)” comes into English as “I am after _____ “, meaning “I have been ____ “. An example is: “Táim tar éis bheith teacht abhaile”, meaning “I have come home”.

Lesson 45 This week we will review the vowel “e”. Without a síneadh fada (SHEEN-uh FAH-duh) over it, “e” usually has the sound of “e” in English “let”. When “e” is at a word end, the sound may resemble (uh), but pronounce it as a short (e), without emphasis. Examples: baile (BAHL-e), mise (MISH-e). With a síneadh fada, the letter is é, pronounced like the first part of the English sound in “may”, without the final (ee) or (i) that you will detect if you say “may” very slowly. We use (ay*) as a symbol for the Irish sound. Remember how Irish persons close to the Irish language pronounce English words like “railroad, rate, lane, made”. The sound is that of é (ay*). In Irish, the sound is held longer than in English. When inside a word, “e” without a síneadh fada is almost always followed by “i”. The sound is still (e), as in deir (der), peil (pel), or deich (de). PRONUNCIATION EXERCISE Read this passage slowly without looking at the key below it. Then read it a second time, making use of the key if you are unsure. Do not try to make sense of the words; concentrate on the pronunciation and on grouping the words into phrases; D’fhulaing an oiread sin stop a chur le scaipeadh a bhí san am i seilbh na Fraince gach fear de na gasraí a bhuail mé le mo dhuine. Fuarthas i bpictiúr eile céadta punt i gcás a bhformhór ina bhfuil cur síos ar an oileán a bheidh ar an socrú a tharla ar an mbaile sin ocht mbliana d’aois faoin chomhlachtaí príobháideacha. DUDU-ling un IR-uhd shin stohp uh k*ur le SKAHP-uh vee suhn oum i SHKL-iv nuh FRAN-ke gahk* far de nuh GAHS-ree uh VOO-il may* le muh GIN-e. FOO-uhr-huhs i bik-TYOOR EL-e KAY*D-tuh poont i GAW*S uh vohr-uh-VWOHR nuh vwil kur shees er un IL-aw*n uh ve er un SOHK-roo uh HAHR-luh er un MAHL-e shin ohk*t MLEE-uh-nuh deesh fween K*OH-luhk*t-ee pree-VAW*-duhk*-uh. GRAMMAR For indirect speech, of which: John says that they are at the door is an example, the forms “go” and “nach” follow the first verb and its subject when the second verb is in the present. An example: Deir Seán go bhfuil siad ag an doras (der shaw*n goh vwil SHEE-uhd eg un DUH-ruhs), John says that they are at the door. In the past tense, “tá” and a few of the other irregular verbs require “gur” (gur) and “nár” (naw*r) before them. Read these three examples over carefully until you understand the principle of sentence formation with past tense indirect speech: Dúirt Seán go raibh siad istigh (DOO-irt shaw*n goh rev SHEE-uhd ish-TEE), John said that they were inside. Chuala Máire go bhfaca mé an carr (K*OO-luh MAW*-re goh VAH-kuh may* un kahr), Mary heard that I saw the car. Dúirt mé gur chaill sí a cóta (DOO-irt may* gur k*eyel shee uh KOH-tuh), I said that she lost her coat. Here are the irregular verb forms in the past for indirect speech: go bhfaca mé (goh VAH-kuh may*), that I saw. nach bhfaca mé (nahk* VAH-kuh may*), that I didn’t see. gur chuala mé (gur K*OO-uh-luh may*), that I heard. nár chuala mé (naw*r K*OO-uh-luh may*), that I didn’t hear. go bhfuair mé (goh VOO-ir may*), that I got. nach bhfuair mé (nahk* VOO-ir may*), that I didn’t get. go ndúirt mé (goh NOO-irt may*), that I said. nach ndúirt mé (nahk* NOO-irt may*), that I didn’t say. go ndearna mé (goh NYAR-nuh may*), that I did. nach ndearna mé (nahk* NYAR-nuh may*), that I didn’t do. gur thug mé (gur hug may*), that I gave. nár thug mé; that I didn’t give. gur rug mé air (gur rug may* er), that I seized him. nár rug mé air; that I didn’t seize him. gur tháinig mé (gur HAW*-nig may*), that I came. nár tháinig mé; that I didn’t come. go ndeachaigh mé (goh NYAK*-hee may*), that I went nach ndeachaigh mé; that I didn’t go go raibh mé (goh rev may*), that I was nach raibh mé (nahk* rev may*), that I wasn’t

DRILL Make up a simple sentence, such as “He said that I saw him”, or “he believes that I saw him”, for each of the above twenty phrases. The first part of the sentence can be such as these: Deir sé (der shay*), he says; dúirt siad (DOO-irt SHEE-uhd), they said, is dóigh liom (is DOH-ee luhm), I think; etc. Next, combine the negative of the irregular verbs in the past and present with regular and irregular forms. To start, take “Feicim go raibh ____” (FEK-im goh rev), I see that ____ ; “Ní fhaca sé go raibh ____ “ (nee AH-kuh shay* goh rev), he didn’t see that ____ ; “Feicim nach raibh ____” (FEK-im nahk* rev), I didn’t see ____ was not. Next, work on the regular verbs in the past tense with indirect speech. Make sentences to complete these sentence starts: Is dóigh liom, with: that he bought a house; that he didn’t buy a house; that he explained the story (scéal (shkay*l)); that he didn’t explain the story. Shíl mé (heel may*), I thought, with: that they understood it; that they didn’t understand it; that they lost the money; that they didn’t lose the money.

Lesson 46 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW The letter “i” has several sounds in Irish. If there is a síneadh fada (SHEEN-uh FAH-duh) over the “i”, it will have an (ee) sound, resembling the English sound in “bee”. The tongue tip, however, should be touching the lower front teeth, and the tongue center should arch up to the hard ridge behind the upper front teeth. Examples: cailín (kah-LEEN), mín (meen), bhí (vee), dílis (DEE-lish). The sound is held for a longer time than in English. If the “i” has no síneadh fada, it may still get the (ee) sound, especially if it is in an accented syllable. Examples: bia (BEE-uh), mian (MEEuhn), Dia (DEE-uh). Usually, however, a pronounced “i” in an unaccented syllable will have a sound between (i) of English “hit” and (ee) of English “heat”. Depending on the locality and the need to differentiate between similar words, such as “briste” and “bríste”, the sound may be closer to (ee) or (i). It should never be exactly an English (i) as in “hit”, although in words like “sin” (shin) and “cuir” (kir) it is close to that. The letter (i) may get the sound of (eye) in English “high” in some words in certain parts of Ireland. “Binn” may be (beyen). Finally, “i” may be in a word merely to show you that you must give the consonant next to it its slender sound. Examples: fuar (FOO-uhr), fuair (FOO-ir). As you go from (FOO) to the slender “r”, you make a gliding sound. We represent the combination by (ir). “Áit” is another example. In going from (aw*) to the slender “t”, you will make a sound that will cause the word to resemble “cynch” to some extent. Pól (pohl), Póil (POH-il) is another example. GRAMMAR Sometimes we hear a person say “I be sick”, indicating that he is continually ailing, as contrasted with “I am sick”, indicating a present and temporary state. Irish has a form of “tá” to indicate a continuing state. It is: bím (beem), I am, I be bíonn tú (BEE-uhn too), you are bíonn sé, sí; he is, she is bímid (BEE-mid), we are bíonn sibh, siad; you (plural) are, they are The negative is: ní bhím (nee veem), I am not; ní bhíonn tú, you are not; etc. The question forms are: an mbím? (un meem), am I; nach mbím? (nahk* meem), am I not?; etc. For indirect speech: deir sé go mbím; deir sé nach mbím. Examples: Bím tinn (beem tin), I am sick, in poor health. Tá mé tinn; I am sick now. Bíonn sé ar scoil; he is usually or often at school. Tá sé ar scoil; he is at school at this moment. Bímid ann go minic; we are often there. Táimid ann anois; we are there now. VOCABULARY Masculine nouns geimheadh (GEV-ruh), winter lampa (LAHM-puh), lamp néal (nay*l), cloud cnaipe (kuh-NAHP-e), button brúigh, ag brú (BROO-ee), uh BROO), press brúim (BROO-im), I press brúnn sé (broon shay*), he presses coimeád, ag coimeád (kim-AW*D, uh kim-AW*D), keep Feminine nouns tine (TIN-e), an tine, fire (in a fireplace) grian, an ghrian (GREE-uhn, un YREE-uhn), sun aontaigh le, ag aontú le (AY*N-tee le, eg AY*N-too le), agree with aontaím leat (AY*N-teem lat), I agree with you dún, ag dúnadh (doon, uh DOON-uh) close minic (MIN-ik), often READING EXERCISE The next few lessons will have reading exercises to illustrate usage of the grammar and to review the vocabulary that you have learned. Read each exercise over first, then verify the pronunciation against the key before you look at the translation below the key. D’eirigh Brian go moch inné, timpeall a sé a chlog. Bhrúigh sé cnaipe ar an mballa chun an lampa a lasadh, agus ansin d’fhéach sé ar a chlog. Amach as a leaba leis. Amuigh, bhí sédorcha. Ní raibh an ghrian sa spéir fós. Nigh sé é féin, agus ansin chuir sé a chuid éadaí air. Tháinig sé

anuas an staighre ansin, agus fuair sé a bhricfeasta. D’éist sé leis an raido, agus é ag ithe a bhricfeasta. Clár nuachta agus ceol a bhí ann. D’éirigh an ghrian ar leath-uair tar éis a sé, agus bhí an tsráid geal ansin. Key: DEYE-ree BREE-uhn goh mohk* in-YAY*, TIM-puhl uh shay* uh k*luhg. VROO-ee shay* kuh-NAHP-e er un MAHL-uh k*un un LAHM-puh uh LAHS-uh, AH-guhs un-SHIN DAY*-ahk* shay* er a k*luhg. un-MAHK* as un LA-buh lesh. uh-MWEE, vee shay* DUHRuh-huh. nee rev un YREE-uhn suh spay*r fohs. ni shay* ay* fay*n, AH-guhs un-SHIN k*ir shay* uh k*wid AY*-dee er. HAW*-nig shay* uh-NOO-uhs un STEYE-re un-SHIN, AH-guhs FOO-ir shay* uh vrik-FAS-tuh. day*sht shay* lesh un RAH-dee-oh, AH-guhs ay* eg I-he uh vrik-FAS-tuh. klaw*r NOO-uhk*-tuh AH-guhs kyohl uh vee oun. DEYE-ree un YREE-uhn er la-OO-ir tuhr-AY*SH uh shay*, AH-guhs vee un traw*d gal un-SHIN. Translation: Brian got up early yesterday, around six o’clock. He pressed a button on the wall to light the lamp, and then he looked at the clock. Out of bed with him. Outside, it was dark. The sun wasn’t in the sky yet. He washed himself, shaved, and then put on his clothes. He came down the stairs then, and got his breakfast. He listened to the radio while he was eating his breakfast. There was a news program and music. The sun rose at half past six, and then the street was bright.

Lesson 47 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW Similar to the vowel “ó” are the two letters “eo”. When this group begins a word, it is pronounced (oh), as in “o”. There is no (oo) sound at the end of it. Examples of “eo” at the beginning of a word: eolas (OH-luhs), knowledge; eorna (OHR-nuh), barley; Eochaill (OHK*-hil), Youghal, an Irish seaport; Eoin (OH-in), a form of John. Most consonants, when before “eo”, cause a (y) sound to be heard. Examples: beo (byoh), alive; ceo (kyoh), fog; deo (dyoh), end; deoir (DYOHir), tear; teo (tyoh), hot; ceol (kyohl), music; feoil (FYOH-il), meat; neodrach (NYOH-druhk*), neutral; geoin (GYOH-in), cry; meon (myohn), mind. If “l, r, s” precede “eo”, there is no (y) sound. Examples: leo (loh), with them; reo (roh), frost; gleo (gi-LOH), tumult; seoid (SHOH-id), jewel. In “seo” (shuh), the “eo” does not get its customary pronunciation. In “seó”, on the other hand, the “ó” receives a síneadh fada to tell us that it has the (oh) sound: (shoh). GRAMMAR Another important preposition is “do” (duh), meaning “to” or “for”. It is not often used for motion to a place, however. “Chuig” (hig) and “go” (guh) are more common for that. “Do” aspirates the first consonant of the word following it, as does “ar”, meaning “on”. Examples: Thug mé do Sheán é (hug may* duh hyaw*n ay*), I gave it to John; faigh leabhar do Cháit (feye LOU-uhr duh k*aw*t), get a book for Kate. “Do” combines with “an” to form “don” (duhn), meaning “to the” or “for the”, and it aspirates. Examples: Thug mé don fhear é (hug may* duhn ar ay*), I gave it to the man; faigh peann don chailín (feye pyoun duhn k*ah-LEEN), get a pen for the girl. With prepositions, “do” also combines to give: dom (duhm), to me duit (dit), to you dó (doh), to him di (dee), to her dúinn (DOO-in), to us daoibh (deev), to you, (plural) dóibh (DOH-iv), to them Some common forms of speech make use of “do”. Here are several: Inis scéal dom (IN-ish shkay*l duhm), tell me a story Cad is ainm duit? (kahd is AN-im dit), What is your name? Seán is ainm dom; John is my name. Ba cheart dó dul abhaile (buh hyart doh duhl uh-VWAHL-e), he should go home. VOCABULARY droichead (DRUH-huhd), bridge thar an droichead (hahrn DRUH-huhd), over the bridge tollán (tuh-LAW*N), tunnel tríd an tollán (TREED un tuh-LAW*N), through the tunnel Inis, ag insint (IN-ish, eg IN-shint), tell insím dó é (IN-sheem doh ay*), I tell it to him Insíonn sé dó é (in-SHEE-uhn shay* doh ay*)), he tells it to him labhair, ag labhairt (LOU-ir, uh LOU-irt), speak labhraím Gaeilge leis (LOU-reem GAY*-lig-e lesh), I speak Irish to him nua (NOO-uh), new ar na mallaibh (er nuh MAHL-iv), recently cheana (HAN-uh), already sáigh, ag sá (SAW*-ee, uh saw*), stick sáim mo cheann sa bhfuinneog (SAW*-im muh hyoun suh vwin-YOHG), I stick my head in the window sánn sé a chos sa doras (saw*n shay* uh k*uhs suh DUH-ruhs), he sticks his foot in the door DRILL Go through a progressive drill with “do”, as follows: Ar thug Seán airgead dom ar na mallaibh? Níor thug Seán airgead dom ar na mallaibh. Thug Seán airgead duit ar na mallaibh. Ar thug Seán airgead duit ar na mallaibh? Níor thug Seán airgead duit ar na mallaibh. Thug Seán airgead do ar na mallaibh. Etc. Repeat with: An bhfuair an múinteoir leabhar dom? Ni bhfuair se leabhar dom. Fuair sé leabhair duit. An bhfuair an múinteoir, etc. READING EXERCISE (Some of the words may be new, but try to get the meaning from the rest of the text before you look at the translation.) Sheas Brian suas, shiúil sé chuig an doras, agus chuir sé a chóta air. “Níl an aimsir chomh fuar inniu agus a bhí sé inné”, shíl Brian dó féin, “ach is fearr liom mo chóta a chaitheamh. Bíonn an aimsir fuar go leor faoi Shamhain.” D’oscail sé an doras agus chuaigh sé amach. Chuir sé glas ar an doras lena eochair. Ansin d’imigh sé leis, síos an tsraid, chun an bus a fháil. Bhí líne daoine ag cúinne na sraide, ag faire ar an mbus.

Key: has BREE-uhn SOO-uhs, HYOO-il shay* hig un DUH-ruhs, AH-guhs k*ir shay* uh K*OH*tuh er. “neel un EYEM-sheer hoh FOO-uhr in-YOO AH-guhs uh vee shay* in-YAY”, heel BREE-uhn doh fay*n, “ahk* is fahr luhm muh K*OH-tuh uh K*AH-huhv. BEE-uhn un EYEMsheer FOO-uhr goh lohr fwee HOU-in” DOH-skil shay* un DUH-ruhs AH-guhs K*OO-ig shay* uh-MAHK*. k*ir shay* glahs er un DUH-ruhs LEN-uh OHK*-hir. un-SHIN DIM-ee shay* lesh, shees un traw*d, hun un bus uh AW*-il. vee LEEN-e DEEN-e eg KOON-ye nuh SRAW*D-e, uh FAH-re er un mus. Translation: Brian stood up, walked to the door, and put on his coat. “It’s not as cold today as it was yesterday”, thought Brian to himself, “but I prefer to wear my coat. The weather’s cold enough in November.” He opened the door and went out. He locked the door with his key. Then he left, down the street, to get the bus. There was a line of persons at the street corner, waiting for the bus. Notes: “Chun an bus a fháil” is typical of one way to show purpose. The object comes before the verbal noun. Other examples: chun an leabhar a thabhairt dom, to give the book to me; chun focal a rá leo, to say a word to them; chun dul abhaile, to go home.

Lesson 48 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW The letter groups “abh” and “amh” without síneadh fada over the “a”, in a first syllable and inside a word, are usually pronounced (ou) as in the English word “out”. Examples of the pronunciation of these: abha (OU-uh), river babhta (BOU-tuh), bout labhair (LOU-ir), speak gabha (GOU-uh), smith leabhar (LOU-wuhr), book Feabhra (FOU-ruh), February amhras (OU-ruhs), doubt amhrán (ou-RAW*N), song ramhar (ROU-wuhr), fat amharclann (OU-uhr-kluhn), theater samhra (SOU-ruh), summer Samhain (SOU-in), November In a later syllable or at a word end, “amh” or “abh” can be pronounced (v), as in: agallamh (uh-GAHL-uhv), dialogue déanamh (DAY*N-uhv), making, doing léamh (LAY*-uhv), reading cliabh (kleev), basket sliabh (shleev), mountain A síneadh fada over the “a” in “amh” or “abh” usually results in an (aw*v) sound. Examples: lámh (law*v), hand; ábhar (AW*-wuhr), material, subject; sámh (saw*v), pleasant. GRAMMAR Here are some more uses for the preposition “do” (duh), meaning “to” or “for”. The common salutation “Dia duit”, which becomes “Dia daoibh” (DEE-uh geev) when you address two or more persons, is an example. It is a shortened form of: “Go mbeannaí (goh MAN-ee) Dia duit”; may God bless you. Tabhair dom é (TOO-ir duhm ay*), give it to me; tugaim an t-airgead dó (TUG-im un TAR-i-guhd doh), I give him the money, are examples of “do” with “give”. The pronouns “é, í, iad” go to the end of the sentence. Lig dom é a dhéanamh, let me do it; lig sé don fhear an leabhar a léamh, he let the man read the book. Taispeáin dom é (tash-PAW*-in duhm ay*), show it to me. Tá grá aige di (taw* graw* eg-GE dee), he loves her. Is fíor duit (is FEE-uhr git), true for you, you are right. Is duitse é seo, this is for you. VOCABULARY Masculine nouns garáiste (guh-RAW*SH-te), garage glas (glahs), lock grá (graw*), love Feminine nouns duilleog, an duilleog (dil-YOHG, un dil-YOHG), leaf craobh, an chraobh (kray*v, un K*RAY*V), branch tarraing, ag tarraingt (TAHR-ing, uh TAHR-inkt), pull tarraingím (TAHR-ing-eem), I pull céanna (KAY*-uh-nuh), same sroich, ag sroicheadh (sri, uh SRI-huh), reach a destination sroich sé an chathair (sri shay* un K*AH-hir), he reached the city DRILL Go through a progressive drill with “do”, starting with: An ligeann sé dom é a cheannach? Ní ligeann sé dom é a cheannach. Ligeann sé duit é a cheannach. An ligeann sé duit é a cheannach? Etc. READING EXERCISE The narrative from Lesson 47 is continued. D’éirigh an ghrian níos airde sa spéir, agus bhí Brian ábalta an tsráid agus na tithe le taobh na sráide a fheiscint. Ní raibh mórán duilleog ar na crainn, agus shéid an ghaoth trí na craobhacha loma. Bhí an geimhreadh ag teacht.

Bheannaigh Brian do Shéan, cara leis. Bhí Seán ina chónaí i dteach níos faide thuas an tsráid, timpeall leathmhíle ó Bhrian. “Cá bhfuil do charr, a Bhrian”,. arsa Seán leis. “Ó, tá obair le déanamh air. Tá sé i mo gharáiste fós. Níl an t-am agam chun na deisithe a dhéanamh,” arsa Brian. Key: DEYE-ree un YREE-uhn nees AR-de suh spay*r, AH-guhs vee BREE-uhn AW*-buhl-tuh un traw*d AH-guhs nuh TEE-huh le tay*v nuh SRAW*D-e uh ESH-kint. nee rev moh-RAW*N dil-YOHG er nuh krin, AH-guhs hay*d un gway* tree nuh KRAY*V-uh-huh LOHM-uh. vee un GEV-ruh uh TYAHK*T. VAN-ee BREE-uhn duh hyaw*n, KAH-ruh lesh. vee shaw*n nuh K*OHN-ee i DAHK* nees FAH-de HOO-uhs un traw*d, TIM-puhl la-VEELe oh VREE-uhn. “kaw* vwil duh k*ahr, uh VREE-uhn”, ER-suh shaw*n lesh. “oh, taw* OH-bir le DAY*N-uhv er. taw* shay* i muh guhRAW*SH-te fohs. neel un toum uh-GUHM hun nuh DESH-i-he uh YAY*N-uhv”, ER-suh BREE-uhn. Translation: The sun rose higher in the sky, and Brian was able to see the street and the houses along the street. There weren’t many leaves on the trees, and the wind blew through the bare branches. Winter was coming. Brian greeted Seán, his friend. Seán lived in a house farther up the street, about a half mile from Brian. “Where is your car, Brian”, said Seán to him. “Oh, there’s work to be done on it. It’s in my garage still. I don’t have time to make the repairs,” said Brian. Notes: “High” is “ard”, but “higher” is “níos airde”. Often in going to the comparative, the last consonant in an adjective becomes slender, as in “fada”, which becomes “níos faide”, longer, farther. One way to say “to be able” is: “Tá sé ábálta.” Another way is: “Is féidir leis” (is FAY*-dir lesh), he can. The verbal noun follows both: Tá sé ábálta an obair a dhéanamh. “Beannaím dó” means “I greet him”. When you dwell or reside in a place, “Bíonn tú i do chónaí ann,” (BEE-uhn too i duh K*OHN-ee oun), You be in your living there. We are living here” is “Bímid inár gcónaí anseo” (BEE-mid in aw*r GOHN-ee un-SHUH), we be in our living here.

Lesson 49 PRONUNCIATION The letter group “igh” at a word end usually gets the sound (ee), sometimes shortened and sometimes nearly the full length that an “í” would have. In some parts of Ireland, the sound retains a faint (g) at the end, so that “suigh” would be (sig). Some examples: suigh (si), luigh (li), ceannaigh (KAN-ee), imigh (IM-ee), bailigh (BAHL-ee). The síneadh fada is generally not found on the “i” of final “igh,” but a few words have it to prevent doubt: cloígh (klee), defeat. PRONUNCIATION EXERCISE Read this passage slowly without looking at the key below it. Then read it a second time, making use of the key if you are unsure. Do not try to make sense of the words; concentrate on the pronunciation and on grouping the words into phrases: Le tamall anuas, léitear cead cainte ar mhodh an aistriúcháin. Bhí fleá le bheith faoin phíce atá ina láimh, agus saothar liteartha a bhfuil ráite cheana féin. Idir fhorbairt agus uile i gCois Fharraige le pinsin mhaithe acu do na glúnta atá ag teacht taobh istigh go raibh seilbh acu trí chéim san obair, le foilsitheoireacht oideachais. le TAH-muhl uh-NOO-uhs, LAY*-tyuhr kad KEYENT-e er vwoh un ASH-troo-k*aw*in. vee flaw* le ve fween FEEK-e taw* IN-uh LAW*-iv, AH-guhs SAY*-uhr LI-ter-huh uh vwil RAW*-tye HAN-uh fay*n. ID-ir OHR-birt AH-guhs IL-e i gish AH-rig-e le PIN-shin VWAH-e ahKUH duh nuh GLOON-tuh taw* uh TYAHK*T tay*v ish-TEE goh rev SHEL-iv ah-KUH tree hyay*m suhn OH-bir, le fwil-shi-HOH-i-rahk*t i-DAHK*-hish. GRAMMAR We now begin the future tense. The first forms will be for the verb “tá.” To say “I shall be” or “I will be,” the form is “beidh mé” (be may*). In some parts of Ireland, this is pronounced (beg may*). The rest of the future is: beidh tú (be too), you will be beidh sé (be shay), he will be beidh sí (be shee), she will be beimid (BE-mid), we shall be beidh sibh (be shiv), you will be beidh siad (be SHEE-uhd), they will be These forms can be combined with the verbal noun in the same way that you form “Tá sé ag teacht” to say “He is coming.” “Beidh sé ag teacht” means “He will be coming.” The negative of “beidh” is: Ní bheidh mé (nee ve may*), I shan’t be Ní bheidh tú (nee ve too), you won’t be; etc. Examples of the negative’s use: Ní bheidh Seán ag an siopa; John won’t be at the store. Ní bheidh airgead agam; I won’t have money. To ask a question, the forms are: An mbeidh mé? (un me may*), will I be? An mbeidh tú? (un me too), will you be? Etc. The negative questions are: Nach mbeidh mé? (nahk* me may*), won’t I be? Etc. VOCABULARY amárach (uh-MAW*-rahk*), tomorrow go deo (guh DYOH), forever (in the future) an bhliain seo chugainn (un VLEE-in shuh HOO-in), next year (literally “the year coming toward us”) go luath (guh LOO-uh), soon an tseachtain seo chugainn (un TYAHK*T-in shuh HOO-in), next week (literally “the week coming toward us”) feasta (FAS-tuh), henceforth, in the future DRILL Go through a progressive drill with “beidh.” Start with: An mbeidh mé ar an mbus amárach? Ní bheidh mé ar an mbus amárach. Beidh tú ar an mbus amárach. An mbeidh tú ar an mbus amárach? Etc. The last sentence will be: Beidh mé ar an mbus amárach. READING EXERCISE

Tháinig an bus faoi dheireadh, agus chuaigh na paisinéirí go léir air. “Tá súil agam go mbeidh suíochán compordach agam,” dúirt Brian leis féin. Bhí cúpla suíochán thiar i gcúl an bhus, agus shúil Brian siar fan phasáiste. Leathuair ina dhiaidh sin, bhí an bus sa chathair, agus tharraing Brian an corda chun comhartha a thabhairt don tiománaí. Stad an bus ag an gcúinne, agus thuirling Brian. Key: HAW*-nig un bus fwee YER-uh, AH-guhs HOO-ig nuh pahsh-i-NAY*R-ee goh lay*r er. “taw* SOO-il uh-GUHM guh me see-K*AW*N kuhm-POHR-dahk* uh-GUHM,” DOO-irt BREE-uhn lesh fay*n. vee KOOP-luh see-K*AW*N heer i gool un vus, AH-guhs HYOO-il BREEuhn SHEE-uhr fuhn fuh-SAW*-shte. la-OO-ir nuh YEE-uh shin, vee un bus suh K*AH-hir, AH-guhs HAHR-ing BREE-uhn un KOHR-duh hun KOH-uhr-huh uh HOO-irt duhn ti-MAW*N-ee. stahd un bus eg un GOON-ye, AH-guhs HIR-ling BREE-uhn. Translation: The bus came at last, and the passengers all went on. “I hope that I will have a comfortable seat,” said Brian to himself. There were a couple of seats back in the bus, and Brian walked back along the aisle. Half an hour later, the bus was in the city, and Brian pulled the cord to signal the driver. The bus stopped at the corner, and Brian got off. Notes: “Back” in the sense of distant is “thiar.” When you walk or move back, you go “siar.” This is similar to “thuas,” meaning “above,” and “suas,” meaning motion upwards. Irish often uses a verb and noun where English would use only a verb. We say, “chun comhartha a thabhairt,” to give a signal, instead of “to signal.” You will see more of this as we go on.

Lesson 50 PRONUNCIATION The groups “oigh” and “oidh”, without a síneadh fada and at the beginning or middle of a word, sometimes takes an (eye) sound, as in the English word “bygone.” Examples are: oighear (EYE-uhr), ice; foighne (FEYE-ne), patience; oidhreacht (EYE-rahk*t), heritage; oidhre (EYE-re), heir. At the end of a word, these groups often take an (OH-ee) sound, as in: ceannóidh (kan-OH-ee); imeoidh (im-YOH-ee). GRAMMAR With the verb “tá”, the indirect speech forms for the future tense allow you to say sentences such as: He says that he will be here. Deir sé go mbeidh sé anseo. (der shay* goh me shay* un-SHUH). I think that John won’t have the car. Is dóigh liom nach mbeidh an carr ag Seán. (is DOH-ee luhm nahk* me un kahr eg shaw*n). We think that she will be angry. Is dóigh linn go mbeidh fearg uirthi. (is D)H-ee lin goh me FAR-ruhg IR-ee). In the case of regular verbs, the future is formed for the short verbs, such as “dún” (doon), close, in this way: dúnfaidh mé (DOON-hee may*), I shall close dúnfaidh too (DOON-hee too), you shall close dúnfaidh sé, sí (DOON-hee shay*, shee), he, she will close dúnfaimid (DOON-hi-mid), we shall close dúnfaidh sibh, siad (DOON-hee shiv, SHEE-uhd), you, they will close The negative forms are: ní dhúnfaidh mé (nee GOON-hee may*), I won’t close ní dhúnfaidh tú (nee GOON-hee too), you won’t close ní dhúnfaidh sé, sí; he, she won’t close ní dhúnfaimid (nee GOON-hi-mid), we won’t close ní dhúnfaidh sibh, siad, you, they won’t close Note that the word “ní” causes aspiration of the consonant starting the verb form. To ask questions in the future tense: An ndúnfaidh mé? (un NOON-hee may*), Shall I close? Etc. Nach ndúnfaidh mé? (nahk* NOON-hee may*), shan’t I close? Etc. An ndúnfaimid? (un NOON-hi-mid), Will we close? Etc. Nach ndúnfaimid? (nahk* NOON-hi-mid), Won’t we close? Etc. Here, the word “an” causes eclipsis of the consonant starting the verb form. The letter”f” in the future form, although not pronounced as an “f”, does cause a pronunciation change. There is a difference between “dúnaimid” (DOON-i-mid), we close, and “dúnfaimid” (DOON-hi-mid”, we will close. Make sure that your pronunciation makes this clear. The verbs with two syllables generally form the future in a slightly different way. They have an (oh) sound in the word to indicate the future tense. Here is the method: ceannoidh mé (kan-OH-ee may*), I shall buy ceannoidh tú (kan-OH-ee too), you will buy. Etc. ní cheannoidh mé (nee hyan-OH-ee may*), I shall not buy. Etc. an gceannoidh mé? (un gyan-OH-ee may*), shall I buy? Etc. ceannoimid (kan-OH-i-mid), we will buy. Etc. ní cheannoimid (nee hyan-OH-i-mid), we will not buy. Etc. an gceannoimid? (un gyan-OH-i-mid), will we buy? Etc. Two-syllable verbs ending in -il, -ir, -is, and -in form the future similarly. For example: oscail becomes: osclóidh mé (oh-SKLOH-ee may*), I shall open imir becomes: imreoidh mé (im-ROH-ee may*), I shall play cosain becomes: cosnoidh mé (kuhs-NOH-ee may*), I shall defend inis becomes: inseoidh mé (in-SHOH-ee may*), I shall tell The irregular verbs are less irregular in the future than in the past tense, but we will not start on them now. You will recognize “déanfaidh mé é” (DAY*N-hee may* ay*) immediately as “I shall do it”, but some of the other irregular verbs are a bit more difficult to recognize in the future tense. DRILL We will do some recognition drilling for the future tense and other tenses in the next few weeks. Try these in Irish first:

Bearrfaidh mé mé féin. Ólfaidh sé é. Ní ghlanfaidh mé é. Nach gcaillfidh sibh é? An gceapfaidh sí é sin? Nach gceannóidh tú rud eile? Fillfimid abhaile. Ní fhoghlaimeoidh sé go deo é. Críochnóimid an obair go luath. An ndiolfaidh tú é? Key: BYAHR-hee may* may* fay*n. OHL-hee shay* ay*. nee GLUHN-hee may* ay*. nahk* GEYEL-hee shiv ay*? un GYAP-hee shee ay* shin? nahk* gyan-OH-ee too ruhd EL-e? FIL-hi-mid uh-VWAHL-e. nee ou-lim-OH-ee shay* goh dyoh ay*. kree-uhk*-NYOH-i-mid uh OH-bir guh LOO-uh. un NYEEL-hee too ay*? Translation: I shall shave myself. He will drink it. I won’t clean it. Won’t you lose it? Will she think that? Won’t you buy something else? We will return home. He won’t ever learn it. We will finish the work soon. Will you sell it? Finally, try these: Feicfidh mé é. Déanfaidh sé é. Cloisfimid an fear. Déarfaidh sé liom é. (They are for irregular verbs).

Lesson 51 This lesson we give you a table of contents of the first 50 lessons, to help you find topics for review more easily. Pronunciation guide system; study methods. Verb “tá”; sound of “d, t, á”. Aspiration. Verb “tá”; definite article “the”. The síneadh fada; use of adjectives. Sound of “l”; verb “tá”. Sound of “r”. Eclipsis. Sound of “o”; imperative; reflex expressions; check list. Sound of “c”, g”; verb “is”. Sound of “ea”; reflex expressions. Sound of “eo”; verb “is”. Sound of “p, b, m”; reflex expressions. Sound of “n”; verb “is”. Sound of “s”; “tá” with verbal noun; reflex expressions. Sound of “f”. Sound of “___ th”; verb “to have”. Sound of “___ ái___”; preposition “ag”. Sound of “___ abh ___”; “___amh ___”; past tense of “tá”. Sound of “ ___adh ___”; “ ___agh ___”. Sound of “ ___ omh ___”; past tense of “to have”. Review of pronunciation guide; identification by use of “is”. Sound of “c, g”; “tá” versus “is”. Sound of “t, d”; practice with “is”. Sound of “p, b, m”; past tense of regular verbs. Sound of “f”; past tense of regular verbs. Sound of “l”; past tense of regular verbs. Sound of “n”; past tense of regular verbs; reflex expressions. Sound of “r, ch”; past tense of “come” and “go”. Sound of “s”; preposition “le”. Sound of “ng ___”; uses of “le”. Omission of sounds in conversation; uses of “le”; reflex expressions. The síneadh fada; uses of “le”. Sound of “o”; verbal adjectives; irregular verbs. Sound of “ch”. Preposition “ar”. Uses of “ar”; cardinal numbers 1 - 12. Present tense of regular verbs; numbers with nouns. Regional variations in pronunciation; present tense of regular verbs. Numbers with nouns; present tense of irregular verbs. Numbers with nouns; present and past tenses of regular verbs. Present and past tenses of regular verbs. Sounds of broad versus slender consonants; present and past tenses of irregular verbs. Sound of “u”; indirect speech. Sound of “e”; indirect speech. Sound of “i”; “bíonn” form of “tá”. Sound of “eo”; preposition “do”. Sound of “___abh ___” and “___amh___”; uses of “do”. Sound of “___ igh”; future tense of “tá”. Sound of “___oigh___” and “___oidh___”; future tense of “tá” and regular verbs. Translation of sentences at the end of Lesson 50 I will see it. He will do it. We will hear the man. He will tell me it. GRAMMAR The future tense can make use of much of the grammar that we have previously covered. For example, indirect speech is possible with it. To say, “I think that he will be here”, the form is: Is dóigh liom go mbeidh sé anseo (is DOH-ee luhm goh me shay* un-SHUH). To say, “I hear that they won’t be here,” say: Cloisim nach mbeidh siad anseo (KLISH-im nahk* me SHEE-uhd un-SHUH). “Do you think that we will buy it?” is: An dóigh leat go gceannnóimid é? (un DOH-ee lat goh gyan-OH-i-mid ay*)

DRILL Read these sentences and translate them, using the Key and Translation below only if necessary. An osclóidh sé é? An gcreidfidh sé an scéal? Ní ghlaofaidh siad ar na páistí. Cíorfaidh mé mo ghruaig. Nach gcaillimid iad? Ní bhearrfaidh tú amárach. Nach ndéanfaidh tú an ceacht? Éireoidh mé ar a sé a chlog. Aontóidh sé liom. Key: un oh-SKLOH-ee shay* ay*? un GRET-hee shay* un SHKAY*L? nee GLAY*-hee SHEE-uhd er nuh PAW*SH-tee. KEER-hee may* muh GROO-ig. nahk* GEYEL-hi-mid EE-uhd. nee VAR-hee too uh-MAW*-rahk*. nahk* NYAY*N-hee too un KYAHK*T? eye-ROH-ee may* er uh shay* uh K*LUHG. ay*n-TOH-ee shay* luhm. Translation: Will he open it? Will he believe the story? They won’t call the children. I will comb my hair. Won’t we lose them? You won’t shave tomorrow. Won’t you do the lesson? I shall arise at six o’clock. He will agree with me.

Lesson 52 GRAMMAR Place names in Irish often differ from the English versions. You probably know that Baile Átha Cliath (blaw* KLEE-uh) is the Irish name of the capital of Ireland. Most other place names in Irish are not so much longer than the English form, however. We will start with Éire (AY-re), meaning “Ireland.” Make sure that you give proper length to the first vowel in the word, or it will sound like (E-ruh), which would be a different word entirely. In the possessive case, “Éire” becomes “na hÉireann” (nuh HAY*R-uhn), again with a long “É” vowel. Learn these examples: Poblacht na hÉireann (POH-blahk*t nuh HAY*R-uhn), the Republic of Ireland. Banc na hÉireann (bahnk), the Bank of Ireland. Muintir na hÉireann (MWIN-teer), the people of Ireland, or the Irish people. In these examples, the word “na” means “the”, and when used in this way tells you to put the word “the” first in the translation. Irish puts “an” in front of many place and country names. For example, France is “an Fhrainc” (un RAHNK). The Bank of France is “Banc na Fraince”, with an “e” added to “Frainc” to show the possessive case. Most Irish nouns keep their basic form when they follow prepositions like “ag, ar, le”. A few change, however, and “Éire” is one of these. “In Ireland” is “in Éirinn” (in AY*R-in). “To Ireland” is “chuig Éirinn” (hig AY*R-in) or “go hÉirinn” (goh AY*R-in). The word “go”, meaning “to”, causes an “h” to go before a word beginning with a vowel. Ireland has four provinces or “cúigí” (KOO-ig-ee). These are: Cúige Connacht (KOO-ig-e KOHN-uhk*t), Connaught Cúige Mumhan (KOO-ig-e MOO-uhn), Munster Cúige Uladh (U-luh), Ulster Cúige Laighean (LEYE-uhn), Leinster Munster is sometimes called “an Mhumhain” (un VOO-in), and “in Munster” is “sa Mhumhain” (suh VOO-in). “In Connaught” can be “i gConnachta” (i GOHN-uhk*t-uh). To say that you come from one of the provinces: “Is ó Chúige ___________ mé” (is oh K*OO-ig-e __________ may*). For the United States of America, you can say “na Stáit” (nuh STAW*-it), the States, or “Stáit Aontaithe Meiriceá” (STAW*-it AY*N-tuh-he MER-i-kaw*), United States of America. In a few weeks, we will take up names of towns and geographical features, so that you will be able to understand some of the Irish place names and begin to use Irish names wherever possible. VOCABULARY Masculine Nouns stróc (strohk), stroke (sickness) taom de thinneas croí (tay*m de HIN-yuhs kree), heart attack bille (BIL-e), bill meicneoir (mek-NYOH-ir), mechanic casúr (kah-SOOR), hammer Feminine Nouns uirlis, an uirlise (OOR-lish, un OOR-lish-e), tool, the tool moill, an mhoill (mwil, un VWIL), delay, the delay ordóg, an ordóg (ohr-DOHG, un ohr-DOHG), thumb ullmhaigh, ag ullmhú (Ul-vwee, eg UL-vwoo), prepare ullmhaím (UL-vweem), I prepare leag amach, ag leagan amach (lag uh-MAHK*, uh LAG-uhn uh-MAHK*), prepare glac, ag glacadh (glahk, uh GLAHK-uh), accept, take socraigh, ag socrú (SOH-kree, uh SOH-kroo), arrange oilte (IL-te), skilled dílis (DEE-lish), faithful DRILL Translate these verb forms. Look at the key only if necessary. Caith amach é. Ní fhaca me riamh é. An mbearrfaidh sé é fein? Cailleann sé gach rud. Nár éirigh tú ar maidin? Buail arís é. Ar fhágamar ag baile é? Scuabfaidh siad an halla. Key: kah uh-MAHK* ay*. nee AH-kuh may* reev ay*. un MAHR-hee shay* ay* fay*n? KEYE-luhn shay* gahk* rud. naw*r EYE-ree too er MAH-din? BOO-il uh-REESH ay*. er AW*G-uh-muhr eg BAHL-e ay*? SKOOP-hee SHEE-uhd un HAHL-uh. Translation: Throw it out. I never saw him. Will he shave? He loses everything. Didn’t you get up this morning? Hit it again. Did we leave it

home? They will sweep the hall. READING EXERCISE Chuaigh Brian isteach sa gharáiste agus d’ullmhaigh sé dá obair. Meicneoir gluaisteáin sea é, meicneoir sár-oilte dílis. Fuair sé a uirlisí, agus thosaigh sé ag obair. An Luan ba ea é, agus bhí mórán gluaisteáin fanacht lena ndeisiú. D’obair Brian go daingean (DAHNG-uhn), mar bhí sé macánta, le cois bheith oilte. Ní bhuaileann sé go minic a ordóg le casúr, mar a deirtear (DER-tyuhr). San oifig, bhí na custaiméiri ag teacht agus ag imeacht. Fuair siad an bille, agus ansin fuair roinnt (rint) dóibh stróc nó taom de thinneas croí. Bhí na billí chomh hard sin. Ní féidir leo an obair a fháil in áit ar bith eile, áfach. Tá áthas ar Bhrian faoi sin, ar chor ar bith. Translation: Brian went into the garage and prepared for work. An auto mechanic he is, a highly skilled and faithful one. He got his tools and began to work. It was Monday, and there were many autos waiting to be repaired. Brian worked steadily, for he was honest, in addition to being skilled. He doesn’t hit his thumb with a hammer often, as it is said. In the office, the customers came and went. They got the bill, and then some of them had strokes or heart attacks. The bills were that high. They can’t get the work in any other place, however. Brian is happy about that, anyway.

Lesson 53 PRONUNCIATION EXERCISE Read the Irish below slowly without looking at the key below. Then read it a second time, making use of the key if you are unsure. Do not try to make sense of the words; concentrate on the pronunciation and on grouping the words into phrases. baineann an foras ó thaobh cúrsaí airgid agus gloine dhaite ar cheann de na seancharranna sé lá den tseachtain. Ní raibh de bhuntáiste acu, ach cúigear múinteoir ba dheise ar fad den oíche. Mar atá ráite agam, bíonn sé le fáil ar níos lú. Key: BWIN-uhn uhn FOHR-uhs oh hay*v KOOR-see AR-i-gid AH-guhs GLIN-uh GAH-te er hyoun de nuh shan-K*AHR-uh-nuh shay* law* den TYAHK*T-in. nee rev de vun-TAW*SH-te ah-KUH, ahk* KOO-ig-uhr moo-in-TYOHR buh YESH-e er fahd den EE-huh. mahr taw* RAW*-tye uh-GUHM, BEE-uhn shay* le FAW*-il er nees loo. GRAMMAR In the future tense, the irregular verbs are more readily recognizable than when they are in the past tense, but several of them differ considerably from what you would expect of a regular verb. Here are the forms: feicfidh mé (FEK-hee may*), I shall see ní fheicfidh mé (nee EK-hee may*), I shall not see an bhfeicfidh mé? (un VEK-hee may*), shall I see? cloisfidh mé (KLISH-hee may*), I shall hear ní chloisfidh mé (nee K*LISH-hee may*), I shall not hear an gcloisfidh mé? (un GLISH-hee may*), shall I hear? tiocfaidh mé (TYUHK-hee may*), I shall come ní thiocfaidh mé (nee HUHK-hee may*), I shall not come an dtiocfaidh mé? (un DYUHK-hee may*), shall I come? rachaidh mé (RAHK*-hee may*), I shall go ní rachaidh mé (nee RAHK*-hee may*), I shall not go An rachaidh mé? (un RAHK*-hee may*), shall I go? déanfaidh mé (DAY*N-hee may*), I shall make, do ní dhéanfaidh mé (nee YAY*N-hee may*), I shall not make, do an ndéanfaidh mé? (un NYAY*N-hee may*), shall I make, do déarfaidh mé (DYAY*R-hee may*), I shall say ní déarfaidh mé (nee DYAY*R-hee may*), I shall not say an ndéarfaidh mé? (un NYAY*R-hee may*), shall I say? tabharfaidh mé (TOOR-hee may*), I shall give ní thabharfaidh mé (nee HOOR-hee may*), I shall not give an dtabharfaidh mé? (un DOOR-hee may*), shall I give? gheobhaidh mé (YOH-ee may*), I shall get ní bhfaighidh mé (nee VWEYE-ee may*), I shall not get an bhfaighidh mé? (un VWEYE-ee may*), shall I get? béarfaidh mé air (BAY*R-hee may* er), I shall catch him ní bhéarfaidh mé air (nee VAY*R-hee may* er), I shall not catch him an mbéarfaidh mé air? (un MAY*R-hee may* er), shall I catch him íosfaidh mé (EES-hee may*), I shall eat ní íosfaidh mé (nee EES-hee may*), I shall not eat an íosfaidh mé? (un EES-hee may*), shall I eat? Note that the negative “ní déarfaidh mé” does not have an aspirated “d”, although it is eclipsed in “an ndéarfaidh mé?”. For indirect speech, the forms are eclipsed, as in “is dóigh liom go dtiocfaidh sé” (is DOH-ee luhm goh DYUHK-hee shay*), I think that he will come. You will need some drill with these future forms, and we will make use of them extensively for a few weeks to give you fluency in them. VOCABULARY Masculine nouns ceapaire (KAP-uh-re), sandwich adhmad, an t-adhmad (EYE-muhd, un TEYE-muhd), wood adhmaid (EYE-mwid), of wood, wooden bailigh, ag bailiú (BAHL-ee, uh BAHL-yoo), gather, collect; bailím (BAHL-eem), I gather

fiafraigh, ag fiafraí (FEE-uhr-ee, uh FEE-uhr-ee), ask (for information); fiafraím de (FEE-uhr-eem de), I ask him lig, ag ligean (lig, uh LIG-uhn), let; ligeann sé dom, he lets me imir, ag imirt (IM-ir, eg IM-irt), play (a game); imrím cártaí (IM-reem KAW*R-tee), I play cards rinc, ag rince (rink, uh RINK-e), dance cineálta (kin-AW*L-tuh), kind-hearted néata (NAY*-tuh), neat buíoch (BWEE-uhk*), thankful; buíoch diot (BWEE-uhk* DEE-uht), thankful to you DRILL First, go through a progressive drill with each of the irregular verbs in the future tense: feic, clois, tar, téigh, abair, tabhair, faigh, beir ar, and ith. Start with: an bhfeicfidh mé Seán? Ní fheicfidh mé Seán. Feicfidh tú Seán. An bhfeicfidh tú Seán? Ní fheicfidh tú Seán. Feicfidh sé Seán. Etc. the last sentence will be: Feicfidh mé Seán. For the others, begin with: An gcloisfidh mé Seán? An dtiocfaidh mé abhaile? An rachaidh mé amach? An ndéarfaidh mé é sin? An dtabharfaidh mé do Mháire é? An bhfaighidh mé an t-airgead? (TAR-i-guhd) An mbéarfaidh mé ar an bhfear? An íosfaidh mé an lón? Then review the past and present tenses of these iregular verbs, as given in previous lessons.

Lesson 54 PRONUNCIATION EXERCISES Read the Irish words aloud once slowly, then repeat them, looking at the key below if you are not sure of the pronunciation. rinn, dúinn, linn, fógra, romhainn, iascaireacht, deireadh, marbh, maraon, cóiriú, airgead, airgid, te, tuigthe, cáin, tháinig, eacnamaíocht, creachadóireacht, cruinniú, coinneáil, stiúrthóir, fírinneach Key: rin, DOO-in, lin, FOHG-ruh, ROH-in, EES-kuh-rahk*t, DER-uh, MAHR-ruhv, mahr-AY*N, KOH-ir-oo, AR-i-guhd, AR-i-gid, te, TIG-he, KAW*-in, HAW*-nig, ahk-NAHM-ee-ohk*t, krak-uh-DOH-i-rahk*t, KRIN-yoo, KIN-aw*-il, shtyoor-HOH-ir, FEER-i-nyahk* GRAMMAR In Irish, you say “Tá sé ag rith” for “He is running”. “Beidh sé ag rith” means “He will be running”. With certain verbs, meaning sitting, standing, lying, sleeping, walking, and residing, the form is a little different. For those, we say “He is in his sitting” or “They are in their standing”, for example, and the Irish for these two examples is: “Tá sé ina shuí.” “Tá siad ina seasamh.” Here are some more complete examples of this: tá mé i mo shuí (taw* may* i muh HEE), I am sitting tá tú i do shuí (i duh HEE), you are sitting tá sé ina shuí (in-uh HEE), he is sitting tá sí ina suí (in-uh SEE), she is sitting táimid inár suí (TAW*-mid in-aw*r SEE), we are sitting tá sibh in bhur suí (taw* shiv in vwoor SEE), you are sitting tá Máire ina suí (taw* MAW*-re in-uh SEE), Mary is sitting tá mé i mo sheasamh (taw* may* i muh HAS-uhv), I am standing tá tú i do sheasamh (i duh HAS-uhv), you are standing tá sé ina sheasamh (in-uh HAS-uhv), he is standing tá sí ina seasamh (in-uh SHAS-uhv), she is standing táimid inár seasamh (in-aw*r SHAS-uhv), we are standing tá siad ina seasamh (in-uh SHAS-uhv), they are standing tá Seán ina sheasamh (in-uh HAS-uhv), John is standing The negative and questions are formed by merely changing “tá” to “níl” or “an bhfuil.” Past and future tense also merely change “tá”. For example, “I will be standing here” is “Beidh mé i mo sheasamh anseo” (be may* i muh HAS-uhv un-SHUH). These verb forms are annoying at first because you find it slow to get the proper aspiration or eclipsis. “My, your, his” all aspirate, and “our, your (plural), their” all eclipse. Practice helps on this. Other verbs in this group are: luigh (li), i mo luí (i muh LEE), lie (lie down) dúisigh (DOO-shee), i mo dhúiseacht (i muh GOO-shahk*t), be awake codlaigh (KUHL-ee), i mo chodladh (i muh K*UHL-uh), sleep cónaigh (KOHN-ee), i mo chónaí (i muh K*OHN-ee), dwell, reside And finally, “táim i mo thost” (TAW*-im i muh HUHST) means “I am silent”. DRILL Progressive drill is important for these verbs. Make sure that you go through at least one drill for each of the verbs, so that the changes, including those caused by aspiration and eclipsis, become familiar to you. Start with a simple one: luigh (li), pronounced with the tongue spread wide and pushed against the upper front teeth. An bhfuil mé i mo luí? (un vwil may* i muh LEE), Am I lying down? Níl mé i mo luí. Tá tú i do luí. An bhfuil tú i do luí? Níl tú i do luí. Tá sé ina luí. An bhfuil sé ina luí? Níl sé ina luí. Tá sí ina luí. An bhfuil sí ina luí? Níl sí ina luí. Táimid inár luí. (TAW*-mid in-aw*r LEE). An bhfuilimid inár luí? Nílimid inár luí. Tá sibh in bhur luí. (in vwoor LEE). An bhfuil sibh in bhur luí? Níl sibh in bhur luí. Tá siad ina luí. An bhfuil siad ina luí? Níl siad ina luí. Tá mé i mo luí. Another example: An bhfuilim i mo chónaí (i muh K*OHN-ee) ansin? Nílim i mo chónaí ansin. Tá tú i do chónaí ansin. (i duh K*OHN-ee un-SHIN). An bhfuil tú i do chónaí ansin? Etc. The last two sentences will be: Níl siad ina gcónaí ansin (in-uh GOHN-ee un-SHIN). Táim i mo chónaí ansin. Next, read these sentences. If you can not understand them, look at the translation below. Bhí sí ina codladh (in-uh KUHL-uh). An mbeidh sibh in bhur seasamh ar an gcosán? (un ME shiv in vwoor SHAS-uhv er un guh-SAW*N) Ní bheimid. Dúirt sé go rabhamar inár dtost ansin (DOO-irt shay* goh ROU-uh-muhr in aw*r DUHST un-SHIN). Nach mbeimid inár gcónaí sa chathair? (nahk* ME-mid in aw*r GOHN-ee suh K*AH-hir) Beidh sibh (be shiv). Ní bhíonn tú i do shuí anseo (nee VEE-uhn too i duh HEE unSHUH). Nár chuala tú go raibh siad ina ndúiseacht? (naw*r K*OO-uh-luh too goh rev SHEE-uhd in-uh NOO-shahk*t) Chonaic mé nach raibh sé ina luí (k*uh-NIK may* nahk* rev shay* in-uh LEE).

Translation: She was sleeping. Will you be standing on the sidewalk? we won’t. He said that we were silent there. Won’t we be living in the city? You will. You are not usually sitting here. Didn’t you hear that they were awake. i saw that he wasn’t lying down. As you can see from these examples, these verbs can be combined in the same way as ordinary verbs to form more involved statements and questions. The verbs have other forms, too; for example, to say “He sleeps here,” use “Codlaíonn sé anseo: (kuhl-EE-uhn shay* un-SHUH).

Lesson 55 PRONUNCIATION EXERCISE Sound out these phrases, while trying to remember the rules you have learned in previous lessons; Laisteas de; daoine eile; an daoíne dhaonna; seasca faoin gcéad; ba mhaith liom é; ní bhfaighfeá é; cara; na cairde; dlúthchara. The pronunciation key and translation for these expressions are: (LASH-tuhs de), south of; laisteas de Luimneach: south of Limerick. (DEEN-uh EL-e), other persons. The “d” is broad, with tongue tip against the upper front teeth. (un DEEN-e GAY*-nuh), the human race. The first “d” is slender, with tongue tip against the ridge behind the upper front teeth. The second “d” is aspirated broad “d” and gets a (g) sound, with a trace of sound resembling English “w” after it. (SHAS-kuh fween gay*d), sixty percent. Pronounce the “f” with lips out, and a sound resembling English “w” will naturally follow it. (buh VWAH luhm ay*), I would like it. (nee VWEYE-faw* ay*), you wouldn’t get it. “Aigh” often takes the sound (eye). (KAH-ruh), friend. The “r” is broad, rolled somewhat. (nuh KAHR-de), the friends. The “d” here is slender and may sound as if a “y” followed it: (KAHR-dye). (dloo-K*AH-ruh), close friend. The “ch” sounds like the German “ach” sound that you know from radio and television imitations. VOCABULARY The Irish word “baile” (BAHL-e) has several meanings: town, village, farm, home, small settlement. “Sa bhaile” (suh VWAHL-e) or “ag baile” (eg BAHL-e) means “at home”. “Baile” is often part of the name of Irish towns. It is anglicized as “Bally”. Mispronunciations of this type were often deliberate and had the purpose of ridiculing and disparaging the central cultural legacy of Ireland, its language. One way to help in maintaining the language is to give Irish towns their Irish names at all times. Some examples of “baile” in town names: An Baile Mór (un BAHL-e mohr), the big town. Ballymore is the anglicized version. Baile an Tobair (BAHL-uhn TOH-bir), town of the well. “Tobar” is “well”, and “tobair”, with a slender “r”, is the possessive case, meaning “of the well”. Ballintober is the anglicized verison. Baile na Sionnaine (BAHL-e nuh SHUHN-in-e), town of the Shannon. “An tSionnain” is the “the Shannon”, and “na Sionnaine” is the possessive case, meaning “of the Shannon”. Ballyshannon is the anglicized version. Do not confuse “baile” with “béal” (bay*l), mouth or entrance: Béal Átha na Sluaighe (bay*l aw* nuh SLOO-e), mouth of the ford of the hosts. The anglicized version is Ballinasloe. DRILL Here is a recognition review of some of the vocabulary and grammar from past lessons. Read the essentials aloud. If yo do not grasp the meaning immediately, look at the translation below. This is not a translation exercise, so do not translate word for word. Rith amach agus faigh an madra. Rith sé isteach chun an leabhar a léamh. An labhraíonn sí leis an múinteoir? Béarfaidh mé ar an mbuachaill sin. Nár fhill siad abhaile fós? Bíonn siad ag stopadh ag an stáisiún gach oíche. Ná coimeád iad. Aontaím leat, a Mháire. Nach raibh tú i do sheasamh in aice na tine tamall? Chailleamar an t-airgead go léir. Dúirt sé nach ndearna sé é. Is é sin an fear. Is docttúir é. Dochtúir, an ea? Sea. Nach raibh mála aici? Sílim nach raibh. Bhuail muid é. Chuala mé nach raibh sé chomh maith leat. Is é Séan é. Nach í Bríd í? An bhfuil an bainne ólta agat? Key to some of the above words: (ri uh-MAHK*; feye; LOU-uhr; BAY*R-hee; EE-huh; kim-AW*D). Translation: Run out and get the dog. He ran in to read the book. Does she talk with the teacher? I will catch that boy. Didn’t they return home yet? They usually stop at the station every night. Don’t keep them. I agree with you, Mary. Weren’t you standing next to the fire for a while? We lost all the money. He said that he didn’t do it. That is the man. He is a doctor. A doctor, is it? It is. Did’t she have a bag? I think that she didn’t. We struck him. I heard that he wasn’t as good as you. It’s John. Isn’t it Bridget? Have you drunk the milk? If you found some of these sentences difficult, you may profit from a review of past lessons. WHERE YOU STAND At the present stage of your study, you know the basic forms of the verbs. You lack only the conditional, exemplified by “I would go”, the habitual past, some of the imperative mood, which gives commands, and also the free form or impersonal, which will allow you to say such thoughts as “It is bought here” or “people buy it here”. There are still many verbs that you need to bring your vocabulary up to the desired level, but you are well into the language now. Noun plurals are a topic that must come soon. We will work slowly into this, with the objective of developing your ability to sense what a plural form should be from the singular form of the word. Once we have given you a good vocabulary of verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, we will begin on idioms, which are speech forms whose meaning is not readily apparent from the individual words. All languages have these. An example: “Cuireann sé isteach air” means “He inter-

feres with him”, not “He puts in on him”. Many of these idioms, or cora cainte (KOH-ruh KEYENT-e), make use of prepositions, such as “ag”, “ar”, “le”, and others that you will soon learn. You know a number of idioms already, as you will discover.

Lesson 56 PRONUNCIATION The letter group “ai” in an accented syllable can have the sound (a) as in English “at” or (ah) as in English “Ah-hah”. “Ai” at the beginning of a word often has the (a) sound, as in: ait (at), strange; aingeal (ANG-uhl), angel; aibí (A-bee), ripe. A few words, such as “aige” (eg-E), at him, and “air” (er), on him, are exceptions. “Aimsir” (EYEM-sheer), weather, is another exception in parts of Ireland. In other parts it is pronounced (AM-sheer). When an accented “ai” follows the consonant b, c, f, g, m, p, it often takes an (ah) sound. You have learned this in these words: baile (BAHL-e), home; cailín (kah-LEEN), girl; faire (FAH-re), watching; gairid (GAH-rid), short; maith (mah), good; paidir (PAHD-ir), prayer. When accented “ai” follows d, l, n, r, s, t, it often takes the (a) sound. Examples are: daingean (DANG-uhn), fortress laisteas (LASH-tuhs); laisteas de, south of naipcín (nap-KEEN), napkin raidis (RA-dish), radish saileach (SAL-uhk*), willow taispeáin (tash-PAW*-in); taispeáin dom é, show me it The groups “aibh, aidh, aigh” are often pronounced (eye) when in an accented or initial syllable, as in: saibhir (SEYE-vir), rich aidhm (eyem), aim saighdiúir (seye-DYOO-ir), soldier GRAMMAR The preposition “de” means “off” or sometimes “of”. It also serves in some common idioms, such as, “Táim buíoch (BWEE-uhk*) de Sheán”, I am thankful to John. “De” aspirates the first consonant of the next word. If “an, the”, comes between, the “an” combines with the “da”, and aspiration occurs after the combination. An example: Thit sé den chapall (hit shay* den K*AHP-uhl), he fell off the horse. With pronouns, I, you, he, etc., “de” combines to form single words. Learn these: díom (DEE-uhm), off me díot (DEE-uht), off you de (de), off him di (dee), off her dínn (deen), off us díbh (deev), off you (plural) díobh (DEE-uhv), off them “De” means “of” in expressions such as: ceann díobh (kyoun DEE-uhv), one of them píosa den arán (PEES-uh den uh-RAW*N), a piece of bread an chuid is mó (k*wid is moh) den pháipéar, most of the paper Examples of idioms that contain “de” are: Fiafraigh de cá bhfuil Seán (FEE-uh-ree de kaw* vwil shaw*n), Ask him where John is. Tá sé buíoch díot, He is thankful to you. Táim tuirseach de (TAW*-im toor-SHAHK* de), I am tired of it. De ló is d’oíche (de loh is DEE-huh), day and night. De ghnábh (de GNAW*), usually. DRILL This is a recognition review of the irregular verbs in present, past, and future tenses. Read the sentences aloud. Do not translate word for word; instead, try to picture the meaning. If you do not remember what some words mean, wait until you have finished all the sentences before you look at the translation below. Nár chualamar Séamas ag teacht isteach? Ní fhaca sé a athair ag dul suas an staighre. Béarfaidh siad ar an gcéad léine a fheicfidh siad. Téim go dtí an siopa timpeall a sé a chlog. An dtiocfaidh sé abhaile leat? Nach dtagaimid tríd an tollán agus sinn ag teacht chuig an chathair? Rinneamar rud éigin le tabhairt dó. Ní dúirt sí linn go bhfuair sí bord nua. Íosfaidh sibh bhur lón ag baile. Gheobhaidh tú gloine bainne ar ball. Chonaic mé na madraí ag rith síos an tsráid. Translation: Didn’t we hear James coming in? He didn’t see his father going up the stairs. They will grab the first shirt that they see. I go to the store around six o’clock. Will he come home with you? Don’t we come through the tunnel when we come to the city? We made something to

give to him. She didn’t tell us that she got a new table. You will eat your lunch at home. You will get a glass of milk soon. I saw the dogs running along the street. REFLEX EXPRESSIONS Learn these expressions for use in conversation” Déan deifir (day*n DE-fir), Hurry up! Abair é (AH-bir ay*), You said it! Certainly! I agree. (Means “Say it”, literally.) Ar mhaith leat ____ ? (er VWAH lat), would you like ____ ? For example, Ar mhaith leat cupán tae?, Would you like a cup of tea? Ar ndóigh (er NOH-ee), of course. CONVERSATION Form answers or replies to each of these sentences assumed spoken to you. Make your answers as long as possible without prolonged pauses. Dia, dhuit, a Shéamais. Conas tá tú? Cá bhfuil tú ag dul? Bhí mé ann inné. An rachaidh tú go hÉirinn go luath? Nach bhfuil tú tuirseach anois? Cathain a imeoidh tú anocht? Cén t-ainm atá air? In each case, try to introduce some of the reflex expressions that you have learned. Keep each sentence of a long answer short.

Lesson 57 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW We will review the sounds for the letter “b” this week. “b” gets its slender sound when the nearest vowel in the word is “a” or “i”. Pronounce the slender sound like English “b” but keep your lips close to your front teeth. Try: beagán (beg-AW*N), a little; béal (bay*l), mouth; bí (bee), be; bille (BIL-e), bill; biorán (bi-RAW*N), pin; bliain (BLEE-in), year; bleán (blaw*n), milking. When a slender “r” follows “b”, you may hear a faint (i) sound between the “b” and the “r”. Try: breis; pronunciation is between (bresh) and (bi-RESH), increase. bréag; pronunciation is between (bray*g) and (bi-RAY*G), lie. Bríd (breed), Bridget. breá; pronunciation is between (braw*) and (bi-RAW*), fine. “b” gets its broad sound when the nearest vowel in the word is “a, o, u”. Pronounce this broad sound like English “b” but protrude your lips. Try: bán (baw*n), white; bó (boh), cow; baile (BAHL-e), town, home; bláth (blaw*), flower; brách (braw*k*); go brách means “forever”; brón (brohn), sadness; brú (broo), pressure In a few cases, where a broad “b” sound is followed by a slender vowel sound, the protrusion of the lips for the broad “b” will cause a (w) sound. Examples: bain (bwin), cut or remove; buile (BWIL-e), madness; buí (bwee), yellow. In these words, the “a” and the “u” are not sounded. They are written only to show you that the “b” must get its broad sound. VOCABULARY Masculine nouns liosta (LIS-tuh), list nóta (NOH-tuh), note leabhar (LOU-wuhr), book stampa (STAM-puh), stamp clúdach (KLOO-dahk*), envelope seoladh (SHOH-luh), address ainm, (an t-ainm (AN-im, un TAN-im), name marc (mahrk), mark Feminine nouns abairt, an abairt (AH-birt, un AH-birt), sentence cóip, an chóip (KOH-ip, un K*OH-ip), copy oifig, an oifig (IF-ig, un IF-ig), office líne (LEEN-e), line ceist, an cheist (kesht, un hyesht), question DRILL Use each of the above words in simple sentences with the irregular verbs, such as chonaic mé (k*uh-NIK may*), I saw; téim (TAY*-im), I go, etc. If you can not think of a suitable sentence with an irregular verb, try a regular verb. Avoid “tá” if possible. CONVERSATION Here are some pointers on how to conduct a conversation in Irish. First of all, conversation differs in several respects from merely reading. There is nothing to see; you must listen to get enough information to be able to reply. You must also judge from the situation and surroundings to get clues to what the other person has said. In written or printed Irish, the clarity is good, and above all, it is uniform. The speed of intake into your mind is whatever you want. You read at your own pace. With conversation, the speed at which the other person speaks may be fast or slow. Clarity can differ, too. Sometimes whole sentences are a little hard to recognize at first. This is true in English, of course. You have learned to recognize “Whaddaya doon?” as meaning “What are you doing?” Some types of audible language material are more difficult than others. Words of songs are an example. In general, it will be harder for you to understand others than for them to understand you. At first, when listening during a conversation, you may not understand more than a quarter of the words and may miss the meaning of nearly every sentence. This is usually because you are nervous and overanxious. Keep trying, however, and above all keep speaking Irish to your conversational partner. There are good reasons for this: You get practice in thinking and in pronunciation.

You direct the conversation so that the other person’s reply will be more easily understood by you. because it will generally be in response to what you have said. You show the other person that you want to learn Irish. To start a conversation, begin with a salutation: Dia dhuit (DEE-uh git), or Dia dhaoibh (DEE-uh yeev). The answer will be: Dia’s Muire dhuit (DEE-uhs MWIR-e git). Conas tá tú? (KUN-uhs taw* too) How are you? is next. Answers can be: “Táim go maith” (TAW*-im goh MAH), or “Ar fheabhas” (er OUS), excellent, or perhaps “Tá tinneas cinn orm” (taw* TIN-yuhs kin OH-ruhm). Next is the weather, or perhaps a brief description of where you were recently or what you did. In answer to this, some of the short expressions that you have learnt will be useful. Examples: Is maith liom é sin (is mah luhm ay* shin), I like that Cá raibh sé? (kaw* rev shay*), Where was he? We will continue this next week and give you more advice on how to conduct a conversation, an extremely important part of learning a language.

Lesson 58 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW Review the sounds of slender “c” this week. The slender sound, occurring when the nearest vowel in the word is “e” or “i”, resembles the first sound in the English words “kin” or “keg.” Hold the lips in and widen the corners of the mouth slightly. Try these words: cé (kay*), who?; céim (kay*m), step, degree; cill (kil), cell, churchyard; citeal (KIT-uhl), kettle; clé (klay*), left; clis (klish), fail; cneas (kiNAS), skin; creid (kred), believe; glic (glik), clever, cunning; feicim (FEK-im), I see; scian (SHKEE-uhn), knife; stailc (steyelk), strike (labor dispute). Slender “c” tends to have a slight (y) after it. Before some vowel sounds, the (ky) sound will be more obvious than before others. Try: ceann (kyoun), or -- in Connacht -- (kyawn), head; ceart (kyart), right; ceantar (KYAN-tuhr), district; ceol (kyohl), music; cion (kyun), affection: Tá cion agam air, I am fond of him; ciúin (KYOO-in), quiet. Aspiration, a sound change occurring with several Irish consonants, gives slender “c” a sound resembling (he-YUH) said rapidly. We use (hy) as its symbol. Examples: mo chiteal (muh HYIT-uhl), my kettle; do cheann (duh hyoun), your head; ar chéirnín (er hyay*r-NEEN), on a record. Inside a word, aspirated slender “c” may sound like (h) or (hy), depending on the region of Ireland. Examples: fiche (FI-he) or (FI-hye), twenty; droichead (DRUH-huhd), or (DRI-hyuhd), bridge; óiche (EE-he) or (EE-hye), night; inchinn (IN-hin) or (IN-hyin), brain; cluiche (KLI-he) or (KLI-hye), a game; dúiche (DOO-i-he) or (DOO-i-hye), a district; flichshneachta (fli-HNAHK*-tuh) or (fli-HNYUHK*-tuh), sleet. GRAMMAR The preposition “ó” (oh) means “from”. It aspirates initial consonants following it: Is ó Chorcaigh dom (is oh K*OHRK-ee duhm), I am from Cork. It combines with the pronouns, so learn these forms next: uaim (oo-IM), from me uait (oo-IT), from you uaidh (WOO-ee), from him uaithi (WU-hee), from her uainn (WOO-in), from us uaibh (WOO-iv) from you (plural) uathu (WOO-huh) from them There are several common expressions or idioms making use of “ó”. For example: Cad tá uait? (kahd taw* oo-IT), What do you want? An answer can be: Tá leabhar uaim (taw* LOU-wuhr oo-IM), I want a book. Cad a bhí uaidh? (kahd uh vee WOO-ee), What did he want? is another form of this. A longer form is: Cad tá ag teastáil (uh TAS-taw*-il) uait?, What do you want? An answer is: Tá peann ag teastáil uaim (taw* pyoun uh TAStaw*-il oo-im). I want a pen. Leaving from a place or being from a place can be expressed with the help of “ó”: D’imigh sé ó Bhaile Átha Cliath. Cad as duit? (kahd as dit), Where are you from? can be answered “Is ó Shligeach dom” (is oh HLIG-ahk* duhm), I am from Sligo. In pronouncing combinations of “ó” with pronouns, the initial sound may resemble an English “w”. “Uaim” may sound like (woo-IM) with the sounds run together, or even like (wim). VOCABULARY béasach (BAY*-suhk*), polite deacair (DAK-uhr), difficult ramhar (ROU-uhr), fat dorcha (DUHR-uh-huh), dark leathan (LA-huhn), wide gann (goun), scarce leisciúil (LESH-kyoo-il), lazy tanaí (TAH-nee), thin clé (klay*), left deas (dyas), right, nice, pretty DRILL Translate these expressions, remembering to aspirate after feminine nouns: A polite man. A difficult question. The difficult question. Scarce food. A lazy mother. The lazy mother. A wide room. The left hand. The right hand. The fat cat. The thin girl. The dark office. A dark office. The thin woman. A thin woman.

Translation: Fear béasach. Ceist dheacair. An cheist dheacair. Bia gann. Máthair leisciúil. An mháthair leisciúil. Seomra leathan. An lámh chlé. An lámh dheas. An cat ramhar. An cailín tanaí. An offig dhorcha. Oifig dhorcha. An bhean thanaí. Bean thanaí. Pronunciation key: (far BAY*-suhk*) (kesht YAK-uhr) (un hyesht YAK-uhr) (BEE-uh goun) (MAW*-hir LESH-kyoo-il) (un VWAW*-hir LESH-kyoo-il) (SHOHM-ruh LA-huhn) (un LAW*V hylay*) (un LAW*V yas) (un KAHT ROU-uhr) (un kah-LEEN TAH-nee) (un IF-ig GUHR-uh-huh) (IF-ig GUHR-uh-huh) (un VAN HAH-nee) (ban HAH-nee) CONVERSATION There are several aids in carrying on a conversation with someone more skilled than yourself. If he speaks too rapidly, tell him: Labhair níos maille, más é do thoil é (LOU-ir nees MWIL-e, MAW* shay* duh HIL ay*), Speak more slowly, please. Abair arís é sin (AH-bir uh-REESH ay* shin), Say that again, is another way to show that you are trying to understand.

Lesson 59 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW Broad “c” in Irish, heard when the nearest vowel in the word is “a, o, u”, resembles the first sound in English “coat” or “call”. Notice that the tongue center is raised toward the roof of the mouth. Try: cailín (kah-LEEN), girl cá? (kaw*), where? cad? (kahd), what? córas (KOH-ruhs), system cosán (kuh-SAW*N), sidewalk cúig (KOO-ig), five acra (AHK-ruh), acre cló (kloh), print cnó (kuh-NOH) or (knoh), nut cnaipe (kuh-NAHP-e), button crua (KROO-uh), hard bacaim (BAHK-im), I hinder Next, say “forc” (fohrk), fork, and “radharc” (REYE-uhrk), view. Be careful to end these words in a broad “c”, with tongue center raised further back than for a slender “c”. You will notice a distinct difference between the broad and slender “c” in these words, too. A broad “c” sometimes seems to be followed by a faint (w) sound, as in: cuid (kwid), part; cuir (kir), tending toward (kwir), put; Corcaigh (KOHR-kee), tending toward (KOHR-kwee), Cork. Make an aspirated broad “c” by saying broad “c” with the tongue lowered somewhat. The sound will resemble that in German “ach”. It will be easier for you to pronounce it at the end or in the middle of a word than at the beginning. If aspirated broad “c” begins a word, the sound may be more difficult. First, try “ach” (ahk*), then “och” (ohk*), and then “achód” (ahk*-HOHD). Then separate the letter into “a chód” (uh K*OHD), his code. Further practice: moch (muhk*), mocharr (muhk*-HARR), and then separate the words: mo charr (muh K*AHR), my car. GRAMMAR To say the equivalent of “John is taller than Mary” in Irish, you can change the word order to “Is taller John than Mary”, which is: is airde (ARde) Seán ná Máire”. The word “airde” is the comparative form of “ard” (ahrd), tall or high, just as “taller” is the comparative form of “tall” in English. For the comparative of many Irish adjectives, add “e” and make the last consonant slender if necessary. Examples are: fada (FAH-duh), long; faide (FAH-de), longer. daor (day*r), expensive; daoire (DEER-e), more expensive. láidir (LAW*-dir), strong; láidre (LAW*-dre), stronger. milis (MIL-ish), sweet; milse (MIL-she), sweeter. fuar (FOO-uhr), cold; fuiare (FOO-i-re), colder. if the adjective ends in “ch”, the “ch” often changes to “i” in the comparative form. Examples: díreach (dee-RAHK*), straight; dírí (DEE-ree), straighter. bacach (bah-KAHK*), lame; bacaí (BAH-kee), lamer. tuirseach (toor-SHAHK*), tired; tuirsí (TOOR-shee), more tired. gnóthach (GNOH-huhk*), busy; gnóthaí (GNOH-hee), busier. If the adjective ends in “úil”, the ending in the comparative becomes “úla”. Examples: leisciúil (lesh-KYOO-il), lazy; leiscúla (lesh-KYOO-luh), lazier. dathúil (dah-HOO-il), handsome; dathúla (dah-HOO-luh), handsomer. cairdiúl (kahr-DYOO-il), friendly; cairdiúla (kahr-DYOO-luh), friendlier. Some adjectives have slightly irregular comparative forms, and a few important ones are very irregular in the comparative. This is similar to English, with its “good, better, best”. VOCABULARY áiseach (AW*-shahk*), handy, convenient dílis (DEE-lish), faithful léir (lay*r), clear, obvious déanach (DAY*N-uhk*), late baolach (BWAY*-luhk*), dangerous simplí (SHIM-plee), simple feargach (FAR-uh-guhk*), angry suimiúil (sim-OO-il), interesting mall (moul) or (mawl), slow DRILL

Complete these sentences that are examples of how to use the comparative in Irish: Is _______ an scian seo ná an forc sin. Use “áiseach”. Is _______ an madra seo ná an cat sin. Use “dílis”. Is _______ an leabhar seo ná an litir sin. Use “léir”. Is _______ tusa ná mise. Use “déanach”. Is _______ an bóthar seo ná an tsráid sin. Use “baolach”. Is _______ an carr seo ná an rothar sin. Use “simplí”. Is _______ Liam ná aon fhear eile atá anseo. Use “feargach”. Is _______ an pictiúr seo ná an leabhar sin. Use “suimiúil”. Is _______ Brian ná na buachaillí eile. Use “mall”. The meanings are similar to “This knife is more convenient than that fork”, which is the translation of the first sentence. by making use of the general rules in the grammar section above, you should be able to determine that the adjectives in comparative form are: áisí (AW*-shee), dílse (DEEL-she), léire (LAY*R-e), déanaí (DAY*N-ee), baolaí (BWAY*-lee), simplí (SHIM-plee) (no change here), feargaí (FAR-uh-gee), suimiúla (sim-OO-luh), moille (MWIL-e) (an irregular one in spelling but not in pronunciation). CONVERSATION Another help in carrying on a conversation with someone more experienced in the language than you, and in fact with anyone, is to ask questions. A question sets up a reply, so that you will be better able to anticipate what is coming and understand it. This will also let you prepare a reply to the other person, so that the conversation will keep up. Remember the question words: Cé (kay*), who?; cad (kahd), what?; conas (KUN-uhs), how?; cá (kaw*), where? At first, the only word you will be able to use quickly after them is “tá” or “bhfuil”, but soon you will begin to introduce other verbs as you continue to speak.

Lesson 60 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW The slender “d” sound occurs when the nearest vowel in the word is “e” or “i”. Pronounce the sound with the tongue tip against the hard ridge behind the upper front teeth. Allow the tongue tip to slide off forward as you make the sound. A slight tendency toward a (dy) sound may be heard. Examples of slender “d”: Dé (day*), of God deireadh (DER-uh), end deo (dyoh); go deo, forever Dia (DEE-uh), God dílis (DEEL-ish), faithful dlí (dlee), law dleathach (DLA-huhk*), lawful dreoilín (droh-LEEN), wren In the middle or at the end of a word: bídeach (BEE-dyahk*), tiny; Bríd (breed), Bridget; buidéal (bwi-DAY*L), bottle; méid (may*d), amount; oide (ID-e), teacher; báid (BAW*-id), boats; staidéar (STAH-day*r), study; sméidim (SMAY*-dim), I wink When aspirated, an initial slender “d” gets the sound of (y). Try: mo dhícheall (muh YEE-huhl), my best effort; a dhlí (uh YLEE), his law; lámh dheas (law*v yas), right hand; a dhream (uh YROUM), resembling (uh yi-ROUM) but run together, his group or crowd. Inside a word, an aspirated slender “d” may be in a letter group which has a single sound for the group: oidhre (EYE-re), heir. At the end of a word, an aspirated slender “d” has no sound: léifidh sé (LAY*-hee shay*), he will read. GRAMMAR We continue with comparison. Last week, you saw that the English form, “John is taller than Mary,” can become “Is taller John than Mary”: Is airde Seán ná Máire (is AR-de shaw*n naw* MAW*-re). The negative of this is: Ní airde Seán ná Máire: not taller John than Mary. Read these examples, which include adjectives from the groups you met last week: (fuar) Ní fuaire an seomra seo ná an chistin (nee FOO-i*re un SHOHM-ruh shuh naw* un HYISH-tin), this room is not colder than the kitchen. (leisciúil) Ní leisciúla Séamas ná a athair (nee lesh-KYOO-luh SHAY*-muhs naw* uh A-hir), James is not lazier than his father. (salach) Ní salaí an léine ná an cóta (nee SAH-lee un LAY*-ne un KOH-tuh), the shirt is not dirtier than the coat. (fada) Ní faide an lá ná an oíche (nee FAH-de un law* naw* un EE-he), the day is not longer than the night. The question form is literally: Is taller John than Mary?, or “An airde Seán ná Máire?” Read these examples several times: (láidir) An láidre an fear sin ná tusa? (un LAW*-dre un far shin naw* TU-suh), Is that man stronger than you? (compordach) An compordaí an chathaoir seo ná ár dtolg? (un kuhm-POHR-dee un K*AH-heer shuh naw* aw*r DUHL-luhg), Is this chair more comfortable than our sofa? The negative question form should be obvious to you. An example: “Nach faide an bord ná an leaba?” (nahk* FAH-de un bohrd naw* un LAbuh), Isn’t the table longer than the bed? VOCABULARY gnóthach (GNOH-huhk*), busy lag (lahg), weak éirimiúil (ER-i-myoo-il), intelligent, clever cliste (KLISH-te), clever cineálta (kin-AW*L-tuh), kind bocht (bohk*t), poor oilte (IL-te), skilled rocach (ROH-kahk*), wrinkled cúramach (KOOR-uh-mahk*), careful DRILL Complete these sentences, which contain comparative forms of the adjectives in the Vocabulary. Ní ________ an cailín ná a deartháir (dri-HAW*-ir). Use “éirimiúil”. An ________ tusa ná Brian? Use “lag”. Is ________ Nóra ná a deirfiúr (dri-FOOR). Use “cúramach”. Nach ______ mo mhúinteoir ná aon mhúinteoir eile? Use “cineálta”. Is ________ an dochtúir seo ná ár ndochtúir. Use “gnóthach”.

Ní _______ sinn ná sibh. Use “bocht”. An _______ mo chóta ná do léine? Use “rocach”. Is ________ mo mhadra ná mo chat. Use “cliste”. Ní _______ na saighdiúiri (seye-DYOO-i-ree) seo ná iad sin. Use “oilte”. Key: éirimiúla (ER-i-myoo-luh), laige (LAG-e), cúramaí (KOOR-uh-mee), cineálta (kin-AW*L-tuh), gnóthaí (GNOH-hee), boichte (BWIK*-te), rocaí (ROH-kee), cliste (KLISH-te), oilte (IL-te) Note: the word “deartháir” means “brother”, and the word “deirfiúr” means “sister”, both words being in the sense of family relationship. “Saighdiúir” means “soldier”, and its plural is “saighdiúirí”. CONVERSATION Seán (shaw*n): Éist! Tá duine ag cnagadh ar an doras. Listen! Someone is knocking at the door. Máire (MAW*-re): Cé hé ann? (kay* hay* oun) Who is there? Seán: Níl a fhios agam, ach gheobhaidh mé amach go díreach (neel is uh-GUHM, ahk* YOH-ee may* uh-MAHK* goh dee-RAHK*). I don’t know, but I will find out right away. Osclóidh mé an doras (oh-SKLOH-ee may* un DUH-ruhs). I’l open the door.

Lesson 61 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW English has no sound comparable to Irish broad “d”. Pronounce it by placing the broadened tongue tip against the back of the upper front teeth, with the front of the tongue along the roof of the mouth before the hard ridge that you can feel behind the upper front teeth. This sound occurs when the nearest vowel in the word is “a”, “o”, or “u”. Try these: dá (daw*), two; dath (dah), color; duine (DIN-e), person; doirt (dirt), pour; dó (doh), to him; doras (DUH-ruhs), door; damhsa (DOU-suh), dance; dún (doon), close; dlúth (dloo), compact. draein (dray*n), drain; droichead (DRUH-huhd), bridge; druid (drid, close in; púdar (POO-duhr), powder; acadamh (ah-KAHD-uhv), academy; airgead (AR-i-guhd), money; bád (baw*d), boat; duilleog (dil-YOHG), leaf; ródaí (ROH-dee), wayfarer. Where aspirated broad “d” is sounded, pronounce it like “g” in English “goat”. Examples: mo dhoras (muh GUH-ruhs), my door; mo dhá dhán (muh gaw* gaw*n), my two poems. Inside a word, or at a word end, aspirated broad “d” usually indicates a special sound for the letter group in which it is. Examples: deireadh (DER-uh), end; moladh (MUHL-uh), praising; adhmad (EYE-muhd), timber, wood; adhain (EYE-in), kindle. GRAMMAR By now you should have some ability to form the comparative of most adjectives. There are some irregular ones, however. Some are only slightly irregular. “Cóir” (KOH-ir), just, is one. Its comparative is “córa” (KOH-ruh) instead of “cóire”. “Deacair” (DAK-uhr), difficult, becomes “deacra” (DAK-ruh). The most important of the highly irregular ones are in the vocabulary below. VOCABULARY maith (mah), good; fearr (fyaw*r), better beag (byuhg), small; lú (loo), smaller mór (mohr), big; mó (moh), bigger olc (uhlk), bad; measa (MAS-uh), worse te (te), hot; teo (tyoh), hotter breá (bi-RAW*), fine; breátha (bi-RAW*-huh), finer dócha (DOHK*-uh), likely; dóichí (DOH-hyee), more likely furasta (FU-ruhs-tuh), easy; fusa (FU-suh), easier DRILL Read these sentences aloud, putting the comparative forms in them. (olc) 1. Is olc an madra é sin, ach is _ _ _ _ _ an capail ná é. (beag) 2. An _ _ _ _ _ an teach (tahk*) seo ná ár dteach? (te) 3. Nach _ _ _ _ _ an pláta ná an cupán? (breá) 4. Ní _ _ _ _ _ an lá seo ná an lá eile. (mór) 5. Is _ _ _ _ _ an cóta seo ná an cóta a bhí ort inné (in-YAY*). (dócha) 6. Is _ _ _ _ _ an scéal sin ná an scéal a d’inis do chara dúinn inné. (furasta) 7. Ní _ _ _ _ _ an ceacht (kyahk*t) seo ná an ceacht a thug (hug) an múinteoir (moo-in-TYOHR) dúinn. (maith) 8. Nach _ _ _ _ _ na bróga seo ná iad sin? Key: 1. measa; 2. lú; 3. teo; 4. breáthá; 5. mó; 6. dóichí; 7. fusa; 8. fearr Translations: 1. That dog is bad, but the horse is worse. 2. Is this house smaller than ours? 3. Isn’t the plate hotter than the cup? 4. This day isn’t finer than the other. 5. This coat is bigger than the one you had on yesterday. 6. That story is more likely than the one your friend told us yesterday. 7. This lesson isn’t easier than the one the teacher gave us. 8. Aren’t these shoes better than those? To put a sentence into this form of comparative in Irish, Change “John is taller than Mary” to “Is taller John than Mary”, which then easily becomes “Is airde Seán ná Máire”. After a little practice, you will be able to dispense with this, because the adjective form will come naturally to your mind first. CONVERSATION Seán (shaw*n): Ó, a Shéamais! Nach tusa an fear cróga, a bheith amuigh inniu! (oh uh HAY*-mish. nahk* TU-suh un far KROH-guh, uh ve uhMWEE in-YOO). Oh, James! Aren’t you the brave man to be out today! Séamas (SHAY*-muhs): Lig isteach mé (lig iish-TYAHK* may*). Is fuaire an lá seo ná lá eile ar bith a raibh mé amuigh ann (is FOO-i-re un

law* shuh naw* law* EL-e er bi uh rev may* uh-MWEE oun). Let me in. This day is colder than any other I was out in. Seán: Agus is measa na bóithre sa chathair ná na bóithre i lár na hÁise. (AH-guhs is MAS-uh nuh BOH-i-re suh K*AH-hir naw* nuh BOH-i-re i law*r nuh HAW*-she). And the roads in the city are worse than the roads in the center of Asia. Máire: Ná bí i do sheasamh ag an doras oscailte. Tar isteach go tapaidh. (naw* bee i duh HAS-uhv eg un DUHR-uhs OH-skil-te. tahr ishTYAHK* goh TAHP-ee). Don’t be standing at the open door. Come inside quickly.

Lesson 62 The letter “f” in Irish can have either a slender or broad pronunciation. If the nearest vowel in the word is “e” or “i”, the “f” is slender. Pronounce it with the lower lip outside, and touching, the edges of the upper front teeth. Do not start with the lower lip behind the upper front teeth. Examples: féin (fay*n), self; feicim (FEK-im), I see; fill (fil), return; fíor (FEE-uhr), true; fear (far), man; feachtas (FAK*-tuhs), campaign; feidhm (feyem), effect, use; feabhas (fous), improvement; feall (fyoul), treachery; fiú (fyoo), worth; feá (fyaw*), fathom; fleiscín (flesh-KEEN), hyphen; fleá (flaw*), festival; fliú (floo), influenza; frídín (free-DEEN), germ; freisin (FRESH-in), also; friotháil (fri-HAW*-il), serving; freagra (FRAG-ruh), answer. Inside a word: difríocht (DIF-ree-uhk*t), difference; diftéire (dif-TAY*R-e), diptheria; éifeacht (AY*-fuhk*t), effectiveness; gáifeach (GAW*-fuhk*), dangerous; paimfléid (pahm-FLAY*D), pamphlet; raidhfil (REYE-fil), rifle; taifeadán (TAF-uh-daw*n), tape recorder; teilifís (TEL-e-feesh), television. Sometimes “f” inside a word is pronounced (h) or omitted. The future tense is an example: feicfidh mé (FEK-hee may*), I shall see Aspirated slender “f” has no sound: mo fhear (muh AR), my man. GRAMMAR The equivalent of “John is the best driver here” is: “Is é Seán an tiománaí is fearr anseo” (shay* shaw*n un ti-MAW*-nee is fyaw*r un-SHUH), meaning literally, “Is he John the best driver here”. Some other examples to familiarize you with this way of expressing what is called the superlative in English: Is í Máire an cailín is éirimiúla sa rang (shee MAW*-re un kah-LEEN is ER-i-myool-uh suh rahng), Mary is the most intelligent girl in the class. Is é sin an fear is airde san arm (shay* shin un FAR is AR-de suhn AHR-ruhm), That is the tallest man in the Army. An é an bord is ísle é? (un ay* un BOHRD is EESH-le ay*), Is it the lowest table? Ní hé Brian an t-oibrí is measa (TIB-ree is MAS-uh) de na páistí (PAW* shtee), Brian is not the worst worker of the children. Is tusa an bádóir is cúramaí (is TU-suh un baw*-DOH-ir is KOOR-uh-mee), You are the most careful boatman. Nach é seo an seomra is teo (tyoh) sa teach?, Isn’t this the warmest room in the house? Note that the adjective form (for example, “airde”) is the same for the superlative as for the comparative. It is the difference in sentence form that indicates whether the comparative or the superlative is intended. VOCABULARY amadán, un t-amadán (AHM-uh-daw*n, un TAHM-uh-daw*n), fool (man or boy) amideach (AHM-i-dyuhk*), foolish; amaidí (AHM-i-dee), more foolish aosta (AY*S-tuh), old; aosta, old bog (bohg), soft; boige (BWIG-e), softer ciallmhar (KEEL-vwuhr), sensible; ciallmhaire (KEEL-vwir-e), more sensible íseal (EE-shuhl), low; ísle (EESH-le), lower leathan (LA-huhn), wide; leithne (LE-ne), wider glan (gluhn), clean; glaine (GLIN-e), cleaner néata (NAY*-tuh), neat; néata, neater riachtanach (REE-uhk*-tuhn-uhk*), necessary; riachtanaí (REE-uhk*-tuhn-ee), more necessary DRILL Form sentences based on the patterns: “Is airde Seán ná Séamas” and “Is é Seán an fear is airde sa seomra”, using the following word groups: amaideach, Nrian, Liam; buachaill, scoil. aosta, Nóra, Diarmaid (DEER-mwid); an bhean (un van), cathair. ciallmhar, Máire, Siobhán (shi-VAW*N); banaltra, ospidéal (OHS-pi-day*l). néata, Seoirse (SHOR-she), Mícheál (MEE-haw*l); múinteoir, ar scoil. bog, cathaoir (KAH-heer), tolg (TUHL-luhg); ceann, teach. leathan, nuachtán, leabhar; páipéar, seomra. íseal, bord seo, bord sin; ceann, cistin. glan, cat, madra; rud, gairdín. Key: Is amaidí Brian ná Liam; Is é Brian an buchaill is amaidí sa scoil. Is aosta Nóra ná Diarmaid; Is í Nóra an bhean is aosta sa chathair. Is ciallmhaire Máire ná Siobhán; Is í Máire an bhanaltra (VAHN-uhl-truh) is caillmhaire san ospidéal. (“Ospidéal” is “hospital”.) Is néata Seoirse ná Mícheál; Is é Seoirse an múinteoir is néata in ár scoil. (“in our school”). Is boige an chathaoir ná an tolg; Is í an chathaoir an ceann is boige sa teach (“the softest one in the house”). Is leithne an nuachtán ná an leabhar; Is é an nuachtán an páipéar is leithne sa seomra. Is ísle an bord seo ná an bord sin; Is é an bord seo an ceann is ísle sa chistin. Is glaine an cat ná an madra; Is é an cat an rud is glaine sa ghairdín (gahr-DEEN).

Lesson 63 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW In Irish, “f” gets its broad sound when the nearest vowel in the word is “a”, “o” or “u”. Begin the broad sound of “f” with the lower lip against the edge of the upper front teeth. Then move both lips outward as you make the (f) sound. Try: fá (faw*), under; fada (FAH-duh), long; fadhb (feyeb), problem; fód (fohd), sod; foghlaim (FOU-lim), learn; folamh (FUHL-uhv), empty; foirm (FWIR-rim), form; fuar (FOO-uhr), cold. fud (fud), ar fud, all through; fuiseog (fwi-SHOHG), lark (bird); fabhra (FOU-ruh), eyelash; faobhar (FAY*-vwuhr), sharpness; faoileán (fweeLAW*N), seagull; flaithiúil (fla-HOO-il), generous; fraoch (FRAY*-uhk*), heather; frog (frohg), frog. Note that sometimes the broad “f” sound may be immediately followed by a sound resembling English (w). Compare “fí” (fee), weaving, which has a slender (f) as described in the previous lesson, with “faoi” (fwee), under, and its broad (f). The final (ee) in both words is the same, but the “f”s differ. “Fill” (fil), return, and “fuil” (fwil), blood, supply another example. Examples of broad “f” inside a word: marfóir (mahr-FOH-ir), killer; neafais (NYA-fwish), a trifle; profa (PROH-fuh), printer’s proof; ráfla (RAW*-fluh), rumor; scafaire (SKAH-fuhre), a hearty man; scríofa (SHKREE-fuh), written; tafann (TAH-fuhn), barking; triuf (truf), club (cards). In the future tense and a few other instances, broad “f” in a word has an (h) sound: dúnfaidh sé (DOON-hee shay*), he will close; fiafraigh de (FEE-huhr-ee de), ask him. Aspirated broad “f” has no sound: mo fhadhb (muh eyeb), my problem. GRAMMAR The Irish verb “tá” can also serve in comparisons, to form the equivalent of “John is stronger than James”. The form is: Tá Seán níos láidre ná Séamas” (taw* shaw*n nees LAW*-dre naw* SHAY*-muhs). In the future tense, “John will be stronger than James”, The form is: “Beidh Seán níos láidre ná Séamas”. In the past tense, you can say “níos láidre”, too: “Bhí Seán níos láidre ná Séamas”, but a slightly different way is also common: “Bhí Seán ní ba láidre ná Séamas” (vee shaw*n nee buh LAW*dre naw* SHAY*-muhs). The “ba” here is the past tense of “is”. You have met the present tense of “is” but not the past yet. You can also join the form “níos láidre” with other verbs. Example: Éiríonn sí níos áille gach lá (eye-REE-uhn shee nees AW*-il-ye gahk* law*), she grows more beautiful each day. “Tá” can also help you to form superlatives, such as “He is the strongest man here”. The form is: Tá sé ar an bhfear is láidre anseo (taw* shay* er un var is LAW*-dre un-SHUH). You are saying literally: “He is on the man is best here”. Another example: Tá Seán ar an scoláire is éirimiúla sa rang (taw* shaw*n er un skuh-LAW*-re is ER-i-myoo-luh suh rahng), John is the most intelligent student in the class. VOCABULARY ciúin, ciúine (KYOO-in, KYOO-in-e), quiet, quieter; gorm, goirme (GUH-ruhm, GIR-i-me), blue, bluer; rua, rua (ROO-uh) or (roh), red-haired, with redder hair; sean, sine (shan, SHIN-e), old, older; daor, daoire (day*r, DEER-e), dear, expensive; dearer, more expansive; trom, troime (truhm, TRIM-e), heavy, heavier; aibí, aibí (A-bee), ripe, riper; cairdiúil, cairdiúla (kahr-DYOO-il, kahr-DYOO-luh), friendly, friendlier; dearg, deirge (DYAR-ruhg, DYER-i-ge), red, redder; saibhir, saibhre (SEYE-vir, SEYE-vir-e), rich, richer; anuraidh (uh-NOOR-ee), last year DRILL Form comparatives by using “is” and “tá” with the following word groups. The first is an example. Brian, cairdiúil, a athair. Is cairdiúil Brian ná a athair (is kahr-DYOO-luh BREE-uhn naw* uh A-hir); tá Brian níos cairdiúla ná a athair. An cailín seo, sean, an páiste sin. Na húlla seo (nuh HOOL-uh shuh), aibí, na cinn sin (nuh kin shin). (“úll” means “apple”; “cinn” is the plural of “ceann”, meaning “one”). An rothar, ciúin, mo charr. An t-úll seo, dearg, an ceann sin. An leabhar, trom, nuachtán. Key: Is sine an cailín seo ná an páiste sin (is SHIN-e un kah-LEEN shuh naw* un PAW*SH-te shin). Tá an cailín seo níos sine ná an páiste sin. Is aibí na húlla seo ná na cinn sin. Tá na húlla seo níos aibí ná na cinn sin. Is ciúine an rothar ná mo charr. Tá an rothar níos ciúine ná mo charr. Is deirge an t-úll seo ná an ceann sin. Tá an t-úll seo níos deirge ná an ceann sin. Is troime an leabhar ná an nuachtán. Tá an leabhar níos troime ná an nuachtán.

Lesson 64 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW The sound for slender “g” in English resembles the English sound for “g” in the words “give” and “get”, except that the Irish sound is pronounced with the point of the tongue lower in the mouth and with the sides of the tongue pressed against the upper back teeth. The slender sound occurs when the nearest vowel in the word is “e” or “i”. Examples of slender “g” at the beginning of a word: geit (get), a sudden start; géar (gyay*r), sharp; gearr (gyahr), short; geoin (GYOH-in), noise; gile (GIL-e), whiteness; giúis (GYOO-ish), pine tree; gleic (glek), contest; glé (glay*), bright; glic (glik), clever; gleann (gloun), glen. gleacaíocht (GLAK-ee-ohk*t), physical exercise; gleo (gloh), noise; gliúmáil (GLOO-maw*-il), fumbling; gné (gnay), species; gníomhaire (GNEEV-uh-re), agent; greim (grem), a bite; gréasaí (GRAY*-see), shoemaker; gread (grad), thrash; grian (GREE-uhn), sun. You will notice that in some of the words above, you tend to add an additional (i) sound after the (g), as in “gréasaí”. Examples of slender “g” inside or at the end of a word: cigire (KIG-i-re), inspector; figiúr (fig-YOOR), figure; ligim (LIG-im), I allow; léigear (LAY*-guhr), siege; smig (smig), chin; meirg (MER-ig), rust; oifig (IF-ig), office; seilg (SHEL-ig), hunt. Note that the combination “ng” has its own sound; the (g) sound rarely follows it. “Pingin”, a penny, is (PING-in), not (PING-gin). When a slender “g” at the beginning of a word is aspirated, as in “géag” (GAY*-uhg), arm; “mo ghéag” (muh YAY*-uhg), my arm, the sound is very close to English (y), but there should be a trace of (g) in it, too. Examples, some of which are difficult to pronounce at first, are: an ghé (un YAY*), the goose; ghearr sé (YAHR shay*), he cut; bean ghlic (ban ylik), a clever women. If aspirated inside a word, slender “g” may have an (eye) sound: oighear (EYE-uhr), ice; leigheas (leyes), medicine, remedy. GRAMMAR A few final pointers on comparative and superlative usage before we continue to other topics. The phrases “níos láidre” (nees LAW*-dre) and “is láidre” (is LAW*-dre) can serve in simple sentences to indicate that something is “stronger” or “strongest”. The form is: Feicim an fear is láidre (FEK-im un far is LAW*-dre), I see the strongest man. Tabhair dom ceann níos láidre (TOO-ir duhm kyoun nees LAW*-dre), Give me a stronger one. In the past, the forms change slightly: Chonaic sé an fear ba láidre (k*uh-NIK shay* un far buh LAW*-dre), He saw the strongest man. Fuair sé ceann níba láidre (FOO-ir shay* kyoun NEE-buh LAW*-dre), He got a stronger one. If an adjective begins with a vowel or “f” before a vowel, the past forms contain “ab” or “nib”, as in: óg, young: ab óige, níb óige; (ahb OH-i-ge, neeb OH-i-ge); maith, good: ab fhearr, níb fhearr (ahb AHR, neeb AHR). Examples of sentences with these forms: Chuala sé an scéal ab aosta (K*OO-uh-luh shay* un shkay*l ahb AY*S-tuh), He heard the oldest story. Shuigh sé ar an stól ab ísle (hee shay* er un stohl ahb EESH-le), He sat on the lowest stool. Bhí mé ar an traein níb fhaide (vee may* er tray*n neeb A-de), I was on the longer train. Tháinig sí ar an lá ab fhuaire (HAW*-nig shee er an law* ahb OO-i-re), She came on the coldest day. Bhí duine níb oilte uainn (vee DIN-e neeb IL-te WOO-in), We wanted a more skilled person. VOCABULARY Masculine Nouns féilire (FAY*-li-re), calendar; iasc (EE-uhsk). an t-iasc, fish; gnó (gnoh), business; paiste (PAHSH-te), patch; sort (sohrt), sort, kind Feminine Nouns móin, an mhóin (MOH-in, un VWOH-in), turf, peat; litir (LI-tir), letter; páirc, an pháirc (paw*rk, un faw*rk), grassy field, park aibí (A-bee), ripe; múinte (MOO-in-te), polite; ceanúil (kan-OO-il), loving, fond; slán (slaw*n), safe DRILL Form Irish sentences from these elements: We got: a better calendar; the best calendar. They bought: wetter turf; the wettest turf. I read (past): a longer letter; the longest letter. Did you ever see: the younger girl; the youngest girl? Where was: a dryer field; the dryest field? They asked him for: the ripest apple; a riper apple.

Key: Fuaireamar féilire níb fhearr (FOO-ir-uh-muhr FAY*-li-re neeb ahr); fuaireamar an féilire ab fhearr (ahb ahr). Cheannaigh siad móin níba fhliche (HYAN-ee SHEE-uhd MOH-in NEE-buh LI-hye). Leigh mé litir níb fhaide (lay* may* LI-tir neeb A-de); leigh mé an litir ab fhaide (ahb A-de). An bhfaca tú riamh an cailín níb óige? (un VAHK-uh too reev un kah-LEEN neeb OH-i-ge); an bhfaca tú riamh an cailín ab óige? Cá raibh páirc ní ba thirime? (kaw* rev paw*rk NEE-buh HIR-i-me); cá raibh an pháirc ba thirime? (un faw*rk buh HIR-i-me). D’iarr siad an t-úll ab aibí air (deer SHEE-uhd un tool ahb A-bee er); d’iarr siad úll níb aibí air (ool neeb A-bee er).

Lesson 65 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW When a “g” is near “a”, “o” or “u” in an Irish word, it is called a broad “g”. Pronounce it like the “g” in the English words “go” and “good,” but try to press the sides of the tongue against the upper back teeth and use more force than with the English equivalent. Examples: gá (gaw*), a need; gairdín (gahr-DEEN), garden; gó (goh), a doubt; gual (GOO-uhl), coal; gabhar (GOU-uhr), goat; gáire (GAW*-i-re), laughter; gadhar (GEYE-uhr), dog; gann (goun), scarce; gob (guhb), beak; glám (glaw*m), a group; glan (gluhn), clean; glaise (GLASH-e), greenness; glór (glohr), a voice; glúin (GLOO-in), knee; gnáth (gnaw*), usual; gnó (gnoh), business; gnús (gnoos), grunt; grá (graw*), love; gradam (GRAH-duhm), an honor; gró (groh), crowbar; grod (gruhd), hasty; gruaig (GROO-ig), hair. If the broad “g” comes just before a slender vowel, there is often a sound like English (uh) or (w) between the two. Examples: “ae” and “ao” are pronounced (ay*), so “gaelach” Irish or Gaelic, may sound somewhat like (GWAY*-luhk*), and “gaoth” wind, may resemble (gway*), but the “g” is nevertheless pronounced as for “gá”. In the word “goid”, to steal, the “o” tells you that “g” gets its broad sound. The “o” is not pronounced. The word sounds slightly like (gwid), although our simplified pronunciation guide gives (gid); you must remember to give the “g” its broad sound. “Guí,” to pray, is similar. The broad “g” sound causes the word to resemble (gwee) somewhat, although our pronunciation guide gives (gee). With combinations like “gl”, “gn” and “gr”, this effect is not as apparent. “Gloine” (GLIN-e), glass; “gnaoi” (gnee), affection; “groí” (gree), sturdy, are examples. All have the broad “g”, of course. Pronounce an aspirated broad “g” at the beginning of a word as if it were unaspirated: gairdín (gahr-DEEN); mo ghairdín (muh gahr-DEEN). Sometimes the back of the tongue is lowered slightly to let a little air past, but this is not very noticeable in most modern pronunciation. An aspirated broad “g” inside a word is usually part of a letter group with a special sound which has no (g) in it: togha (TOU-uh), election; faghairt (FEYE-irt), eagerness. GRAMMAR In English, you can say either “The son pays the bill” or “The bill is paid by the son”. In Irish, you know how to say only “Íocann an mac an bille” (EEK-uhn un MAHK un BIL-e). In Irish, this is the most common and the preferred way to express the English form. If, however, you don’t want to say who pays the bill, or don’t know, there is another form that can be used and is common in Irish. It is the free form or autonomous form. Examples: Íoctar an bille (EEK-tuhr un BIL-e), the bill is paid (meaning that someone pays the bill). Dúntar an doras (DOON-tuhr un DUH-ruhs), the door is closed (meaning that someone closes the door). Cloistear é (KLISH-tuhr ay*), he is heard. Bailítear na nuachtáin (BAHL-ee-tuhr nuh NOO-uhk*-taw*-in), the newspapers are collected (meaning that someone collects them). Feictear iad (FEK-tuhr EE-uhd), they are seen. The rule: Add “tear” or “tar” to the imperative or basic part of the verb. “Tear” if the nearest vowel is “e” or “i”; “tar” if it is “a”, “o” or “u”. Examples: cuir, cuirtear é (kir, KIR-tuhr ay*), it is put glan, glantar é (gluhn, GLUHN-tuhr ay*), it is cleaned For verbs like “ceannaigh” and “deisigh”: ceannaítear é (KAN-ee-tuhr ay*), it is bought deisítear é (DESH-ee-tuhr ay*), it is repaired For verbs like “oscail” and “freagair”: osclaítear é (OH-sklee-tuhr ay*), it is opened freagraítear é (FRAG-ree-tuhr ay*), it is answered Learn the proverb: Ní mar a shíltear, bítear (nee muhr HEEL-tuhr, BEE-tuhr). Containing two of these free forms, it means “Not as it is thought, does it be”, or “Things are not as they seem”. “Bítear” is the free form of “bíonn” (BEE-uhn); “bím breoite” (beem BROY-te) means “I am ailing” or “I am continually ill”. DRILL Cuir Gaeilge ar na h-abairtí seo leanas (kir GAY*-lig-e er nuh HAH-bir-tee shuh LAN-uhs), put Irish on the following sentences: He is listened to; letters are written daily; much milk is drunk here; work is done in the other room; autos are repaired there; people come here often; Irish is spoken here; it is believed; people go there now and again. Key: Éistear leis (AY*SH-tuhr lesh); scríobhtar litreacha gach lá (SHKREEV-tuhr LI-trahk*-uh gahk* law*); óltar mórán bainne anseo (OHLtuhr moh-RAW*N BAHN-ye un-SHUH); déantar obair sa seomra eile (DAY*N-tuhr OH-bir suh SHOHM-ruh EL-e); deisítear gluaisteáin ann (DESH-ee-tuhr GLOOSH-taw*-in oun); tagtar anseo go minic (TAHG-tuhr un-SHUH goh MIN-ik); labhraítear Gaeilge anseo (LOU-ree-tuhr

GAY*-lig-e un-SHUH); creidtear é (KRED-tuhr ay*); téitear ann anois agus arís (TAY-tuhr oun un-NISH AH-guhs uh-REESH). Note that in English you cannot say, “It is come here often”. Instead, you must use some expression such as “People come here” or “This place is frequented”, etc. The Irish free form corresponds largely to the English passive but is perhaps more useful. Note also that what you have learned in this lesson covers only the present tense. The free form for past and future differ in the word ending, as you will see.

Lesson 66 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW You should be familiar now with the difference between broad and slender sounds in Irish, especially at the start of words. You must practice pronouncing them when they are inside or at the end of words, too, if you are to develop a proper “blas” (blahs), or accent. Some English words will illustrate this. The word “epic” has a slender “c”, while the word “epoch” has a broad “c”. Note the difference. Now try these Irish pairs: meirg (MER-ig), rust dearg (DYAR-ruhg), red béic (bay*k), scream blaosc (blay*sk), skull léic (lay*k), a failing leac (lak), flagstone big (big), a form of “beag” beag (byuhg), small circe (KIR-ke), of a hen Corcaigh (KOHR-kee), Cork gairid (GAH-rid), short carad (KAHR-uhd), of a friend “Corcaigh” tends toward (KOHR-kwee). You will hear the differences in sounds clearly in the speech of cainteoirí dúchais (keyen-TYOHR-ee DOOK*-ish), or native speakers of Irish. GRAMMAR “Déantar anseo é” (DAY*N-tuhr un-SHUH ay*) means “It is made here.” This free form (called “saorbhriathar” (say*r-VREE-huhr) or “free verb” in Irish) can be put into the negative and question form, too, and into direct speech. In the negative: Ní dhéantar anseo é (nee YAY*N-tuhr un-SHUH ay*), It is not made here. Ní osclaítear an siopa roimh a deich a chlog (nee OH-sklee-tuhr un SHOHP-uh rev uh de uh k*luhg), The store is not opened before ten o’clock. In the negative, “ní” aspirates the initial consonant if possible. For the question: An ndéantar in Éirinn é? (un NAY*N-tuhr) in AY*R-in ay*), Is it made in Ireland? An óltar mórán bainne i gCeanada? (un OHL-tuhr muh-RAW*N BAHN-ye i GAN-uh-duh), Is much milk drunk in Canada? “An” eclipses the first consonant of the free form, if possible. “Nach” and “go” also eclipse: Nach ndéantar sa Ghearmáin é (nahk* NAY*N-tuhr suh YAR-maw*-in ay*), Isn’t it made in Germany? Sílim (SHEEL-im) go ndéantar sa Ghearmáin é; I think that it is made in Germany. Is dócha go ndeirtear in Éirinn é sin (is DOHK*-uh goh NER-tuhr in AY*R-in ay* shin), It’s probable that that is said in Ireland. Dúirt Séamas go bhfeictear go minic í (DOO-irt SHAY*-muhs goh VEK-tuhr goh MIN-ik ee), James said that she is seen often. VOCABULARY Masculine nouns Meicsiceo (MEK-shi-koh), Mexico; Sasana (SAH-suh-nuh), England; Béarla (BAY*R-luh), English (language) Feminine nouns an Fhrainc (un RANK), an Ghearmáin (un YAR-maw*-in), Germany; Ceanada (KAN-uh-duh), Canada; an Spáinn (un SPAW*-in), Spain; an Iodáil (un i-DAW*-il), Italy; Albain (AHL-uh-bin), Scotland; teanga (TANG-uh), language; Fraincis, an Fhraincis (FRANK-ish, un RANK-ish), French (language); Gearmáinis, an Ghearmáinis (GAR-maw*-nish, un YAR-maw*-nish), German (language); Spáinnis, an Spáinnis (SPAW*nish), Spanish (language); Iodáilis, an Iodáilis (i-DAW*-lish), Italian (language) thar lear (huhr lar), abroad múinim, ag múineadh (MOO-in-im, uh MOO-in-uh), teach, instruct craolaim, ag craoladh (KRAY*-lim, uh KRAY*-luh), broadcast clóim, ag cló (KLOH-im, uh KLOH), print clónn sé (klohn shay*), he prints uaireanta (OO-i-ran-tuh), sometimes, now and again de ghnáth (de GNAW*), generally go hannamh (goh HAHN-uhv), rarely DRILL (Cleachtadh (KLAK*-tuh) Form questions and answers according to this example: Cén teanga a labhraítear i Siceágo? (kay*n TANG-uh uh LOU-ree-tuhr i shi-KAW*goh), what language is spoken in Chicago. Labhraítear Béarla i Siceágo. An labhraítear an Spáinnis i Siceágo? Ní labhraítear ann í (oun ee) Work with these groups: Éire (AY*-re); Gaeilge (GAY*-lig-e); an Iodáilis. Meicsiceo; an Spáinnis; an Ghearmáinis. An Fhrainc; an Fhraincis; Béarla. An Ghearmáin; an Ghearmáinis; an Iodáilis. An Iodáil; an Iodáilis; Gaeilge. Ceanada; Béarla agus an Fhraincis; an Ghearmáinis.

KEY: Cén teanga a labhraítear in Éirinn? (in AY*R-in); labhraítear Gaeilge in Éirinn; an labhraítear an Iodáilis in Éirinn? ní labhraítear ann í. Cén teanga a labhraítear i Meicsiceo? labhraítear an Spáinnis i Meicsiceo; an labhraítear an Ghearmáinis i Meicsiceo?; ní labhraítear ann í. Cén teanga a labhraítear sa Fhrainc? (suh RANK); labhraítear an Fhraincis sa Fhrainc; an labhraítear Béarla sa Fhrainc?; ní labhraítear ann í. Cén teanga a labhraítear sa Ghearmáin? (suh YAR-maw*-in); labhraítear an Ghearmáinis sa Ghearmáin; an labhraítear an Iodáilis sa Ghearmáin?; ní labhraítear ann í. Cén teanga a labhraítear i gCeanada? (i GAN-uh-duh); labhraítear Béarla agus an Fhraincis i gCeanada; an labhraítear an Ghearmáinis i gCeanada? ní labhraítear ann í. Combine the words “múin”, “craol”, and “clóigh” (“clóitear” is the free form) with the languages in the Vocabulary and with “uaireanta”, “de ghnáth”, and “go hannamh” to form sentences containing the free form. For example: Craoltar an Ghearmáinis uaireanta in Albain (KRAY*Ltuhr un YAR-maw*-nish OO-i-ran-tuh in AHL-uh-bin), German is broadcast sometimes in Scotland.

Lesson 67 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW The letter “l”, like other Irish consonants, has two sounds. The broad sound occurs when the nearest vowel in the word is “a”, “o”, or “u”. The broad sound is clearest when the letter “l” begins the word. In pronouncing “l”, widen the tongue and force it against the back of the upper front teeth. The sound will differ from the English pronunciation, in which you probably touch the tongue tip to the roof of the mouth while keeping the tongue narrowed. Pronounce these words containing the broad “l” sound: lá (law*), day; ló (loh), in “de ló is d’oíche”, day and night; lú (loo), smaller, smallest. The next sound after a broad “l” can be a slender (ay*) or (ee) sound, as in: lae (lay*), of a day (“meán lae” (myaw*n lay*) is “midday” or “noon”); luí (lee), lying down. The slender “l” sound occurs when the nearest vowel in the word is “e” or “i”. For slender “l” at the beginning of a word, curl your tongue downward so that the tongue is raised to touch the upper teeth and the hard ridge behind them, while the tip touches the back of the lower front teeth. Pronounce these words with initial slender “l” sound: le (le), with; leat (lat), with you; líon (LEE-uhn), linen; léan (lay*n), sorrow; liom (luhm), with me; leo (loh), with them. Do not add a (y) sound to the “l”. Inside a word, or at a word end, “l” is often pronounced like English “l”, with the tongue narrower and touching the roof of the mouth close behind the upper front teeth. GRAMMAR We continue with the free form or saorbhriathar (say*r-VREE-huhr). The sentence “Dúnaim an doras” (DOON-im un DUH-ruhs) means “I close the door”, but “Dúntar an doras” is translated as “Someone closes the door”, or “The door is closed by someone”, or even “The door gets closed by someone”. This Irish sentence differs in meaning from “Tá an doras dúnta” (DOON-tuh), which means that at the present time the door is closed and not open. English is not as clear in meaning in this respect as is Irish. Other forms for the saorbhriathar in the present tense: “Ní dhúntar an doras ar a seacht a chlog” (nee GOON-tuhr un DUH*ruhs er uh shahk*t uh k*luhg), The door is not closed at seven, no one closes the door at seven. “An ndúntar go moch é?” (un NOON-tuhr goh mohk* ay*), Is it closed early?, Does someone close it early? “Nach ndúntar an fhuinneog gach lá?” (nahk* NOON-tuhr un in-YOHG gahk* law*), Isn’t the window closed every day?, Doesn’t someone close the window every day? If the verb root ends in a slender consonant, which is one with an “e” or an “i” closest to it, the ending of the saorbhriathar is “ _ _ _ tear”. This ending is pronounced (tuhr), but with a slender “t”. “Múin” becomes “múintear” (MOO-in-tuhr), it is taught. With verbs like “oscail” or “imigh” or “ceannaigh”, the forms are: osclaítear (OHSK-lee-tuhr), it is opened; imítear (IM-ee-tuhr), it is departed, people depart; ceannaítear (KAN-ee-tuhr), it is bought. The saorbhriathar can combine with other phrases that you have learned. Examples: Deir sé go gceannaítear bróga ann (der shay* goh GAN-ee-tuhr BROHG-uh oun), he says that shoes are bought there. Is dóigh liom nach léitear (LAY*-tuhr) sa tír seo é; I think that it is not read in this country. Cá ndíoltar iad? (kaw* NEEL-tuhr EE-uhd), Where are they sold? VOCABULARY Masculine nouns foirgneamh (FWIR-gi-nuhv), building; árasán, an t-árasán (un TAW*-ruh-saw*n), apartment building Feminine nouns monarcha, an mhonarcha (un VWOHN-uhr-huh), factory; saortharlann, an tsaortharlann (un TAY*-uhr-luhn), laboratory feictear dom (FEK-tuhr duhm), it seems to me gurb ea (GUR-ruhb a), that it is; nach ea (nahk* a), that it is not DRILL Feictear dom go bhfuil sé sa scoil (goh vwil shay* suh skuhl), It seems to me that he is in school. Feictear dom gur nuachtán é (gur NOO-uhk*-taw*n ay*), It seems to me that it is a newspaper.

Feictear dom gurb ea, It seems to be that it is. Feictear dom nach foirgneamh é sin, It seems to me that that is not a building. Feictear dom nach ea, It seems to me that it isn’t. Ní fheictear dom gurb ea (nee EK-tuhr duhm GUR-ruhb a), It doesn’t seem to me that it is. Feictear dom go n-aontaítear leis (goh NAY*N-tee-tuhr lesh), It seems to me that people agree with him. Feictear dom nach dtuigtear an t-ábhar sin (nahk* DIG-tuhr un TAW*-vwuhr shin), it seems to me that that subject is not understood. Make use of “feictear dom” with these verbs, in the affirmative (with “go”) form and negative (“nach”) form: críochnaigh (KREE-uhk*-nee), finish; deisigh (DESH-ee), repair; clois (klish), hear; glan (gluhn), clean. Add nouns to the sentences, too, such as “obair”, “carr” or “bord”.

Lesson 68 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW Pronounce the sound for an “m” which is near “a”, “o”, or “u” with your lips out and rounded. Practice on: má (maw*), if; mór (mohr), big; múnla (MOON-luh), a mold; muc (muk), pig; mac (mahk), son; maith (mah), good; molaim (MUHL-im), I praise; mná (muh-NAW*), women. Inside a word or at a word end: cumann (KU-muhn), a society; plámás (PLAW*-maw*s), flattery; cam (koum), crooked; ómósach (OH-moh-sahk*), respectful; bromach (BRUH-muhk*), colt; taom (tay*m), a fit. When the nearest vowel in the word is “e” or “i”, pronounce the “m” with lips in close to the teeth and spread slightly sideways, as in a faint smile. Practice on: mé (may*), I; mín (meen), smooth; meirg (MER-rig), rust; minic (MIN-ik), often. Inside a word or at a word end: bím (beem), I be; céim (kay*m), a step, degree: réimir (RAY-mir), a prefix; cime (KI-me), a captive; aimsir (EYEM-sheer), season; sméar (smay*r), berry GRAMMAR The free form or saorbhriathar (say*r-VREE-huhr) for “tá” is “táthar” (TAW*-huhr). Here is an example to show you its use: “Tá sí ag rith” (uh ri) means “she is running”. “Táthar ag rith” means “Someone is running” or “People are running”. Another example is: “Tá siad ag léamh an leabhair” (uh lay*v un LOU-wir), meaning “They are reading the book”. “Táthar ag léamh an leabhair” means “The book is being read” or “People are reading the book”. The negative for “táthar” is “níltear” (NEEL-tuhr), and an example of its use is “Níltear ag siúl” (uh shool), meaning “No one is walking”. Questions can be asked by means of “an bhfuiltear” (un VWIL-tuhr) or “nach bhfuiltear”. For example, “An bhfuiltear ag léamh an leabhair sin?” is “Are people reading that book?” These forms can serve in indirect speech, too. “Deir Seán go bhfuiltear ag siúl” is “John says that people are walking”. Sometimes the free form is in the first part of a sentence like this. An example is “Feictear dom go bhfuiltear ag caitheamh tobac” (uh KAH-huhv toh-BAHK), which is “It seems to me that people are smoking”. VOCABULARY Masculine nouns eolas, an t-eolas (un TOH-luhs), knowledge of a subject or place, rather than of a fact. glas (glahs),, a lock poll eochrach (poul OHK*-ruhk*), keyhole poll na heochrach (poul nuh HOHK*-ruhk*), the keyhole Feminine nouns eochair, an eochair (un OHK*-hir), key aeróg, an aeróg (un ay*r-ROHG), aerial of a radio or TV set leaba (LA-buh), bed sreang, an tsreang (srang, un trang), wire caibidil, an chaibidil (un K*AH-bi-dil), chapter DRILL Make four sentences out of each of the word groups below. The example of what to do follows the first group. Bris (brish), break; na cupáin (nuh ku-PAW*-in), the cups; na plátaí (nuh PLAW*-tee), the plates. An mbristear (MRISH-tuhr) na cupáin? Ní bhristear (VRISH-tuhr) iad. Nach mbristear na plátái? Bristear iad. Are the cups broken? (Do people break the cups?) They are not. Aren’t the plates broken? (Don’t people break the plates?) They are. Díol (DEE-uhl), sell; bainne anseo (BAHN-ye un-SHUH), milk here; caife anseo (KAHF-e un-SHUH), coffee here. Múin (MOO-in), teach; an Fhraincis ann (un RANK-ish oun), French there; an Iodáilis ann (un i-DAW*-lish oun), Italian there. Ól (ohl), drink; beoir anseo (BYOH-ir un-SHUH), beer here; tae amháin anseo (tay* uh-WOYN un-SHUH). Mínigh (MEEN-ee), explain; an ceacht go soiléir (un kyahk*t goh suh-LAY*R), the lesson clearly; an chaibidil sin go maith (goh MAH), that chapter well.

Oscail (OH-skil), open; an chéad dhoras ar maidin (un hyay*d GUH-ruhs er MAH-din), the first door in the morning; an dara doras tar éis sin (un DUH-ruh DUH-ruhs tuhr-AY*SH shin), the second door after that. Key to 2. to 6. above: An ndíoltar bainne anseo? Ní dhíoltar anseo é. Nach ndíoltar caife anseo? Díoltar anseo é. An múintear an Fhraincis ann? Ní mhúintear ann í. Nach múintear an Iodáilis ann? Múintear ann í. An óltar beoir anseo? Ní óltar anseo í. Nach n-óltar tae amháin anseo? Óltar anseo é. An mínitear go soiléir é. Nach mínitear an chaibidil sin go maith? Mínitear go maith í. An osclaítear (un OH-sklee-tuhr) an chéad dhoras ar maidin? Ní osclaítear é. Nach n-osclaítear an dara doras tar éis sin? Osclaítear tar éis sin é. Notes: Usually when you change to the free form, a word follows the free form. The word may be the original noun, such as “bainne” or “an Fhraincis”, or it may be a pronoun, such as “é”, “í”, or “iad”. Adverbs and other words may be repeated, too, or left out, depending on the meaning that you want to convey and on how briefly you wish to express yourself. Remember that “an” and “nach” eclipse the first consonant of the next verbal form where possible, and that “nach” causes an “n” to precede a vowel starting the next word, as in “nach n-óltar”.

Lesson 69 When “n” starts a word and the nearest vowel in the word is “a”, “o” or “u”, pronounce this “n” by spreading the tongue and pressing it against the upper front teeth. Practice this broad “n” sound in: ná, nó, nuair (NOO-ir), nach, nocht. If “n” begins a word but the nearest vowel is “e” or “i”, pronounce the “n” with the tongue tip on the hard rim behind the upper front teeth. You will often hear a faint (y) sound as you continue pronouncing the rest of the word. Practice this sound in: néad (nay*d) or (nyay*d), ní, nead (nyad), neimh (nev), neodrach (NYOH-druhk*). If the “n” is inside or at the end of a word, pronounce it as you do in English. Practice on: lán, rón, anuas (uh-NOO-uhs), móin (MOH-in), lean (lan), glanaim. If a double “n” inside a word is near an “e” or “i”, pronounce it (ny). Examples: bainne (BAHN-ye), tinneas (TIN-yuhs). Double “n” at a word end following “i” may get a (n) or (ny) sound, the latter being close to (ng). Examples: linn (lin) or (liny); álainn (AW*-lin) or (AW*-liny). The (ny) sound makes a combination like “álainn é” sound (AW*-lin yay*). REFLEX EXPRESSIONS Learn these expressions for quick use in thought and speech: Céard faoi? (kay*rd fwee), What about it? Céard fútsa? (kay*rd FOOT-suh), What about you? Céard fúthu? (kay*rd FOO-huh), What about them? Tamall ó shin (TAH-muhl oh hin), a while ago. Is duitse é seo (is DIT-she ay* shuh), This is for you. COMHRÁ (KOH-raw*), CONVERSATION In this week’s long conversation, we will break up the sentences into phrases by hyphenation, to give you practice in working by phrases, something which is important in learning Irish. Go over each sentence in Irish until you can say it easily and understand what is meant, making use of the English translation if needed. Do not translate into English. Next, cover the Irish and try to express the English in Irish. You do not need to get the exact wording of the original Irish, only the sense of it. Bláthnaid (BLAW*-nid): A Phóil (uh FOH-il), bíonn rud beag -- do mo bhodhrú (duhm VOU-roo) -- le tamall anois (le TAH-muhl uh-NISH). Blathnaid: Paul, there’s a small thing bothering me for a while now. Pól (pohl): Céard é sin? (kay*rd ay* shin) Airgead, an ea? (AR-i-guhd un a) Paul: What’s that? Money, is it? Bláthnaid: Ó, ní hea. Tá gach rud -- go han-mhaith (goh HAHN-uh VWAH) -- maidir leis an airgead (MAH-dir lesh un AR-i-guhd). Oh, it’s not. Everything is very good in the matter of money. Pól: Ó, tá áthas orm (taw* AW*-huhs OH-ruhm) -- é sin a chloisteáil (ay* shin uh K*LISH-taw*-il). Níorbh fhéidir liom (NEE-ruhv AY*-dir luhm) -- mórán cabhrach (moh-RAW*N KOU-rahk*) -- a thabairt duit (uh HOO-irt dit) -- sa chás sin (suh k*aw*s shin). Oh, I’m happy to hear that. I wouldn’t be able to give you much help in that case. Bláthnaid: Creidim thú (KRED-im hoo), -- ach is fadhb bheag (feyeb vee-UHG) -- an fhadhb (eyeb) atá agam anois. Bíonn buairt orm (BOOirt OH-ruhm) -- le pictiúr na teilifíse (le PIK-tyoor nuh TEL-i-feesh-e). Ní bhíonn sé soiléir (suh-LAY*R) -- chor ar bith (K*UHR er i). Agus preabann sé (PRAB-uhn shay*) -- go minic. I believe you, but the problem I have now is a small problem. I have trouble with the television’s picture. It’s not clear at all. And it jumps often. Pól: Rinne an fear (RIN-ye un far) -- a chuir isteach é -- botún, b’fhéidir (buh-TOON, BAY*-dir). An bhfuil an leabhairín treorach (LOU-uhr-een TROHR-rahk*) -- agat? The man who installed it made a mistake, perhaps. Do you have the instruction booklet? Bláthnaid: Tá an t-ádh leat (un TAW* lat). Choinnigh mé é (K*IN-ee may* ay*). Seo dhuit é (shuh GIT ay*). You’re in luck. I kept it. Here it is for you. Pól: Hmm. Mórán léaráidí ann (moh-RAW*N lay*r-AW*-dee oun). Ó, feach anseo! Treorach faoin aeróg (TROHR-rahk* fween ay*r-ROHG). Hmm. A lot of diagrams there. Oh, look here! Instructions on the aerial. Sílim go bhfuil an trioblóid (trib-LOH-id) -- san aeróg. Feictear dom -- go bhfuil an aeróg seo againn (uh-GIN) -- ro-ghearr (roh YAHR). Tá aeróg níos faide (nees FAD-ye) -- ag teastáil uainn (uh TAS-taw*-il WOO-in) -- go soiléir. I think that the trouble is in the aerial. It seems to me that this aerial of ours is too short. We need a longer aerial, clearly. Bláthnaid: Cad ba cheart dúinn (kahd buh hyart DOO-in) -- a dhéanamh anois -- más ea? (maw* sha) What should we do now, then. Pól: Tá orainn (OH-rin) -- sreang mhiotail a fháil (srang VI-til uh AW*-il) -- agus í a chur -- an fhuinneog amach (un in-YOHG uh-MAHK*). Bainimis triail as sin (BWIN-i-meesh TREE-il as shin). We must get a metal wire and put it out the window. Let’s try that.

Lesson 70 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW If the nearest vowel to the letter “p” in a word is “a”, “o”, or “u”, pronounce the letter “p” with lips protruded and rounded. Practice on: pá, pál, paidir (PAHD-ir), póg, post (pohst), púca, puth (pu), puinn (pwin). Inside a word or at a word end: stopaim (STOHP-im), iompair (UM-pir), leapa, ceap (kyap), rap (rahp). To pronounce a “p” when the nearest vowel in the word is “e” or “i”, bring the lips in close to the teeth and spread the lips slightly, as in a faint smile. Try: pé (pay*), pic (pik), pian (PEE-uhn), péist (pay*sht), Peadar (PAD-uhr), peann (pyoun). Inside a word or at a word end: impire (IM-pir-e), teipim (TEP-im), scaip (skahp), scléip (shklay*p). Finally, practice on these two words that have both broad and slender “p”, until you can say the word easily and naturally: píopa (PEEP-uh), páipéar (paw*-PAY*-uhr). GRAMMAR In Lesson 69, the Comhrá (KOH-raw*) contained the sentence “Bíonn rud beag do mo bhodhrú” (duhm VOU-roo). This means literally “There is a little thing to my bothering (or annoying).” “Ag bodhrú” is the verbal noun for the verb “bodhraím” (BOU-reem), I bother. The English word “bother” may have come from this. The word also means “to deafen”, and “bodhar” (BOU-uhr or BOH-uhr) means “deaf.” “John is bothering you” becomes: “Tá Seán do do bhodhrú” (duhd VOU-roo). “John is striking you” is: “Tá Seán do do bhualadh” (duhd VOOluh), literally “John is to your striking.” Here is the entire system for this: Tá an fear do mo bhualadh; the man is striking me. Tá an fear do do bhualadh; striking you. Tá an fear á bhualadh (aw* VOO-luh); striking him. Tá an fear á bualadh (aw* BOO-luh); striking her. Tá an fear dár mbualadh (daw*r MOO-luh); striking us. Tá an fear do bhur mbualadh (duh vwoor MOO-luh); striking you (plural). Tá an fear á mbualadh; striking them. “He is praising himself” is “Tá sé a mholadh féin” (aw* VWUHL-uh fay*n). “They were washing themselves” is “Bhí siad á ní féin.” COMHRÁ(KOH-raw*) (Bláthnaid and Pól continue attempts to improve television reception.) Bláthnaid (BLAW*-nid): Cén fad an tsreang atá uait? (un trang uh-TAW* oo-it) Níl sreang níos faide (FAD-ye) ná fiche troigh againn (naw* FI-hye tree uh-GIN). How long is the wire that you want? We don’t have a wire longer than twenty feet. Pól (pohl): Sílim go ndéanfaidh sé sin (goh NYA*N-hee shay* shin) an gnó. Caithfidh mé (KAH-hee may*) an dréimire, mo chasúr, agus uirlisí eile a fháil (un DRAY*M-i-re, muh k*ah-SOOR, AH-guhs IR-li-shee EL-e uh AW*-il). I think that that will work. I must get the ladder, my hammer, and other tools. Bláthnaid: Bí cúramach (KOOR-uh-mahk*). Be careful. Pól: Ó, táim (TAW*-im) níos oilte (IL-te) anois ná anuraidh (uh-NOOR-ee). Bí cinnte faoi sin (bee KIN-tye fwee shin). Oh, I am more skilled now than last year. Be sure of that. Bláthnaid: Cá leagfaimid (LAK-hi-mid) an tsreang? B’fhéidir tríd an mballa (BAY*-dir treed un MAHL-uh) in aice an teilifíseáin (in AK-e un TEL-i-fee-shaw*-in) agus ansin an spéir (spay*r) chuig an árasán (hig un AW*-ruh-saw*n) os ár gcomhair (ohs aw*r GOH-ir). Where will we run the wire? Perhaps through the wall near the television set, and then in the air to the apartment building opposite us. Pól: Níl sé sin ceadaithe (KAD-i-he) dúinn. Ach tá smaoineamh eile agam (SMWEEN-uhv EL-e uh-GUHM). Leagaimis an tsreang trí pholl na heochrach (tree foul nuh HOHK*-ruhk*) sa doras. Beimid ábalta (BE-mid AW*-buhl-tuh) an tsreang a chrochadh (K*ROHK*-uh) ar an mballa lasmuigh (lahs-MWEE) den teach. We are not allowed to do that. But I have another idea. Let’s run the wire through the keyhole in the door. We will be able to hang the wire on the wall outside the house. Bláthnaid: Ach níorbh fhéidir linn (NEE-ruhv AY*-dir lin) an eochair a shá (un OHK*-hir uh haw*) isteach sa pholl. Conas a bheimid ábalta an doras a chur faoi ghlas? (fwee glahs). But we wouldn’t be able to stick the key into the hole. How will we be able to lock the door? Pól: Tá an ceart agat. Cuirfaidh mé poll eile tríd an doras le mo dhruilire láimhe (GRIL-i-re LAW*-i-ve). Seasfaidh (SHAS-hee may*) ar an dréimire agus beidh mé ag obair ann. You’re right. I will put another hole through the door with my hand drill. I’ll stand on the ladder and I’ll be working there. Bláthnaid: Beidh mé i mo sheasamh (i muh HAS-uhv) cois an dréimire (kish un DRAY*M-i-re) agus coinneoidh (kin-YOH-ee) mé greim docht (grem dohk*t) ar an dréimire ar eagla (AH-gluh) go sleamhnóidh tú (shlou-NOH-ee too). I’ll be standing next to the ladder, and I’ll keep a firm grip on the ladder for fear that you will slip.

Lesson 71 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW In Irish, any “r” beginning a word gets the broad sound. Roll this “r” by placing the tongue tip near the hard ridge behind the upper front teeth as you pronounce “r.² The tongue should vibrate during the sound. Practice on: ré (ray*), rá (raw*), rí, rás, rón, rún (roon), rud (ruhd), reatha (RAhuh), raca (RAHK-uh), reic (rek). If an “r” is inside or at the end of a word, and if the nearest vowel is “a”, “o”, or “u”, the “r” sound may be closer to the English sound. Examples: ordóg (ohr-DOHG), daor (day*r), port (pohrt), sráid (SRAW*-id). In other cases, the “r” is rolled to varying degree. Examples: orm (OHruhm), crua (KROO-uh), doras (DUH-ruhs). Pronounce “rr” near an “a”, “o”, or “u” with the rolled sound, as in carr (kahr), carraig (KAHR-rig), tarraing (TAHR-ring). When an “r” is inside or at a word end and the nearest vowel is “e” or “i”, pronounce the “r” with its slender sound. Although this is a difficult sound to describe, you have heard it from Irish persons and, on radio and television, from performers seeking to imitate Irish accents. You should be able to recognize it when you have it correctly. One way of forming the sound is to make a shallow pocket in the tongue tip, curling the tongue and placing the tongue tip near the top rear of your upper front teeth. Pronounce “r”, and you should feel air blow down against your lower lip as your tongue drops. Do not let the tongue tip go forward as it drops, or you will make a sound like English “th”. Practice first on English “where”, “Mary”, and “we’re here”, pronouncing these with the Irish slender “r”. Then try: fir (fir), féir (fay*r), féirín (fay*r-EEN), préachán (pray*-K*AW*N), péire (PAY*R-e). If a slender “r” follows a consonant, a sound like (i) may come between the consonants. For example, “breá” may sound like (bir-RAW*), and “preab” may sound like (pir-RAB). GRAMMAR The saorbhriathar (say*r-VREE-huhr) or free form exists in all tenses. We will study the past tense of it now. In Irish, “It was put on the table” is “Cuireadh (KIR-uh) ar an mbord é.² The negative is “Níor (NEE-uhr) cuireadh ar an mbord é”, meaning “it was not put on the table”. The questions are: Ar (er) cuireadh ar an mbord é?; Was it put on the table? Nár (naw*r) cuireadh ar an mbord é?; Wasn’t it put on the table? For many verbs, form the past-tense saorbhriathar by adding “_ _ _ adh” or “_ _ _ eadh” to the root, which is the singular imperative. For “tóg”, it becomes “Tógadh é² (TOHG-uh ay*), meaning “It was taken”. Other examples: briseadh é (BRISH-uh ay*); it was broken níor briseadh é; it was not broken ar briseadh é; was it broken? tuigeadh é (TIG-uh ay*); it was understood níor tuigeadh é; it was not understood nár tuigeadh é; wasn’t it understood? Notice that in this form there is no aspiration by “ar”, “níor”, or “nár”. The two-syllable second-conjugation verbs, such as “ceannaigh” (KAN-ee), “cosain” (KUH-sin), “oscail” (OH-skil), and “freagair” (FRAG-ir), form the past-tense saorbhriathar a little differently. Learn these examples: ceannaíodh é (KAN-ee-ohk* ay*), it was bought cosnaíodh é (KUHS-nee-ohk* ay*), it was defended osclaíodh é (OHSK-lee-ohk* ay*), it was opened freagraíodh é (FRAG-ree-ohk* ay*), it was answered DRILL Go through a progressive drill with the saorbhriathar of these verbs and words: dún (doon), an doras; close, the door cas (KAHS), an cúinne (KOON-ye); turn, the corner stop (stohp), carr; stop, car creid (kred), an scéal; believe, the story mínigh (MEEN-ee), an cheist (hyesht); explain, the question Examples: Ar dúnadh an doras? Níor dúnadh an doras. Nár dúnadh an doras? Dúnadh an doras. When you have finished, check your sentences against these key words: casadh, stopadh, creideadh, míníodh (MEEN-ee-ohk*). COMHRÁ (KOH-raw*) (The effort to improve television reception continues.)

Pól (pohl): Ná bíodh eagla ort (naw* BEE-ohk* AH-gluh OH-ruht). Oibreoidh mé an-chúramach (ib-ROH-ee may* AHN-k*oor-uh-mahk*). Don’t be afraid. I will work very carefully. Bláthnaid (BLAW*-nid): Suas leat, mar sin. Tá súil agam -- go bhfuil gach rud i gceart. Up with you then. I hope that everything is in order. Pól: Is fusa an obair seo -- ná an druileáil (DRIL-aw*-il) a rinne mé (RIN-ye may*) -- ar an gcúldoras (GOOL-duh-ruhs) -- anuraidh (uh-NOORee). Níl an t-adhmad seo (TEYE-muhd shuh) chomh crua (hoh KROO-uh) -- agus a bhí an t-adhmad sa chúldoras. This work is easier than the drilling I did on the back door last year. This wood isn’t as hard as the wood in the back door. Bláthnaid: Ná sleamhnaigh, mar sin féin (naw* SHLOU-nee, mahr shin fay*n). Níl mórán árachais (AW*-ruh-k*ish) agam ort. Don’t slip, just the same. I don’t have much insurance on you.

Lesson 72 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW Pronounce an “s” near “a”, “o” or “u” like the American sound, with lips relaxed. This is the broad “s” sound. Do not tense the lips as in the English sound. Practice on: sá, só, sú, saor (say*r), saoi (see), samhradh (SOU-ruh), saibhir (SEYE-vir), sac (sahk), sabháil (suh-VWAW*-il), slat (slaht), smál (smaw*l), smaoineamh (SMWEEN-uhv), smuta (SMUT-uh), snas (snahs), spórt (spohrt), Spáinn (SPAW*-in), spraoi (spree), stad (stahd), strapa (STRAHpuh), stró (stroh). Pronounce an Irish “s” as (sh) when it is next to an “e” or an “i”, and also when “sc”, “sl”, “sn”, and “st” are next to the “e” or “i”. Examples: sé, sí, sean (shan), seift (sheft), sin, scéal (shkay*l), slí (shlee), sneachta (SHNAHK*-tuh), stíl (shteel), leisce (LESH-ke), uaisle (WISH-le), misniúil (mish-NYOO-il), éisteacht (AY*SH-tyahk*t). If the combinations “sm”, “sp”, “sr”, or “str” are next to “e” or “i”, pronounce the “s” as (s), the broad sound described above. Memorize these examples: smig (smig), chin; spéir (spay*r), sky; srian (SREE-uhn), bridle; stríoc (streek), streak, stripe. “is” is an exception, too. Pronounce it (is), never (ish) or (iz). Irish has no (z) sound. GRAMMAR In the future tense, the (say*r-VREE-huhr) or free form expresses ideas such as “It will be put on the table” or “Someone will put it on the table”. In Irish, this is: Cuirfear ar an mbord é (KIR-fuhr er un MOHRD ay*). Note that the “f” is pronounced (f) here. In other future forms, you pronounce it (h), as in “Cuirfidh mé (KIR-hee may*) ar an mbord é”; I will place it on the table. The rest of the saorbhriathar forms in the future are: Ní chuirfear (K*IR-fuhr) ar an mbord é. An gcuirfear (un GIR-fuhr) ar an mbord é? Nach gcuirfear (nach* GIR-fuhr) ar an mbord é? “Ní” aspirates here, and “an” and “nach” eclipse. For a two-syllabled second-conjunction verb, such as “ceannaigh” (KAN-ee), buy, the future forms are: Ceannófar é (kan-OH-fuhr ay*), it will be bought. Ní cheannófar é (nee hyan-OH-fuhr ay*), it will not be bought. An gceannófar é? (un gyan-OH-fuhr ay*), will it be bought? Nach gceannófar é? (nahk* gyan-OH-fuhr ay*), won’t someone buy it? Others from this group: Osclófar é (ohsk-LOH-fuhr ay*), someone will open it. Cosnófar é (kuhs-NOH-fuhr ay*), it will be defended. Freagrófar é (frag-ROH-fuhr ay*), someone will answer it. Baileofar é (bahl-YOH-fuhr ay*), someone will collect it. Inseofar dó é (in-SHOH-fuhr doh ay*), it will be told to him. Notice that an extra “e” is inserted sometimes. This makes spelling consistent, so that you know whether a letter gets its broad or slender sound. For example, without the “e” to help, you would not know whether “insófar” was (in-SOH-fuhr) or (in-SHOH-fuhr). DRILL With the examples: An gcuirfear an mála sa charr? (un GIR-fuhr un MAW*-lah suh K*AHR), Will the bag be put into the car? Ní chuirfear an mála sa charr, The bag won’t be put into the car. Nach gcuirfear an mála sa charr? Cuirfear an mála sa charr. Go through progressive drills with these word groups: Bris (brish), break; an cupán ar an urlár, the cup on the floor. Feic (fek), see; an cailín sin amárach (uh-MAW*-rahk*), that girl tomorrow. Pós (pohs), marry; Seán le Síle (SHEE-luh). Críochnaigh (KREE-uhk*-nee), finish; an obair seo, this work. Mínigh (MEEN-ee), explain; an fhadhb (eyeb), the problem. Key: An mbrisfear an cupán ar an urlár? Ní bhrisfear ----. Nach mbrisfearr ----? Brisfear ----. An bhfeicfear (VEK-fuhr) ----? Ní fheicfear (nee EK-fuhr) ----. Nach bhfeicfear ----? Feicfear ----. An gcríochnófar (greek*-NOH-fuhr) ----? Ní chríochnófar ----. Nach gcríochnófar ----? Críochnófar ----. An míneofar ----? Ní mhíneofar (veen-YOH-fuhr) ----. Nach míneofar ----? Míneofar ----. COMHRÁ (KOH-raw*)

(Success appears imminent, as the modified aerial is emplaced.) Bláthnaid (BLAW*-nid): Cuirfear an poll tríd an doras go luath (KIR-fuhr un poul treed un DUH-ruhs goh LOO-uh). The hole will be put through the door soon. Pól (pohl): Tá sé críochnaithe anois (KREE-uhk*-nuh-he uh-NISH). It’s finished now. Tabhair dom an tsreang mhiotail (TOO-ir duhm un trang VI-til), más é do thoil é (MAW* shay* duh HIL ay*). Give me the metal wire, please. Bláthnaid: Seo dhuit, a Phóil (shuh git, uh FOH-il). Sáigh amach í trí pholl an dorais (SAW*-ee uh-MAHK* ee tree foul un DUH-rish). Here it is, Paul. Stick it out through the door-hole. Pól: Anois, tá orainn -- an tsreang a chrochadh -- ar thaobh an fhoirgnimh seo (uh-NISH, taw* OH-rin un trang uh K*ROHK*-uh er HAY*V un IR-gi-niv shuh). Now, we have to hang the wire on the side of this building. Bláthnaid: Buíochas le Dia. Craolfar (KRAY*L-fuhr) clár álainn anocht (klaw*r AW*-lin uh-NOHK*T). Thank heaven. A beautiful program will be broadcast tonight.

Lesson 73 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW Pronounce the letter “t”: near “a”, “o”, or “u”, with its broad sound. For this, place the tongue so that it lies along or close to the hard part of the roof of the mouth behind the upper front teeth, with the tongue tip touching the back of the upper front teeth. Make sure that the tongue is relaxed and spread out, not contracted and pointed. Pronounce the “t”, practicing on: tál (taw*l), tóg, tú, tobar (TOH-buhr), tachtadh (TAHK*-tuh), talamh (TAH-luhv), táille (TAW*-il-ye), tlú (tloo), tnúth (tnoo), traein (tray*n), troid (trid). Pronounce a broad “t” inside or at the end of a word in the same way: giota (GI-tuh), eachtra (AHK*-truh), leat (lat), bocht (bohk*t). Pronounce a “t” near an “e” or “i” with the tongue tip against the hard ridge behind the upper front teeth. Let the tip slide forward and down as you pronounce the sound, which will have a faint (y) sound at the end of it. Examples of this slender sound: te, tirim (TIR-im), tír (teer), teip (tep), teach (tahk*), téamh (tay*v), tiús (tyoos), trí (tree), triúr (troor). Inside or at the end of a word, slender “t” has the same sound: litir, feictear (FEK-tyuhr), geit (get), áit (aw*t). Sometimes the slender “t” may resemble the English (ch) sound, but do not consciously imitate the (ch) sound. To see this, pronounce “áit” as (aw*) and (t), with a faint (i) sound in between. Then pronounce it (oy) and (ch), and you will hear the difference. GRAMMAR For the irregular verbs, the saorbhriathar (say*r-VREE-huhr) or free form is regular in appearance for the present tense. Learn these: tagtar (TAHG-tuhr), people come téitear (TAY*-tyuhr) people go cloistear (KLISH-tyuhr), people hear feictear (FEK-tyuhr), people see, it seems déantar (DAY*N-tuhr), people make or do tugtar (TUG-tuhr), people give beirtear air (BER-tyuhr er), it is seized faightear (FEYE-tyuhr), people get deirtear (DER-tyuhr), people say itear (I-tyuhr), people eat In the negative, “ní” (nee) aspirates all these except “deirtear”, which becomes “ní deirtear”. In the questions, both “an” and “nach” eclipse all these, as in “nach bhfaightear anseo iad?” (nahk* VWEYE-tyuhr un-SHUH EE-uhd), aren’t they gotten here?, don’t people get them here? DRILL Go through progressive drills with the forms above, with four sentences in each drill, according to this pattern: Cuir; hataí sa seomra suite (SI-tye); hataí sa chistin. An gcuirtear hataí sa seomra suite? Ní chuirtear hataí sa seomra suite. Nach gcuirtear hataí sa seomra suite? Cuirtear hataí sa chistin. Tar; ó Chorcaigh (K*OHR-kee); ó Bhaile Átha Cliath (vlaw*-KLEE-uh). Téigh; go Gaillimh; go Sligeach (SHLIG-ahk*). Clois; an traein; an t-eitleán (un TET-i-law*n), the airplane. Feic; an clár sin; that program; an cluiche (KLI-hye), the game. Déan; anseo iad; i Siceágó iad (i shi-KAW*-goh EE-uhd), in Chicago. Tabhair (TOO-ir); an t-airgead dó (un TAR-i-guhd doh), the money to him; an t-airgead do Mháire. Beir; ar an ngadaí (er ung AH-dee), the thief; ar na fír eile. Faigh; an t-adhmad (TEYE-muhd), wood; an phéint (fay*nt), paint. Abair; go bhfuil; nach bhfuil. Ith; an fheoil (OH-il), meat; na prátaí (PRAW*-tee), potatoes. COMHRÁ (KOH-raw*) (The results of the change in the television aerial prove excellent.) Pól (pohl): Tá gach rud réidh anois (ray* uh-NISH). Lasc ann an gléas (lahsk oun un GLAY*-uhs). Everything is ready now. Turn the set on. Bláthnaid (BLAW*-nid): Tá mé bródúil asat (broh-DOO-il A-suht). Sin í an obair is fearr (fahr) -- a rinne (RIN-ye) tú le tamall fada anuas (uhNOO-uhs). I am proud of you. That’s the best work that you have done for a long time. Pól: Suigh síos os comhair an teilifíseán (TEL-i-fee-shaw*-in). Nach compordach (kuhm-POHR-dahk*) an chathaoir (K*AH-heer) í sin? Sit down before the television set. Isn’t that chair a comfortable one? Bláthnaid: Is compordach, gan amhras (OU-ruhs). Agus tá mé ar mo sháimhín só (HAW*-veen soh), freisin. It is, without a doubt. And I feel comfortable too. Pól: Tá feabhas (fous) mór ar an íomhá (EE-vwaw*). Táimid ag fáil (FAW*-il) pictiúr cuíosach mhaith (KWEE-sahk* vwah).

There’s a big improvement in the image. We are getting a fairly good picture. Bláthnaid: Tá an fhuaim (oo-IM) níos fearr anois ná a bhí sí riamh. Ceartaigh na dathanna (KYART-ee nuh DAH-huh-nuh), mas é do thoil é (MAW* shay* duh HIL ay*). Nach bhfuil an dath dearg róthréan? (dah DYAR-ruhg roh-HYRAY*N). The sound is better now than it ever was. Adjust the colors, please. Isn’t the red color too intense? Pól: Déanfar i gcúpla nóiméad é sin. Tá orm mo bhia a fháil (VEE-uh uh AW*-il). That will be done in a couple of minutes. I have to get my food. Note: A chair is “compordach” to sit in, but for a person, “Tá sé ar a sháimhín só”, or “Tá sé sómasach” (SOH-muhs-ahk*), he is comfortable.

Lesson 74 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW The letter “a” has several sounds in Irish. If the “a” has a síneadh (SHEEN-uh) over it -- “á”-- pronounce it like the vowel in the English word “tot”, but sound it for a longer time. The sound will be between an English (aw) in “paw” and an English (ah) in “ma”. Make sure that you open the mouth wide and place the tip of the tongue just below the lower teeth. The lips should be spread to the sides more than for English “aw”. Practice on: ál, ádh (aw*), ár, bá, cá, dá, fá, bláth (blaw*), arán (uh-RAW*N). We use the letter group (aw*) for this sound, indicating that it is similar to but not exactly like English “aw”. In many cases where the “a” has no síneadh but is alone in the accented syllable, the sound is more likely to resemble English (ah) in “ma”. Examples: mac (mahk), capall (KAH-puhl), cad (kahd), fada (FAH-duh), cara (KAH-ruh). It will be easier for you to give it this sound at first rather than a short (aw*) sound, which is actually what it gets in most of Ireland. Later, you can gradually switch to the more correct sound, as you hear Irish speakers use it. An “a” in an unaccented syllable often sounds like (uh) in English “uh-huh” or “love”. Examples: fada (FAH-duh), aníos (uh-NEES), capall (KAH-puhl). When other vowels, such as “e” or “i”, or aspirated consonants, such as “bh, dh, gh, mh” are next to “a”, the pronunciation of the letter group may differ from (aw*), (ah), or (uh). we will review this next week. GRAMMAR For the irregular verbs, the past-tense saorbhriathar (say*r-VREE-huhr), or free form, is fairly irregular. Learn these four this week: thángthas (HAW*NG-uh-huhs), people come níor thángthas (NEE0uhr HAW*NG-uh-huhs), people didn’t come ar thángthas? (r HAW*NG-uh-huhs), did people come? nár thángthas (naw*r HAW*NG-uh-huhs), didn’t people come? chuathas (K*OO-uh-huhs), people went ní dheachthas (nee YAK*-huhs), people didn’t go an ndeachthas? (un NYAK*-huhs), did people go? nach (nahk*) ndeachthas?, didn’t people go? chualathas (K*OOL-uh-huhs), it was heard níor chualathas, it was not heard ar chualathas?, was it heard? nár chualathas?, wasn’t it heard? chonacthas (K*UHN-uhk-huhs), it was seen ní fhacthas (nee AHK-huhs), it was not seen an bhfachthas? (un VWAHK-uhs), was it seen? nach bhfacthas?, wasn’t it seen? VOCABULARY To make conversation easier, you need words that reduce or increase the force of adjectives. For example, it helps to be able to say that something is “fairly good” or that weather is “very cold”. One way to do this is by addition of a prefix. “An - “ (ahn) means “very”. It aspirates all consonants except “d, t, s”. Examples: an-bheag (AHN-vyuhg), very small an-chiúin (AHN-HYOO-in), very quiet an-deas (AHN-dyas), very pretty an-tirim (AHN-TIR-im), very dry an-saibhir (AHN-SEYE-vir), very rich “Ró” (roh) means “too”. It aspirates all consonants. Examples: róbhaolach (roh-VWAY*-luhk*), too dangerous róchaol (roh-K*AY*L), too narrow ródheacair (roh-YAK-ir), too difficult róthirim (roh-HIR-im), too dry Separate words: cuíosach (KWEE-sahk*), fairly cineál (KIN-aw*l), somewhat réasúnta (ray*-SOON-tuh), fairly, reasonably ____ go hiomlán (goh HUM-law*n), quite, entirely measartha (MAS-uhr-huh), fairly, moderately ____ ar fad (er FAHD), quite, entirely

There are other and longer expressions for some of these meanings that are in better style and are more Irish, but they are more difficult, and we will not take them up here. An example is “Is beag nach bhfuil mé marbh”, meaning, “I am almost dead”, literally “It is little that I am not dead”. COMHRÁ (KOH-raw*) Pádraig: Dia dhuit, a Liam. Hello, William. Liam: Dia’s Muire dhuit, a Phádraig. Conas tá tú inniú? Hello, Patrick. How are you today? Pádraig: Ó, táim cuíosach maith. Conas tá tú féin? Oh, I’m fairly well. How are you? Liam: Beagnach marbh leis an obair. Agus tá an aimsir an-te (AHN-te). Nearly dead with the work. And the weather’s very hot. Pádraig: Ach níl sé rothirim, ar aon chuma (er AY*N K*U-muh). But it’s not too dry, anyway. Liam: Bhí sé cineál tais (KIN-aw*l tash) inné. It was somewhat damp yesterday. Pádraig: Tais ar fad. Beidh (be) sé measartha fuar i gceann tamaill. Quite damp. It will be fairly cold in a while. Liam: Tá orainn bheith (ve) an-churamach in aimsir mar sin. We must be very careful in weather like that. Pádraig: Tá an ceart (kyart) agat. Bhí an-slaghdán (AHN-sleye-DAW*N) orm ag an am seo anuraidh (eg un oum shuh uh-NOOR-ee). You are right. I had a terrible cold this time last year. Note: “An - “ can precede a noun, too, and give it an intensified meaning. “An-slaghdán” means an outstanding or bad cold. “An-scoláire” (AHN-skuh-LAW*-re) is an outstanding or excellent student.

Lesson 75 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW If the letter “e” in Irish has a síneadh (SHEEN-uh) over it -- é -- pronounce it like the first part of the vowel sound in English “may”. Do not add the (ee) sound; say “may” very slowly, and you will hear it. Our pronunciation guide symbol for é is (ay*), in which the asterisk tells you that the sound resembles the English “ay” but has an audible difference. In pronouncing é, hold the sound for a longer time than you would the English sound (ay). Compare Irish “mé féin” (may* fay*n) with English “may feign”. Practice on these words: sé (shay*); béal (bay*l); déan; fé; clé; réim (ray*m); spéir (spay*r). If the letter é has no síneadh over it, and if it is at a word end or followed by an “i,” pronounce it like the “e” in English “let”. Examples: eile (EL-e); eire (E-re); eitilt (E-tilt); beir (ber); leid (led); creid (kred). Do not lengthen this sound as you do the “é” sound. If “é” precedes other vowels, it may get no sound, or the vowels together may have a particular sound of their own. For example, in the word “meá,” the “e” is unsounded and merely tells you to give the “m” its slender sound, with lips near the teeth: (myaw*), differing from “má” (maw*) with lips protruded. In words like “fear” (far), the “ea” combination has its own sound, resembling the “a” in English “at.” GRAMMAR We continue with the saorbhriathar (say*r-VREE-huhr), or free form, of the irregular verbs in the past tense. Here are four more: dúradh (DOO-ruh), it was said ní dúradh, it was not said an ndúradh? (un NOO-ruh), was it said? nach ndúradh?, wasn’t it said? rinneadh (RIN-yuh), it was done, it was made ní dhearnadh (YAHR-nuh), it wasn’t done, it wasn’t made an ndearnadh? (NYAHR-nuh), was it done?, was it made? nach ndearnadh?, wasn’t it done?, wasn’t it made? tugadh (TUG-uh), it was given níor tugadh (NEE-uhr TUG-uh), it wasn’t given ar tugadh?, was it given? nár (naw*r) tugadh?, wasn’t it given? fuarthas (FOO-uhr-huhs), it was found, it was gotten ní bhfuarthas (nee VOOR-uhr-huhs), it wasn’t found, it wasn’t gotten an bhfuarthas?, was it found?, was it gotten? nach bhfuarthas?, wasn’t it found?, wasn’t it gotten? VOCABULARY Masculine nouns bun (bun), bottom barr (baw*r), top toitín (tuh-TYEEN), cigarette cipín (ki-PEEN), match Feminine nouns cuileog, an chuileog (kwil-YOHG, un k*wil-YOHG), a fly fadhb, an fhadhb (feyeb, eyeb), problem doirtim, ag doirteadh (DIRT-im, uh DIRT-uh), pour goidim, ag goid (GID-im, uh GID), steal geallaim, ag gealladh (GAL-im, uh GAL-uh), promise geallaim duit é, I promise it to you DRILL A progressive drill on the saorbhriathra of the eight irregular verbs of this lesson and Lesson 74 will help fix these forms in your mind. The example: With the words “thángthas” (HAW*NG-uh-huhs); “go dtí an teach” (goh DEE un TAHK*); “chuig an gcathair” (hig un GAH-hir). to the city; go through this drill: Ar thángthas go dtí an teach?; níor thángthas go dtí an teach; nár thángthas chuig an gcathair?; thángthas chuig an gcathair. The meaning is: “Did people come to the house?”, etc.

Continue with: Chuathas (K*OO-uh-huhs); amach; isteach. Did people go?, etc. Chualathas (K*OOL-uh-huhs); an madra; an cat. Was the dog heard?, etc. Chonacthas (K*UHN-uhk-huhs); Seán; Seoirse. Was John seen?, etc. Dúradh (DOO-ruh); leis é; an scéal leo. Was it told to him?, etc. Rinneadh (RIN-yuh); anseo é; in Éirinn é. Was it made here?, etc. Tugadh (TUG-uh); an cóta do Sheán; an léine do Shéamas. Was the coat given to John?, etc. Fuarthas (FOOR-uhr-huhs); an leabhar ann; an leabhar eile istigh. Was the book found there?, etc. READING EXERCISE Gealladh (GAL-uh) dom é, ach ní bhfuair mé é. An bhfacthas duit go ndearnadh an obair in am? Níor goideadh rud ar bith ach ár gclog. Nach ndoirtear amach é tar éis an dinnéir? Lasfar an solas ar a seacht a chlog. Aontaíodh (AY*N-tee-ohk*) leat. Key: It was promised to me, but I didn’t get it. Did it seem to you that the work was done in time? Nothing at all was stolen but our clock. Isn’t it poured out after dinner? The light will be lit at seven o’clock. People agreed with you. Notes: “Aontaím leat” (AY*N-teem lat) means “I agree with you”. “Aontaíonn sé liom” means “He agrees with me.” This is a second-conjugation verb, with its imperative or command, “Aontaigh! (AY*N-tee), meaning “Agree!” The past saorbhriathar becomes “aontaíodh”.

Lesson 76 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW Pronounce “í” in Irish like “ee” in English “she”, but with the tongue tip down against the back of the lower front teeth. Do not bring the center of the tongue so close to the roof of the mouth as to cause hissing. Hold the sound for a longer time than the sound in English “she”. Practice on: í (ee); sí (shee); lí; níl; blí; díol (DEE-uhl); slí (shlee); buíoch (BWEE-uhk*). Without the síneadh (SHEEN-uh), Irish “i” has a shorter sound which may be a short (ee) or a sound closer to that in English “pin”, although it never is exactly that. Clear examples of the short (ee) sound are: bia (BEE-uh); lia (LEE-uh) Words in which the (ee) nature of the sound is not as evident are: smig (smig); smid (smid); sin (shin); cic (kik) Nevertheless, do not pronounce any of these exactly as if they were English words. Keep the tongue down against the back of the lower front teeth as you pronounce the “i”. Try “sín” (sheen), then “sin” (shin) several times. Often an “i” next to a broad vowel, “a, o, u”, gets no sound but merely indicates that the consonant after or before the “i” has its slender sound. Examples: fuar (FOO-uhr), fuair (FOO-ir); lán (law*n), lián (lyaw*n); balla (BAHL-uh), baile (BAHL-e); bás (baw*s), báis (BAW*-ish). The last word may sound somewhat like (boysh) to you. GRAMMAR Here are the saorbhriathra (say*r-VREE-uh-ruh), or free forms, for the last two irregular verbs in the past tense: rugadh air (RUG-uh er), he was seized níor (NEE-uhr) rugadh air, he wasn’t seized ar (er) rugadh air?, was he seized? nár (naw*r) rugadh air?, wasn’t he seized? itheadh (I-huh), it was eaten níor itheadh, it wasn’t eaten ar itheadh?, was it eaten? nár itheadh?, wasn’t it eaten? Notice that “ith” is regular in the past, resembling verbs like “ól”, with its “óladh” (OHL-uh), “níor óladh, ar óladh, nár óladh” forms. VOCABULARY Masculine nouns radharc (RYE-uhrk), view, sight glaoch (GLAY*-uhk*), call, phone call Feminine nouns stoirm (STUHR-im), storm báisteach, an bháisteach (BAW*SH-tuhk*, un VWAW*SH-tuhk*), rain measaim, ag measadh (MAS-im, uh MAS-uh), think druidim, ag druidim (DRID-im, uh DRID-im), draw close REFLEX EXPRESSIONS Learn these for quick use in conversation. Nach álainn an radharc é! (nahk* AW*-lin un REYE-uhrk ay*), Isn’t it a beautiful sight! Nach álainn an radharc tú! Aren’t you a bautiful sight (or terrible sight). Gan bhun gan bharr (gahn VWUN gahn VWAW*R), No head or tail to it (literally “without top or bottom”). Druidim isteach leat. Come closer. Druidigí isteach libh (liv). Come in closer (you plural). DRILL From basic words: ól; bainne; caife (KAHF-e); make sentences of the form here: Nár óladh bainne? Ní óltar bainne. Ólfar caife. Wasn’t milk drunk? Milk is not drunk. Coffee will be drunk. Do this for these groups of words: Glaoch; air go minic; air amarach. Meas; go raibh sé; go mbeidh sé.

Doirt; an t-uisce; an bainne sa phota. Múin; an Iodáilis ann; an Fhraincis an bhliain seo chugainn (un VLEE-in shuh K*OO-ing), next year. Craol (kray*l); an chéad chlár (un hyay*d k*law*r), the first program; Dé Luain seo chugainn (dyay* LOO-in shuh K*OO-ing), next Monday, é. Clóigh; an leabhar seo anseo; an leabhar mór sin in Éirinn. Key and notes: Nár glaodh (GLAY*-uhk*) air go minic?; wasn’t he called often? Ní ghlaoitear (GLEE-tyuhr) air go minic. Glaofar air amárach (GLAY*-fuhr er uh-MAW*-rahk*), he will be called tomorrow. Nár measadh (MAS-uh) go raibh sé?, wasn’t it thought that he was? Ní mheastar go raibh sé. Measfar go mbeidh (me) sé. Nár doirteadh an t-uisce?, wasn’t the water poured? Ní dhoirtear (GIRT-tyuhr) an t-uisce. Doirtfear an bainne sa phota. Nár múineadh an Iodáilis (i-DAW*-lish) ann?, wasn’t Italian taught there? Ní mhúintear an Iodáilis ann. Múinfear an Fhraincis (un RANK-ish) an bhlian seo chugainn. Nár craoladh an chéad chlár?, wasn’t the first program broadcast? Ní chraoltear an chéad chlár. Craolfar Dé Luain seo chugainn é, it will be broadcast next Monday. Nár clódh (klohk*) an leabhar (LOU-uhr) seo anseo? Wasn’t this book printed here? Ní chlóitear (K*LOH-tyuhr) an leabhar seo anseo. Clófar an leabhar mór sin in Éirinn (AY*R-ing). Notes: “Glaoigh” (glee), call, like “clóigh” (KLOH-ee), print, is slightly different from the general run of verbs. Thus, “glaonn (glay*n) sí air” is the form for “She calls him”. “An bhliain seo chugainn” means “this year toward us”, which is “next year”. “An tseachtain (TAHK*T-in) seo chugainn” is “next week”. “Tomorrow” is “amárach”.

Lesson 77 Pronounce the letter “o” in Irish as a single vowel sound, with lips rounded but not protruded. Do not spread the lips at the beginning of the sound or you will get a faint (ay) sound before the “o”. Do not contract the lips at the end of the sound or you will get an (oo) sound after the (oh). When the “o” has a síneadh (SHEEN-uh) over it, hold the sound for a longer time than you would in English. If the “o” has no síneadh, pronounce it in the same way but do not hold the sound as long. Compare the English word “loan” and Irish “lón” (lohn). Watch your lips in a mirror as you say “loan” very slowly, and you will see them contract for a slight (oo) sound after the (oh). Then say Irish “lón”, holding the (oh) sound and going directly to the (n). Practice on: ól, óg, ón, ór, bó, mór, nós, bábóg (bah-BOHG), pósta (POHS-tuh), gnóthach (GNOH-huhk*). For the shorter sound, practice on: gob, obair(OH-bir), loch (lohk*), ordóg (ohr-DOHG), coróin (koh-ROH-in), focal (FOH-kuhl). Sometimes an “o” next to an “i” and without a síneadh is not sounded but merely indicates that the consonant beside the “o” gets its broad sound. Examples: coill (kwil), poiblí (PWIB-lee). Other combinations of “o” with vowels have various sounds that we will review later. GRAMMAR The irregular verbs are not entirely irregular in the saorbhriathra (say*r-VREE-uh-ruh), free form, in the future. These are they: tiocfar (TYUHK-fuhr), people will come rachfar (RAHK*-fuhr), people will go cloisfear (KLISH-fuhr), people will hear, it will be heard feicfear (FEK-fuhr), it will be seen déanfar (DAY*N-fuhr), it will be done tabharfar (TOOR-fuhr), it will be given béarfar air (BAY*R-fuhr er), it will be seized gheofar (YOH-fuhr), it will be gotten, found déarfar (DAY*R-fuhr), it will be said íosfar (EES-fuhr), it will be eaten The negative form: ní thiocfar ( nee HUHK-fuhr), people won’t come ní rachfar, people won’t go ní chloisfear (K*LISH-fuhr), people won’t hear, it won’t be heard ní fheicfear (EK-fuhr), it won’t be seen ní dhéanfar (YAY*N-fuhr), it won’t be done ní thabharfar (HOOR-fuhr), it won’t be given ní bhéarfar air (VAY*R-fuhr), it won’t be seized ní bhfaighfear (VWEYE-fuhr), it won’t be said ní íosfar, it won’t be eaten In the question, “an” and “nach” eclipse the first consonant of the free form. With “an”, the forms are: an dtiocfar? (un DUHK-fuhr), will people come? an rachfar? will people go? an gcloisfear? (GLISH-fuhr), will it be heard? an bhfeicfear? (VEK-fuhr), will it be seen? an ndéanfar? (NAY*N-fuhr) will it be done? an dtabharfar? (DOOR-fuhr), will it be given? an mbéarfar air? (MAY*R-fuhr), will it be seized? an bhfaighfear? (VWEYE-fuhr), will it be gotten, found? an ndéarfar? (NYAY*R-fuhr), will it be said? an íosfar?, will it be eaten? DRILL With these three word groups: tiocfar; abhaile (uh VWAHL-e); go hÉirinn (goh HAY*R-in), go through this drill: Nach dtiocfar abhaile? Ní thiocfar abhaile. An dtiocfar go hÉirinn? Tiocfar go hÉirinn. Go through the same pattern of drill for: Rachfar; go dtí an chathair (goh DEE un K*AH-hir), to the city; chuig na sléibhte (hig nuh SHLAY*-te), to the mountains. Cloisfear; an t-amhránaí (un tou-RAW*N-ee), the singer; an banna ceoil (un BAHN-uh KYOH-il), the band. Feicfear; an scannán (skah-NAW*N), movie; an dráma (DRAW*-muh), play.

Déanfar; an obair seo; an obair sin. Tabharfar; dom é; do Sheán é. Béarfar; ar an ngadaí (er ung AH-dee), the thief; ar an bhfear eile (er un VAR EL-e), the other man. Gheofar; an ceann sin (un kyoun shin), that one; an dara (DUH-ruh) ceann, the second one. Déarfar; leis an gcailín é; liom é. Íosfar; an mhairteoil (vwahrt-YOH-il), beef; an mhuiceoil (vwik-YOH-il), pork. CONVERSATION Ciarán (keer-AW*N): Téanam (TYAY*N-uhm) isteach anois, a Cháit (K*AW*-it). Tá sé ag éirí níos fuaire (eg EYE-ree nees FOO-i-re). Kieran: Let’s go in now, Kate. It’s becoming colder. Cáit: Is fuaire atá sé anois ná a bhí sé inné. Kate: It’s colder now than it was yesterday. Ciarán: Feictear dom go bhfeicfimid sneachta go luath (goh VEK-hi-mid SHNAHK*-tuh goh LOO-uh). Kieran: It appears to me that we will see snow soon. Cáit: Nach rachfar chuig ná sléibhte ansin? Kate: Won’t people go to the mountains then? Ciarán: Rachfar, le sciáil (le SHKEE-aw*-il). Kieran: They will, to ski.

Lesson 78 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW Pronounce Irish “u” like English (oo) in “food” or “tool” when a síneadh (SHEEN-uh) is over the letter “ú.” Protrude the lips farther than in the English sound, however, and hold the sound longer. Examples: úll (ool), múin (MOO-in), brú, lú, éalú (AY*-loo). If the “u” has no síneadh, pronounce it the same way, but do not hold the sound as long. It will resemble the (u) in English “put” or “foot”. Examples: rug (rug), puball (PU-buhl), guth (gu). When next to an “a”, a “u” may be pronounced (oo), as in: buail (BOO-il), nua (NOO-uh). GRAMMAR The saorbhriathra (say*r-VREE-uh-ruh), free forms, for “tá” in the past are: bhíothas (VEE-huhs), people were, etc. ní rabhthas (nee ROU-huhs), people weren’t, etc. an rabhthas?, were people, etc? nach rabhthas?, weren’t people, etc? Examples: Bhíothas ag dul go dtí na pictiúir; people were going to the movies. Nach rabhthas ag léamh an leabhair sin? (uh LAY*-uhv un LOU-wir shin); weren’t people reading that book?, wasn’t that book being read? In the future tense, the forms are: beifear (BE-fuhr), people will be, etc. ní bheifear (nee VE-fuhr), people will not be, etc. an mbeifear? (un ME-fuhr), will people be, etc? nach mbeifear?, won’t people be, etc? Examples: Beifear ag caitheamh tobac arís (uh KAH-huhv toh-BAHK uh-REESH), people will be smoking again. An mbeifear ag teacht isteach go luath? (uh TYAHK*T ish-TYAHK* goh LOO-uh), will people be coming inside soon? VOCABULARY ag ól bainne (eg OHL BAHN-ye), drinking milk ag ól tae (tay*), drinking tea ag ól beorach (BYOH-ruhk*), drinking beer ag ól leanna (LAN-uh), drinking ale ag ithe lóin (eg I-he LOH-in), eating lunch ag ól caife (KAHF-e), drinking coffee ag ól uisce (ISH-ke), drinking water ag ól fíona (FEEN-uh), drinking wine ag ól uisce beatha (ISH-ke BA-huh), drinking whiskey ag ithe mo lóin, eating my lunch Notes on vocabulary: Forms like”ag ól bainne” mean literally “at drinking milk”, and the word “bainne” is in the genative or possessive case, as mentioned in Lesson 20. Often this case form is similar to the nominative case, which is the form that you have been learning. Sometimes there is more change, as in “beoir” (BYOH-ir), beer. It becomes “beorach” (BYOH-ruhk*), of beer, in the genitive. The nouns can be grouped in dependence on how their genitive case and plurals are formed. We will be doing some of this in the next lessons, using phrases as much as possible. You will learn how to work out what the forms should be for many nouns. CONVERSATION Mícheál (MEE-haw*l): Céard a thabharfaidh (HOOR-hee) tú dom ---- le h-aghaidh an dhinnéir (le HEYE-ee uh yin-YAY*R) ---- anocht? Michael: What will you give me for dinner tonight? Róisín (roh-SHEEN): B’fhéidir (BAY*-dir) go dtabharfaidh (DOOR-hee) mé duit mairteoil (mahrt-YOH-il), a Mhíchil (uh VEE-hil). Rose: Perhaps I will give you beef, Michael. Mícheál: Beidh mé ag ól caife, freisin (eg OHL KAHF-e, FRESH-in). I will be drinking coffee, too. Róisín: Níl fhios agam faoi sin fós (NEEL is uh-GUHM fwee shin fohs). I don’t know about that yet. Mícheál: Tá an caife ag éirí (eg EYE-ree) níos saoire (nees SEE-i-re) na laethanta seo (LAY*-uhn-tuh shuh). Táthar ag ól a thuilleadh (uh HILuh) caife. Coffee is getting cheaper these days. People are drinking more coffee. Róisín: Ólfar tae agus uisce ---- sa teaghlach seo (suh TEYE-luhk* shuh). B’féidir go gcuirfear braon (BRAY*N) bainne ---- ar an tae, ach ní fheicfear mórán (muh-RAW*N) caife anseo go ceann tamaill (goh kyoun TAH-mil). Tea and water will be drunk in this household. Perhaps a

drop of milk will be put into the tea, but not much coffee will be seen here for a while. Mícheál: D’ólamar beoir ---- lenár ndinnéar (LEN-aw*r nin-YAY*R) ---- cúpla bliain ó shin (KOOP-luh BLEE-in oh HIN) ---- ach ansin thosaíomar (hohs-EE-uh-muhr) ag ól fíona (FEEN-uh). We drank beer with our dinner a few years ago, but then we began to drink wine. Róisín: Is fíor sin, ach tá an saol á athrú (un SAY*L aw* AH-roo), ar ndóigh (er NOH-ee). Cén fáth nach mbeidh (me) tae maith go leor duit? That is true, but the world is changing, of course. Why won’t tea be good enough for you? Mícheál: Beidh (be) sé maith go leor, mar shin. Beifear ag ól beorach agus fíona ag an teach tábhairne (tahk* TAW*R-ne) ---- ar aon chuma (er ay*n K*UM-uh). Caithimid dul ann (KAH-i-mid duhl oun) ---- anocht. It will be all right, then. People will be drinking beer and wine at the tavern, anyway. We must go there tonight. Róisín: B’fhearr liom (bahr luhm) bheith ag féachaint ar an teilifís sa bhaile. Craolfar (KRAY*L-fuhr) a lán clár maith anocht. I would prefer to be watching television at home. Many good programs will be broadcast tonight. Mícheál: Fanfaidh (FAHN-hee) mé istigh, mar sin. Tá súil agam nach mbeidh ceoldrámaí gallúnaí iontu (KYOHL-DRAW*M-ee gahl-OON-ee IN-tuh). I will stay inside, then. I hope they will not be soap operas. Róisín: Ná bíodh imní ort (naw* BEE-ohk* IM-nee OH-ruht). Dráma den chéad scoth (HYAY*-uhd skoh) ---- a bheidh ar bhealach a trí (ve er VAL-uhk* uh tree). Don’t be worried. It’s a play of the first quality that will be on Channel Three. Mícheál: Agus cluiche peile, freisin? (KLI-hye PEL-e, FRESH-in). And a football game, too?

Lesson 79 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW When accented at the beginning of a word, the group “ai” may get any of three sounds. An (a) sound, as in English “hat,” is one. Examples: ainm (A-nim), name; ait (at), strange; aingeal (ANG-uhl), angel. In an initial syllable, the “ai” can receive the (a) sound, too, if the letters “d, l, n, r, s, t” precede the “ai.” Examples: daingean (DANG-uhn), fortress laige(LAG-e), weakness naipcín (nap-KEEN), napkin raic (rak), quarrel saineolas (san-oh-luhs), expert knowledge tais (tash), damp If the letters “b, c, f, g, m, p” precede the “ai” in an initial syllable, the “ai” has an (ah) sound, which is actually a shortened (aw*) sound. Examples: baile (BAHL-e), home caisleán (kahsh-LAW*N), castle faisean (FAHSH-uhn), fashion gaineamh (GAHN-uhv), sand maith (mah), good pailm (PAHL-im), palm If the “ai” is followed by “dh,” “gh,” “ll,” “nt” or a few other letter combinations, it can receive an (eye) sound, as in English “my.” Examples: Taidhg (teyeg), a name (genitive case of “Tadhg”) maighdean (MEYE-duhn), maiden aimsir (EYEM-sheer), season, weather aill (eyel), cliff caill (keyel), lose caint (keyent), talk saibhir (SEYE-vir), rich, also pronounced (SEV-ir) GRAMMAR We will now take a closer look at how Irish nouns change in the plural and possessive or genitive forms; in other words, how you change “table” to “tables” or “of the table.” These changes follow several general patterns, depending on the noun. On the basis of the patterns, nouns can be grouped into what are called declensions. There are five of these. Most of the nouns in ordinary use are in the first two declensions, but all five declensions include common words. We will start with the largest declension, the first. All first-declension nouns are masculine, and all end in a broad consonant in the basic form. A broad consonant is one in which the nearest vowel is “a,” “o,” or “u.” Examples: bord, mac, úll (ool). For “the son’s shoe,” the Irish is “bróg an mhic” (brohg uh vik). For “the head of the table,” the Irish is “ceann an bhoird” (kyoun uh vwird). after the “an,” meaning “of the,” an initial consonant is usually aspirated. The word in the possessive or genitive comes after what is owned or is part of the other. Therefore, when forming your thoughts in Irish, remember to change phrases such as “the son’s shoe” to “shoe of the son” in Irish. Read these examples to familiarize yourself with this form: madra an fhir (MAH-druh uhn IR), dog of the man, the man’s dog dath an bháid (dah uh VWAW*-id), color of the boat, the boat’s color ainm an chait (AN-im uh K*IT), name of the cat, the cat’s name barr an chnoic (bahr uh K*NIK), top of the hill, the hilltop praghas an leabhair (preyes uh LOU-wir), price of the book, the book’s price You can leave out the “the,” as in “a horse’s head” or “head of a horse.” In Irish, this is “ceann capaill” (kyoun KAH-pil). Notice that the word “capaill,” meaning “of a horse,” does not have its first consonant aspirated in this form, where the phrase indicates part of a person, animal, or thing. Another example is “lámh fir” (law*v FIR), hand of a man, a man’s hand. There are other rules determining when you should aspirate the first consonant of the second word when the “an” is omitted. We will learn these rules gradually. In the meantime, do not worry about this. Aspirate the first consonant or not, as you wish, until you learn the rules for this.

DRILL Practice with these words and phrases, repeating them until you can say them quickly. bád, an bád, fear an bháid (baw*d, un BAW*D), far uh VWAW*-id); boat, the boat, the boatman cat, an cat, ceann an chait (kaht, un KAHT, kyoun uh K*IT), cat, the cat, the cat’s head leabhar, an leabhar, clúdach an leabhair (LOU-wuhr, un LOU-wuhr, KLOO-dahk* uh LOU-wir); book, the book, the book’s cover post, an post, fear an phoist (pohst, un pohst, far uh FWISHT); mail, the mail, the mailman Two of the many common and useful Irish expressions involving the genitive case are: fear an tí (far uh tee), man of the house, householder, or even master of ceremonies at an entertainment bean an tí (ban uh tee), woman of the house, housewife In these two expressions, the word “tí” is the genitive of “teach” (tahk*), house. “A householder” is “fear tí,” and a housewife is “bean tí.” Notice that the “t” in “tí” is not aspirated in “fear an tí.” This is also the case with “d” as initial letter; a common Irish expression to help you remember this is: deoch an dorais (dyohk* uh DUH-rish), drink at the door, for which the English equivalent is “stirrup cup,” a last drink taken before starting on the road -- “one for the road.” Notice that the usual pronunciation in this genitive form slurs the “n” in “an.” The “n” is sounded, however, if the second word, in the genitive, starts with a vowel. Example: ceann an éin (kyoun un AY*-in), the bird’s head.

Lesson 80 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW Pronounce the letter group “ae” (ay*) as if it were “é”. The reason for this group is to allow a broad consonant to precede it. Examples: lae (lay*), of day, the genitive form of “lá” tae (tay*), tea traen (tray*n), train Gael (gway*l), Gael Note that a slender consonant before an “é” would give a different sound to the word above: “lé” would differ from “lae”, for which the broad “l” imparts a trace of (uh) sound between the “l” and “ae” té vs tae tréan vs traen géill vs Gael and its faint (uh) or (wuh) sound between the “g” and “ae” GRAMMER Continuing with the first declension of nouns, we now take up other aspects of formation of the possessive or genitive case. If a first-declension noun begins with a vowel, the vowel remains unchanged in the genitive, but the last consonant or sound will change to a slender one. Examples: adhmad, praghas an adhmaid (EYE-muhd, preyes un EYE-mwid); timber, the timber’s price úll, blas an úill (ool, blahs un OO-il); apple, the apple’s taste aonach, lá an aonaigh (AY*-nuhk*, law* un AY*-nee), fair, the day of the fair If the word to be put into the genitive case begins with “s”, a “t” will be placed before it and eclipse the sound of the “s”, if the “s” is followed by a vowel or by “l, n, r”. Learn these examples before trying to memorize the rule: samhradh, lá an tsamhraidh (SOU-ruh, law* uh TOU-ree), summer, the summer day sagart, teach an tsagairt (SAH-guhrt, tahk* uh TAH-girt), priest, the priest’s house The genitive case follows many compound prepositions (having two words) in Irish. For example, “in aice” (in A-ke), means “near”, and “near the house” is “in aice an tí” (in A-kuh TEE). Other examples: tar éis (tahr AY*SH), after; tar éis an amhráin (tahr AY*SH un ou-RAW*-in), after the song le linn (le ling), during; le linn an dinnéir (le LING uh din-YAY*R) Several simple prepositions, too, take the genitive. Two of these are: chun (k*un), to; chun an aonaigh (k*un un AY*N-nee), to the fair timpeall (TIM-puhl), around; timpeall an chnoic (TIM-puhl uh K*NIK), around the hill VOCABULARY From now on, we will give the genitive singular and the plural for all nouns. Learn all the forms of each. For this lesson, the list will contain only first-declension nouns, all masculine. urlár (oor-LAW*R), an t-urlár, an urláir (un oor-LAW*-ir), na hurláir; floor, the floor, of the floor, the floors leabhar (LOU-wuhr), an leabhar, an leabhair (un LOU-wir), na leabhair; book, etc. bord, an bord, an bhoird (un VWIRD), na boird (nuh BWIRD); table, etc. casúr (kas-SOOR), an casúr, an chasúir (un k*ah-SOO-ir), na casúir; hammer, etc. lón (lohn), an lón, an lóin (un LOH-in), na lónta (nuh LOHN-tuh); lunch, etc. fear (far), an fear, an fhir (un IR), na fir; man, the man, of the man, the men corcán (kohr-KAW*N), an corcán, an corcáin, na corcáin; pot, etc. doras, an doras, an dorais (un DUH-rish), na doirse (DIR-she); door, etc. mac, an mac, an mhic (un VIK), na mic (nuh MIK); son, etc. dinnéar (din-YAY*R), an dinnéar, an dinnéir (un din-YAY*R), na dinnéir; dinner, etc. arán (uh-RAW*N), an t-arán, an aráin (un uh-RAW*-in), na haráin; bread, etc. os cionn (ohs KYOON), above (with the genitive) os comhair (ohs KOH-ir), in front of (with the genitive) DRILL In the following word groups, say the noun and then combine it with the preposition taking the genitive. Example: for “lón, le linn”, say “an lón, le linn an lóin”. dinnéar, tar éis bord, os comhair casúr, in aice

teach, chun leabhar, timpeall samhradh, tar éis COMHRÁ Deasún (dya-SOON): Féach! (FAY*-ahk*) Tá fear an phoist (FWISHT) ag teacht -- timpeall an chúinne (K*OON-ye). Desmond: Look! The mailman is coming around the corner. Cristín (krish-TEEN): Feicim é (FEK-im ay*). Tagann sé -- le linn an lóin -- i gcónaí. Cristine: I see him. He always comes during lunch. Deasún: Ná bac leis (naw* bahk lesh). Sin litir in aice an dorais. Suigh síos in aice an bhoird (VWIRD) -- arís (uh REESH). Cá bhfuil an t-arán? (un tuh-RAW*N) Don’t worry about it. There’s a letter next to the door. Sit down next to the table again. Where is the bread? Cristín: Os comhair an phláta (FLAW*-tuh). Cuir chugam píosa de, más é do thoil é. (kir HOO-uhm PEES-uh de, MAW* shay* duh HIL ay*). In front of the plate. Pass me a piece of it please. Key to the drill: an dinnéar, tar éis an dinnéir; an bord, os comhair an bhoird; an casúr, in aice an chasúir; an teach, chun an tí; an leabhar, timpeall an leabhair; an samhradh, tar éis an tsamhraidh (uh TOU-ree).

Lesson 81 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW Pronounce the combinations “adh” and “agh” as (eye) when they are in accented or initial syllables. Examples: adharc (EYE-uhrk), horn; radharc (REYE-uhrk), view; fadhb (feyeb), problem; aghaidh (EYE-ee), face; laghad (LEYE-uhd), smallness; saghas (seyes), sort. If an “i” or “e” follows the “adh” or “agh,” an “i” will be needed between the “a” and the “adh” or “agh”; the spelling becomes “aidh” or “aigh.” The (eye) sound is retained. Examples: taighde (TEYE-de), research; aighneas (EYE-nuhs), dispute; caighdeán (keye-DAW*N), standard; saighdiúir (seye-DYOO-ir), soldier. The “i” is added, too, if a consonant after the “adh” or “agh” is to have its slender sound. Examples: aidhm (eyem), aim; maidhm (meyem), explosion. Make sure that the broad “m” sound in “adhmad” differs from the slender “m” sound in “aidhm.” If the “adh”, “aidh” or “aigh” is at a word end and unaccented, the sound may be either (uh) or (ee). Examples: samhradh (SOU-ruh), summer; samhraidh (SOU-ree), of summer; ceannaigh (KAN-ee), buy. The group “agh” is rare at the end of a word. Where it occurs in misspelled Irish place names, it usually should be “ach”. For all the above rules, memorize the examples, not the rules. GRAMMAR First-declension nouns are all masculine and end in a broad consonant, with “a, o, u” before the consonant. The plural form of these nouns often is the same as the genitive singular that we have studied in the last two lessons. Examples are: bád (baw*d), an bháid (uh VWAW*-id), na báid (nuh BAW*-id); boat, of the boat, the boats. cuntas (KOON-tuhs), an chuntais (uh K*OON-tish), na cuntais (nuh KOON-tish), account, of the account, the accounts. Here, “na” means “the” in the plural. Use the plural forms given above in sentences like: Téann (TAY*-uhn) na báid amach; the boats go out. Téann báid amach; boats go out. Feiceann sé (FEK-uhn shay*) na báid; he sees the boats Feiceann sé báid; he sees boats. Note that this plural form is the same whether the word is the subject or the object. Other first-declension nouns form the plural differently. Here are examples: úll (ool), apple; becomes “úlla” (OOL-uh), apples, and “na húlla” (nuh HOOL-uh), the apples. Note that an “h” is added here in front of the vowel. dán (daw*n), poem; becomes “dánta” (DAW*N-tuh), poems, and “na dánta”, the poems. bealach (BAL-uhk*), road; becomes “bealaí” (BAL-ee), roads, and “na bealaí”, the roads. carr (kahr), car; becomes “carranna” (KAHR-uh-nuh), cars, and “na carranna”, the cars. Learn the plural for each new noun in the vocabulary lists. VOCABULARY Here are more first declension nouns. Learn the genitive singular and the plural for each: Cupán (ku-PAW*N), an cupán, an chupáin (uh k*u-PAW*-in), na cupáin; cup, the cup, of the cup, the cups. ciseán (kish-AW*N), an ciseán, chiseáin (uh hyish-AW*-in), na ciseáin; basket, etc. rothar (ROH-huhr), an rothar, an rothair (uh ROH-hir), na rothair; bicycle, etc. airgead (AR-i-guhd), an t-airgead, an airgid (uhn AR-i-gid), na hairgid; money, etc. ceann (kyoun), an ceann, an chinn (uh hyin), na cinn (nuh kin); head, one of anything, etc. lasán (luh-SAW*N), an lasán, an lasáin (uh luh-SAW*-in), na lasáin; match (inflammable), etc. bóthar (BOH-uhr), an bóthar, an bhóthair (uh VWOH-ir), na bóithre (nuh BOH-i-re); road, the road, of the road, the roads. páipéar (paw*-PAY*R), an páipéar, an pháipéir (uh faw*-PAY*-ir), na páipéir; paper, etc. solas (SUH-luhs), an solas, an tsolais (uh TUH-lish), na soilse (nuh SEYEL-she); light, etc amhrán (ou-RAW*N), an t-amhrán, an amhráin (uhn ou-RAW*-in), na hamhráin; song, etc.

droichead (DRUH-huhd), an droichead, an droichid (uh DRUH-hid), na droichid; bridge, etc. ticéad (ti-KAY*D), an ticéad, an ticéid (uh ti-KAY*D), na ticéid; ticket, etc. i gcionn (i GYOON) at the end of (with genitive) i láthair (i LAW*-hir) in the presence of (with genitive) ar chúl (er K*OOL), behind (with genitive) de bharr (de VWAHR), on account of (with genitive) DRILL Form phrases, with the genitive, from the following word groups. As an example: ag dúnadh: an doras; ag dúnadh an dorais. solas; an rothar dath; an páipéar os cionn (ohs KYOON); an lasán praghas (preyes); an ciseán ag léamh; an leabhar ag cailleadh (KEYE-luh); an t-airgead ar chúl; an cupán tar éis; an t-amhrán os comhair (ohs KOH-wir); an droichead in aice (in AK-e); an bóthar ag briseadh; an cupán in aice; an ceann eile le linn (le LIN); an lón See the Key after the comhrá to verify your answers. COMHRÁ (KOH-raw*); conversation Seán (shaw*n): Nach uafásach an aimsir í, a Shéamais? (nahk* woo-FAW*S-uhk* un EYEM-sheer ee, uh HAY*-mish) John: Isn’t the weather terrible, James? Séamas (SHAY*-muhs): Tá sí níos dona ná anuraidh (nees DUH-nuh naw* uh-NOOR-ee). Ní raibh mé amuigh le linn an lae (le LIN uh LAY*). It’s worse than last year. I wasn’t out during the day. Seán: Tá mé ag déanamh oibre (uh DAY*N-uh IB-re) ag baile inniu. Beidh an bháisteach anseo i gcúpla uair (be un VWAW*SH-tuhk* uhnSHUH i GOOP-luh OO-ir). I am doing work at home today. The rain will be here in a couple of hours. Séamas: Beidh sé ag cur báistí go luath (uh KUR BAW*SH-tee goh LOO-uh). Rachaidh mé abhaile (RAHK*-hee may* uh-VWAHL-e), agus beidh mé ag léamh mo nuachtáin (NOO-uhk*-TAW*-in) tar éis an dinnéir (tuhr AY*SH uh din-YAY*R). It will be raining soon (putting of rain). I shall go home, and I will be reading my newspaper after dinner. Note: “Obair,” work, is a feminine noun, and its genitive singular is “oibre,” of work. “Báisteach,” too, is feminine, so that “the rain” is “an bháisteach”. Key to drill: Solas an rothair (uh RUH-hir), the bicycle’s light; dath an páipéir, the paper’s color; os cionn an lasáin, above the match; praghas an chiseáin, price of the basket; ag léamh an leabhair, reading the book; ag cailleadh an airgid, losing the money; ar chúl an chupáin, behind the cup; tar éis an amhráin, after the song; os comhair an droichid, in front of the bridge; in aice an bhóthair, beside the road; ag briseadh an chupáin, breaking the cup; in aice an chinn eile (uh HYIN EL-e), beside the other one; le linn an lóin, during the lunch.

Lesson 82 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW Review the letter groups “amh” and “eamh” this week. When these groups are in the first syllable of a two-syllable word, pronounce them usually as (ou). Examples: amhrán (ou-RAW*N), song; amharc (OU-uhrk), sight; Samhain (SOU-in), November; samhradh (SOU-ruh), summer; damhsa (DOU-suh), dancing; deamhan (DYOU-uhn), demon; sleamhain (SHLOU-in), slippery. The letter group “amh” in a one syllable word can be (ahv), as in damh (dahv), ox; amh (ahv), raw. Pronounce the letter group “eamh” in a onesyllable word as (av): leamh (lav), tasteless; neamh (nyav), heaven. At the end of a two-syllable word, “amh” and “eamh” can be (uhv), as in the verbal nouns “déanamh”, doing, and “caitheamh”, throwing, wearing, spending. For the letter groups “ámh” and “áimh”, the “á” (aw*) is the predominant sound. In a one-syllable word “ámh” is (aw*v) and is nasalized. Examples: lámh (law*v), hand; sámh (saw*v), tranquil. Do not nasalize the sound in a two-syllable word such as “lámha” (LAW*V-uh). Pronounce “áimh” as (AW*-iv), which will resemble (oyv) when said quickly. “Láimhe” (LAW*-i-ve), of a hand; sáimhín” (saw*-i-VEEN), rest, quiet. Do not mistake the group “éamh” for the above groups. Always pronounce “éamh” as (ay*v): léamh (lay*v), reading; éamh (ay*v), crying. GRAMMAR Personal names can be in the genitive case, too. For “John’s son”, the Irish is “mac Sheáin” (mahk HYAW*-in), son of John. “James’ book” is “leabhar Shéamais” (LOU-uhr HAY*-mish). Where possible, aspirate an initial consonant in a name used in this way. With all masculine names except “Liam” (LEE-uhm), make a final consonant in the genitive case slender. To show the need for a slender sound in pronunciation, write an “i” before the final consonant. With feminine names, merely aspirate the initial consonant where possible. Learn these as examples that you can readily recall in working with new names: bád Shéamais (baw*d HAY*-mish), James’ boat seoladh Mháire (SHOH-luh VWAW*-re), Mary’s address Nearly all feminine names end in a slender consonant or a vowel, and so the ending does not usually change. “Bríd” is one that does change. “Leabhar Bhríde” (VREED-e) is “Bridget’s book”. To say “a book of John’s” or “one of John’s books”, the form is “leabhar le Seán”, literally “book with John”. Here, the person’s name does not change. VOCABULARY Here are more first-declension nouns, all masculine and all ending in a broad consonant, which is one preceded by “a”, “o”, or “u”. buicéad (bwi-KAY*D), an buicéad, an bhuicéid (uh vwi-KAY*D), na buicéid; bucket, the bucket, of the bucket, the buckets. fómhar (FOH-uhr), an fómhar, an fhómhair (un OH-ir), na fómhair; autumn, etc. buidéal (bwi-DAY*L), an buidéal, an bhuidéil (uh vwi-DAY*L), na buidéil; bottle, etc. scéal (shkay*l), an scéal, an scéil (uh SHKAY*L), na scéalta (SHKAY*L-tuh); story, etc. siléar (shee-LAY*R), an siléar, an tsiléair (uh tee-LAY*R), na siléir; cellar, etc. ostán (ohs-TAW*N), an t-ostán, an ostáin (un ohs-TAW*-in), na hostáin; hotel, etc. glas (glahs), an glas, an ghlais (glahsh), na glais; lock, etc. peann, (pyoun), an peann, an phinn (uh FING), na pinn; pen, etc. oileán (IL-aw*n), an t-oileán, an oileáin (un IL-aw*-in), na hoileáin (nuh HIL-aw*-in; island, etc. rialtas (REE-uhl-tuhs), an rialtas, an rialtais (uh REE-uhl-tish), na rialtais; government, etc. rabhadh (ROU-uh), an rabhadh, an rabhaidh (uh ROU-wee), na rabhaidh; warning, etc. parlús (PAHR-lus), an parlús, an pharlúis (uh FAHR-lush), na parlúis; parlor, etc. i measc (mask), in the middle of (with the genitive) líon, (LEE-uhn), líonaim, ag líonadh (LEE-uh-nuh), fill, I fill, filling géar (gay*r), sharp, sour DRILL We continue with practice on use of the genitive in the first declension. Here is an example of the drill to be gone through: Combine: ag líonadh; an buicéad, using the genitive. The result is: ag líonadh an bhuicéid (uh LEE-uh-nuh uh vwi-KAY*D), filling the bucket. le linn; an fómhar tar éis; an rabhadh ag briseadh; an buidéal ar chúl; an rialtas timpeall; an t-ostán de bharr; an peann os comhair; an glas in aice; an siléar chun; an t-oileán ag léamh; an scéal ag ceannach; an buicéad

ag glanadh; an parlús Do the same drill with the following, but translate into Irish first: above the boat after the story the postman reading the book around the floor the son’s hat next to the match cleaning the table the boatman closing the door after the dinner the island’s boat Key to the drill phrases: le linn an fhómhair; tar éis an rabhaidh; ag briseadh an buidéil; ar chúl an rialtais; timpeall an ostáin; de bharr an phinn; os comhair an ghlais; in aice an tsiléir; chun an oileáin; ag léamh an scéil; ag ceannach an bhuicéid; ag glanadh an pharlúis. Os cionn an bháid (ohs KYOON uh VWAW*-id); tar éis an scéil (tahr AY*SH uh SHKAY*L); fear an phoist (far uh FWISHT); ag léamh an leabhair (uh LAY*V un LOU-wir); timpeall an urláir (TIM-puhl un oor-LAW*-ir); hata uh mhic (HAH-tuhn VIK); in aice an lasáin (in A-kuhn luh-SAW*-in); ag glanadh an bhoird (uh GLUHN-uhn VWIRD); fear an bháid (far uh VWAW*-id); ag dúnadh an dorais (uh DOON-uhn DUHrish); tar éis an dinnéir (tahr AY*SH uh din-YAY*R); bád an oileáin (baw*d un IL-aw*-in).

Lesson 83 The letter group “ei” gets various pronunciations, depending on whether it is in an accented syllable, what letters follow it, and what part of Ireland the speaker is from. Often it has an (e) sound, as in “creidim”, I believe. With a síneadh fada (SHEEN-uh) over the “e”, the sound is usually (ay*), as in “féin”, self, or “Éire” (AY*-re), but sometimes the pronunciation is (eye), as in “éirigh” (EYE-ree), rise. This word is pronounced (AY*-ree) in parts of Ireland. “Ei” before “bh”, “dh”, “gh” or “mh” in an accented syllable may be (eye), as in: Eibhlín (EYE-leen), Eileen eidhneán (EYE-naw*n), ivy leigheas (LEYE-uhs), cure; resembling (leyes) in parts of Ireland deimhin (DEYE-in), certain In parts of Ireland, “eibh” and “eimh” in these words may be (ev): Eibhlín (EV-e-leen), Evelyn deimhin (DEV-in), certain The word “geimhreadh”, meaning “winter”, may be pronounced (GEE-ruh), (GEYE-ruh), or (GEV-roo), depending on the speaker’s origin. This may sound confusing, but we have parallels in the United States, where “right” may be (reyet), (raht), (rat), or even (royt). And of course “either” can be (EE-thur) or (EYE-thur). We will continue to give you one pronunciation, but we will add occasional explanation of variations. GRAMMAR The genitive plural of a noun is the form you need if you wish to say, for example, “house of the men, the men’s house” in Irish. In the first declension, consisting of nouns that are masculine and end in a broad consonant, the genitive plural is usually the basic word that you have learned. “Men’s” is “fear” (far). “House of the men” is “teach na bhfear” (TAHK* nuh VAR). The word “na” here means “of the,” and it causes eclipsis wherever possible. Review the cases for the first declension: man fear (far) the man an fear (un far) of the man, the man’s an fhir (un IR) a man’s fir or fhir men fir the men na fir of the men, the men’s na bhfear of men, men’s fear or fhear (ar) The genitive plural is the same as the basic noun for all the first-declension nouns whose nominative plural is formed by: slenderizing the broad consonant, or adding “a” to the basic word. Examples are: fear; na fir leabhar; na leabhair úll; na húlla bord; na boird (bwird) Éireannach; na hÉireannaigh ceart; na cearta “Next to the books” is “in aice na leabhar” (in A-ke nuh LOU-uhr). “Color of the apples” is “dath na n-úll” (dah nuh NOOL). Note that an “n” precedes a vowel in the genetive plural. For plurals that end in “ta”, “tha”, “í”, or “anna”, the genitive plural is the same as the nominative plural that you have been learning in the last three lessons. For example: dán (daw*n), poem; na dánta, the poems; ag léamh na ndánta, reading the poems; ag léamh dánta, reading poems. bealach (BAL-uhk*), road, way; na bealaí (nuh BAL-ee), the roads; ag dúnadh na mbealaí (uh DOON-uh nuh MAL-ee); ag dúnadh bealaí This subject of plurals and the genitive case seems puzzling at first, but we will be drilling on it in the next few weeks to give you a good understanding of it. You will be surprised at the progress you make, provided that you do the drills and exercises faithfully. DRILL Form these word groups into the genitive (singular or plural as indicated), as shown by the following example: “praghas; an ticéad” becomes “praghas an ticéid” (preyes uh ti-KAY*D).

ar chúl; na crainn (nuh krin) i measc; na froganna os cionn; na hárasáin (nuh HAW*-ruh-saw*-in) hataí; na Meiriceánaigh (nuh mer-i-KAW*-nee) ag déanamh; arán (uh-RAW*N) ag oscailt; an béal (un BAY*L) barr; an ceann (un kyoun) polasaí; an rialtas (un REE-uhl-tuhs) ag ceannach; na lasáin (nuh luh-SAW*-in) chun; na droichid (k*un; nuh DRUH-hid) barr; an buidéal (un bwi-DAY*L) ag lasadh; an solas (SUH-luhs) timpeall; an carr le linn; na lónta KEY TO THE DRILL ar chúl na gcrann (er K*OOL nuh groun), in back of the trees. i measc na bhfroganna (i mask nuh VROHG-uh-nuh), in the midst of the frogs. os cionn na n-árasán (ohs KYOON nuh NAW*-ruh-saw*n), above the apartments. hataí na Meiriceánach (HAH-tee nuh mer-i-KAW*-nuhk*), the Americans’ hats. ag déanamh aráin (uh DAY*N-uhv uh-RAW*-in), making bread. ag oscailt an bhéil (eg OH-skilt uh VAY*L), opening the mouth. barr an chinn (bahr uh HYIN), top the head. polasaí an rialtais (POH-luh-see uh REE-uhl-tish), the government’s policy. ag ceannach na lasán (uh KAN-uhk* nuh luh-SAW*N), buying the matches. chun na ndroichead (k*un nuh NRUH-huhd), to the bridges. barr an bhuidéil (bahr uh vwi-DAY*L), top of the bottle. ag lasadh an tsolais (uh LAHS-uh uh TUH-lish), lighting the light. timpeall an chairr (TIM-puhl uh K*AHR), around the car. le linn na lónta (le LIN nuh LOHN-tuh), during the lunches.

Lesson 84 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW If “eo” begins a word, pronounce it (oh). Some examples: eolas (OH-luhs), knowledge; eorna (OHR-nuh), barley; Eochaill (OHK*-hil), Youghal, an Irish seaport. The “e” is not sounded in this case, but it often is sounded like English (y) when a consonant precedes the “eo”. Examples: ceo (kyoh), mist; beo (byoh), alive; fuinneog (fwin-YOHG), window. The (y) sound practically disappears when “l”, “r”, or “s” precedes the “eo”. Such words as “leo” (loh), with them; “leor” (lohr), enough; and especially “bileog” (bil-YOHG), sheet of paper, have a trace of this after the slender “l”, but “gleo” (gi-LOH), tumult, does not. In a few words, such as “deoch” (dyuhk*), a drink; “seo” (shuh), this; and “anseo” (un-SHUH), the “eo” has a short (oh) sound that is closer to (uh) in English. PRONUNCIATION EXERCISE Read these words aloud, phrase by phrase. Do not try to get the meaning. Then look at the key directly under the exercise to verify your pronunciation. Go direach roimh thionól na comhairle -- cuireadh a thuilleadh postanna ar fáil -- agus i ndiaidh srian a chur le hollmhairiú earraí. Chomh maith leis sin -- tá cúrsaí go dona faoi láthair -- go háirithe trí oibriú an chiste. Sa chéad dul síos -- beidh a fhoinsí féin teacht isteach aige -- le gníomhaíochtaí a shárú. Idir lucht talmhaíochta agus tionscail a laghdú -- an amhlaidh nach bhfuil a fhios ag an gcúntasóir. Key: (goh dee-RAHK* rev hin-OHL nuh KOHR-le -- KIR-uh uh HIL-uh POHS tuh-nuh er FAW*-il -- AH-guhs in-YEE-uh SREE-uhn uh K*UR le houl-VWAHR-oo AH-ree. hoh MAH lesh shin -- taw* KOOR-see goh DUH-nuh fwee LAW*-hir -- goh HAW*-ri-he tree IB-roo uh HYISH-te. suh hyay*d duhl SHEES -- be uh IN-shee fay*n tahk*t ish-TYAHK* e-GE -- le GNEEV-ee-uhk*-tee uh HAW*-roo. ID-ir luk*t TAHL-vweeuhk*-tuh AH-guhs TIN-skil uh LEYE-doo -- un OU-lee nahk* vwil is eg un GOON-tuh-soh-ir) GRAMMAR The words for “my”, “your”, “his”, etc, can appear with the genitive or possessive case. Examples for the first declension, a group of nouns all of which are masculine, are: leabhar mo mhic (LOU-uhr muh VIK), my son’s book (“the son’s book” would be “leabhar an mhic” (uh VIK). ceann ár mboird (kyoun aw*r MWIRD), head of our table (“head of the table” would be “ceann an bhoird”(uh VWIRD). The words “mo”, “do”, and “a” meaning “his”, all aspirate initial consonants in the following word. The word “a” meaning “hers” does not change the initial consonant in the following word, but causes “h” to go before an initial vowel. The words “ár”; “bhur” (vwoor), your (plural); “a” meaning “theirs”, all eclipse initial consonants in the following word, and cause “n” to precede an initial consonant. With a term like “os comhair” (ohs KOH-ir), before, in front of, an expression like: os comhair an chairr (uh K*AHR), in front of the car, is easy to understand. If you wish to say “in front of me” in Irish, however, you must say: os mo chomhair (ohs muh K*OH-ir). In this, the word for “my” modifies the noun “comhair”. This form is necessary because Irish has no word for “of me” or “mine”, only for “my”. Other examples of this:os ár gcionn (ohs aw*r GYOON), above us i m’aice (i-MAK-e), near me inár n-aice (in aw*r NAK-e), near us ina láthair (in uh LAW*-hir), in their presence (also “in his presence” and “in her presence”; the context or other words in the sentence tell you which is the meaning) in bhur measc (in vwoor MASK), in your midst VOCABULARY These words are all from the first declension and therefore are masculine and end in a broad consonant in the basic form, which is the nominative singular. uachtarán, an t-uachtarán (un TOO-uhk*-tuhr-aw*n), an uachtaráin (un uhk*-tuhr-aw*-in), na huachtaráin; president, the president, of the president, the presidents ollamh, an t-ollamh (un TUHL-uhv), an ollaimh (un UHL-iv), na hollúna (nuh huh-LOON-uh), proffesor, etc. gearán, an gearán (un gyar-AW*N), an ghearáin (uh yar-AW*-in), na gearáin; complaint, etc. ciorcal, an ciorcal (un KEER-kuhl), an chiorcail (uh HYEER-kil), na ciorcail (nuh KEER-kil); circle, etc. suíochán, an suíochán (un see-K*AW*N), an tsuíocháin (uh tee-K*AW*N), na suíocháin; chair, seat, etc. margadh, an margadh (uh MAHR-uh-guh), an mhargaidh (un VWAHR-uh-gee), na margaí (nuh MAHR-uh-gee); market, the market, of the market, the markets turas, an turas (un TOOR-uhs), an turais (uh TOOR-ish), na turais; trip, etc. praghas, an praghas (un PREYES), an phraghais (uh FREYESH), na praghsanna (PREYES-uh-nuh); price, etc. geall, an geall (un GYOUL), an ghill (uh YIL), na geallta (nuh GYOUL-tuh); promise, bet, etc. nóiméid, an nóiméid (un NOH-may*d), an nóiméid (uh NOH-may*d), na nóiméid; minute, etc. muileann, an muileann (un MWIL-uhn), an mhuilinn (uh VWIL-in), na muilte (nuh MWIL-te); mill, etc. slipéar, an slipéar (un shli-PAY*R), an tslipéir (uh tli-PAY*R), na slipéir; slipper, etc.

DRILL Cuir Gaeilge orthu seo (OHR-huh shuh): During the trip; during my trip; during our trip. In front of me; in front of the professor; in front of my professor; in front of our professor. He is finishing the circle; he is finishing my circle; he is finishing their circle. Key: Le linn an turais (le LIN uh TOOR-ish): le linn mo thurais (muh HOOR-ish); le linn ár dturais (aw*r DOOR-ish). Os mo chomhair (ohs muh K*OH-ir); os chomhair an ollaimh (un UHL-iv); os chomhair m’ollaimh (MUHL-iv); os chomhair ár n-ollaimh (aw*r NUHL-iv). Tá sé ag críochnú an chiorcail (uh KREE-uhk*-noo uh HYEER-kil); tá sé ag críochnú mo chiorcail; tá sé ag críochnú a gciorcail (uh GEER-kil).

Lesson 85 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW In the letter group “io”, the “i” is often the letter pronounced, the “o” merely indicating that the next consonant has its broad sound. Some examples: fios (fis), knowledge; crios (kris), belt; giota (GI-tuh), piece; bior (beer), point; ciorcal (KEER-kuhl), circle; síol (sheel), seed. In other cases, the “o” is pronounced instead of the “i”. Examples: siopa (SHOP-uh), store; liom (luhm), with me; pioc (pyuhk), a bit. This occurs when the “io” is in an accented syllable and is followed by “c, g, ng, b, p, f, m”. If the “i” has a sineadh over it, then the “ío” group receives the (ee) sound, as in: fíor (FEE-uhr), true; bíoma (BEE-muh), a beam. PRONUNCIATION Read this aloud, phrase by phrase. Do not try to get the meaning. After reading it, look at the key directly following the exercise to verify your pronunciation. Bhí cónaí ar roinnt teaghlach ansin -- le linn an chorónaithe. Théadh Seán timpeall -- go dtí na tithe sa chomharsanacht -- agus is minic daoine ag fiafraí conas a tharla é sin. Nuair a thug sé cuairt uirthi -- d’fhan an díon ar an séipéal -- tar éis bunú na scoileanna móra. An tslí ar sheasadar leis an teanga Ghaeilge -- trí dhánta ardchaighdeáin a chumadh inti. Key: vee KOHN-ee er rint TEYE-luhk* un-SHIN -- le ling uh k*uh-ROHN-uh-hee. HAY*-uhk* shaw*n TIM-puhl -- goh DEE nuh TEE-huh suh K*OH-uhr-suhn-uhk*t -- AH-guhs is MIN-ik DEEN-uh uh FEE-uhr-ee KUN-uhs uh HAHR-luh ay* shin. NOO-ir uh HUG shay* KOOirt IR-ee -- DAHN un DEE-uhn er un SHAY*-pay*l -- tahr AY*SH BUN-oo nuh SKUHL-uh-nuh MOR-uh. un TLEE er HAS-uh-duhr lesh un TANG-uh GAY*-lig-e -- tree GAW*N-tuh AHRD-heye-DAW*-in uh K*UM-uh IN-tee. GRAMMAR To show that a person owns something, we use forms like “carr Sheáin” (kahr HYAW*-in), John’s car. To show a less close connection, similar to “Dublin harbor” or “harbor of Dublin”, the form is “cuan Bhaile Átha Cliath” (KOO-uhn vlaw* KLEE-uh). The initial consonant in the second word is usually aspirated, if it can be. Other examples: muintir Shéamais (MWIN-teer HAY*-mish), James’s people. oibrithe Dhoire (IB-ri-he GER-e), Derry workers. sráideanna Chorcaí (SRAW*D-yuh-nuh K*OHR-kee), Cork’s streets. To say “the mailman’s hat”, the Irish form is “hata fhear an phoist” (HAH-tuh ar uh FWISHT), which is literally “hat of the man of the mail”. “The boatman’s house” becomes “teach fhear an bháid” (TAHK* ar uh VWAW*-id). Notice that the word “fear” in these expressions stays in the nominative form instead of changing to “fir,” the genitive form. The compound prepositions can take similar forms. An example: “os comhair dhoras an tséipéil” (ohs KOH-ir GUH-ruhs uh TAY*-pay*l), in front of the chapel door. Another example: “in aice leabhar Sheáin” (in AK-e LOU-uhr HYAW*-in), near John’s book. VOCABULARY These are first-declension nouns, all ending in broad consonant and all masculine. úll, an t-úll (un TOOL), an úill (un-OO-il), na húlla; apple, the apple, of the apple, the apples. frog, an frog (un FROHG), an fhroig (un RIG), na froganna (nuh FROHG-uh-nuh); frog, etc. sort, an sort (un SOHRT), an tsoirt (uh TOH-irt), na soirt; sort, etc. muineál, an muineál (un MWIN-aw*l), an mhuiníl (uh VWIN-eel), na muiníl; neck, etc. oigheann, an t-oigheann (un TEYE-uhn), an oighinn (un EYE-in), na hoighinn; oven, etc. méaracán, an méaracán (un MAY*R-uh-kaw*n), an mhéaracáin (uh VAY*R-uh-kaw*-in), na méaracáin; thimble, etc. poll, an poll (un POUL), an phoill (un FWIL), na poill (nuh PWIL); hole, the hole, of the hole, the holes. samhradh, an samhradh (un SOU-ruh), an tsamhraidh (uh TOU-ree), na samhraí (nuh SOU-ree); summer, etc. iarann, an t-iarann (un TEER-uhn), an iarainn (un EER-in), na hiarainn; iron, etc. glór, an glór (un GLOHR), an ghlóir (uh GLOH-ir), na glórtha (nuh GLOHR-huh); voice, etc. gual, an gual (un GOO-uhl), an ghuail (uh GOO-il), ; coal, etc. taobh, an taobh (un TAY*V), an taoibh (uh TEEV), na taobhanna (nuh TAY*V-uh-nuh); side, etc. DRILL Cuir Gaeilge ar na habairtíní seo leanas (hah-bir-TEEN-ee shuh LAN-uhs), put Irish on these phrases following: filling the hole, filling a hole listening to the man’s voice the coal bucket; filling the coal bucket the summer’s day the door key; near the door key collecting the thimbles eating an apple; eating my apple; eating our apples drive the car; driving the car; driving the cars

a kind of frog; a kind of oven; what kind of man? Key to the above: ag líonadh an phoill (uh LEE-uhn-uh uh FWIL); ag líonadh poill (PWIL) ag éisteacht le glór an fhir (eg AY*SH-tyahk*t le GLOHR un IR) buicéad an ghuail (bwi-KAY*D uh GOO-il); ag líonadh buicéad an ghuail lá an tsamhraidh eochair an dorais (OHK*-hir uh DUH-rish); in aice eochair an dorais. ag bailiú na méaracán ag ithe úill (eg I-he OO-il); ag ithe mo úill; ag ithe ár n-úll (aw*r NOOL) tiomáin an carr (ti-MAW*-in un KAHR); ag tiomáint an chairr (uh ti-MAW*NT uh K*AHR); ag tiomáint na gcarranna (nuh GAHR-uh-nuh) sort froig; sort oighinn; cé’n sort fhir? Note: “of our apples” is “ár n-úll:, but “of the cars” is “na gcarranna”. “Úll” in the plural ends in “ ----a”, so the genitive plural is the same as the nominative singular. “Carr” ends in “ ----anna” in the plural, so its genitive plural ending is the same: “----anna.”

Lesson 86 In this lesson and several succeeding lessons, we will review the grammar and vocabulary that you have learned up to now. The review will be through conversation. The translations, in the right column, are literal, not quite as you would speak in English. This is done here to make the Irish forms more understandable from the viewpoint of grammar. The sentences are broken into phrases by dashes. Read and pronounce phrase by phrase at first, until you can repeat the entire sentence. It will help if you have someone to speak with, of course. COMHRÁ (KOH*-raw*), conversation Dónall (DOHN-uhl): Dia dhuit, a Bhreandáin (uh vren-DAW*-in) Hello, Brendan. Breandán (bren-DAW*N): Dia’s Muire dhuit, a Dhónaill (DEE-uhs MWIR-uh git, uh GOHN-il). Conas tá tú inniu? Hello, Donald. How are you today? Dónall: Ó, táim cuíosach maith (KWEE-sahk* mah) inniu. Conas tá tú féin - ar an lá breá seo? (er un law* bi-RAW* shuh) Oh, I am fairly well today. How are you yourself on this fine day? Breandán: Ar fheabhas (er OUS). Nach maith leat an aimsir seo? (nahk* MAH lat un EYEM-sheer shuh) Excellent. Don’t you like this weather? Dónall: Is maith liom í (luhm ee), ach is fearr liom an t-earrach (ahk* is fahr luhm un tahr-UHK*). Is fearr an t-earrach ná an fómhar (naw* un FOH-uhr), I like it, but I prefer the spring. The spring is better than the fall. Breandán: Tá an ceart agat (taw* un KYART uh-GUHT). Tá an t-earrach níos (nees) fearr ná an fómhar. Bíonn na laethanta níos fuaire anois (BEE-uhn nuh LAY*-uhn-tuh nees FOO-i-re uh-NISH). You are right (you have right). The spring is better than the fall. The days be colder now. Dónall: An gceapann tú (un GYAP-uhn too) go mbeidh sé ag cur sneachta (goh ME shay* uh kur SHNAHK*-tuh) go luath? (goh LOO-uh). Tá amhras ormsa (taw* OU-ruhs OH-ruhm-suh). Do you think that it will be putting snow soon? I myself doubt it. Breandán: Níl fhios agam (NEEL is uh-GUHM). Chuala mé go mbeidh an aimsir néaltach anocht (K*OO-uh-luh may* goh ME un EYEMsheer NAY*L-tuhk* uh-NOHK*T). I don’t know. I heard that the weather will be cloudy tonight. Dónall: Ní chloisim (nee K*LISH-im) - faisnéis na haimsire (FASH-nay*sh nuh HEYEM-sheer-e) - go minic (goh MIN-ik). I don’t hear the weather report often. Cé’n t-am (kay*n TOUM) - a bhíonn sí ar an raidió? (er un RAH-dee-oh). What time does it be on the radio? Breandán: Cloistear beagnach gach uair é (KLISH-tyuhr BYUHG-nahk* gahk* OO-ir ay*). It is heard nearly every hour. Dónall: Ar chualathas aréir (er K*OOL-uh-huhs uh-RAY*R) - timpeall a hocht a chlog é? (TIM-puhl uh HOHK*T uh K*LUHG ay*). Was it heard last night about eight o’clock? Breandán: Chualathas ag an am sin é, go deimhin (K*OOL-uh-huhs eg un OUM shin ay*, goh DEYE-in). It was heard at that time, certainly. Dónall: Níor (NEE-uhr) chualathas i mo theach féin é. Ní raibh mé (nee REV may*) - ag éisteacht leis an raidió (eg AY*SH-tyahk*t lesh un RAH-dee-oh). Ní éistim (nee AY*SH-tim) - go minic leis an raidió. It wasn’t heard in my house. I wasn’t listening to the radio. I don’t listen to the radio often. Breandán: Má éistfidh tú (maw* AY*SHT-hee too) - leis an raidió anocht (uh-NOHK*T) - cloisfidh tú (KLISH-hee too) faisnéis na haimsire. If you listen to the radio tonight, you will hear the weather report. Dónall: Cloisfimid í (KLISH-hi-mid ee), má éistimid léi (maw* AY*SH-ti-mid lay*). Éistfidh mise léi (AY*SHT-hee MISH-e lay*) - ar a laghad (er uh LEYE*uhd). We will hear it, if we listen to it. I will listen to it, at least. Breandán: Dála an scéil (DAW*-luhn SHKAY*-il), ar éist sibh (er AY*SHT shiv) - leis an gceolchoirm (lesh un GYOHL-k*uhr-im) - inné? (inYAY) By the way, did you listen to the concert yesterday? Dónall: D’éisteamar le cuid di (DAY*SH-tuh-muhr le KWID dee), ach ansin (ahk* un-SHIN) - bhí orm (vee OH-ruhm) - dul chuig an siopa (duhl hig un SHOHP-uh). Ní raibh ar mo bhean (er muh VAN) - dul in éineacht liom (duhl in AY*N-ahk*t luhm) - agus d’fhéad sí (DAY*-uhd shee) - a éisteacht léi. We listened to part of it, but then I had to go to the store. My wife didn’t have to go with me, and she was able to listen to it. Breandán: Chuala mé - go raibh ceolchoirm eile - aréir. I heard that there was another concert last night. Dónall: Cén saghas (kay*n SEYES) ceolchoirme - a bhí ann? (uh vee oun) What kind of concert was it? Breandán: Ceolchoirm na gcat (nuh GAHT). Bhí siad ag béiceadh (vee SHEE-uhd uh BAY*K-uh) - ó am an tsuipéir (oh OUM uh tu-PAY*-ir) - go meán-oíche (goh myaw*n EE-hye). Concert of the cats. They were howling from suppertime until midnight. Dónall: Beidh siad ullamh (BE SHEE-uhd UL-luhv) - don chlár mór (duhn k*lahr mohr) - ar an raidió, mar sin. They will be ready for the big program on the radio, then.

Notes: “Na cait” is “the cats,” but “na gcat” is “of the cats.” “Cat” is a first-declension noun, ending in a broad consonant. “Aimsir,” weather, is feminine, and “of the weather” is “na haimsire.” The formation of the genitive case for feminine nouns such as this differs from the method in the first declension. We will take this up in a short time, but for now merely learn the phrases, such as “faisnéis na haimsire.” “Laethanta,” the plural of “lá,” is a violation of the spelling rule you have learned (broad to broad and slender to slender), but in this case there is no ambiguity in the pronunciation clues. The “ae” is (ay*), equal to “é”; the “a” is necessary to show that the “l” is broad. The transition to the unaccented “than-” is easily done.

Lesson 87 We continue the review of grammar and vocabulary through conversation. The sentences are broken up by dashes into phrases. Read and pronounce phrase by phrase at first, until you can repeat the entire sentence. Try to form variant sentences as you read over the conversation. Begin with negative forms, then change the person of the verbs, or add a phrase such as “Dúirt sé” (DOO-irt shay*), he said, to put the sentence into direct speech. COMHRÁ(KOH*-raw*), conversation Fionnuala* (fin-OO-luh): Dia dhuit, a Shinéad (DEE-uh git, uh hin-AY*D). *Fionnuala, literally “fair shoulders”: Hello, Janet. Sinéad (shin-AY*D): Dia’s Muire dhuit (DEE-uhs MWIR-e git), a Fhionnuala (uh in-OO-luh). Conas tá tú inniu? Hello, Fionnuala. How are you today? Fionnuala: Tá mé go maith inniu, agus conas tá tú féin? (fay*n) I am well, and how are you yourself? Sinéad: Tá mé go maith freisin (FRESH-in). Ní fhaca mé tú - ó Nollaig (nee AHK-uh may* too oh NUHL-ig). Ach chonaic mé d’iníon - cúpla lá ó shin - san ollmhargadh (ahk* k*uh-NIK may* din-EEN KOOP-luh law* oh HIN suhn oul-VWAHR-uh-guh). I am well too. I didn’t see you since Christmas. But I saw your daughter a couple of days ago in the supermarket. Fionnuala: Bhí slaghdán uafásach orm - le dhá sheachtain - ach tá biseach orm anois (vee sleye-DAW*N woo-FAW*S-uhk* OH-ruhm le gaw* HAHK*T-in, ahk* taw* BI-shahk* OH-ruhm uh-NISH). I had a terrible cold for two weeks, but there is improvement on me now. Sinéad: Is maith liom - é sin a chloisteáil (is MAH luhm ay* shin uh K*LISH-taw*-il). Bíonn an oiread sin daoine tinn - na laethanta seo - nach féidir liom - iad a chomhaireamh (BEE-uhn un IR-uhd shin DEEN-e tin nuh LAY*-uhn-tuh shuh nahk* FAY*-dir luhm EE-uhd uh K*OH-iruhv). I am glad to hear that. There be so many people sick these days that I can’t count them. Fionnuala: Ó, tá an ceart agat (oh, taw* un KART uh-GUHT). Níl aon leigheas - ar an slaghdán - fós (neel ay*n LEYE-uhs er un sleye-DAW*N fohs). Oh, you’re right. There is no cure for the cold yet. Sinéad: Feicim do mháthair - ar an sráid - uaireanta (FEK-im duh VWAHW*-hir er un SRAW*D OO-i-ran-tuh). I see your mother on the street sometimes. Chonaiceamar í ag féachaint ar fhuinneoga na siopaí inné (k*uh-NIK-uh-muhr ee uh FAY*-uhk*-int er in-YOHG-uh nuh SHOHP-ee in-YAY*). Bhí sí ina seasamh - lasmuigh an siopa mór - úd thall (vee shee IN-uh SHAS-uhv lahs-MWEE un SHOHP-uh mohr ood houl). We saw her looking at the store windows yesterday. She was standing outside the big store over yonder. Fionnuala: Chuala mé - go raibh sí amuigh - ag siopadóireacht (K*OO-uh-luh may* goh rev shee uh-MWEE uh shohp-uh-DOH-i-rahk*t). Tabharfaidh mé cuairt uirthi - i gceann tamaill (TOOR-hee may* KOO-irt IR-ee i gyoun TAH-mil.) Níl mé ábalta - á dhéanamh sin - direach anois (neel may* AW*-buhl-tuh aw* YAY*-uhv shin dee-RAHK* uh-NISH). I heard that she was out shopping. I will visit her in a while. I am not able to do that just now. Sinéad: Agus conas tá d’athair? (KUN-uhs taw* DA-hir) An bhfaca tú - ar na mallaibh é? (un VWAHK-uh too er nuh MAHL-iv ay*) And how is your father? Did you see him recently? Fionnuala: Tháinig sé - chuig ár dteach - deireadh na seachtaine seo caite. (HAW*-nig shay* hig aw*r DAHK* DER-uh nuh SHAHK*T-in-e shuh KAH-tye). Tá sé ina shláinte fós, freisin (taw* shay* IN-uh HLAW*-in-tye fohs, FRESH-in). He came to our house last weekend. He is in his good health still, too. Sinéad: Feicfidh mé m’athair amárach (FEK-hee may MA-hir uh-MAW*-rahk*). I will see my father tomorrow. Rachaimid chuig an gcathair - le chéile (RAHK*-hi-mid hig un GAH-hir le HYAY*-le. Tá mórán nithe le déanamh agam ann (taw* mohRAW*N NI-he le DAY*N-uh uh-GUHM oun). We will go to the city together. There are many things that I have to do there. Fionnuala: Téim go dtí an chathair - anois agus arís (TAY*-im goh DYEE un K*AH-hir uh-NISH AH-guhs uh-REESH). Fillimid abhaile - ar an traein (FIL-i-mid uh-VWAHL-e er un TRAY*N). I go to the city now and again (occasionally). We return home on the train. Sinéad: Ní maith liom an traein (nee MAH luhm un TRAY*N). Is fearr liom an bus (is FAHR luhm un BUS). Ní thiomáinimid chuig an gcathair anois (nee hi-MAW*N-i-mid hig un GAH-hir uh-NISH). Bíonn sé chomh deacair áit phaircéala a fháil (BEE-uhn shay* hoh DAK-uhr aw*t faw*rk-AW*L-uh uh AW*-il). I don’t like the train. I prefer the bus. We don’t drive to the city now. It is so difficult to get a parking place. Fionnuala: Bíonn an iomarca carranna ann na laethanta seo (BEE-uhn un OOM-uhr-kuh KAHR-uh-nuh oun nuh LAY*-uhn-tuh shuh). There are too many cars these days. Notes: “Ollmhargadh” means a giant market, the equivalent of a supermarket in the United States. “Ina seasamh” means “in her standing”; this is said instead of “ag seasamh”. “Ina sheasamh” (in uh HAS-uhv), means “in his standing”. You give a visit, rather than simply visit someone, in Irish; “thug sé cuairt orm” means “he visited me”.

Lesson 88 Here is more review of grammar and vocabulary through conversation. Read and pronounce each sentence phrase by phrase until you can say the entire sentence without hesitation or error. Again, try to form variations of the sentences after you have learned them thoroughly. Start with the negative forms, then change the person and number of the verb; for example, from “I” to “we” or “they.” COMHRÁ (KOH-raw*), conversation Cormac (KOHR-muhk): Dia dhuit, a Úna (DEE-uh git, uh OON-uh). Hello, Una. Úna: Dia’s Muire dhuit, a Chormaic (DEE-uhs MWIR-e git, uh K*OHR-mwik). Conas tá tú inniú? (in-YOO) Hello, Cormac. How are you today? Cormac: Tá mé go maith (taw* may* goh MAH). Conas tá tú féin (fay*n), agus cad tá tú a dhéanamh inniu? (uh YAY*N-uhv in-YOO) I am well. How are you yourself, and what are you doing today? Úna: Tá mé ag siopadóireacht - ó mhaidin (taw* may* uh shohp-uh-DOH-i-rahk*t oh VWAH-din). Fuair mé airgead - ón mbanc - agus ansin - chuaigh mé - isteach i siopa troscáin (FOO-ir may* AR-i-guhd ohn mahnk, AH-guhs un-SHIN K*OO-ee may* ish-TYAHK* i SHOHP-uh trohs-KAW*-in) I am shopping since morning. I got money from the bank, and then I went into a furniture store. Cormac: Troscán atá ag teastáil uaibh? (trohs-KAW*N taw* uh TAS-taw*-il WOO-iv) Ba mhaith liomsa cathaoir chompordach nua (buh VWAH LUHM-suh KAH-heer k*uhm-pohr-dahk* NOO-uh). Is it furniture that you want? I myself would like a comfortable new chair. Úna: Tá gá againn - le cuid troscáin (taw* gaw* uh-GIN le kwid trohs-KAW*-in). Faighim ball troscáin - anois agus arís (FEYE-im boul trohsKAW*-in uh-NISH AH-guhs uh-REESH). We need some furniture. I get a piece of furniture every now and then. Ceannaímid cuid de ar cairde - ach íocaimid an t-airgead ar an mball - le haghaidh na coda eile de (kan-EE-mid kwid de er KAHR-de ahk* EEKi-mid un TAR-i-guhd er un MOUL le HEYE-ee nuh KOH-duh EL-e de). We buy some of it on credit, but we pay cash for the rest of it. Cormac: Déanaimid an rud céanna (DAY*N-i-mid un ruhd KAY*-uh-nuh). Déantar go minic é (DAY*N-tuhr goh MIN-ik ay*). We do the same thing. It’s done often. Cén saghas troscáin - a cheannaíonn tú? (kay*n seyes trohs-KAW*-in uh hyan-EE-uhn too) What sort of furniture do you buy? Úna: Cheannaigh mé foireann troscáin - le haghaidh seomra an bhia - an tseachtain seo caite (HYAN-ee may* FWIR-uhn trohs-KAW*-in le HEYE-ee SHOHM-ruh uh VEE-uh un TYAHK*T-in shuh KAHT-ye). I bought a suite of furniture for the dining room last week. Cormac: Nach saibhir an teaghlach sibh anois? (nahk* SEYE-vir un TEYE-luhk* shiv un-NISH) Shíl mé go bhfuair sibh ceann anuraidh (HEEL may* goh VOO-ir shiv kyoun uh-NOOR-uh). Aren’t you the rich family, now? I thought that you got one last year. Úna: Ní bhfuaireamar - ar chor ar bith (nee VOO-ir-uh-muhr er HUHR er bi). We didn’t at all. Ní bhfuarthas mórán anuraidh - le haghaidh ár dtí (nee VOO-uhr-huhs muh-RAW*N uh-NOOR-ee le HEYE-ee aw*r DEE). Not much was gotten last year for our house. Fuarthas aon leaba amháin agus cuireadh sa seomra beag leapa í (FOO-uhr-huhs ay*n LA-buh uh-WAW*-in AHguhs KIR-uh suh SHOHM-ruh byuhg LA-puh ee). Only one bed was gotten, and it was put in the small bedroom. Cormac: An gceannófar brat urláir - i mbliana? (un gan-OH-fuhr braht oor-LAW*-ir im LEE-uh-nuh) Will a carpet be bought this year? Úna: Ní cheannóimid a leithéid sin (nee hyan-OH-i-mid uh LE-hay*d shin). We won’t buy the likes of that. Tá ár sean-bhrait urláir - chomh maith agus a bhí siad riamh (taw* aw*r shan VRAHT oor-LAW*-ir hoh MAH AH-guhs vee SHEE-uhd reev). Cuirtíní agus taipéisí - sin iad na rudaí atá ag teastáil go géar uainn (koor-TEEN-ee AH-guhs ta-PAY*SH-ee - shin EE-uhd nuh RUHD-ee taw* uh TAS-taw*-il goh GAY*r WOO-in). Our old carpets are as good as they ever were. Curtains and drapes - those are the things that we need urgently. Cormac: Táthar á ndíoladh - ag praghsanna an-ísle - sa siopa ilranna sin ar Sráid Liam (TAW*-huhr aw* NEEL-uh eg PREYE-suh-nuh AHNEESH-le suh SHOHP-uh il-RAHN-uh shin ar sraw*d LEE-uhm). They are being sold at very low prices in that department store on William Street. Úna: Ní fheictear dom - gur díoladh go saor aon rud san áit sin riamh (nee EK-tyuhr duhm gur DEE-luh goh SAY*R ay*n ruhd suhn aw*t shin reev). It doesn’t seem to me that anything was ever sold cheaply in that place. Cormac: Ná habair é sin (naw* HAH-bir ay* shin). Gheobhaidh mé culaith éadaigh - agus cóta mór ann - i gcúpla mí (YOH-ee may* KU-luh AY*-dee AH-guhs KOH-tuh mohr oun i GOOP-luh mee). Don’t say that. I am going to get a suit and an overcoat there in a few months. Gheofar éadach ann an-saor - de bhrí na saor-reiceanna - tar éis na laethanta saoire (YOH-fahr AY*-duhk* oun AHN-say*r - de vree nuh say*r REK-uhn-nuh - tuhr AY*SH nuh LAY*-uhn-tuh SEE-i-re). Clothes will be gotten very cheaply there because of the sales after the holidays. Notes: “Ball” means “member”, “article” “place”, or “spot”, so “airgead ar an mball” is “ money on the spot” or “spot cash”. “Cairde” means “credit”, and selling on credit would be “díoladh ar cairde.” “Teaghlach” is “family” in the sense of “household” rather than solely relationship or genealogy. “Le haghaidh,” meaning “for” or “for the purpose of,” is a compound preposition taking the genitive. For “an chuid,” meaning “the part,” the genitive is “na coda.”

Lesson 89 The review of grammar and vocabulary through conversation continues in this lesson. Work by phrase at first, saying each out loud until you can repeat the entire sentence. Cover the English translation until you have read all the Irish at least once and have obtained a good idea of what it means. COMHRÁ (KOH-raw*), conversation Niall (NEE-uhl): Dia dhuit, a Chaitríona (uh k*ah-TREE-nuh). Neil: Hello, Catherine. Caitríona: Dia’s Muire dhuit, a Niaill (DEE-uhs MWIR-e git, uh NEE-il). Conas tá tú anois? (KUN-uhs taw* too uh-NISH) Hello, Neil. How are you now? Niall: Táim go maith - agus conas tá tú féin? (fay*n) I am well, and how are you? Caitríona: Tá mé go maith, leis (lesh). Táim ag déanamh deifre - chuig an busáras (TAW*-im uh DAY*N-uhv DEF-re hig un BUS-aw*-ruhs). I am well, too. I am hurrying to the bus station. Niall: Nach n-oibríonn tú - in oifig an eolais ann? (nahk* NIB-ree-uhn too in IF-ig un OH-lish oun) Don’t you work in the information office there? Caitríona: Oibrím ann, cinnte. (IB-reem oun, KIN-tye). Tá an-eolas agam - ar gach bealach bus - agus ar a gcláir ama (taw* AHN-oh-luhs uhGUHM er gahk* BAL-uhk* bus AH-guhs er uh GLAW*-ir AH-muh). I work there, certainly. I have excellent knowledge of every bus route and of their schedules. Niall: Maith an cailín thú! (mah un kah-LEEN hoo). An féidir leat a insint dom - cathain a imíonn an bus deireanach - go hÁth Luain inniú? (un FAY*-dir lat IN-shint duhm CAH-hin uh im-EE-uhn un bus DER-i-nuhk* goh haw* LOO-in in-YOO) Good girl! Can you tell me when the last bus leaves for Athlone today? Caitríona: Is é sin bus fiche a seacht (SHAY* shin bus FI-hye uh SHAHK*T). Imeofar ar deich nóméad tar éis a haon déag anocht (im-YOHfuhr er de NOH-may*d tahr AY*SH uh HAY*N day*-uhg uh-NOHK*T). That’s bus number 27. Departure will be at 10 minutes past 11 tonight. Niall: Cad mar gheall ar mo mhála taistil? (kahd mahr YOUL er muh VWAH*-luh TASH-til) What about my suitcase? Caitríona: Cuir sa raca bagáiste é - agus cuir do shicíní ar dhíon an bhus (kir suh RAH-kuh buh-GAW*SH-te ay* AH-guhs kir duh hi-KEEN-ee er YEE-uhn uh VWUS). Put it in the baggage rack, and put your chickens on the roof of the bus. Niall: Ná bí ag magadh fúm anois (naw* bee uh MAH-guh foom uh-NISH). Rud tábhachtach is ea é seo (rud TOU-uhk*-tuhk* sha ay* shuh). Don’t be making fun of me now. It’s an important matter that this is. Caitríona: Ó, gabh mo leithscéal (oh, gou muh LE-shkay*l). Ach is í an riail is tábhachtaí i leabhar na rialacha - an riail faoi shicíní (ahk* shee un REE-il is TOU-uhk*-tee i LOU-uhr nuh REEL-uhk*-uh un REE-il fwee hi-KEEN-ee). Oh, excuse me. But the most important rule in the book of rules is the rule on chickens. Niall: Cé mhéad sicíní a théann amach? (kay* vay*d shi-KEEN-ee HAY*-uhn uh-MAHK*) How many chickens go out? Caitríona: Tháinig slua mór díobh isteach anuraidh - ach ní dheachaigh mórán díobh amach (HAW*-nig SLOO-uh mohr DEE-uhv ishTYAHK* uh-NOOR-ee, ahk* nee YAK*-hee muh-RAW*N DEE-uhv uh-MAHK*. Fiafraigh den bhúistéir cad a tharla dóibh (FEE-uh-ree den vwoosh-TAY*R kahd uh HAHR-luh DOH-iv). A great many of them came in last year, but not many went out. Ask the butcher what happened to them. Niall: Agus ar dhíon an bhus - a thagann siad - agus a théann siad, an ea? (AH-guhs er YEE-uhn uh VWUS uh HAHG-uhn SHEE-uhd AH-guhs a HAY*-uhn SHEE-uhd, un A). And on the top of the bus they come and go, is it? Caitríona: Ó, ní hea. Ar trucail - a thaistealaíonn an chuid is mó díobh (er TRU-kil uh hash-TAL-ee-uhn un K*WID is moh DEE-uhv). Níl luach ticéad bus acu (neel LOO-ahk* ti-KAY*D bus ah-KUH). Oh, it’s not. By truck most of them travel. They don’t have the price of a bus ticket. Notes: “An-eolas”, with stress on the “an”, means excellent knowledge. “Ama” is the genitive form of “am”, time, and a “clár ama” is a table or list of time, which is a schedule. “Thú” is the word “tú”, you, with the first sound aspirated or changed to (h). This aspiration is common in some words; “dia dhuit” is an example. The sentence “Is í Síle an múinteoir” means “Sheila is the teacher”. “Is í an riail is tábhachtaí an riail ,” in the conversation above is a longer example of this type of sentence. “Riail” is feminine, requiring the “í”. “Faoi” can mean either “under” or “about”.

Lesson 90 To this continuation of the general review of grammar and vocabulary through conversation, we will begin to add a more complete review of certain elements, such as verbs. COMHRÁ(KOH-raw*), conversation Tadhg (teyeg): Dia dhuit, a Airt (DEE-uh git, uh AHRT). Hello, Art. Art (ahrt): Dia’s Muire dhuit, a Thaidhg (DEE-uhs MWIR-e git, uh heyeg). Cén chaoi bhfuil tú? (KAY-hee VWIL too) Hello, Tadhg. How are you today? Tadhg: Go han-mhaith, go raibh maith agat (goh HAN-VWAH, gur-uh MAH huh-GUHT). Conas tá tú féin? (KUN-uhs taw* too fay*n) Very well, thank you. How are you yourself? Art: Tá mé go maith leis (TAW* may* goh MAH lesh). Nach bhfuil tú ag obair inniu? (nahk* VWIL too eg OH-bir in-YOO) I am well, too. Aren’t you working today? Tadhg: Nílim (NEEL-im). Chuamar ar stailc - an tseachtain seo caite (K*OO-uh-muhr er STEYELK un TYAHK*T-in shuh KAH-tye). Ní dhéanaim rud ar bith anois - ach fanacht le socrú na stailce (nee YAY*N-im ruhd er BI uh-NISH ahk* FAHN-uhk*t le SOHK-roo nuh STEYELK-e). I am not. We went on strike last week. I don’t do a thing now but wait for settlement of the strike. Art: Cén fáth ar chuaigh sibh ar stailc? (kay*n faw* er K*OO-ee shiv er STEYELK) Why did you go on strike? Tadhg: Méadú pá a bhí ag teastáil uainn (MAY*-doo paw* vee uh TAS-taw*-il WOO-ing). Ní bhfuaireamar ach aon mhéadú le linn dhá bhliain (nee VOO-ir-uh-muhr ahk* ay*n VAY*-doo le ling gaw* VLEE-in). A pay raise was what we wanted. We didn’t get but one increase during two years. Art: Is é an bolgadh an fáth (shay* un BOH-luh-guh un FAW*). An síneoidh na húnéiri - agus na stailceoirí - conradh nua go luath? (un sheenYOH-ee nuh hoo-NAY*R-ee AH-guhs nuh steyel-KYOH-i-ree KOHN-ruh NOO-uh goh LOO-uh) The inflation is the reason. Will the owners and the strikers sign a new contract soon? Tadhg: Cá bhfios domsa? (KAW* vis DUHM-suh) Aontófar le rud éigin, - sin nó dúnfar an mhonarcha (ay*n-TOH-fuhr le ruhd AY*-gin, shin noh DOON-fuhr un VWOHN-uhr-huh). How do I know? Something will be agreed upon, that or the factory will be closed. Art: Nár dúnadh anuraidh í? (naw*r DOON-uh uh-NOOR-ee ee) Didn’t they close it last year? Tadhg: Dúnadh í (DOON-uh ee). Bhí sí dúnta cúpla mí (VEE shee DOON-tuh KOOP-luh mee). Ní bhfuarthas mórán orduithe - le linn na bliana (nee VOO-uhr-huhs muh-RAW*N OHRD-i-he le ling nuh BLEE-uh-nuh). They did. It was closed for a couple of months. Not many orders were received during the year. Art: Bíonn a lán daoine dífhostaithe anois (BEE-uhn uh LAW*N DEEN-uh dee-OHS-ti-he uh-NISH). B’fhéidir go bhfaighfear orduithe nua - i gceann tamaill (BAY*-dir goh VWEYE-fuhr OHRD-i-he NOO-uh i GYOUN TAHM-il). Many persons are unemployed now. Perhaps new orders will be received in a while. Tadhg: Dúradh go raibh an ceardchumann - agus an bainisteoir - ag dul i gcomhairle - le chéile - le linn an tsamhraidh go léir (DOO-ruh goh REV un kard-K*U-muhn AH-guhs un bwin-ish-TYOH-ir uh duhl i GOH-ir-le le HYAY*-le le ling uh TOU-ree goh LAY*R). It was said that the union and the manager were conferring (going in conference) with each other during the entire summer. Art: Níl toradh ar bith air - pé scéal é (neel TOHR-uh er BI er, pay* SHKAY*L ay*). Is maith an rud é an fostú (is mah un RUHD ay* un FOHS-too). Cad a tharlóidh do na hoibritheoirí- má dhúnfar an mhonarcha? (kahd uh hahr-LOH-ee duh nuh hib-ri-HOH-i-ree maw* GOONfuhr un VWOHN-uhr-huh) There’s no result on it, anyway. Employment is a good thing. What will happen to the workers if the plant will be closed? Art: Gheofar poist eile, is dóigh liom (YOH-fuhr pwist EL-e, is DOH-ee luhm). Other jobs will be found, I suppose. Notes: “Cén chaoi bhfuil tú?” is another way to ask “How are you?” It means “What condition or manner are you in?” “Fuair” can mean “get, receive, find.” “Ceardchumann” combines the words “ceard”, a trade or craft, and “cumann”, a society, to give a word meaning “trade union” or “union”. GRAMMAR REVIEW Begin with the verb “mol” (muhl), meaning “praise”. Say the present tense aloud: “I praise the work, you praise the work”, etc. Then say the negative: “I don’t praise the work”, etc. Then the questions: “Do I praise the work”, etc. and “Don’t I praise the work”, etc. See the key below to check your work. Next come the free forms: “Someone praises the work; someone doesn’t praise the work; Does someone praise the work?; doesn’t someone praise the work?”. Repeat this for the past tense and the future tense. Then review the verbal noun: “He is praising the man (an fhir), he is praising me, he is praising you”, etc. Change these to past and future tenses to finish the review.

Key: Molaim an obair (MUHL-im un OH-bir), molann tú an obair, molaimid ; ní mholaim (nee VWUHL-im) ; an molaim nach molaim . Moltar an obair; ní mholtar an obair; an moltar ; nach moltar Mhol mé (VWUHL may*) , mholamar ; níor mhol mé ; nár mhol mé Moladh an obair; níor moladh; ar moladh ; nár moladh Molfaidh mé (MUHL-hee may*), molfaimid ; ní mholfaidh mé ; an molfaidh mé ; nach molfaidh mé Molfar (MUHL-fuhr) an obair; ní mholfar ; an molfar ; nach molfar Tá sé ag moladh an fhir; tá sé do mo mholadh; tá sé do do mholadh; tá sé a mholadh; tá sé a moladh; tá sé dár moladh; tá sé do bhur moladh (duh vwoor MUHL-uh); tá sé á moladh. Bhí sé Beidh sé

Lesson 91 The review of grammar by conversation continues. Read each sentence out loud, phrase by phrase, until you can repeat it without looking at it. Then cover the Irish and give the Irish for each sentence in turn. COMHRÁ (KOH-raw*), Conversation Cathal (KAH-hul): A ita, gabh i leith más é do thoil é (uh EE-tuh, GOU i le, MAW* shay* duh HIL-ay*). Ita, come here, please. Ita (EE-tuh): Cad is ea, a Chathal? (kahd sha, uh K*AH-hil) An bhfuil rud éigin cearr sa tsráid? (un VWIL ruhd AY*-gin kyahr suh TRAW*D) What is it, Cathal? Is something wrong in the street? Cathal: Rug na póilíní ar fhear anois beag (rug nuh poh-LEEN-ee er ar uh-NISH byuhg). The police just seized a man. Ita: Gadaí, an ea? (GAH-dee, un a) A thief, is it? Cathal: Is ea. Beireann na póilíní orthu go minic (BER-uhn nuh poh-LEEN-ee OHR-huh goh MIN-ik). It is. The police seize them often. Ita: Cathain a bhéarfaidh (VAY*R-hee) siad ar an ngadaí (er ung AH-dee) ar rug greim (grem) ar mo mhála? When will they catch the thief who grabbed (seized hold of) my bag? Cathal: Sin scéal eile (shin shkay*l EL-e). Na bac leis. That’s another story. Don’t worry about it. Ita: Ná habair liom é sin. Ní thabharfaidh (HOOR-hee) sé sin misneach dom (MISH-nahk* duhm). Don’t tell me that. That won’t cheer me up (give courage to me). Cathal: Ceannaigh ceann eile, más mian leat (KAN-ee kyoun EL-e, maw*s MEE-uhn lat). Buy another one, if you want. Ita: Ach céard faoi mo chártai cairde? (ahk* kay*rd fwee muh K*AW*R-tee KAHR-de) Tá siad caillte agam anois (taw* SHEE-uhd KEYEL-te uh-GUHM uh-NISH). But what about my credit cards? I have lost them now. Cathal: Ní mór an cailleadh dom é sin (nee mohr un KEYEL-uh duhm ay* shin). Ach, féach! Tá na poh-LEEN-ee ag cuardach an ghadaí (uh KOO-uhr-dahk* un GAH-dee) agus a mhala mhoir (uh VWAW*-luh VWOH-ir). Nach bhfuil do mhala ann (oun), i mbarr an chairn? (i MAHR uh K*AHRN). That’s not a big loss for me. But look! The police are searching the thief and his big bag. Isn’t your bag there, on top of the heap? Ita: Ó, tá an ceart agat! Buíochas le Dia (BWEE-uhk*-huhs le DYEE-uh). Caithfidh mé rith amach agus iad a fháil (KAH-hee may* ri uhMAHK* AH-guhs EE-uhd uh AW*-il). Oh, you’re right! Thanks be to God. I will have to run out and get them. Cathal: Iad, an ea? Is docha gurb fhearr leat na cártaí cairde ná an mála (is DOHK*-uh GUR-ruhb ahr lat nuh KAW*R-tee naw* un MAW*luh). Them, is it? It’s likely that you prefer the credit cards to the bag. Ita: Gach aoinne is a chúram féin air (gahk* AY*N-yuh is uh K*OOR-uhm fay*n er). Ach cén fáth gur thug sé na cártaí leis? (ahk* kay*n FAW* gur HUG shay* nuh KAW*R-tee lesh). Everyone has his own troubles. But why did he carry the cards with him? Cathal: Shíl sé gurb fhearr bheith a cheannach ar cairde ná bheith a ghoid (HEEL shay* GUR-ruhv ahr ve uh HYAN-uhk* er KAHR-de naw* ve uh gwid). He thought it would be better to be buying on credit than to be stealing. Ita: Ná bí ag magadh fúm anois (naw* be uh MAHG-uh foom uh-NISH). Don’t be making fun of me now. Notes on the conversation: In Ireland, the police are the Gardaí Siochána (GAHR-dee shee-K*AWN-uh), but in the United States, police can be called “pólíní”. “Mála mór” is a “big bag”, but when you speak of searching (of) a big bag, then the words “mála mór” are put into the genitive case. For “mála”, this is simple, since it does not change, but for the adjective following the word “mála”, it is necessary to aspirate the initial consonant and slenderize the last consonant. This is why “mór” becomes “mhóir”. The change in pronunciation is usually not extensive, so that you will readily understand the spoken word here. You will need some practice before you can make the change easily yourself. GRAMMAR REVIEW Take the verb “bris” (brish), meaning :”break” and go through the present tense aloud: “I break the glass, you break the glass”, etc. “Gloine”: (GLIN-e), glass, is feminine, “an ghloine” is “the glass”. Go through the negative, the questions, and the negative questions. Then verify your work against the key below. The free form is next: “someone breaks the glass”, etc. The past tense begins, “I broke the glass”, etc. The future tense starts with “I will break the glass”. Verify these tenses with the key. go then to the verbal noun: “He is breaking the glass”; Tá sé ag briseadh na gloine. Past and future tenses come next. Key: Brisim an ghloine (un GLIN-e), briseann tú an ghloine. brisimid an ghloine ; ní bhrisim ; an mbrisim ; nach mbrisim ?, etc. Bristear an ghloine; ní bhristear ; an mbristear ?; nach mbristear ? Bhris mé an ghloine, bhris tú an ghloine, bhriseamar an ghloine, etc; níor bhris mé an ghloine, etc; ar bhris mé an ? etc; nár bhris mé an ghloine?

etc. Briseadh an ghloine; níor bhris mé an ghloine, ar briseadh an ghloine?; nár briseadh an ghloine? Brisfeadh mé an ghloine, brisfimid an ghloine, etc; ní brisfidh mé an ghloine, etc; anmbrisfidh mé an ghloine? etc; nach mbrisidh mé an ghloine? etc. Brisfear an ghloine; ní bhrisfear an ghloine; an mbrisfear ?; nach mbrisfear ? Tá sé ag briseadh na gloine; bhí sé ag briseadh na gloine’ beidh sé ag briseadh na gloine.

Lesson 92 We will return now to work on pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary. PRONUNCIATION EXERCISE Here are several sentences that are written in the form of the pronunciation guide. Read them aloud, or have someone read them to you. As you hear them, form a mental picture of the meaning. Do not translate them word for word. After you have finished, look at the Key at lesson end to verify your understanding. neel uh EYEM-sheer hoh mah AH-guhs uh vee shee in-YAY*, ahk* TAW*-im uh duhl uh-MAHK* hig un SHOHP-uh, pay* shkay*l ay*. k*uh-NIK may* un YREE-uhn eg EYE-ree er MAH-din, AH-guhs vee NAY*L-tuh DOOV-uh oun FRESH-in. BAY*dir goh GIR-hee shay* SHNAHK*-tuh rev EE-hye. GRAMMAR With nouns like “mac” and “bord”, the form of the noun changes when you put the noun into an expression like “the son’s hat” or “the head of the table”. “Hata an mhic” (HAHT-uh VIK) and “ceann an bhoird” (KYOUN uh VWIRD) are the Irish expressions. The words “an mhic” and “an bhoird” are in the genitive or possessive case and show ownership or the larger combination to which some element belongs. “Mac” and “bord” are first declension nouns, all masculine and all ending in a broad consonant one preceded by “a”, “o”, or “u”. In the second declension, nearly all nouns are feminine, and all end in a consonant. Some of the ending consonants are slender (preceded by “e” or “i”), and some are broad (preceded by “a”, “o”, or “u”). Their plurals form in several ways, and you must learn them as you learn the noun. Before we begin intensive work on this declension, learn the following groups of words that will be examples of how second-declension nouns change. grian, an ghrian, solas na gréine (GREE-uhn, un YREE-uhn, SUHL-uhs nuh GRAY*N-e); sun, the sun, light of the sun or sunlight. bróg, an bhróg, sáil na bróige (brohg, un VROHG, SAW*-il nuh BROH-i-ge); shoe, the shoe, heel of the shoe or the shoe heel. suil, an tsúil, dath na suile (SOO-il, un TOO-il, dah nuh SOO-i-le); eye, the eye, color of the eye. áit, an áit, ainm na háite (aw*t, an AW*T, AN-im nuh HAW*-tye); place, the place, name of the place or the place’s name. You can see from this that feminine nouns are preceded by “na” in the genitive. This “na” does not change the noun except that it causes an “h” to be put before the initial vowel, as in: na háite; the place. na heaglaise (nuh HAHG-lish-e); of the church. na hiníne (nuh hi-NEEN-e); of the daughter. Most second-declension nouns end in “___ e” in the genitive singular, as you can see from the examples. Second-declension nouns whose basic forms ends in “___ ach” change their ending to “ __ í” in the genitive singular. An example is: báisteach, an bháisteach, na baistí (BAW*SH-tuhk*, un VWAW*SH-tuhk*, nuh BAW*SH-tee); rain, the rain, of the rain. Usage of “my, your, his”, etc., with these second-declension nouns is similar to that with first-declension nouns. For example: mo chos, barr mo choise (muh K*UHS, bahr muh K*ISH-e); my foot, top of my foot. Usage of the compound prepositions with these nouns is also similar to that with first-declension nouns. For example: os comhair na háite (ohs KOH-ir nuh HAW*-tye); in front of the place. VOCABULARY (All these nouns are second-declension.) grian, an ghrian, na gréine, na grianta (GREE-uhn, un YREE-uhn, nuh GRAY*N-e, nuh GREE-uhn-tuh); sun, the sun, of the sun, the suns. ceist, an cheist, na ceiste, na ceisteanna (kesht, un yesht, nuh KESH-te, nuh KESH-tuh-nuh); question, the question, of the question, the questions. lámh, an lámh, na láimhe, na lámha (law*v, un LAW*V, nuh LAW*-i-ve, nuh LAW*V-uh); hand, the hand, of the hand, the hands. bróg, an bhróg, na bróige, na bróga (brohg, un VROHG, nuh BROH-i-ge, nuh BROHG-uh); shoe, the shoe, of the shoe, the shoes. leadóg, an leadóg, na leadóige, --- (la-DOHG, un la-DOHG, nuh la-DOH-i-ge); tennis, the tennis, of the tennis. aicíd, an aicíd, na hacíde, na haicídí (A-keed, un A-keed, nuh HA-keed-e, nuh HA-keed-ee); disease, the disease, of the disease, the diseases. seachtain, an tseachtain, na seachtaine, na seachtainí (SHAHK*T-in, un TYAHK*T-in, nuh SHAHK*T-in-e, nuh SHAHK*T-in-ee); week, the week, of the week, the weeks. fadhb, an fhadhb, na faidhbe, na fadhbanna (feyeb, un EYEB, nuh FEYE-be, nuh FEYEB-uh-nuh); problem, the problem, of the problem, the problems. cos, an chos, na coise, na cosa (kuhs, an K*UHS, nuh KISH-e, nuh KUHS-uh). gealach, an ghealach, na gealaí, na gealacha (GAL-uhk*, un YAL-uhk*, nuh GAL-ee, nuh GAL-uh-huh); moon, the moon, of the moon, the moons. Key to the pronunciation exercise:

Níl an aimsir chomh maith agus a bhí sí inné, ach táim ag dul amach chuig an siopa, pé scéal é. Chonaic mé an ghrian ag éirí ar maidin, agus bhí néalta dubha ann freisin. B’fhéidir go gcuirfidh sé sneachta roimh oíche. The weather is not as good as it was yesterday, but I am going out to the store, anyway. I saw the sun rising this morning and there were dark clouds there, too. Perhaps it will snow before night. If your first effort at listening to speech was not very successful, don’t be discouraged. All beginners in languages experience this. We will have these pronunciation exercises at intervals in future lessons, and you will become more proficient.

Lesson 93 PRONUNCIATION EXERCISE Here are sentences written in the form of the pronunciation guide. Read them aloud, or have someone read them to you. As you hear them, form a mental picture of the meaning and the situation. Do not translate the sentences word for word. After you have finished, look at the Key at lesson end to verify your understanding. DEE-uh git, uh HYAW*-in. Dee-uhs MWIR-e git, a VREE-in. KUN-uhs TAW* too in-YOO? TAW* may* goh MAH. AH-guhs KUN-uhs TAW* too fay*n? TAW*-im goh MAH un-NISH, FRESH-in. vee sleye-DAW*N OH-ruhm un TYAHK*T-in shuh KAH-tye, ahk* taw* BIshahk* OH-ruhm le TAH-muhl. nee AHK-uh may* too er un TRAW*-id. taw*n KART uh-GUHT. DAHN may* uh-VWAHL-e in-YAY*. shin ee an AW*T is FAHR duh AR ting. AY*N-teem lat. SLAW*N uh-GUHT uh-NISH, uh VREE-in. SLAW*N lat, uh HYAW*-in. VOCABULARY (All these nouns are second-declension..) obair, an obair, na hoibre, na hoibreacha (OH-bir, un OH-bir, nuh HIB-re, nuh HIB-rahk*uh); work, the work, of the work, the works. dealbh, an dealbh, na deilbhe, na dealbha (DYAL-uhv, un DYAL-uhv, nuh DYEL-i-ve, nuh DYAL-uhv-uh); statue, the statue, of the statue, the statues. scoil, an scoil, na scoile, na scoileanna (skuhl, an skuhl, nuh SKUHL-e, nuh SKUHL-uh-nuh); school, the school, of the school, the schools. maidin, an mhaidin, na maidine, na maidineacha (MAH-din, un VWAH-din, nuh MAHD-ne, nuh MAH-din-AHK*-uh); morning, the morning, of the morning, the mornings. paidir, an phaidir, na paidre, na paidreacha (PAH-dir, un FAH-dir, nuh PAH-dre, nuh PAHD-rahk*-uh); prayer, the prayer, of the prayer, the prayers. cailc, an chailc, na cailce, na cailceanna (keyelk, un K*EYELK, nuh KEYELK-e, nuh KEYELK-uh-nuh); chalk, the chalk, of the chalk, the chalks. tír, an tír, na tíre, na tíortha (teer, un TEER, nuh TEER-e, nuh TEER-huh); country, the country, of the country, the countries. abairt, an abairt, na habairte, na habairtí (AH-birt, un AH-birt, nuh HAH-birt-e, nuh HAH-birt-ee); sentence, the sentence, of the sentence, the sentences. eaglais, an eaglais, na heaglaise, na heaglaisí (AH-glish, uh AH-glish, nuh HAH-glish-e, nuh HAH-glish-ee); church, the church, of the church, the churches. iníon, an iníon, na hiníne, na hiníonacha (in-EEN, un in-EEN, nuh hi-NEEN-e, nuh hi-NEEN-uh-huh); daughter, the daughter, of the daughter, the daughters. uirlis, , un uirlis, na na huirlise, na huirlisí (IR-lish, un IR-lish, nuh HIR-lish-e, nuh HUR-lish-ee); tool, the tool, of the tool, the tools. féasóg, an féasóg, na féasóige, na féasóga (fay*-SOHG, un ay*-SOHG, nuh fay*-SOH-i-ge, nuh fay*-SOHG-uh); beard, the beard, of the beard, the beards. bráillín, an bhráillín, na bráillíne, na bráillíní (braw*-LEEN, un vraw*-LEEN, nuh braw*-LEEN-e, nuh braw*-LEEN-ee); sheet, the sheet, of the sheet, the sheets (bed sheet is meant here; “bileog” (bil-YOHG) is a sheet of paper. liathróid, an liathróid, na liathróida, na liathróidí (lee-HROH-id, un lee-HROH-id, nuh lee-HROH-id-e, nuh lee-HROH-id-ee); ball, the ball, of the ball, the balls. reilig, an reilig, na reilige, na reiligí (REL-ig, un REL-ig, nuh REL-ig-e, nuh REL-ig-ee); cemetery, the cemetery, of the cemetery, the cemeteries. girseach, an ghirseach, na girsí, na girseacha (GIR-shahk*, un YIR-shahk*, nuh GIR-shee, nuh GIR-shahk*-uh); girl, the girl, of the girl, the girls. Compound prepositions which are followed by the genitive case: de réir (duh RAY*R), according to. i láthair (i LAW*-hir), in the presence of. in aice (in AK-e), near. in aghaidh ( in EYE-ee), against (in the sense of “opposed to”) DRILL Cuir Gaeilge air seo; During the work; after the question; in the presence of the daughter; on account of the beard. Behind the cemetery; according to the girl; in front of the school; above the statue. Putting the sheet on the bed; doing the work; getting the chalk; saying the prayer. Reading the sentence; breaking the chalk; losing the ball; washing the hand. Key to Drill: le linn na hoibre (le LING nuh HIB-re); tar éis na ceiste (tahr AY*SH nuh KESH-te); i láthair na hinníne (i LAW*-hir nuh hi-NEEN-e); de bharr na féasóige (de VWAHR nuh fay*-SOH-ig-e). Ar chúl na reilige (er K*OOL nuh REL-i-ge); de réir na girsí (duh RAY*R nuh GIR-shee); os comhair na scoile (ohs KOH-ir nuh SKUHL-e); os cionn na deilbhe (ohs KYOON nuh DEL-i-ve). Ag cur na bráillíne ar an leaba (uh KUR nuh braw*-LEEN-e er un LA-buh; ag déanamh na hoibre (uh DAY*N-uhv nuh HIB-re); ag fáil na caílce (uh FAW*-il nuh KEYELK-e); ag cailleadh na liathróide (uh KEYEL-uh nuh lee-HROH-id-e); ag ní na láimhe (uh NEE nuh LAW*-iv-e). Key to the pronunciation exercise: Dia, dhuit, a Sheáin. Dia’s Muire dhuit, a Bhriain. Conas tá tú inniu? Tá mé go maith. Agus conas tá tú féin? Táim go maith anois, freisin. Bhí slaghdán orm an tseachtain seo caite, ach tá biseach orm le tamall. Ní fhaca mé ar an tsráid. Tá an ceart agat. D’fhan mé abhaile inné. Sin í an áit

is fearr do fhear tinn. Aontaím leat. Slán agat anois, a Bhriain. Slan leat, a Sheáin. Hello, John. Hello, Brian. How are you today? I am well. And how are you? I am well now, too. There was a cold on me last week, but I have been improving for a while. I didn’t see you on the street. You are right. I stayed home yesterday. That’s the place that is best for a sick man. I agree with you. Good-bye now, Brian. Good-bye, John.

Lesson 94 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW The sentences below are written in the form of the pronunciation guide. Read them aloud, or have someone read them to you. Ass you hear them, form a mental picture of the meaning and the situation. Do not translate the sentences word for word. After you have finished, look at the Key at lesson end to verify your understanding. Dee-uh git, uh HAY*-mish. DEE-uhs MWIR-e git, uh VWAW*-re. nee AHK-uh may* too le FAH-duh oh HIN. KUN-uhs taw* too in-YOO? oh, er OUS. law* SEER-e uh-GUHM. shin ay* un FAW* goh vwil AW*-huhs OH-ruhm. ahk* KUN-uhs taw* too fay*n? taw* may* goh MAH, FRESH-in. is DOHK*-uh goh vwil too uh duhl uh-VWAHL-e uh-NISH. NEEL-im. vee may* uh SHOOL TIM-puhl un K*OON-ye k*un NOOuhk*-taw*n uh AW*-il. neel ay*n shkay*l NOO-uh uh-GUHM-suh, ahk** BAY*-dir goh vwil shkay*l NOO-uh suh NOO-uhk*-taw*n. taw* SOO-il uh-GUHM goh me. ahk* taw* OH-ruhm DE-fir uh YAY*N-uhv. taw* shay* eg EYE-ree DAY*N-uhk*. slaw*n uh-GUHT, uh HAY*mish. slaw*n lat, uh VWAW*-re. HEE-hee may* too uh-REESH goh LOO-uh. GRAMMAR We will look at the genitive plural in Irish in this lesson. An expression like “the men’s hats” in English takes the form of “hats of the men” in Irish. The words for “of the men” will be in the genitive plural. Very often the genitive plural in Irish is the same as the nominative plural, which is the plural form that you have been learning in the Vocabularies in recent lessons. In other cases, the genitive plural is like the simplest and first form of the noun, the nominative singular. It is not difficult to select the right form. In nearly all words, if the plural adds two or more letters to the singular, or if the plural ends in “___ í”, then the genitive plural is the same as the nominative plural. Examples: scoil, na scoileanna (skuhl, nuh SKUHL-uh-nuh), school, the schools; the plural is long, so the genitive plural is “scoileanna”, and “closing the schools” is “ag dúnadh na scoileanna”, closing of the schools. margadh, na margaí (MAHR-uh-guh, nuh MAHR-uh-gee), market, the markets; the plural ends in “__ í”, so the genitive plural is “margaí”, and “opening the markets” is “ag oscailt na margaí”, opening of the markets. In nouns that merely slenderize the last consonant or only add “__a”, to form the plural, the genitive plural will be the same as the simplest form of the noun, the nominative singular. Examples: bád, na báid (baw*d, nuh BAW*-id), boat, the boats; here the “d” at the word end is slenderized, and consequently the genitive plural is “bád” the same as the nominative singular, the basic form that you have learned. “Buying boats” is “ceannach bád” buying of boats. bróg, na bróga (brohg, nuh BROHG-uh), shoe, the shoes; here the plural merely adds “ __ a”, so the genitive plural is “bróg”, the same as the nominative singular. “Selling shoes”, is, “ag díol bróg”, selling of shoes. The genitive plural changes in its first consonant when it follows the words for “my”, “your”, and “his”, just like other noun forms in Irish. Examples: “Buying my shoes” is literally “buying of my shoes”, “ag ceannach mo bhróg” (uh KAN-uhk* muh VROHG). “Reading his words” is “ag léamh a fhocal” (uh LAY*V uh OH-kuhl). “In front of your copies” is “os comhair do chóipeanna” (ohs KOH-ir duh K*OH-ip-uh-nuh). Eclipsis is also found here, when the words “na”, meaning “of the”, and “ár” (aw*r), cur; bhur (vwoor), your (plural); a (uh), their, come before the genitive plural. Examples: “Reading our copies” is “ag léamh ár gcóipeanna”. “Buying their shoes” is “ag ceannach a mbróg”. “Closing the roads” is “ag dúnadh na mbóithre”. At first, you will have to pay close attention to the word forms in reading to detect the genitive plural, but a little practice will help. REFLEX EXPRESSIONS Learn these expressions for quick use in conversation. Cad is ainm duit? (kahd is A-nim dit), What is your name? ____ is ainm dom ( ___ is A-nim duhm), ___ is my name. Tá gach rud i gceart (taw* gahk* ruhd i GYAHRT), Everything is all right. DRILL Here is some practice with the genitive plurals. “Fear” (far) is “man”; “fir” (fir) is “men”. The plural merely slenderizes the final consonant, so the genitive plural must be the same as the nominative singular. What is “hats of the men”? Answer: hataí na bhfear (HAH-tee nuh VAR). The “na”, meaning “of the” in the plural, causes eclipsis, and “bh” eclipses “f”. “Dealbh” (DYAL-uhv) is “statue”; “dealbha” is “statues”. This plural is formed by merely adding “a”, so what is “cleaning the statues”? Answer: ag glanadh na ndealabh (uh GLUHN-uh NYAL-uhv).

We will continue with drilling on the genitive forms next week. Key to the pronunciation exercise: Dia dhuit, a Shéamais. Dia’s Muire dhuit, a Mháire. Ní fhaca mé tú le fada ó shoin. Conas tá tú inniu? Ó, ar fheasbhas. Lá saoire agam. Sin é an fáth go bhfuil áthas orm. Ach conas tá tú féin? Tá mé go maith, freisin. Is dócha go bhfuil tú ag dul abhaile anois. Nílim. Bhí mé ag siúl timpeall an chúinne chun nuachtán a fháil. Níl aon scéal nua agamsa, ach b’fhéidir go bhfuil scéal nua sa nuachtán. Tá súil agam go mbeidh. Ach tá orm deifir a dhéanamh. tá sé ag éirí déanach. Slán agat, a Shéamais. Slán leat, a Mháire. Chífidh mé tú arís go luath. Hello, James. Hello, Mary. I haven’t seen you for a long time. How are you today? Oh, excellent. I have a holiday. That’s the reason that I am glad. But how are you yourself? I am well, too. I suppose that you are going home now. I’m not. I was walking around the corner to get a newspaper. I hope there will be one. But I must hurry. It’s getting late. Good-by, James. Good-by, Mary. I will see you again soon.

Lesson 95 PRONUNCIATION REVIEW The individual questions below are written in the form of the pronunciation guide. Read them aloud, or have someone read them to you. As you hear them, try to make up simple answers to them. If you are not sure of the meanings, look at the Key at lesson end. Specimen answers are given there, too. KUN-uhs taw* too in-YOO? KAW* vwil duh K*OH-tuh? NAHK* rev shaw*n suh TAHK*? kay* hay* SHIN er un MOH-uhr? WHERE YOU STAND You have learned the basic elements of the first two declensions, or groups of nouns. We will continue with practice and drilling on these to make you more familiar with the various forms and to allow you to recognize them in reading and listening. It will probably take a little time before you begin to use the genitive form in your own speech and writing, but you will do so more quickly if you make a conscious effort to do this. Start first by using the compound prepositions, such as “os comhair” (ohs KOH-ir), in front of, whenever you can. These prepositions take the genitive, and they have the advantage of word order similar to that in English: “in front of the school” is “os comhair na scoile” (nuh SKUHL-e). “During the day” is “le linn an lae” (le lin un LAY*). The next step for you will be use of the genitive with the verbal noun. For example, “playing tennis” is “ ag imirt leadóige” (eg IM-irt la-DOH-ige). Finally, after more practice, you will begin to introduce expressions like “múinteoirí na scoile seo” (moo-in-TYOHR-ee nuh SKUHL-e shuh), teachers of this school, easily into your conversation. GRAMMAR We will look at the third declension of nouns in this lesson. This declension is a group of nouns, masculine and feminine, all of which end in “-a” in the genitive singular. The nominative singular ends in a consonant. For example, “rás” (raws) means “race”. “The day of the race” is “lá an rása” (law* un RAW*S-uh). “Móin” (MOH-in) means “peat” or “turf”. “The Turf Board” is “Bord na Móna” (bohrd nuh MOHN-uh). Notice that the “i” disappears in the genitive of “móin”. This is because the final “a” makes the “n” broad, and an “i” cannot be next to a broad consonant. The third declension contains many nouns that mean occupations or trades. Example: dochtúir (dohk*-TOO-ir), doctor; hata an dochtúra (HAHT un dohk*-TOO-ruh), the doctor’s hat. múinteoir (moo-in-TYOHR), teacher; in aice an mhúinteora (in AK-uh vwoo-in-TYOHR-uh), next to the teacher. Many third-declension nouns are feminine. Móin (MOH-in), an mhóin (un VWOH-in) is an example. “The turf’s color” is “dath na móna (dah nuh MOH-nuh). Plurals of third declension nouns All of the occupational or job nouns are masculine, and all add “__ í” to form the plural. Bádóir (baw*-DOH-ir), boatman, becomes bádóirí (baw*-doh-ir-ee). Other nouns in this declension form plurals variously, often by the addition of “-aí” or “-anna,” or “-acha.” VOCABULARY ceacht (kyahk*t), an ceacht, an cheachta, na ceachtanna, lesson, the lesson, of the lesson, the lessons. rud (rud), an rud, an ruda, na rudaí (RUD-ee), thing, the thing, of the thing, the things. loch (lohk*), an loch, an locha, na lochanna, lake, the lake, of the lake, the lakes. am (oum), an t-am (un TOUM), an ama (un AH-muh), na hamanna (nuh HAH-muh-nuh), time, etc. múinteoir, an múinteoir, an mhúinteora (un vwoo-in-TYOH-ruh), na múinteoirí, teacher, the teacher, of the teacher, the teachers. péintéir (PAY*N-tay*r), an péintéir, an phéintéara (un FAY*N-tay*r-uh), na péintéirí, painter, etc. dochtúir, an dochtúir, an dochtúra, na dochtúirí, doctor, etc. Feminine nouns móin (MOH-in), an mhóin (un VWOH-in), na móna (nuh MOH-nuh), na móinte (nuh MOH-in-te), turf (or peat), the turf, of the turf, the turfs. bliain (BLEE-in), an bhliain (un VLEE-in), na bliana (nuh BLEE-uh-nuh), na blianta (nuh BLEE-uhn-tuh), year, the year, of the year, the years. feoil (FYOH-il), an fheoil (un OH-il), na feola (nuh FYOH-luh), na feolta, meat, the meat, of the meat, the meats. Cáisc (kaw*shk), an Cháisc (un K*AW*SHK), na Cásca (nuh KAW*S-kuh), Easter, the Easter, of Easter. dáil (DAW*il), an dáil, na dála (nuh DAW*-luh), na dálaí (nuh DAW*-lee), assembly, the assembly, etc. poblacht (POH-blahk*t), an phoblacht, na poblachta, na poblachtaí, republic, etc. Nearly all third declension nouns have strong plural forms, and their genitive or possessive plural form is the same as the nominative plural.

Examples: “The teachers’ contract” is “conradh na múinteoirí” (KOHN-ruh). “The lakes’ water” is “uisce na lochanna. (ISH-ke). Some common expressions or terms with third-declension nouns: am codlata (oum KUHL-uh-tuh), bedtime, from: an codladh (KUHL-uh), an chodlata (un K*UHL-uh-tuh), sleep. Béal an átha (bay*l un AW*), Ballina, town in Maigh Eo; from béal, mouth, and áth, an t-áth, na háthanna, ford; mouth of the ford. tinneas droma, backache, from droim (drim), an droim, an droma (DROHM-uh), back. Éirí Amach na Cásca (EYE-ree uh-MAHK* nuh KAW*S-kuh), The Easter Rising.

Lesson 96 THIRD DECLENSION NOUNS AND PRACTICE A “declension” is nothing more than a group of nouns that have some common grammatical characteristics, usually concerning the way of forming plurals and the genitive case. For the third declension, the characteristic is the “ __ a “ ending in the genitive (possessive) singular. An example: ceacht (kyahk*t), a lesson; ciall an cheachta (keel un HYAHK*T-uh), meaning of the lesson. Here are some important nouns from this declension, each with a phrase including the noun. The purpose of the phrase is to help you remember the noun and its forms, and also to give you some useful short expressions. VOCABULARY Masculine (Firinscneach) cíos (kees), an chíosa, na cíosanna; rent, of the rent, the rents; ag bailiú an chíosa, collecting the rent. gleann (gloun), an ghleanna (un YLAN-uh), na gleannta (nuh GLOUN-tuh); glen, of the glen, the glens. (The genitive of this word is pronounced like a shortened version of un yuh-LAN-uh. Run the “yuh” and “LAN” together after a few trials of pronouncing it (un yuh-LAN-uh). ciúnas an ghleanna (KYOO-nuhs un YLAN-uh), the quiet of the glen. rang (rahng), an ranga, na ranganna; class, of the class, the classes; baill an ranga (beyel un RAHNG-uh), members of the class. éisteoir (ay*sh-TYOH-ir), an t-éisteoir, an éisteora, na héisteoirí; listener, the listener, of the listener, the listeners. ceist an éisteora (kesht un ay*sh-TYOH-ruh), the listener’s question. dath (dah), an dath, an datha (DAH-huh), na dathanna (nuh DAH-huh-nuh); color, the color, of the color, the colors. ag toghadh an datha (uh TOH-uh), selecting the color. cith (ki), an cith, an cheatha (un HYA-huh), na ceathanna (nuh KA-uh-nuh); shower, the shower, of the shower, the showers. níl ann ach cith, it’s only a shower; an tuar ceatha (TOO-uhr), the rainbow. droim (drim), an droma (DROHM-uh), na dromanna; back, of the back, the backs. tinneas droma; backache. ceoltóir, an cealtóir (kyohl-TOH-ir), an cheoltóra, na ceoltóirí; musician, the musician, of the musician, the musicians. uirlis an cheoltóra (IR-lish un hyohl-TOH-ruh); the musician’s instrument. crios (kris), an crios, an chreasa (un HYRAS-uh), na criosanna; belt, the belt, of the belt, the belts. ag lorg mo chreasa (uh LOHR-uhg muh HYRAS-uh); looking for my belt. bláth, an bláth (blaw*), an bhlátha (un VLAW*-uh) na bláthanna (nuh BLAW*-uh-nuh); flower, the flower, of the flower, the flowers. áilleacht an bhlátha (AW*-il-ahk*t un VLAW*-uh); the flower’s beauty. scáth, an scáth (skaw*), an scátha (un SKAW*-uh), na scáthanna (nuh SKAW*-uh-nuh); shadow, the shadow, of the shadow, the shadows. in aice an scátha ( in A-ke); next to the shadow. bainisteoir bwin-ish-TYOH-ir), an bainisteoir, an bhainisteora (un vwin-ish-TYOH-ruh), na bainisteoirí; manager, etc. oifig an bhainisteora (IF-ig); the manager’s office. Feminine (Baininscneach) altóir (ahl-TOH-ir), an altóir, na haltóra, na haltóirí; altar, etc. os comhair na haltóra (ohs KOH-ir); in front of the altar. mil, an mhil, (mil, un VIL), na meala (nuh MAL-uh); honey, etc. mí na meala (mee); month of honey, or “honeymoon”. iarracht, an iarracht (EER-ahk*t), na hiarrachta, na hiarrachtaí (nuh HEER-ahk*t-ee); attempt, try. ag déanamh na hiarrachta (uh DAY*N-uhv nuh HEER-ahk*t-uh); making the attempt. casacht, an chasacht (KAHS-uhk*t, un K*AHS-uhk*t-uh), na casachta; cough, the cough, of the cough ( no plural). ag leigheas na casachta (uh LEYE-uhs); curing the cough. fuil, an fhuil (fwil un IL), na fola, na fola (nuh FOHL-uh); blood, etc. Domhnach na Fola (DOH-nahk* nuh FOHL-uh); Bloody Sunday. VERBS scríobh, ag scríobh (shkreev), write; scríobhann sé, he writes; scríobhaidh sé (SHKREEF-hee shay*), he will write. teip, ag teip (tep), fail; teipeann sé, he fails; teipfidh sé (TEP-hee), he will fail. mol, ag moladh (muhl, uh MUHL-uh), praise; molann sé, he praises; molfaidh sé (MUHL-hee), he will praise. CONVERSATION Aodán (AY*-daw*n): Dia dhuit, a Aisling (ASH-ling). Aisling: Dia’s Muire dhuit, a Aodáin (AY*-daw*-in). Conas tá tú inniu? Aodán: Tá biseach orm inniu. Bhí tinneas droma orm le tamall anois. (I’m getting better today. I had a backache for a while now) Aisling: Bhí casacht orm ón Domhnach. Chuaigh mé go oifig an bhainisteora sa cheap árasán chun an cíos a íoc, agus ansin shiúil mé trí na gleannta. Chonaic mé áilleacht na mbláthanna sa ghleann, lena ndathanna. (I had a cough since Sunday. I went to the manager’s office in the apartment house to pay the rent, and then I walked through the glens. I saw the beauty of the flowers in the glen, with their colors.) Aodán: Caithfidh mé (KAH-hee may*) iarracht eile a dhéanamh chun dul ann amárach tar éis mo ranga. Anois, feicim na ceolteoirí ag gabháil

siar an bóthar (uh guh-VWAW*-il SHEE-uhr un BOH-uhr), á n-ullmhú don chéilí, is dócha (aw* NUL-vwoo dohn HYAY*-lee is DOHK*-uh). ( I must try again to go there tomorrow after my class. Now, I see the musicians going west along the road, getting themselves ready for the céilí, probably.) Aisling: Mhol gach éisteoir iad an tseachtain seo caite. Bhí siad go hiontach (HOON-tuhk*). (Every listener praised them last week. They were wonderful.)

Lesson 97 THIRD DECLENSION NOUNS AND PRACTICE Remember that in this group of nouns, the genitive singular ends in “-a.” Plurals form in various ways, so that each noun must be learned separately. VOCABULARY Masculine (firinscneach) Nouns rás (raw*s), an rás, an rása, na rásaí; race, the race, of the race, the races. anam (AH-nuhm), an t-anam, an anama (AH-nuh-muh), na hanamacha (HAH-nuh-mahk*-uh); soul, etc. conradh (KOHN-ruh), an conradh, an chonartha (K*OHN-uhr-huh), na conarthaí (KOHN-uhr-hee),; contract, etc. This word also means “league”, and Conradh na Gaeilge is “The Gaelic League”; ag síniú an chonartha (SHEEN-yoo); signing the contract. feirmeoir (fer-im-OH-ir), an feirmeoir, an fheirmeora, na feirmeoirí; farmer, etc. Feminine (bainiscneach) Nouns filíocht, (FIL-ee-ohk*t), an fhilíocht, na filíochta, (no plural); poetry, etc.; ag foghlaim filíochta, learning poetry. tabhacht (TOU-uhk*t), an tabhacht, na tabhachta, (no plural); importance, etc. milseacht (MIL-shahk*t), an mhilseacht (VIL-shahk*t), na milseachta, (no plural); sweetness; ag blaiseadh na milseachta (BLASH-uh), tasting the sweetness. áilleacht (AW*-il-ahk*t), an áilleacht, na háilleachta, (no plural); beauty, etc.; ag moladh a háilleachta, praising her beauty; caighdeán na háilleachta (keye-DAW*N), the standard of beauty. bochtaineacht (BOHK*T-in-ahk*t), an bhochtaineacht, na bochtaineachta, (no plural); poverty, etc.; ualach na bochtaineachta (OO-uh-lahk*), the burden of poverty. cráifeacht (KRAW*-fahk*t), an chráifeacht, na cráifeachta, (no plural); piety, devotion; ag cleachtadh cráifeachta ((KLAK*-tuh), practicing piety. VERBS lean, ag leanúint (lan-OO-int), follow; leanann sé, he follows; leanfaidh sé (LAN-hee), he will follow; ag leanúint an bhainisteora, following the manager. ordaigh (OHR-dee), ag ordú, order; ordaíonn sé (ohr-DEE-uhn), he orders; ordóidh sé (ohr-DOH-ee), he will order; d’ordaigh sé leabhar dom, he ordered a book for me. réitigh (RAY*-tee), ag réiteach (uh RAY*-tyahk*), solve; réitíonn sé (ray*-TEE-uhn), he solves; réiteoidh sé (ray*-TYOH-ee), he will solve; ag réiteach na faidhbe (FEYE-be), solving the problem. (réitigh also means “smooth out,” “unravel,” “set in order;” réitigh sé an teach, he set the house in order; réiteoidh mé an bord, I will set the table). COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS WITH THE GENITIVE i lár (i LAW*R), in the middle of; i lár an tseomra (TOHM-ruh), in the middle of the room. i rith (i RI), during; i rith an cheachta (HYAHK*T-uh), during the lesson. ADJECTIVES beo (byoh), alive marbh (MAHR-ruhv), dead Adjectives derived from some of the words in this lesson are: tábhachtach (TOU-uhk*-tuhk*), important; níos tábhachttaí (nees TOU-uhk*-tee), more important. anamúil (AH-nuh-MOO-il), lively, spirited; níos anamúla, livelier. cráifeach (KRAW*-fahk*), devout; níos cráifí (KRAW*-fee), more devout. By pacing prefixes in front of adjectives, the meaning of the adjective can be changed, as in English. The prefix “mí-” is an example. It is equivalent to “un-” or “dis-” in English. Examples: macánta (mah-KAW*N-tuh), honest, becomes, mímhacánta (mee-vuh-KAW*N-tuh), dishonest. compordach becomes míchompordach (mee-k*ohm-POHR-dahk*), uncomfortable. sásta; míshásta (mee-HAW*S-tuh); satisfied, dissatisfied. dílis; mídhílis (mee-YEE-lish); loyal, disloyal. “Mí” always causes aspiration of a consonant, if the consonant can be aspirated. “Mí” cannot be added to every adjective. For example: “daor” (day*r), expensive, and “saor” (say*r), cheap or free, are opposites, but “mí” cannot be added to either. CONVERSATION (COMHRÁ) Deirdre (DIR-dre): Dia dhuit, A Fheilim. Feilim (FEL-im): Dia’s Muire dhuit, a Dheirdre (YIR-dre). Cé’n chaoi (KAY*-hee) bhfuil tú inniu? Deirdre: Tá mé go maith anois. Agus conas tá tú féin?

Feilim: Níos fearr ná a bhí mé inné. Beagnach marbh (BYUHG-nahk* MAHR-ruhv) a bhí mé, le slaghdán (sleye-DAW*N). Bhí fiabhras (FEEvruhs) orm, freisin, agus d’fhan mé sa leaba ó mhaidin go tráthnóna. Deirdre: Ar cuireadh fios ar an dochtúir? Feilim: Cuireadh, go cinnte. D’ordaigh sé mé fanúint sa leaba. Deirdre: Ar tháinig sé go dtí do theach, mar sin (HAW*-nig)? Feilim: Níor tháinig. Labhair mé leis ar an guthán, agus tá orm bheith sásta leis sin. Translation: Deirdre: Hello, Feilim. Feilim: Hello, Deirdre. How are you today? Deirdre: I am well now. And how are you? Feilim: Better than I was yesterday. Nearly dead I was, with a cold. I had a temperature (fever), too, and I stayed in bed from morning to evening. Deirdre: Was the doctor sent for? Feilim: He was, certainly. He ordered me to stay in bed. Deirdre: Did he come to your house, then? Feilim: He didn’t. I spoke with him on the phone, and I have to be satisfied with that.

Lesson 98 THE FOURTH DECLENSION OF NOUNS This group of nouns is the simplest in one respect: the genitive or possessive form is the same as the basic or nominative form. An example: bosca (BOHSK-uh), an bosca, an bhosca, na boscaí (BOHSK-ee); box, the box, of the box, the boxes. The word bosca is masculine. A feminine noun of this declension is banaltra (BAHN-uhl-truh), an bhanaltra, na banaltra, na banaltraí (nuh BAHN-uhl-tree); nurse, the nurse, of the nurse, the nurses. There are several plural endings in this declension. One common one is an “-í” (ee) added to nouns ending in “-a” Examples: Masculine babhta (BOU-tuh), an babhta, an bhabhta (VWOU-tuh), na babhtaí; bout, etc. cárta (KAW*R-tuh), an cárta, an chárta, na cártaí; card, etc. fógra (FOHG-ruh), an fógra, an fhógra (OHG-ruh), na fógraí; notice, advertisement, etc. Feminine bearna (BAR-nuh), an bhearna (VAR-nuh), na bearna, na bearnaí; gap, blank space in a questionnaire, etc. eala (AH-luh), an eala, na heala, na healaí; swan, etc. mala (MAHL-uh), an mhala (VWAHL-uh), na mala, na malaí; eyebrow, etc. Not all fourth-declension nouns ending in “-a” form their plural in this way. Another way: Most masculine fourth-declension nouns ending in “-ín” (een) add “-í” for the plural. Examples: cailín, an cailín, an chailín, na cailíní; girl, etc. toitín (ti-TYEEN), an toitín, an toitín, na toitíní; cigarette, etc. gairdín (gahr-DEEN), an gairdín, an ghairdín, na gairdíní; garden, etc. Here are some phrases that contain some fourth-declension nouns in various forms: ar eagla na heagla (ah-gluh); in fear of fear, meaning “just in case, to be on the safe side.” lá an dreoilín (droh-LEEN); wren day. duine na dúiche (DOO-i-he); a person of the district. ar shlí na firinne (er hlee nuh FEER-in-ye); (literally: on the way of the truth), gone to eternal reward, dead. VOCABULARY OF FOURTH DECLENSION NOUNS Masculine (firinscneach) hata (HAH-tuh), an hata, an hata, na hataí; hat, etc. páiste (PAW*SH-te), an páiste, an pháiste (FAW*SH-te), na páistí; child, etc. práta (PRAW*-tuh), an práta, an phráta, na prátaí; potato, etc. nia (NEE-uh), an nia, an nia, na nianna; nephew, etc. seomra, an seomra, an tseomra, na seomraí; room, etc. cóta, an cóta, an chóta, na cótaí; coat, etc. céilí (KAY*-lee), an céilí, an chéilí, na céilithe (KAY*-li-he); dance, etc. balla (BAHL-uh), an balla, an bhalla (VWAHL-uh), na ballaí; wall, etc. gloine (GLIN-e), an gloine, na ghloine, na gloiní; glass, etc. gúna (GOON-uh), an gúna, an ghúna, na gúnaí; dress, etc. Feminine (baininscneach) bá (BAW*), an bhá (VWAW*), na bá, na bánna; bay, etc. eorna (OHR-nuh), an eorna, na heorna, (no plural); barley, etc. oíche (EE-he), an oíche, na hoíche, na hoícheanta (HEE-huhn-tuh); night, etc. léine (LAY*-ne), an léine, na léine, na léinte; shirt, etc. saoirse (SEER-she), an tsaoirse (un TEER-she), na saoirse, (no plural); freedom, etc. ADJECTIVES álainn (AW*-lin) is “beautiful”, but dathúil (dah-HOO-il) is “handsome:, na madraí dathúla (MAH-dree dah-HOO-luh), the handsome dogs. Is dathúla Seán ná Brían; Seán is handsomer than Brian. oiriúnach (ir-OON-ahk*), suitable. Seomra oiriúnach, seomraí oiriúnacha; a suitable room, suitable rooms. Tá Gráinne níos oiriúnaí don phost ná Treasa (GRAW*N-ye; ir-OON-ee; fohst; TRAS-uh); Gráinne is more suitable for the job than is Treasa. clúiteach (KLOO-tyahk*), famous; filí clúiteacha, famous poets. Is clúití Gráinne ná Eilís; Gráinne is more famous than Eilís. ceomhar (KYOH-wuhr), foggy; ceomhaire, foggier deonach (DYOHN-ahk*), voluntary, volunteer; oibritheoir deonach (ib-ri-HOH-ir), a volunteer worker. A Volunteer in the Irish Republican Army is óglach (OHG-lahk*), an t-Óglach, an Óglaigh (OHG-lee), na hÓglaigh; Volunteer, the Volunteer, of the Volunteer, the Volunteers.

Sean-Óglach is a former or veteran Volunteer. DICTIONARIES By now, you have enough Irish grammar to need many more words than these lessons can give you. You are also meeting new Irish words and forms of speech that you have not seen in these lessons. Dictionaries, grammars, and manuals will be helpful to you now. Here are some of the materials available: Foclóirí (foh-KLOH-ir-ee) Foclóir Gaeilge-Béarla (Irish-English dictionary), ed. Niall Ó Dónaill. This is the largest and most modern one. It superseded that of an t-Athair Ó Duinnín (Dineen’s dictionary). English-Irish Dictionary, ed. Tomás de Bhaldraithe. This is the leading one, offering many examples of good style and alternative expressions. The book requires patience and care by the beginner, because of its comprehensiveness. There are smaller dictionaries, too. The Learner’s Irish-English and English-Irish Dictionaries are examples. The two have been bound together into a single small volume printed by Talbot Press. Simple grammars include the familiar Progress in Irish. For those who have finished this, the Réchúrsa Gramadaí, by Brian Mac Giolla Phádraig, is a next step. It is almost entirely in Irish, and it has countless examples of usage, extensive word lists, and paradigms or form changes for verbs and nouns. Anois is Arís is a language manual and practice book for the RTÉ language programs on television in Ireland. The authors, Donall Ó Baoill and Éamon Ó Tuathail, have oriented the program and book toward situations, and you will be able to understand and benefit from the book,

Lesson 99 PRACTICE WITH FOURTH DECLENSION NOUNS Although the fourth declension does not include as many nouns as the first declension, its nouns are ones frequently heard and seen. This lesson gives you some of them. In most of the list, only the basic singular and plural forms are offered. For ainmfhocail fhirinscneacha (AN-im-OH-kil IR-inshk-nahk*-uh), or masculine nouns, remember that the genitive or possessive case has an aspirated first consonant (except for “d” and “t,” which are unchanged, and “s,” whose sound is replaced by “t,” prefixed to the word). Examples of the exceptions are: Lá an Dreoilín, Wren Day; blas an tae, taste of the tea; i lár an tseomra (i law*r uh TOHM-ruh), in the middle of the room. Ainmfhocail fhirinscneacha caipín, (KAH-peen), an caipín, na caipíní; cap, etc. fáinne (FAW*N-ye), na fáinní (FAW*N-yee); ring, the rings. madra (MAH-druh), na madraí (MAH-dree); dog, the dogs. siopa (SHOHP-uh), na siopaí; store, the stores. ainm (AN-im), an t-ainm, an ainm, na hainmneacha (HAN-im-NAHK*-uh); name, the name, of the name, the names. uisce (ISH-ke), na huiscí; water, the waters. mála (MAW*-luh), na málaí; bag, the bags. garáiste (guh-RAW*SH-te), na garáistí; garage, the garages. geata (GA-tuh), na geataí; gate, the gates. pláta (PLAW*-tuh), na plátaí; plate, the plates. céirnín (kay*r-NEEN), na céirníní; record, the records (for music). báisín (baw*-SHEEN), na báisíní; basin, the basins. píosa (PEES-uh), na píosaí; piece, the pieces. bóna (BOH-nuh), na bónaí; collar, the collars. dáta (DAW*-tuh), na dátaí; date, the dates (calendar term). stoca (STOHK-uh), na stocaí; stocking, the stockings. seomra (SHOHM-ruh), na seomraí; room, the rooms. damhsa (DOU-suh), na damhsaí; dance, the dances. rince (RINK-e), na rincí; dance, the dances. císte (KEESH-te), na cístí; cake, the cakes. péire (PAY*R-e), na péirí; pair, the pairs. sneachta (SHNAHK*-tuh), an sneachta, na tsneachta (TNAHK*-tuh), (no plural); snow, the snow, of the snow. tae, an tae, an tae, (no plural); tea, the tea, of the tea. béile (BAY*L-uh), na béilí; meal, the meals. ceapaire (KYAP-uh-re), na ceapairí; sandwich, the sandwiches. staighre (STEYE-re), an staighre, an staighre, na staighrí; stair, the stair, of the stair, the stairs. The singular form is generally employed. In the genitive, the “t” sound does not replace the “s”, because the combination of “tst” could not be pronounced easily. bríste (BREESH-te), na brístí; trousers, the trousers. The singular form means a pair of trousers in English. caife (KAH-fe), (no plural); coffee. duine (DIN-e), na daoine (DEEN-e); person, the person or people. contae (KOHN-tay*), na contaetha (KOHN-tay*-huh); county, the counties. rúnaí (ROON-hee), na rúnaithe (ROON-i-he); secretary, the secretaries. rothaí (ROH-hee), na rothaithe (ROH-hi-he); cyclist, the cyclists. tiománaí (ti-MAW*-nee), na tiománaithe (ti-MAW*-ni-he); driver, the drivers. Ainmfhocail bhaininscneacha (feminine nouns) In these, the genitive or possessive case is preceded by “na” for “the”, and an “h” is prefixed to a noun beginning with a vowel in the genitive case. líne (LEEN-uh), an líne, na líne, na línte; line, the line, of the line, the lines. féile (FAY*-le), fhéile (AY*-le), na féile, na féiltí; feastday, the feastday, of the feastday, the feastdays. éide (AY*-de), na héidí; uniform, the uniforms. tine (TIN-e), na tinte; fire, the fires (in fireplace or hearth). táille (TAW*-il-ye), na táillí; fee, toll, the fees, the tolls. timpiste (TIM-pish-te), na timpistí; accident, the accidents. rogha (ROU-uh), na roghanna (ROU-uh-nuh); choice, the choices. fírinne (FEER-in-ye), na fírinní (FEER-in-yee); truth, the truths. eagla (AH-gluh), no plural); fear. beatha (BA-huh), na beathaí (BA-hee); life. saoire (SEE-i-re), an tsaoire (TEE-i-re), na saoire, (no plural); vacation, the vacation, of the vacation. farraige (FAH-rig-e), na farraigí; sea, the seas. teanga (TANG-uh), na teangacha (TANG-uh-huh); tongue, the tongues, also language, the languages. coinne (KIN-ye), na coinní; appointment, the appointment. Cuir Gaeilge orthu seo: The ring’s color. Washing their dogs. Drinking the water. Above the other bag. Throwing the cap in the air. Washing his dog. Writing the names. Next to the garage. Her ring’s color. The storekeeper (man of the store). A storekeeper. Above the line. Next to the fire. Paying his fees. Making my choice. After that feastday. During their vacation. The day of my appointment. Mak-

ing those appointments. Buying the uniform. Buying her uniform. Key: dath an fháinne. Ag ní a madraí. Ag ól an uisce. Os cionn an mhála eile. Ag caitheamh an chaipín san aer. Ag ní a mhadra. Ag scríobh na nainmneacha. In aice an gháraiste. Dath a fáinne. Fear an tsiopa (TYOH-puh), Fear siopa. Os cionn na líne. In aice na tine. Ag íoc a bháillí. Ag déanamh mo rogha. Tar éis an fhéile sin. Le linn a saoire. Lá mo choinne. Ag déanamh na gcoinní sin. Ag ceannach a éide. Ag ceannach a héide.

Lesson 100 PRACTICE WITH FOURTH DECLENSION NOUNS In this declension, the genitive (possessive) form has the same ending as the basic form. Plurals of the nouns form in several ways, so that you must learn them noun by noun. Review of changes in the noun in the singular. First masculine nouns: aoí (ee), an t-aoí, an aoí, na haíonna (HEE-uh-nuh); guest, the guest, of the guest, the guests. The word begins with a vowel, “a” here, so a “t” precedes it in “the guest”. Because the noun starts with a vowel, the genitive has no letter prefixed. Phrases with the word “aoí”: Is aoí í; she is a guest. D’imigh an t-aoí; the guest left. Cá bhfuil (vwil) seomra an aoí?; where is the guest’s room? Íosfaidh (EES-hee) na haíonna; the guests will eat. Ghlan siad seomra na n-aíonna; they cleaned the guest room. Coiste (KISH-te), an coiste, an choiste (K*ISH-te), na coistí; committee, the committee, of the committee, the committees. In the genitive, the initial “c” becomes aspirated. Phrases with the word “coiste”: Chuir sé coiste ann; he put a committee there. Molann siad an coiste; they praised the committee. D’fhág (daw*g) mé bord an choiste amuigh (ah-MWEE); I left the committee’s table outside. Gheobhaidh (YOH-ee) sé na coistí; he will get the committees. Ag míniú (MEEN-yoo) na gcoistí; explaining the committees. In the genitive plural, eclipsis occurs after “na”, so a “g” sound replaces the “c” sound here. seic (shek), an seic, an tseic (tek), na seiceanna; check, the check, of the check, the checks (banking term). In the genitive singular, a “t” sound replaces (eclipses) the “s” sound. Phrases with the word “seic”: Fuair mé seic eile; I got another check. Scríobhaidh (SHKREEF-hee) sé an seic; he will write the check. Ag bailiú (BAHL-yoo) an tseic; collecting the check. Chuir sé na seiceanna sa bhanc; he put the checks in the bank. Ag milleadh (MIL-uh) na seiceanna; destroying the checks. If the masculine noun begins with sl, sn, or sr, the genitive singular prefixes a “t” sound after the word “an”, meaning “of the”. The “t” sound eclipses the sound of the “s”. Examples: sloinne (SLIN-ye), family name; lucht an tsloinne (TLIN-ye), people of the name. sneachta (SHNAHK*-tuh), snow; dath an tsneachta (TNAHK*-tuh), the snow’s color. sraithchíste (srah-HYEESH-te), layer cake; ag bácáil an tsraithchíste (uh baw*-KAW*-il un trah-HYEESH-te), baking the layer cake. If the masculine noun begins with sc, sm, or st, however, then the genitive singular stays unchanged, even after “an”, of the. Examples: scála (SKAW*-luh), scale; ar chúl an scála, behind the scale. smitín (smi-TYEEN), sharp blow, tap; i ndiaidh an smitín sin (in YEE-uhn smi-TYEEN shin), after that sharp blow. spóca (SPOH-kuh), spoke; ag gearradh an spóca (uh GYAHR-uhn SPOH-kuh), cutting the spoke. stábla (STAW*B-luh), stable; in aice an stábla (in AK-uhn STAW*B-luh), next to the stable. Reviewing feminine nouns in the fourth declension: ola (OH-luh), an ola, na hola, na holaí: oil, the oil, of the oil, the oils. The word begins with a vowel, “o” so an “h” is prefixed to it after “na,” of the. Phrases with the word “ola”: ceannóidh mé ola; I will buy oil. sheiceáil (hek-AW*-il) sé an ola; he checked the oil. in aice na hola; next to the oil. Chonaic (k*uh-NIK) siad na holaí; they saw the oils. Ag meascadh (MASK-uh) na n-olaí; mixing the oils. bá (baw*), an bhá (vwaw*), na bá, na bánna; bay, the bay, of the bay, the bays. Aspiration of the initial “b” occurs in the basic form after “an”, the, but not in the genitive singular. Phrases with the word “bá”.

feicim (FEK-im) bá; I see a bay. is í sin an bhá; that’s the bay. Ar thaobh (HAYV) eile na bá; on the other side of the bay. Bhí na bánna tanaí (TAH-nee); the bays were shallow. Os comhair (KOH-ir) na mbánna (MAW*-nuh); in front of the bays. Phrases with the word “slí”: slí (shlee), an tslí (tlee), na slí, na slite (SHLI-te); way (road), the way, of the way, the ways. Fuaireamar slí; we found a way. Tar an tslí seo; come this way. Ag fáil na slí; finding the way. Tá na slite dorcha (DUHR-uh-huh); the roads are dark. Ag foghlaim na slite; learning the roads. Feminine nouns beginning with sn or sr also have a “t” that eclipses the initial “s” in the basic form: sní (shnee), an tsní (tuh-NEE), na sní, (no plural); flow or pouring. sruthlíne (sru-LEEN-e), an tsruthlíne (tru-LEEN-e), na sruthlíne, na sruthlínte; streamline, etc. Feminine nouns beginning with sc, sm, or st do not undergo this eclipsis: scige, an scige (SHKIG-e); mockery, the mockery. smearaithne, an smearaithne (smar-AN-uh); slight acquaintance, etc. spleá, an spleá (splaw*); dependence, the dependence. státchairde, an státchairde (staw*t-K*AHRD-e); moratorium, etc.

Lesson 101 REVIEW OF NOUN GROUPS Here is a short review of noun groups (declensions) before we explain how to express conditions - sentences with “if” or “if not” in them. 1st declension (most numerous). Masculine, end in a broad consonant (one that follows “a”, “o” or “u”. All form the genitive singular by slenderizing the last consonant. Most form the basic plural in that way, too, and for nearly all those the genitive plural is the same as the basic singular form. Example: an bád (baw*d), boat; an bháid, of the boat; na báid, the boats; na mbád, of the boats. 2nd declension (second most numerous). Feminine and ending in either a broad or slender consonant. The genitive singular ends in “e” or “i”. There are various ways of forming the plural. Example: an bhróg, the shoe; na bróige, of the shoe; na bróga, the shoes; na mbróg, of the shoes. 3rd declension. Masculine and feminine. For all, the genitive singular ends in “a”. There are various ways of forming the plural. This declension includes many occupations, all with plural ending in “í”. Example: an dochtúir, the doctor; an dochtúra, of the doctor; na dochtúirí, the doctors; na ndochtúirí, of the doctors. 4th declension. Masculine and feminine. For all, the genitive singular is the same as the basic form. There are various ways of forming the plural. Example: an bhá, the bay; na bá, of the bay; na bánna, the bays; na mbánna, of the bays. A few other nouns, some important, are grouped together in a 5th declension that has several distinct ways of forming the genitive and plural. Finally, there are a dozen or so of irregular nouns not fitting into any declension. You already know some forms for most of them. “IF” SENTENCES (THE CONDITIONAL) In English, the sentences “ If it is here, she is glad”, and “If it is not here, she is sad” tell us that whenever a certain pre-condition exists, a result follows. The word “when” could replace “if” in the sentences, because the pre-condition is entirely possible and can easily happen. In Irish, these two sentences become: Má tá sé anseo, tá áthas uirthi (IR-ee). Mura bhfuil sé anseo, tá brón uirthi. Memorize these two sentences and their meaning. In the past, the sentences become: Má bhí sé anseo, bhí áthas uirthi; if it was here, she was glad. Mura raibh (rev) sé anseo, bhí brón uirthi; if it was not here, she was sad. In the future, the sentences become: Má bheidh (ve) sé anseo, beidh áthas uirthi; if it is here, she will be glad. Mura mbeidh (me) sé anseo, beidh brón uirthi; if it is not here, she will be sad. “Má” (maw*) causes aspiration in an initial aspirable consonant except with “tá” and “deir”. “Mura” (MUR-ruh) causes eclipsis, and the dependent form of the verb follows it, such as “raibh” and “???fuil???”. If the pre-condition is impossible or unlikely, the English sentences become: If it were here, she would be glad. If it were not here, she would be sad. “If” remains unchanged, but the verb form “is” changes to “were”, so that we will know that the pre-condition is impossible or unlikely. In Irish, too, the verb form changes, and the word for “if” also changes - to “dá” (daw*). Memorize these two sentences and their meaning: Dá mbeadh sé anseo, bheadh áthas uirthi (daw* me-YUHK* shay un-SHUH ve-YUHK* AW*-huhs IR-ee); if it were here, she would be glad. Mura mbeadh (MUR-ruh me-YUHK*) sé anseo, bheadh brón uirthi; if it were not here, she would be sad. Unlike English, the same verb form serves all tenses in Irish. To indicate that the unlikely condition was in the past or will be the future, words must be added. For example: English “If it had been here, she would have been glad” is “Dá mbeadh sé anseo inné, bheadh áthas uirthi”. Remember to add a word or phrase indicating the past or future in these “if” sentences. Examples of such words or phrases: inné, yesterday; ansin, then; anuraidh (uh-NOOR-ee), last year; amárach, tomorrow; an bhlian seo chugainn (un VLEE-in shuh HOO-in), next year. There are forms in addition to “bheadh”, such as “bhéfeá” (VE-faw*), meaning “you would be”, but in this lesson we will practice solely with “bheadh”, in the third singular person, “he” or “”she” or “it”. Read these sentences out loud and get their meaning: Dá mbeadh sí anseo, bheadh airgead (AR-i-guhd) agam. Mura mbeadh Seán sa bhaile, bheadh an múinteoir anseo. Bheadh Máire san oifig inné, dá mbeadh an aimsir (EYEM-sheer) go maith. Bheadh an bus mall amárach, mura mbeadh an bóthar oscailte. Key: If she were here, I would have money. If Seán weren’t at home, the teacher would be here. Máire would have been in the office yesterday, if the weather had been good. The bus would be late tomorrow if the road should not be open (or: isn’t open, in more usual speech). Note that the “dá”, (if) part, can be first or second in order. Other forms of “bheadh” are: Ní bheadh sé; it wouldn’t be

An mbeadh sé?; would it be? Nach mbeadh sé?; wouldn’t it be? Practice with these sentences, going from Irish to English and then from English to Irish again: Dá mbeadh an bord sa chistin, ní bheadh aon rud eile ann. Bá mbeadh carr agat, an mbeadh eagla ort? Mura mbeadh sí ag foghlaim (FOU-lim) na Gaeilge, nach mbeadh sí sa bhaile anocht? Ní bheadh Séamas ag an doras, mura mbeadh an aimsir chomh dona seo. An mbeadh na doirse oscailte anocht, dá mbeadh na páistí ann? Key: If the table were in the kitchen, nothing else would be there. If you had a car, would you be afraid? If she weren’t studying Irish, wouldn’t she be home tonight? Séamas wouldn’t be at the door, if the weather weren’t this bad. Would the doors be open tonight, if the children were there?

Lesson 102 “IF” SENTENCES WITH “dá” and “mura” There are other forms for “tá” in addition to: bheadh sé (ve-YUHK* shay*); he would be ní bheadh sé (nee ve-YUHK* shay*); he wouldn’t be an mbeadh sé? (un me-YUHK* shay*); would he be? nach mbeadh sé? (nahk* me-YUHK* shay*); wouldn’t he be? dá mbeadh sé (daw* me-YUHK* shay*); if he were mura mbeadh sé (MUR-ruh me-YUHK* shay*); if he weren’t These other forms are for “you”, “they”, “I”, and so on. Learn these first for “I would be, you would be”, etc. bheinn (ven); I would be bheifeá (VE-faw*); you would be bheadh sé (ve-YUHK* shay*); he would be bheadh sí (ve-YUHK* shee); she would be bheimis (VE-mish); we would be bheadh sibh (ve-YUHK* shiv); you (plural) would be bheidís (VE-deesh); they would be bheifí (VE-fee); people would be For the negative: Ní bheinn (nee ven); I would not be, etc. For questions: An mbeinn? (un men); Would I be?, etc. Negative questions: nach mbeinn? (nahk* men); wouldn’t I be?, etc. For “if”; Dá mbeinn (daw* men); If I were, etc. For “if not”: Mura mbeinn (MUR-ruh men); If I weren’t, etc. Go through each of the six series here out loud several times before reading any of the practice sentences. Review the conditional with “tá”: Bheinn in Éirinn, dá mbeadh m’athair ann (ven in AY*R-in daw* me-YUHK* MAH-ir oun). Dá mbeifeá tinn, bheadh imní orm (daw* VE-faw* tin, ve-YUHK* IM-nee OH-ruhm). Mura mbeimis sa cathair, an mbeidís leatsa? (MUR-ruh ME-mish suh K*AH-hir, an ME-deesh LAT-suh). Ní bheidís (nee VE-deesh). Nach mbeadh Séamas agus Nóra ag baile, dá mbeadh sibh ag teacht isteach anocht? Dá mbeadh Brian ag dul abhaile anuraidh, an mbeifeá cois farraige? (uh-NOOR-ee; kish FAH-rig-e). Ní bheinn. Key: I would be in Ireland, if my father were there. If you were sick, I would be worried. If we weren’t in the city, would they be with you? They would be. Wouldn’t Séamas and Nóra be at home, if you were coming in tonight? If Brian had been going home last year, would you have been at the seashore? I wouldn’t have been. REPETITIVE DRILL WITH THE CONDITIONAL Go through a repetitive drill, aloud of course, for the conditional: An mbeinn anseo, mura mbeadh Seán sa bhaile? Ní bheinn anseo, mura mbeadh Seán sa bhaile. Bheifeá anseo, mura mbeadh Seán sa bhaile. An mbeifeá anseo, mura mbeadh Seán sa bhaile? Ní bheifeá anseo, mura mbeadh Seán sa bhaile. Bheidh sé anseo, mura mbeadh Seán sa bhaile. Continue with sí, bheimis, bheadh sibh, and bheidís. The last sentence will be: Bheinn anseo, mura mbeadh Seán sa bhaile. ANOTHER REPETITIVE DRILL Nach mbeinn i gCorcaigh, dá mbeadh airgead agam? Ní bheinn i gCorcaigh, dá mbeadh airgead agam. Bheifeá i gCorcaigh, dá mbeadh airgead agam. Nach bheifeá i gCorcaigh, dá mbeadh airgead agam? Continue with sé, sí, bheimis, bheadh sibh, and bheidís. The last sentence will be: Bheinn i gCorcaigh, dá mbeadh airgead agam. INSINT NEAMHDHIREACH (IN-shint nyav-yi-RAHK*); indirect speech “Go mbeadh” and “nach mbeadh” are typical forms. Read these sentences aloud and picture their meaning.

Deir Cormac go mbeadh áthas air, dá mbeadh biseach ar a mhadra (AW*-huhs; BI-shahk*). Deirim leat nach mbeinn ar an mbád mura mbeidís ann. Dúirt Máire liom go mbeadh sí ar an eitleán roimh a trí a chlog san iarnóin, dá mbeadh cead aici imeacht (ET-i-law*n; eer-NOH-in). Key: Cormac says that he would be happy if his dog were feeling better. I tell you that I wouldn’t be on the boat if they weren’t there. Máire told me that she would be on the airplane before three o’clock in the afternoon, if she had permission to leave. Another purpose of the conditional in indirect speech in the past tense is to indicate that the speaker was talking about the future. An example: Dúirt mé léi go mbeidh Éamonn i Nua Eabhrac ar ball (DOO-irt may* lay* goh me-YUHK* AY*-muhn i NOO-uh OU-ruhk er boul); I told her that Éamonn would be in New York presently. This means that the speaker’s actual words to “her” were: Éamonn will be in New York presently. Sometimes you must be careful in wording when telling what someone said would happen in the future. An example of this: Suppose that Nóra has said to Síle (SHEE-luh); Beimid i nGaillimh i gceann tamaill; We will be in Galway in a little while. At the present time, Nóra should say: Dúirt mé le Síle go mbeimis i nGaillimh i gceann tamaill. If Síle were speaking at the present time, however, she would say: Dúirt sí liom go mbeadh mise agus sise i nGaillimh i gceann tamaill, or: Dúirt sí liom go mbeidís i nGaillimh i gceann tamaill; she told me that they would be in Galway in a little while. The choice would depend on whether Síle had been among the original “we”. (She might have been merely a friend to whom Nóra was telling that she (Nóra) and another friend would be in Galway.)

Lesson 103 CLEACHTADH (KLAK*-tuh); PRACTICE WITH “IF” SENTENCES Some of these sentences do not have two parts or clauses, but the meaning should be clear to you. Irish usage is fairly close to English in most situations calling for the conditional (an modh coinníollach). Mura mbeadh mo mhála ann, cén áit an mbeadh sé ann? Dúirt Ciaran liom go mbeadh biseach air féin. B’fhéidir nach mbeidís i Siceágó. B’fhéidir nach mbeidís i Siceágó, dá mbeimis ann rompu (ROHM-pu). Nach mbeadh sibh sásta, mura mbeinn ag obair amárach? D’fhiafraigh sé díom an mbeinn ag dul abhaile tar éis an cheachta (HYAHK*-tuh). Dúirt mé leis nach mbeinn ábalta bheith (AW*-buhl-tuh ve) in oifig an phoist roimh (rev) a naoi a chlog. Bheadh bróga nua agam, dá mbeadh am go leor (oum goh lohr) inniu chun iad a cheannach. Mura mbeifeá tar éis bheith breoite, bheadh Seán ábalta cuairt a thabhairt ort (KOO-ahrt uh HOO-irt OH-ruht) inné. Key: If my bag weren’t there, where would it be? Ciaran told me that he would get better. Perhaps they wouldn’t be in Chicago. Perhaps they wouldn’t be in Chicago, if we were there before them. Wouldn’t you-all be satisfied if I weren’t at work tomorrow? He asked me would I be going home after the lesson. I told him that I wouldn’t be able to be in the post office before nine o’clock. I would have new shoes if I had time enough today to buy them. If you weren’t after being sick (hadn’t been sick previously), Seán would have been able to visit you yesterday. Before beginning with the conditional forms for the other verbs beside “tá”, go through this practice for “tá”: Cuir Gaeilge ar: I would be. If she were. Wouldn’t they be? We would be. If you weren’t. You-all wouldn’t be. If I were. Would we be? If he had money. He wouldn’t have money. They would be afraid. If you weren’t afraid. Key: Bheinn. Dá mbeadh sí. Nach mbeidís? Bheimis. Mura mbeifeá. Ní bheadh sibh. Dá mbeinn. An mbeimis? Dá mbeadh airgead aige. Ní bheadh airgead aige. Bheadh eagla orthu. Mura mbeadh eagla ort. Remember that each one of the above sentences is usually accompanied by another one, such as in: I would be, if you were here. Or: If you were here, I would be. “IF” SENTENCES WITH REGULAR VERBS All verbs can express conditions. The rules are the same as for “tá”. With “má”, meaning “if”, and “mura”, meaning “if not”, the condition is one that is possible. An example: Má chuireann sé an nuachtán ar an staighre, feicim é (maw* K*IR-uhn shay* un NOO-uhk*taw*n er un STEYE-re FEK-im ay*); If he puts the newspaper on the stairs, I see it. The word “má” causes aspiration of the first consonant of the following verb, but “mura” causes eclipsis. An example: Mura gcuireann sé an nuachtán ar an staighre, ní fheicim é; If he doesn’t put the newspaper on the stairs, I don’t see it. Several examples with “má” and “mura” for regular verbs: Má bhriseann tú é, íocfaidh tú as; if you break it, you will pay for it. Má n-ól sé é, ní fhaca mé é; if he drank it, I didn’t see it. Mura rithimid abhaile, ní fheicfimid d’athair; if we don’t run home, we won’t see your father. Má deir sé é sin, creidim é; if he says that, I believe him. Note that “má” does not aspirate the “d” in “deir” and “dúirt”. It causes an “n” sound to precede a verb beginning with a vowel, “a, e, i, o, u”. With the second conjugation - verbs like “imigh” - the usage is similar. For example: Má n-imím ar a sé a chlog, feicim mo chara; if I depart at six o’clock, I see my friend. Mura mbailimid an bruscar, cuirimid sa chistin é; if we don’t collect the trash, we put it in the kitchen. “DÁ” and “MURA” WITH REGULAR VERBS When a condition is not possible, “dá” (or “mura”) with the modh coinníollach express the meaning. Learn these forms first: chuirfinn (K*IR-hin), I would put chuirfeá (K*IR-faw*), you would put chuirfeadh sé (K*IR-huhk* shay*), he would put

chuirfeadh sí (shee), she would put chuirfimis (K*IR-hi-mish), we would put chuirfeadh sibh (shiv), you-all would put chuirfidís (K*IR-hi-deesh), they would put chuirfí (K*IR-fee), people would put Note that the “f” in the forms is given its usual sound in only two cases, for “you would put” and for “people would put”. Learn these forms for “cas” now: chasfainn (K*AHS-hin), I would turn chasfá (K*AHS-faw*), you would turn chasfadh sé (K*AHS-huhk* shay*), he would turn chasfadh sí (K*AHS-huhk* shee), she would turn chasaimis (K*AHS-hi-mish), we would turn chasfadh sibh (shiv), you-all would turn chasfaidís (K*AHS-hi-deesh), they would turn chasfaí (K*AHS-fwee), people would turn Try these practice sentences now: Chasfainn anseo, dá mbeadh a fhios agam cá bhfuil sí. Mura mbeadh airgead aige, chuirfinn amach é. Key: I would turn here, if I knew where she was. If he didn’t have money, I would put him out.

Lesson 104 “DÁ” AND “MURA” WITH REGULAR VERBS (CONTINUED) Last week, the forms for “I would put, you would put, etc.,” were given. The negative, the question, the negative question, the “dá,” and the “mura” forms are similar, but the initial consonant may be eclipsed instead of aspirated. This resembles the change system for “tá.” First, for the negative: ní chuirfinn (K*IR-hin), I wouldn’t put ní chuirfeá· (K*IR-faw*), you wouldn’t put ní chuirfeadh sé (K*IR-huhk* shay*), he wouldn’t put ní chuirfeadh sí, she wouldn’t put ní chuirfimis (K*IR-hi-mish), we wouldn’t put ní chuirfeadh sibh, you-all wouldn’t put ní chuirfidís (K*IR-hi-deesh), they wouldn’t put ní chuirfí (K*IR-fee), people wouldn’t put For verbs ending in a broad consonant, “cas” is an example: ní chasfainn (K*AHS-hin), I wouldn’t turn ní chasfá (K*AHS-faw*), you wouldn’t turn ní chasfadh sé (K*AHS-huhk* shay*), he wouldn’t turn ní chasfadh sí, she wouldn’t turn ní chasfaimis (K*AHS-hi-mish), we wouldn’t turn ní chasfadh sibh, you-all wouldn’t turn ní chasfaidís (K*AHS-hi-deesh), they wouldn’t turn ní chasfaí (K*AHS-fwee), people wouldn’t turn Example: ní chasfaí anseo, mura mbeadh solas ar an mballa; people wouldn’t turn here, if there weren’t a light on the wall. For the questions, for “dá” and for “mura,” eclipsis occurs if the verb begins with a consonant that can be eclipsed. The simple questions are: an gcuirfinn? (GIR-hin), would I put? an gcuirfeá? (GIR-faw*), would you put? an gcuirfeadh sé? (GIR-huhk*), would he put? an gcuirfeadh sí?, would she put? an gcuirfimis? (GIR-hi-mish), would we put? an gcuirfeadh sibh?, would you-all put? an gcuirfidís? (GIR-hi-deesh), would they put? an gcuirfí? (GIR-fee), would people put? For the verb “cas”: an gcasfainn? (GAHS-hin), would I turn? an gcasfá? (GAHS-faw*), would you turn? an gcasfadh sé? (GAHS-huhk*), would he turn? an gcasfadh sí?, would she turn? an gcasfaimis? (GAHS-hi-mish), would we turn? an gcasfadh sibh?, would you-all turn? an gcasfaidís? (GAHS-hi-deesh), would they turn? an gcasfaí? (GAHS-fwee), would people turn? Example: An gcuirfeá an t-airgead sa bhanc, dá mbeadh am go leor agat?; Would you put the money in the bank, if you had (enough) time? The negative question is: Nach gcuirfinn? Nach gcuirfeá? Nach gcuirfeadh sé? Nach gcuirfeadh sí? Wouldn’t I put?, wouldn’t you put?, etc. Nach gcuirfimis? Nach gcuirfeadh sibh? Nach gcuirfidís? Nach gcuirfí? Wouldn’t we put?, wouldn’t you-all put? wouldn’t they put?, wouldn’t people put? For “cas,” the negative question is: Nach gcasfainn? Nach gcasfá? Nach gcasfadh sé? Nach gcasfaí? Wouldn’t I turn?, wouldn’t you turn?, wouldn’t he turn? wouldn’t people turn? “Dá” and “mura” also cause eclipsis: Dá gcuirfinn (daw* GIR-hin), if I should put, etc. Dá gcasfainn (daw* GAHS-hin), if I should turn, etc.

Mura gcuirfinn, if I were not to put, etc. Mura gcasfainn, if I were not to turn, etc. If the verb begins with a vowel, such as “a, e, i, o, u,” minor differences occur. Examples, with which you will become familiar during later exercises, are: D’ólfadh sé é (DOHL-huhk* shay* ay*), he would drink it. Nach n-ólfadh sé?, wouldn’t he drink? Dá n-ólfadh sé, if he were to drink. Mura nólfadh sé, if he weren’t to drink. If the verb begins with an “f,” a “d” precedes it in the declarative, which is the simplest form: D’fhágfainn é (DAW*K-hin ay*), I would leave it. D’fheicfeadh sé é (DEK-huhk* shay* ay*), he would see it. RECOGNITION DRILL FOR “IF” AND “IF NOT” SENTENCES Visualize the verb meaning and who the subject is (I, you, Ciaran, etc.) for these phrases: Má bhris sé é. Chreidfeá é. Mura n-ólfaidís (NOHL-hi-deesh) é. Dá bpógfainn (BOHK-hin) í. Mura mbeimid ann. Ní stadfadh (STAHT-huh) Séamas. An scuabfaidh (SKOOP-hee) sibh é? Nach líonfá é? Mura gcuireann Mairsile (MAHR-shil-e) sa chistin (HYISH-tin) é. Dá mbearrfaimis (MYAHR-hi-mish) sinn féin. Key: If he broke it. You would believe him. If they weren’t to drink it. If I were to kiss her. If we won’t be there. Séamas wouldn’t stop. Will you-all brush it? Wouldn’t you fill it? If Mairsile doesn’t put it in the kitchen. If we were to shave (ourselves). Each of the phrases is one-half of a complete condition and result, such as: Mura n-ólfaidís é, bheadh tart orthu; if they weren’t to drink it, they would be thirsty. Up to now, the many forms for the conditional have called for heavy repetitive drilling. The conditional form or mood is very important in Irish, however, and must be mastered if you are to be able to express yourself accurately, understand others, and get the meaning from what you read. You still need to learn the second conjugation’s conditional, and the conditional for “is” and for some of the irregular verbs. After that, there will be intensive conversations and reading exercises to help you become fluent in the modh coinníollach.

Lesson 105 PRONUNCIATION These lessons’ pronunciation of “-inn” at a word end was at first given as (ing) and then interspersed with (in). The pronunciation guide’s symbol for the sound is logically (ny), but because the beginner might be confused by this, the actual pronunciation has been deferred. Practice pronouncing (nnn-yuh) and then shorten the (yuh) until it nearly disappears. Practice with words: sinn, binn, linn, rinn, tinn. All are one-syllable words, each with a trace of the (yuh) at the end. Then try: seinn, thagainn, d’fheicinn. The sound is there even in “Sinn Féin,” pronounced slightly differently from “sin féin.” The lessons will still give (n) as pronunciation for “-inn” at word end, so you must remember to add the trace of (yuh). RECOGNITION DRILL WITH THE MODH COINNÍOLLACH Read these sentences aloud to get their sense and to visualize the subject (whether it is I, you, he, etc.): Cheapfá é sin, dá bhfeicféa a athair (daw* VEK-faw* uh A-hir). Ní dhéanfaimis (YAY*N-hi-mish) an obair, mura nglanfaí an garáiste ar dtús (MU-rung LUHN-fwee un guh-RAW*SH-te er doos). Dá ndíolfadh Diarmuid a bhád, ní fhanfadh a dheartháir (nee AHN-huhk* uh yri-HAW*-ir) anseo. Thitfinn (HIT-hin) san uisce, dá ngearrfá an téad (daw*ng YAHR-faw* un tay*d). Dá bhfágfadh (VWAW*K-huhk*) Máire a rothar (ROH-huhr) amuigh, nach ngoidfí é (nahk* uhng IT-fee ay*)? An ligfidís (LIK-hi-deesh) dom dul abhaile, mura mbeadh mo cheacht críochnaithe (muh hyahk*t KREE-uhk*-nuh-he)? Mura mbeidís anseo, ní chreidfinn tú (nee HYRET-hin too). Key: You would think that, if you were to see his father. We wouldn’t do the work, if the garage weren’t cleaned first. If Diarmuid were to sell his boat, his brother wouldn’t stay here. I would fall into the water if you were to cut the rope. If Maire were to leave her bicycle outside, wouldn’t it be stolen? Would they let me go home if my lesson weren’t finished? If they weren’t here, I wouldn’t believe you. Notice that there are two of the irregular verbs above: feic and déan. Both are regular in the modh coinníollach, however. DRILL WITH VERBS BEGINNING WITH A VOWEL OR “F” Má ólann tú é, beidh tú tinn. Mura n-éisteann tú liom, ní thuigeann tú na focail. Má fhilleann sé abhaile, nach bhfanann sé ann? Dá n-ólfainn é, an ólfá é? Mura n-éistfidís liom, díólfaidís an t-uisce. Key: If you drink it, you will be sick. If you don’t listen to me, you don’t understand the words. If he returns home, doesn’t he stay there? If I were to drink it, would you drink it? If they wouldn’t listen to me, they would drink the water. THE SECOND CONJUGATION WITH “DÁ” AND “MURA” Verbs such as “imigh” and “ceannaigh”, which are in the second conjugation, also have different forms in the modh coinníollach. The forms resemble the future tense, but word endings differ from those of the future tense. Learn these forms by repeating them aloud until you can say them without hesitation. For each one, visualize the action and the subject: cheannóinn (hyan-OH-in), I would buy cheannófá (hyan-OH-faw*), you would buy cheannódh sé (hyan-OHK* shay*), he would buy cheannódh sí, she would buy cheannóimis (hyan-OH-i-mish), we would buy cheannódh sibh (hyan-OHK* shiv), you-all would buy cheannóidís (hyan-OH-i-deesh), they would buy cheannófaí (hyan-OH-fwee), people would buy For the negative, “ní” (nee) precedes these forms. For example, “ní cheannódh sé é” means “he wouldn’t buy it”. Other forms, with “an, nach, dá, mura” before them, have the initial consonant aspirated if it can be. Learn these forms for “dá” with “ceannaigh”: dá gceannóinn (daw* gyan-OH-in), if I were to buy dá gceannófá (daw* gyan-OH-faw*), if you were to buy dá gceannódh sé (daw* gyan-OHK* shay*), if he were to buy dá gceannódh sí, if she were to buy dá gceannóimis (daw* gyan-OH-i-mish), if we were to buy dá gceannódh sibh (daw* gyan-OHK* shiv), if you-all were to buy dá gceannóidís (daw* gyan-OH-i-deesh), if they were to buy

dá gceannófaí (daw* gyan-OH-fwee), if people were to buy Samples of other forms: An gceannófá é? Would you buy it? Nach gceannóidís teach? (Wouldn’t they buy a house?) Mura gceannódh sí cóta, If she weren’t to buy a coat. If the second-conjugation verb ends in “-igh” instead of “-aigh”, there is a slight difference in pronunciation and spelling. The example here is “bailigh”. “I would collect, etc.” becomes: bhaileoinn (vwahl-YOH-in), I would collect bhaileofá (vwahl-YOH-faw*), you would collect bhaileodh sé (vwahl-YOHK* shay*), he would collect bhaileodh sí, she would collect bhaileoimis (vwahl-YOH-i-mish), we would collect bhaileodh sibh, you-all would collect bhaileoidís (vwahl-YOH-i-deesh), they would collect The other forms are similar in their relation to those for “ceannaigh”. For example: “ní bhaileoinn”, I wouldn’t collect; “an mbaileofá?”, would you collect?; “nach mbaileoimis?”, wouldn’t we collect?; mura mbaileofaí”, if people weren’t to collect; “dá mbaileoinn”, if I were to collect. RECOGNITION DRILL FOR THE SECOND CONJUGATION WITH THE MODH COINNÍOLLACH Chríochnóinn é (hyreek*-NOH-in ay*). An labhrófá Gearmáinis (un lou-ROH-faw* GYAR-maw*-nish)? Ní mhíneoidís é (nee veen-YOH-ideesh ay*). Dá n-imeoimis (daw* nim-YOH-i-mish). Ní ullmhódh sí é (nee UL-vwohk* shee ay*). Mura n-imreodh Seán (MU-ruh NIM-rohk* shaw*n). Key: I would finish it. Would you speak German? They wouldn’t explain it. If we were to depart. She wouldn’t prepare it. If Seán wouldn’t play. Note that verbs ending in “-ir” or “-air,” such as “imir” or “labhair,” drop out a syllable. Instead of “labhaireodh sé,” we say “labhródh sé” for “he would speak.” This occurs in other tenses, as well, and is called “syncopation.” It is not the usual meaning of the word “syncopation” that you know in music.

Lesson 106 RECOGNITION DRILL WITH AN MODH COINNÍOLACH for second-declension verbs D’fhoghlaimeoinn é (DOU-lim-oh-in ay*), dá mbeadh mo leabhar agam. Nach n-imeofá (nim-YOH-faw*), mura mbeadh na siopaí oscailte? Dá ndeiseodh (NESH-ohk*) sé an bord, d’íocfainn (DEEK-hin) an bille le háthas. Ní shocródh Caitlín ar chuairt, mura mbeimis sa bhaile (nee HOHK-rohk* kaht-LEEN er K*OO-ahrt MU-rah ME-mish suh VWAHL-uh). An aontódh sibh (AY*N-tohk* shiv) liom, dá gcuirfinn (GIR-hin) an cheist sin roimh na daoine eile? Thosófaí air, mura mbeidís as lathair. Key: I would study it, if I had my book. Wouldn’t you leave, if the stores weren’t open? If he were to repair the table, I would gladly pay the bill. Caitlín wouldn’t decide on a visit, if we weren’t at home. Would you-all agree with me, if I were to put that question before the other people? I would start on it, if they weren’t here. CONVERSATION Cormac: Dia dhaoibh (DEE-uh geev), a Shíle agus a Phóil (FOH-il). Síle (SHEEL-uh): Dia’s Muire dhaoibh, a Chormaic agus a Úna. Conas tá sibh inniu? Úna: Táimid go han-mhaith, agus cén chaoi a bhfuil sibh féin? (KAY*-hee vwil shiv fay*n). Pól: Bheimis i bhfad níb fhearr (i VWAHD neeb AHR), dá ngóthóimis an chéad duais i gcrannchur an Stáit (daw*ng OH-hoh-mish un HYAY*uhd DOO-ish i GROUN-k*ur un STAW*-it). Síle: Ní raibh an uimhir cheart againn riamh, ach cá bhfios duit? (nee rev un IV-ir hyart uh-GIN reev ahk* kaw* vis dit?) Mura n-imreofá d’uimhir áidh gach seachtain gan teip, theipfeadh ort (MU-ruh nim-ROH-faw* DIV-ir AW*-ee gahk* SHAHK*T-in guhn tep, HEP-huhk* OHruht). Cormac: Ní bheadh an duais de caoga dollar buaite againn anuraidh mura mbeadh ticéad ceannaithe sa chrannchur againn. Úna: Bhain sé an duais, go deimhin (DEYE-in), ach dá gcuirfimis an t-airgead inár gcuntas bainc (bwink), bheimis saibhir, beagnach (VE-mish SEYE-vir BYUHG-nahk*). Pól: Abair é! Cén uimhir an uimhir bhuaite inné? Úna: Cad a dhéanfá leis airgead, a Shíle, dá mbainfeá an chéad duais? Síle: Cheannóinn carr nua ar dtús, agus ansin thriallfaimis tríd an Iarthar (EER-huhr). Cormac: Ach cuir i gcás nach mbainfeadh sibh ach céad dollar nó mar sin. Pól: Sa chás sin, b’fhearr liom cíoscharr a fháil (bahr luhm KEES-k*ahr uh AW*il) agus tiomáin timpeall na cathrach (ti-MAW*-in TIM-puhl nuh KAH-uh-rahk*). Key: Cormac: Hello, Síle and Pól. Síle: Hello, Cormac and Úna. How are you-all today? Úna: We are very well, and how are you-all yourselves? Pól: We would be far better if we were to win the first prize in the state lottery. Síle: We never had the right number, but how would you know? If you weren’t to play your lucky number every day, you would fail. Cormac: We wouldn’t have won the fifty-dollar prize last year if we hadn’t bought a ticket in the lottery. Úna: He won the prize, certainly, but if we put the money in our bank account we would be rich, almost. Pól: Right! What number was the winning number yesterday? Úna: What would you do with the money, Síle, if you were to win the first prize? Síle: I would buy a new car first, and then we would travel through the west. Cormac: But suppose that you-all weren’t to win but a hundred dollars or so? Pól: In that case, I would prefer to get a rental car and drive around the city. VOCABULARY Masculine cuntas, (KOON-tuhs), an cuntas, an chuntais (K*OON-tish), na cuntais; account. Cuntas bainc; bank account. An cuntas bhainc, the bank account. banc, an banc (bahnk), an bhainc (vwink), na bainc; bank. bille (BIL-e), an bille, an bhille, na billí; bill. cíoscharr (KEES-k*ahr), an cíoscharr, an chíoschairr, na cíoscharranna; rented car. (Cíos means rent.)

Feminine duais (DOO-ish), an duais. na duaise, na duaiseanna; prize cathair (KAH-hir), an chathair, na cathrach (KAH-uh-rahk*), na cathracha (KAH-hir-ahk*-uh); city VERBS gnóthaigh (GNOH-hee) ag gnóthú, work, win (a prize). Gnóthaím (GNOH-heem), I win; gnóthaíonn tú, you win; gnóthóidh sé (GNOH-hoh-ee shay*), he will win; gnóthaithe (GNOH-huh-he), won. buaigh (BOO-ee), win, ag buachan (BOO-uhk*-uhn), win. Buaim, I win; buann tú, you win; buafaidh sé (BOO-hee shay*), he will win; buaite, won. ceistigh, ag ceistiú, question. Ceistím, I question; ceistíonn tú, you question; ceisteoidh sé, he will question; ceistithe, questioned. ADJECTIVES ámharach (AW*-vwuhr-ahk*), lucky; mí-ámharach, unlucky saibhir (SEYE-vir), rich macánta (muh-KAW*N-tuh), honest; mímhacánta (MEE-vwuh-KAW*N-tuh), dishonest sármhaith (SAW*R-vwah), excellent dodhéanta (duh-YAY*N-tuh), impossible luachmhar (LOO-uhk*-vwuhr), valuable, precious

Lesson 107 RECOGNITION DRILL FOR AN MODH COINNÍOLACH in first and second conjugations Form a picture in your mind of the meaning of these verbs and of the subject (whether “I”, “you”, “he”, etc): D’ordófá é. Lasfaimis é. Ní cheannódh sé é. Dá ndíolfainn é. Nach sílfidís é? An inseodh sí é? Ní throidfeá. Mura gcasfadh sibh é. Dá mbrisfeadh sé é. An ngoidfí é? Nach n-ólfá é? Mura mbeadh sé anseo. Chreidfimis é. Key: You would order it. We would light it. He wouldn’t buy it. If I were to sell it. Wouldn’t they think it? Would she tell it? You wouldn’t fight. If you-all weren’t to turn it. If he were to break it. Would it be stolen? Wouldn’t you drink it? If he weren’t here. We would believe it. THE IRREGULAR VERBS IN THE MODH COINNÍOLACH For all the irregular verbs ( briathra neamhrialta), the basic or root form for the conditional resembles that for the future. Endings are similar to those for regular verbs of the first conjugation, such as “cuir” and “cas” of the first conjugation. Learn these five verbs first. Go through each aloud, forming a picture of the activity and subject for each phrase. “Tar”, come, is: tiocfaidh mé (TYUHK-hee may*), I will come, in the ordinary future. In the modh coinníollach: thiocfainn (HUHK-hin), I would come. thiocfá (HUHK-faw*), you would come. thiocfadh sé (HUHK-huhk* shay*), he would come. thiocfadh sí, she would come. thiocfaimis (HUHK-hi-mish), we would come. thiocfadh sibh, you-all would come. thiocfaidís (HUHK-hi-deesh), they would come. thiocfaí (HUHK-fwee), people would come. Go through the other forms for “tar”. These are the first phrases for each group: ní thiocfainn (nee HUHK-hin), I wouldn’t come. an dtiocfainn ( un DYUHK-hin), would I come? nach dtiocfainn, wouldn’t I come? dá dtiocfainn, if I were to come. mura dtiocfainn, if I were not to come. “Téigh” (tay*), go, with “rachfaidh mé” (RAHK*-hee may*) for “I will go”, has its conditional as: rachainn (RAHK*-hin), I would go. rachfá (RAHK*-faw*) you would go. rachadh sé (RAHK*-huhk* shay*), he would go. rachadh sí, she would go. rachaimis (RAHK*-hi-mish), we would go. rachadh sibh, you-all would go. rachaidís (RAHK*-hi-deesh), they would go. rachfaí (RAHK*-fwee), people would go. Go through the other forms for “téigh”. The first phrases in each group are: Ní rachainn. An rachainn? Nach rachainn? Dá rachainn. Mura rachainn. “Feic” (fek) means “see”. Its future forms begin with: feicfidh mé (FEK-hee may*). In the modh coinníollach, a “d” must precede the “f”. d’fheicfinn (DEK-hin), I would see. d’fheicfeá (DEK-faw*), you would see. d’fheicfeadh sé (DEK-huhk* shay*), he would see. d’fheicfeadh sí, she would see. d’fheicfimis (DEK-hi-mish), we would see. d’fheicfidís (DEK-hi-deesh), they would see. d’fheicfí (DEK-fee), people would see. The first phrases in each of the other groups are: Ní fheicfinn (nee EK-hin), I wouldn’t see. An bhfeicfinn? (un VEK-hin), would you see? Nach bhfeicinn? (nahk* VEK-hin), wouldn’t I see? Dá bhfeicfinn, if I were to see. Mura bhfeicfinn, if I weren’t to see. “Clois” (klish) means “hear”. The future forms begin with: Cloisfidh mé (KLISH-hee may*). The conditional is: chloisfinn (K*LISH-hinn), I would hear.

chloisfeá (K*LISH-faw*), you would hear. chloisfeadh sé (K*LISH-huhk* shay*), he would hear. chloisfeadh sí, she would hear. chloisfimis (K*LISH-hi-mish), we would hear. chloisfeadh sibh, you-all would hear. chloisfidís (K*LISH-hi-deesh), they would hear. chloisfí (K*LISH-fee), people would hear. The first phrases in the other forms are: Ní chloisfinn, I wouldn’t hear. An gcloisfinn? (un GLISH-hin), would I hear? Nach gcloisfinn? (nahk* GLISH-hin), wouldn’t I hear? Dá gcloisfinn, if I were to hear. Mura gcloisfinn, if I weren’t to hear. “Abair” (AH-bir), meaning “say”, has: déarfaidh mé (DYAY*R-hee may*) for “I will say”. The modh coinníollach begins: déarfainn (DYAY*R-hin), I would say. déarfá (DYAY*R-faw*), you would say. déarfadh sé (DYAY*R-huhk* shay*), he would say. déarfadh sí, she would say. déarfaimis (DYAY*R-hi-mish), we would say. déarfadh sibh, you-all would say. déarfaidís (DYAY*R-hi-deesh), they would say. déarfaí (DYAY*R-fwee), people would say. There is no aspiration of the first consonant in this verb. The other groups begin: Ní déarfainn, I wouldn’t say. An ndéarfainn? (un NYAY*R-hin), would I say? Nach ndéarfainn? (nahk* NYAY*R-hin), wouldn’t I say? Dá ndéarfainn, if I were to say. Mura ndéarfainn, if I weren’t to say.

Lesson 108 RECOGNITION DRILL FOR AN MODH COINNÍOLACH WITH IRREGULAR VERBS Form a picture in your mind of the phrase’s meaning and of the subject (whether “I”, “you”, “he”, etc.) as you say these phrases aloud: Thiocfainn (HUHK-hin). Ní fheicfimis í (nee EK-hi-mish ee). An ndéarfadh sibh é sin? (un NYAY*R-huhk shiv ay* shin). Nach rachfá liom? (nahk* RAHK*-faw* luhm). Dá gcloisfidís (daw* GLISH-hi-deesh). Mura bhfeicfeadh sí thú. Dá dtiocfaimis libh. Chloisfeadh sé sinn. An rachaidís léi? Ní déarfá é sin. Nach dtiocfadh sí linn? Key: I would come. We wouldn’t see her. Would you-all say that? Wouldn’t you go with me? If they were to hear. If she weren’t to see you. If we came with you-all. He would hear us. Would they go with her? You wouldn’t say that. Wouldn’t she come with us? IRREGULAR VERBS IN THE CONDITIONAL MOOD Here are the rest of the irregular verbs. Say all forms out loud, repeating them until you are familiar with them and can picture in your mind the meaning of each phrase. “Déan” (day*n), do or make, has a future form: déanfaidh mé (DAY*N-hee may*), I will do. The conditional is: dhéanfainn (YAY*N-hin), I would do dhéanfá (YAY*N-faw*), you would do dhéanfadh sé (YAY*N-huhk* shay*), he would do dhéanfadh sí, she would do dhéanfaimis (YAY*N-hi-mish), we would do dhéanadh sibh, you-all would do dhéanfaidís (YAY*N-hi-deesh) they would do dhéantaí (YAY*N-tee), people would do The rest of the forms for “déan” have these first elements: Ní dhéanfainn, I would not do. An ndéanfainn? (un NAY*N-hin), would I do? Nach ndéanfainn?, wouldn’t I do Dá ndéanfainn, if I were to do. Mura ndéanfainn, if I weren’t to do. The verb “ith” (i), eat, is irregular only in the future tense and the conditional mood. Íosfaidh mé (EES-hee may*) is “I will eat”. The conditional is: d’íosfainn (DEES-hin), I would eat d’íosfá (DEES-faw*), you would eat d’íosfadh sé (DEES-huhk* shay*), he would eat d’íosfadh sí, she would eat d’íosfaimis (DEES-hi-mish), we would eat d’íosfadh sibh, you-all would eat d’íosfaidís (DEES-hi-deesh), they would eat d’íosfaí (DEES-fwee), people would eat The rest of the forms of the conditional begin with: Ní íosfainn, I would not eat. An íosfainn?, would I eat? Nach n-íosfainn?, wouldn’t I eat? Dá n-íosfainn, if I were to eat. Mura n-íosfainn, if I were not to eat. The verb “tabhair” (TOO-ir), give, becomes tabharfaidh mé (TOOR-hee may*), I will give, in the future tense. The conditional is therefore: thabharfainn (HOOR-hin), I would give thabharfá (HOOR-faw*), you would give thabharfadh sé (HOOR-huhk* shay*), he would give thabharfadh sí, she would give thabharfaimis (HOOR-hi-mish), we would give thabharfadh sibh, you-all would give thabharfaidís (HOOR-hi-deesh), they would give thabharfaí (HOOR-fwee), people would give Other forms in the modh coinníollach begin with: Ní tharfainn, I would not give. An dtabharfainn? (un DOOR-hin), would I give? Nach dtabharfainn?, wouldn’t I give? Dá dtabharfainn, if I were to give. Mura dtabharfainn, if I were not to give. “Beir air” (ber er), seize it or grab it, has “béarfaidh mé air” (BAY*R-hee may* ar) for the future, and the conditional is: bhéarfainn (VAY*R-hin) air, I would seize it bhéarfá (VAY*R-faw*) air, you would seize it bhéarfadh (VAY*R-huhk*) sé air, he would seize it bhéarfadh sí air, she would seize it

bhéarfaimis air, we would seize it bhéarfadh sibh air, you-all would seize it bhéarfaidís air (VAY*R-hi-deesh er), they would seize it bhéarfaí (VAY*R- fwee) air, people would seize it Na foirmeacha eile: Ní bhéarfainn air, I would not seize it. An mbhéarfainn air? (un MAY*R-hin er), would I seize it? Nach mbhéarfainn air?, wouldn’t I seize it? Dá mbhéarfainn air, if I were to seize it. Mura mbhéarfainn air, if I weren’t to seize it. The irregular verb most extensively changed in the modh coinníollach is “faigh” (faye), get. An aimsir fháistineach: gheobhainn (YOH-in), I would get gheofá (YOH-faw*), you would get gheobhadh sé (YOH-uhk* shay*), he would get gheobhadh sí, she would get gheobhaimis (YOH-i-mish), we would get gheobhadh sibh, you-all would get gheobhaidís (YOH-i-deesh), they would get gheofaí (YOH-fwee), people would get The other forms are similar to the negative ní bhfaighidh mé, etc: ní bhfaighinn (nee VWEYE-in), I wouldn’t get ní bhfaighfeá (nee VWEYE-faw*), you wouldn’t get ní bhfaigheadh sé (nee VWEYE-uhk* shay*), he wouldn’t get ní bhfaigheadh sí, she wouldn’t get ní bhfaighimis (nee VWEYE-i-mish), we wouldn’t get ní bhfaigheadh sibh, you-all wouldn’t get ní bhfaighfí (nee VWEYE-fee), people wouldn’t get Related forms begin with: An bhfaighinn?, would I get? Nach bhfaighinn?, wouldn’t I get? Dá bhfaighinn, if I were to get. Mura bhfaighinn, if I were not to get. In the next lesson, we will look at ways to make use of the conditional easier for conversation.

Lesson 109 RECOGNITION DRILL WITH AN MODH COINNÍOLACH Read these phrases aloud; for each, form a mental picture of the activity and the subject of the verb (“I”, “you”, “he” “people”): Ní osclódh sí an doras. Chuirfinn amach é. Dá bhfeicfimis é. An imeoidís amárach? Mura mbuailfeá iad. Nach mbearfaí air? D’imreoinn sa chloiche. An gcasfadh sibh ann? Ní chloisfimis é. Nach gceannófaí é? Dá ndéanfadh sí é. Mura mbeifeá sa bhaile. Má tá Seán anseo. Key: She wouldn’t open the door. I would put him out. If we were to see him. Would they leave tomorrow? If you weren’t to strike them. Wouldn’t he be caught? I would play in the game. Would you-all turn there? We wouldn’t hear them. Wouldn’t it be bought? If she were to do it. If you weren’t at home. If Seán is here. AN MODH COINNÍOLACH IN CONVERSATION The entry to proficiency and fluency in the conditional in conversation is its use as a single clause, with the second clause omitted. A single clause can be easily formed in the mind at first, without need to stop and ponder over a second conditional clause. One example of this is the conditional as a substitute for the imperative in asking a person to do something. In English, you might say: “Would you put the bag on the table?” instead of : “Put the bag on the table.” In Irish you can say: “An gcuirfeá (GIR-faw*) an mála ar an mbord?” The response to a question-form command like this should be in the future tense: “Cuirfidh mé (KIR-hee may*”, or “Ní chuirfidh mé”. Other sentences illustrating this: Would you go outside now? Would you-all read that again? Would you wash the car tomorrow? Key: An rachfá (un RAHK*-faw*) amach anois? An léifeadh (LAY*-huhk*) sibh arís é sin? An nífeá (NEE-faw*) an carr amárach? Another way of expressing a singular conditional in a sentence is the equivalent of English: “You would think that “ or “I would think that “. In Irish : Cheapfá (HYAP-faw*) go bhfuil sé anseo; you would think that he is here. Cheapfainn (HYAP-hin) go raibh sé sa bhaile; I would think that he was at home. The next step in becoming fluent in the conditional is a pattern with a “tá” clause first, followed by a clause with another verb. Examples of the first clause are: Dá mbeadh (me-YUHK*) sé anseo; if he were here Dá mbeifeá (ME-faw*) tinn; if you were sick Má tá siad ar scoil; if they are at school Má tá airgead agat; if you have money Mura mbeimis (ME-mish) ann; if we weren’t there Mura bhfuil siad i gCeanada; if they are not in Canada It is simple to add another clause to this one, with “tá” or any other verb in it. Try these examples: If you had money, would you go to Ireland? If he is here, I will see him. If he were here, would you see him? If I were afraid, I would not stay here. If we didn’t have a car, we would leave early. If they are not happy, we will buy another one. Key: Dá mbeadh (me-YUHK*) airgead agat (AR-i-guhd uh-GUHT), an rachfá (RAHK*-faw*) go hÉirinn? Má tá sé anseo, feicfidh (FEK-hee) mé é. Dá mbeadh sé anseo, an bhfeicfeá (VEK-faw*) é? Dá mbeadh eagla (AH-gluh) orm, ní fhanfainn (AHN-hin) anseo. Mura mbeadh carr againn, d’imeoimis go moch (dim-YOH-i-mish goh mohk*). Mura bhfuil áthas orthu, ceannóimid ceann (kyoun) eile. VOCABULARY This short list of words concerns buildings and dwellings. Ainmfhocail fhirinscneacha (AN-im-OH-kil IR-insh-knahk*-uh) Masculine nouns an teach, an tí, na tithe (tyahk*, un tee, nuh TI-he), the house, of the house, the houses (irregular). Fear an tí; bean an tí; the man of the house, the woman of the house. an foirgneamh, an fhoirgnimh, na foirgnimh (un FWIR-gi-nuhv, un IR-gi-niv, nuh FWIR-gi-niv); the building, of the building, the buildings (1st declension). árasán, an t-árasán, an árasáin, na hárasáin (AW*-ruh-saw*n, un TAW*-ruh-saw*n, un AW*-ruh-saw*-in, nuh HAW*-ruh-saw*-in); apartment, the apartment, of the apartment, the apartments. Uimhir (IV-ir) an árasáin; the apartment’s number. (Árasán is 1st declension.) an ceap (kyap) árasán, apartment building, block of apartments.

an stáisiún, an stáisiúin, na stáisiúin (un STAW*-shoon, un STAW*-shoo-in, nuh STAW*-shoo-in), the station, of the station, the stations. (1st declension). an busáras, an bhusárais, na busárais (un BUS-aw*-ruhs, un VWUS-aw*-rish, nuh BUS-aw*-rish); the bus terminal, of the bus terminal, the bus terminals. (1st declension). an seomra, an tseomra, na seomraí (un SHOHM-ruh, un TOHM-ruh, nuh SHOHM-ree); the room, of the room, the rooms, (4th declension). an seomra bia (BEE-uh); the dining room. an seomra leapa (LA-puh); the bedroom. Another word for this: an seomra codlata (KUHL-uh-tuh); the bedroom. an seomra folctha (FOHLK-huh); the bathroom. Ainmfhocail bhaininscneacha (VWIN-insh-knahk*-huh) feminine nouns fuinneog, an fhuinneog, na fuinneoige, na fuinneoga (fwin-YOHG, un in-YOHG, nuh fwin-YOH-ige, nuh fwin-YOHG-uh); window, the window, of the window, the windows. (2nd declension). cistin, an chistin, na cistine, na cistineacha (KISH-tin, un HYISH-tin, nuh KISH-tin-e, nuh KISH-tin-ahk*-uh), kitchen, the kitchen, of the kitchen, the kitchens. (2nd declension). síleáil, an tsíleáil, na síleála, na síleálacha (SHEEL-aw*-il, un TEEL-aw*-il, nuh SHEEL-aw*luh, nuh SHEEL-aw*-luhk*-huh); ceiling, the ceiling, of the ceiling, the ceilings (3rd declension). Go over these words carefully. They will be in a practice exercise and conversation next lesson.

Lesson 110 COMPREHENSION FOR AN MODH COINNÍOLACH If you are studying with someone who knows the pronunciation guide for these lessons, take turns with that person in reading the following aloud to each other as practice in understanding the conditional mood in spoken Irish. If you study alone, read the sentences aloud and picture the meaning and subject of each clause. - (daw* ME-faw* un-shuh, DEK-faw* ay*.) - (K*LISH-hin EE-uhd, daw* ME-deesh uh VWAHL-e.) - (nee K*ROHK-hin muh K*OH-tuh suh SHOHM-ruh shin, MU-ruh men lesh-KYOO-il.) - (nahk* nim-YOHK* shay*, daw* me-YUHK* un tray*n in oum.) - (DIL-hi-mish er uh shay* uh K*LOHG, daw* me-YUHK* un EYEM-sheer nees fahr.) - (un EES-hi-deesh nuh KYAP-uh-ree, daw* GIR-hi-mish er un mohrd mohr suh HYISH-tin EE-uhd.) - (DOO-irt shay* nahk* GLISH-huhk* shay* ay* MU-ruh GNAHK-huhk* shay* er un DUH-ruhs.) - (day*n-TOHK* shee lat, daw* me-YUHK* shee i LAW*-hir.) - (nee ve-YUHK* AH-gluh OHR-ruhm, MU-ruh men er un traw*d GUHR-uh-huh.) Key: If you were here, you would see him. I would hear them, if they were home. I wouldn’t hang my coat in that room, if I weren’t lazy. Wouldn’t he depart if the train were on time? We would return at six o’clock, if the weather were better. Would they eat the sandwiches, if we were to put them on the big table in the kitchen? He said that he wouldn’t hear him, if he weren’t to knock on the door. She would agree with you, if she were here. ( The verb is “aontaigh”) I wouldn’t be afraid, if I weren’t on the dark street. “Is” in sentences with “if” Special forms, some of which you already know, allow you to say: “If you wish”, or “if he wouldn’t prefer”. For “má” and “mura” with “is” in the present, learn these examples: Más mian leat (maw*s MEE-uhn lat), if you wish. Más arán é (maw*s uh-RAW*N ay*), if it is bread. Mura (MU-ruh) mian leat, if you don’t wish. Más é do thoil é (maw* shay* duh HIL ay*), if you please. Más í (maw* shee) Nóra í, if it is Nora. Mura maith leo an siopa, if they don’t like the store. Murab é Ciarán é (MU-ruhb ay* keer-AW*N ay*), if it isn’t Ciaran. Murab arán maith é (MU-ruhb uh-RAW*N mah ay*), if it isn’t good bread. For “má” and “mura” with “is” in the past tense, learn these examples: Má ba mhian leat (maw* buh VEE-uhn lat), if you wished. Má b’arán é (maw* buh-RAW*N ay*), if it was bread. Murar mhaith leat, if you didn’t like it. Má ba é (maw* bay*) Pádraig é, if it was Pádraig. Má ba í (bee) Nóra í, if it was Nóra. Murarbh (MUR-erv) é Seán é, if it wasn’t Seán. Murarbh fhéidir (MUR-erv AY*-dir) leat, if you couldn’t. COMHRÁ (KOH-raw*) Síle (SHEEL-uh): Nach bhfuil duine éigin ag cnagadh ar an doras?? Brian (BREE-uhn): D’osclóinn an doras, dá gcloisfinn (GLISH-hin) é. Lig isteach é, más féidir leat. Síle: An osclófá an doras, a Bhríain? Tá tú i bhfad níos giorra don doras ná mise. Brian: Déanfaidh mé sin. - A Nóirín agus á Sheoirse (HYOHR-she)! Dia dhaoibh. Tagaigí isteach. Nóirín: Dia’s Muire dhaoibh, a Shíle (HEEL-uh) agus a Bhriain. Bhíomar sa chomharsanacht (K*OH-uhr-suhn-uhk*t) chun féachaint ar cheap árasán nua. Síle: An aistreodh (ASH-trohk*) sibh, dá mbeadh seans agaibh? Seoirse: Ní maith linn an foirgneamh ina bhfuilimid anois. Brian: Cé mhéid sheomra ar maith libh?

Nóirín: Ceithre sheomra atá ag teastáil uainn, ar a laghad, Brian: Nach gceannódh sibh teach, dá mbeadh an ceann ceart ar fáil? (nahk* gyan-OHK* shiv tyahk*, daw* me-YUHK* un kyoun kyart er FAW*-il). Seoirse: Más féidir linn teach a cheannach, déanfaimid é. Ach bheadh eagla orm, dá mbeadh orainn teach mór a ghlanadh agus a phéinteáil. Nóirín: Bheadh árasán le cistin, agus dhá sheomra leapa ag teastail uainn, dá bhfaighimis é. Brian: An maith libh seomra bia? Síle: Is fearr (fahr) liom an seomra folctha bheith athchóirithe (ah-K*OHR-i-he) ná seomraí mar parlús nó seomra bia bheith ann. Seoirse: Thitfeadh an tsíleáil inár seomra folctha, mura mbeadh cláir curtha fuithi agam anuraidh. Key: Síle:Isn’t there someone knocking at the door? Brian: I would open the door, if I heard it. Let him in, if you can. Síle: Would you open the door, Brian? You are far closer to the door than I am. Brian: I’ll do that. - Nóirín and Seoirse! Hello. Come in. Nóirín: Hello, Síle and Brian. We were in the neighborhood to look at a new apartment building. Síle: Would you move if you had the chance? (Aistrigh! means “move” as well as “translate”. Aistrim, aistríonn tú, d’aistrigh mé, ag aistriú, are elements of this verb). Seoirse: We don’t like the building we are in now. Brian: How many rooms would you like? Nóirín: Four rooms we are wanting, at least. Brian: Wouldn’t you buy a house, if the right one were available? Seoirse: If we can buy a house, we will do it. But I would be afraid if we had to clean and paint a big house. Nóirín: We would be wanting an apartment with a kitchen and two bedrooms if we got it. Brian: Do you like a dining room? Síle: I prefer that the bathroom be renovated rather than have rooms like a parlor or dining room. Seoirse: The ceiling would fall in our bathroom if I hadn’t put boards under it last year.

Lesson 111 COMPREHENSION OF SPOKEN IRISH Read aloud the following sentences, or have someone who is familiar with the pronunciation guide for these lessons read them to you. Try to picture the meaning of each phrase and sentence as you listen. Do not look at the Key in English or Irish until you understand the meaning of all the sentences or until you have listened to them at least three times. Several tenses are represented in the narrative type of passage: HAW*-nig may* uh-VWAHL-e goh mohk* in-YAY*. DOO-irt muh K*AH-ruh luhm nahk* me-YUHK* far uh FWISHT uh tyahk*t uhREESH rev un law* nuh YEE-uh shin. nee VOO-ir may* nuh LI-trahk*-uh uh rev SOO-il uh-GUHM loh. MU-ruh me shee-uhd un-SHUH rev i VWAHD, neel is uh-GUHM kahd is FAY*-dir luhm uh YAY*N-uhv. SHKREEF-hee may* hig un REE-uhl-tuhs uh-REESH, ahk* neel is uh-GUHM un NYAY*N-huhk* shin ay*n vwah. Key (Béarla): I came home early yesterday. My friend told me that the postman wouldn’t be coming again before the next day. I didn’t get the letters that I had been expecting. If they are not here before long, I don’t know what I can do. I will write to the government again, but I don’t know if that would do any good. Key (Irish): Tháinig mé abhaile go moch inné. Dúirt mo chara liom nach mbeadh fear an phoist ag teacht arís roimh an lá ina dhiaidh sin. Ní bhfuair mé na litreacha a raibh súil agam leo. Mura mbeidh siad anseo roimh i bhfad, níl a fhios agam cad is féidir liom a dhéanamh. Scríobhfaidh mé chuig an rialtas arís, ach níl a fhios agam an ndéanfadh sin aon mhaith. “is” in sentences with “if” To say “if it were a boat” (as contrasted with “if it is a boat”, mas bád é), the form is: Dá mba bhád é (daw* muh vwaw*d ay*). “It would be a boat” is “bá bhád é”, and placing of “dá” before the phrase causes eclipsis of the “b” sound in “ba”. This is the modh coinníollach, or conditional, with “is”. Change “I would like a newspaper” to “If I wanted a newspaper, I would get it”. “Dá mba mhaith liom nuachtán, gheobhainn é (daw* muh vwah luhm NOO-uhk-taw*n, YOH-in ay*) Other examples: Dá mba é do hata é (daw* may* duh HAH-tuh ay*); if it were your hat. Dá mba í Síle í, thabharfainn di na nótaí (daw* mee SHEEL-uh ee, HOOR-hin di nuh NOH-tee); if it were Síle, I would give her the notes. Dá mb’fhear macánta Eoghan, chreidfinn é (daw* mar muh-KAW*N-tuh OH-uhn, HYRET-hin ay*); if Eoghan were an honest man, I would believe him. In the last sentence, the “mba” runs into the noun “fear”. This is also the case in a sentence like “Dá mb’fhiu dom é, dhéanfainn é (daw* myoo duhm ay*, YAY*N-hin ay*); if it were worth my while, I would do it. “Is fiu dom é (is fyoo duhm ay*) means “it is worth my while”. For another common example of this: Dá mb’fhéidir liom é a dhéanamh, rachainn ann (daw* MAY*-dir luhm ay* uh YAY*N-uhv, RAHK*-in oun),if I could do it, I would go there. To say “if it were not a boat”: Murar bhád é (MU-ruhr vwaw*d ay*). If the next word after “murar” begins with an vowel or “f” followed by a vowel, a “bh” (v* sound is added. Examples of this: Murarbh é Feilim é, ní chreidfinn é (MUR-erv ay* FEL-im ay*, nee HYRET-hin ay*), if it weren’t Feilim, I wouldn’t believe him. Murarbh fhéidir leat (MUR-erv AY*dir lat) an obair a dhéanamh, gheobhainn duine eile; if you weren’t able to do the work, I would get someone else. This completes almost the entire basic structure of the modh coinníollach, except for the indirect speech forms with “is”, which will be explained next week. “MURACH” A USEFUL WORD Resembling “mura” is the word “murach”, which is a short and convenient way to express at least two ideas. It can convey the idea of “except” and also “if it weren’t for”. Read these examples carefully several times to understand the form: Rachainn, murach (MU-rahk*) an aimsir the (he); I would go if it weren’t for the hot weather, or, I would go but for the hot weather. Bheadh áthas orm, murach an scrúdú, I would be happy if it weren’t for the examination. Bhíodar anseo, murach Seán; they were here, except for Sean.

Bhaileoimis an t-airgead inné, murach go raibh an aimsir chomh dona (vwahl-YOH-i-mish un TAR-i-guhd in-YAY* MU-rahk* goh rev un EYEM-sheer hoh DUH-nuh), we would have collected the money yesterday, if the weather hadn’t been so bad. Notice that the conditional and the regular, or indicative, verb forms are in the same sentence in the last example. This is allowable in many instances in Irish, but at the beginning you should always put both clauses in a conditional sentence in either the conditional mood or in the regular tense. Say “dá mbeadh chuirfinn “, for example, or “má tá feiceann “ VOCABULARY FOR VERBS iompar (UM-pir), ag iompar (eg UM-puhr), iompraíonn sé (um-PREE-uhn shay*), iompróidh sé (um-PROH-ee shay*); carry, carrying, he carries, he will carry. comhair (KOH-ir), ag comhaireamh (uh KOH-ir-uhv), comhaireann sé, comhairfidh sé (KOH-ir-hee shay*); count, counting, he counts, he will count. suigh (si), ina shuí (IN-uh hee), suíonn sé (SEE-uhn shay*), suifidh sé (SI-hee shay*); sit, sitting (in his sitting), he sits, he will sit. luigh (li), ina luí (IN-uh lee), luíonn sé (LEE-uhn shay*), luifidh sé (LI-hee shay*); lie, lying (in his lying), he lies, he will lie; this means “lie” in the sense of recline or lie down.

Lesson 112 RECOGNITION DRILL FOR VERBS Without translating directly, form a mental picture of the meaning of the following sentences, which include all tenses that you have learned so far: Coimeádfaidh mé an t-arán sa bhosca in aice an oighinn. Má fheiceann sibh an madra, coimeádaigí amuigh ón mbia é, ach coimeádaigí an cat bocht istigh. Choimeádfaidís an cruinniú ar siúl go brách, mura gcuirfí isteach air. Tá tosaithe agam cheana. Tosaíodh ar an bhfoirgneamh sin anuraidh. Tosú maith - sin leath na hoibre. Dá dtosófár go luath ar an obair, choimeádfaí an gnó sa tir seo. Tosaíonn na cainteanna ar a deich a chlog gach lá. Níor ordaíomar cathaoir chomh daor sin. Bhí ceann eile ordaithe againn tamall fada roimhe sin. Tháinig an t-ordú ón uachtarán nua. Ná hordaigh bróga samhraidh ón siopa sin. Cuirfear na hordaithe eile ar na leabhair chuntais. Key to pronunication of some of the above: (kim-AW*T-hee) (EYE-in) (HAN-uh) (er un WVIR-gi-nuhv) (REV-e shin) (ohn OO-uhk*tuhraw*n) Key: I will keep the bread in the box next to the oven. If you see the dog, keep him out away from the food, but keep the poor cat inside. They would keep the meeting going forever, if it weren’t interrupted. I have begun already. That building was started on last year. A good beginning is half the work. If the work were to be started on early, the business would be kept in this country. The talks begin at ten o’clock every day. We didn’t order a chair as expensive as that. We had orderd another one a long time before that. The order came from the new president. Don’t order summer shoes from that store. The other orders will be put in the account books. VOCABULARY These terms relate to furniture and house furnishings. You know a few words for this already, such as “bord” and “ciseán”. troscán, an troscáin (trohs-KAW*N) (un trohs-KAW*-in), furniture, of the furniture (first declension). Ball (boul) troscáin, a piece of furniture. Foireann (FWIR-uhn) troscáin, a suite of furniture. cathaoir, an chathaoir, na cathaoireach, na cathaoireacha (KAH-heer, un K*AH-heer, nuh KAH-heer-ahk*, nuh KAH-heer-ahk*-uh); chair, the chair, of the chair, the chairs (fifth declension). Cathaoir uilleach (IL-ahk*), armchair. tolg, an toilg, na toilg (TUHL-uhg, un TUL-ig, nuh TIL-ig), sofa, of the sofa, the sofas (first declension). bord ocáide (oh-KAW*-i-de), occasional table, side table. bord cistine (KISH-tin-e), kitchen table. Leaba, na leapa, na leapacha (LA-buh, nuh LA-puh, nuh LA-puh-huh), bed, of the bed, the beds (an irregular noun). Leaba shingilte (HING-ilte), single bed. Leaba dhúbalta (GOO-buhl-tuh), double bed. In aice na leapa, next to the bed. ruga, an ruga, na rugaí (RU-guh, nuh RU-gee), rug, of the rug, the rugs (fourth declension). Ruga urláir, floor rug. “An ruga urláir” is “the floor rug.” brat urláir, an brat urláir, an bhrat (un vrit) urláir, na brait (brit) urláir; a floor carpet, the floor carpet, of the floor carpet, the floor carpets. “Os comhair an bhrait urláir” “is “in front of the floor carpet.” deasc, an deasc, na deisce, na deasca (dyask, un dyask, nuh DYESH-ke, nuh DYASK-uh); desk, the desk, of the desk, the desks (second declension). páipéar balla; wallpaper; an páipéar balla; the wallpaper. cófra tarraiceán (KOH-fruh TAHR-uh-kaw*n) chest of drawers; an cófra tarraiceán; the chest of drawers. leabhragán, an leabhragán, an leabhragáin, na leabhragáin (LOU-ruh-gaw*n, un LOU-ruh-gaw*n, un LOU-ruh-gaw*n-in); bookcase, the bookcase, of the bookcase, the bookcases (first declension). sorn, an tsoirn, na soirn (SOHR-ruhn, uh TIR-in, nuh SIR-in); stove, the stove, of the stove, the stoves (first declension). Sorn gáis (SOHR-ruhn gaw*-ish); gas stove. An sorn gáis, the gas stove. VERBS tarraing, (TAHR-ring), ag tarraingt (uh TAHR-ringt), tarraingthe (TAHR-ring-he), tarraingíonn sé (TAHR-ring-EE-uhn shay*), tarraingeoidh sé (TAHR-ring-OH-ee shay*); pull, pulling, pulled, he pulls, he will pull. brúigh (BROO-ee), ag brú (uh BROO), brúite (BROO-tye), brúnn sé (broon shay*), brúfaidh sé (BROO-hee shay*); push, pushing, pushed, he pushes, he will push.

COMHRÁ Éamann (AY-muhn): Sa deireadh! Táimid ag an teach ceart. Tiomáin an trucail isteach sa chlós, in aice an dorais tosaigh. Tógfaimid an troscán síos den trucail agus iompróimid isteach sa teach íad. Micheál: Féach! Tá bean an tí ag teacht amach. - Dia dhuit, a Phádraigín. Táimid sroichthe le gach ach an sorn gáis. Pádraigin: Dia’s Muire dhaoibh, a fheara. Céard a chuir moill (mwil) oraibh? Táim ag feithimh (FE-hiv) oraibh ó mhaidin.

Éamann: Bheadh sroicthe (SRIK-he) againn i bhfad roimhe seo murach an plódú trachta ar na bóithre. Pádraigín: Leithscéal (le-SHKAY*L) an-mhaith é sin. Ach anois, ba cheart dhaoibh an troscán a iompar sa teach. Tosaigí leis an tolg. Micheál: Sin é an rud is troime (TRIM-e) san ualach (OO-uh-lahk*). Key: Éamann: At last! We are at the right house. Drive the truck into the yard, next to the front door. We will take the furniture down from the truck and carry it into the house. Micheál: Look! The woman of the house is coming out. - Hello, Patricia. We’ve arrived with everything but the gas stove. Pádraigín: Hello, men. What delayed you? I am expecting you since morning. Éamann: We would have arrived long before this but for the traffic jam on the roads. Pádraigín: A very good excuse that. But now, you should carry the furniture into the house. Start with the sofa. Micheál: That’s the heaviest thing in the load.

Lesson 113 Cleachtadh tuisceana Ghaeilge labhartha (KLAK*-tuh TISH-kuh-nuh GAY*-lig-e LOU-uhr-huh); Comprehension drill for spoken Irish Read aloud the following sentences, or have someone who is familiar with the pronunciation guide for these lessons read them to you. Read or listen to the sentences at least three times to get the sense. Then look at the key in English and, after that, the key in Irish. The verbs are the irregular ones. nee VOO-ir may* ay*n ruhd ohn SHOHP-uh shin, ahk* k*uh-NIK MAW*-re KOOP-luh RUHD-ee uh vee uh TAS-taw*-il WU-hee le FAH-duh uh-NISH. nee AHK-uh-muhr aw*r GAH-ruh, SHEE-luh, oun. TYUHK-hee shee hig aw*r dyahk* uh-NOHK*T, AW*-fuhk*. RAHK*-i-mish hig uh tyahk* MU-rahk* nahk* me-YUHK* oum goh lohr uh-GIN. DOO-irt NOH-ruh luhm in-YAY* go NYAY*N-huhk* shee tay* AH-guhs BAY*L-uh DOO-in tahr AY*SH tyahk*t uh-VWAHL-e DOO-in. hug shee DOO-in tay*, kyahrt goh lohr, AH-guhs DI-huh-muhr aw*r SHAY*-ruh er uh shahk*t uh k*luhg. nee VWEYE-faw* BAY*L-uh moh-RAW*N nees fahr naw* ay shin. taw* OH-rin ruhd AY*-gin dyas uh AW*-il di NOO-ir uh HOOR-i-mid KOO-ahrt hig un K*AH-hir uh-REESH. Key (Bearla): I didn’t get anything from that store, but Máire saw a couple of things that she was wanting for a long time now. We didn’t see our friend, Síle, there. She will come to our house tonight, however. We would go to her house, except that we wouldn’t have enough time. Nora told me yesterday that she would make tea and a meal for us after we had come home. She gave us tea, sure enough, and we ate our supper at seven o’clock. You wouldn’t get a meal much better than that. We must get something nice for her when we visit the city again. Key (Gaeilge): Ní bhfuair mé aon rud on siopa sin, ach chonaic Máire cúpla rudaí a bhí ag teastáil uaithi le fada anois. Ní fhacamar ár gcara, Síle, ann. Tiocfaidh sí chuig ár dteach anocht, áfach. Rachaimis chuig a teach murach nach mbeadh am go leor againn. Dúirt Nóra liom inné go ndéanfadh sí tae agus béile dúinn, tar éis teacht abhaile dúinn. Thug sí dúinn tae, ceart go leor, agus d’itheamar ár séire ar a seacht a chlog. Ní bhfaighfeá béile mórán níos fearr ná é sin. Tá orainn éigin deas a fháil di nuair a thabharfaimid cuairt chuig an chathair arís. GRAMMAR Indirect speech with “is” and an modh coinníollach The equivalent of “You say that you would like a boat” is: Deir tú gur (gur) mhaith leat bád. For “You say that you wouldn’t like a boat”: Deir tú nár (naw*r) mhaith leat bád. Memorize these two sentences as a guide. “Gur” and “nár”, which must always be in the sentence to connect the two clauses, cause aspiration of the first consonant in the next word. Other examples of usage: Cloisfidh (KLISH-hee) sibh gur mhaith le Seán bheith (ve) sa bhaile; you-all will hear that Seán would like to be home. Shílfinn (HEEL-hin) gur bhád mór é sin; I would think that that would be a large boat. Cheap sé nár mhian leo ceann eile a cheannach; he thought that they wouldn’t wish to buy another one. If the word following “gur” or “nár” begins with a vowel or “f” followed by a vowel, then: gur becomes gurbh (GU-ruhv); nár becomes nárbh (NAW*R-ruhv) Examples of this: Deir sé gurbh í Siobhán (shi-VAW*N) í; he says that it would be Siobhán. Déarfainn leo nárbh é sin an bord ceart; I would tell them that that would not be the right table. Chuala (K*OO-luh Séamas gurbh fhearr (GU-ruhv AHR) le Brian an traein luais (LOO-ish); Séamas heard that Brian would prefer the express train (“train of speed”). Síleann sí nárbh fhiú (NAW*R-uhv YOO) di clárú; she thinks it wouldn’t be worth her while to register. Sílim gurbh fhiú na bróga sin a cheannach; I think that it would be worth my while to buy those shoes.

The forms for this are the same as for the past tense of “is” in indirect speech. When doubt could arise whether the past tense (was) or the conditional (would) is intended, an extra clause can follow the first two. Examples: Dúirt mé gurbh é Seán a bhí ann; I said that it was Seán who was there. Dúirt mé gurbh é Seán é a bheadh ann; I said that it would be Seán, who would be there. CLEACHTADH Dúradh gurbh fhiú do gach Meiriceánach teach a cheannach; it was said that it would be worth the while of every American to buy a house. Nár shíl tú gurbh fhearr duit fanacht sa bhaile go dtiocfadh an dochtúir?; didn’t you think it best for you to wait at home until the doctor would come? VOCABULARY Cruinn (krin) is a useful adjective. Its most important meaning is “round”, but it can mean “exact”, too. Bord cruinn is a round table, and na boird chruinne are the round tables. Eolas cruinn is exact knowledge. “This book is more accurate than that” is: Is cruinne an leabhar seo ná an ceann sin. Míchruinn (mee-K*RIN) and neamhchruinn (nyav-K*RIN) mean “inaccurate” and can also mean “out of round” or “not round”. Cearnach (KYAR-nahk*) is “square”. Míle cearnach is “a square mile”, and cúinní (KOON-yee) cearnacha are “square corners”. A square in a city is a cearnóg (kyar-NOHG); an chearnóg, na cearnóige, na cearnóga; the square, of the square, the squares (2nd declension, feminine).

Lesson 114 CLEACHTADH AITHEANTAIS (A-huhn-tish); recognition drill D’éireoinn níos moiche maidin amárach, dá mbeadh orm bheith ag obair. (deye-ROH-in; MWI-he). Ghoidfí d’airgead, mura gcuirfeá in áit shábháilte é. (huh-VWAW*-il-te). Deir sé go bhfreagróidh sé an cheist tar éis an chruinniú. Beidh an leanbh ina luí roimh a sé a chlog. Nach n-ullmhaítear an bia amuigh sa chistin? Is é sin an cárta a chaill mé anuraidh. Key: I would get up earlier tomorrow morning if I had to be at work. Your money would be stolen if you didn’t put it in a safe place. He says that he will answer the question after the meeting. The child will be in bed before six o’clock. Isn’t the food prepared out in the kitchen? That’s the card I lost last year. GRAMMAR In English, there is a readily understood difference between “I closed the window” and “I used to close the window”. The former sentence indicates a single specific action. The latter sentence tells us that there was a series of closings over a time span - the closings were repeated or “habitual”. In English, some other verb must precede “close” to tell the listener that the action was repeated or habitual. “Used to” or “wont to” are two of these auxiliary verbs. In Irish, on the other hand, each verb has its own forms to express the “past habitual” or gnáthchaite (gnaw*-K*AH-tye). These forms resemble an modh coinníollach, so care is necessary in pronouncing them and understanding them in speech. Read this series over carefully, picturing the action and who is doing it in each sentence: díol (deel), sell dhíolainn (YEEL-in), I used to sell dhíoltá (YEEL-taw*), you used to sell dhíoladh sé (YEEL-UHK* shay), he used to sell dhíoladh sí, she used to sell dhíolaimis (YEEL-i-mish), we used to sell dhíoladh sibh (shiv), you-all used to sell dhíolaidís (YEEL-i-deesh), they used to sell dhíoltaí (YEEL-tee), it used to be sold, people used to sell it The negative forms for this begin with: ní dhíolainn, I didn’t used to sell For questions, the forms begin with: an ndíolainn? (un neel-in), did I used to sell? and for the negative question: nach ndíolainn? (nahk* neel-in), didn’t I used to sell? To familiarize yourself with this tense, say aloud all 32 forms for each of these verbs: déan, do; and las, light. Note that déan, although irregular in many tenses, is regular in the past habitual. The first and eighth forms for each are: dhéanainn (YAY*N-in), dhéantaí (YAY*N-tee); lasainn (LAHS-in), lastaí (LAHS-tee). Díol, déan, and las all end in a broad consonant. If a verb ends in a slender consonant, the spelling and pronunciation of the final syllable can change slightly. An example: Chuirinn (K*IR-in), I used to put, chuirteá, chuireadh sé, chuireadh sí, chuirimis, chuireadh sibh, chuiridís, chuirtí. If the verb begins with a vowel or an “f”, then “d’” preceded the declarative form: d’ólainn (DOH-lin), d’óltá ; ending with d’óltaí, people used to drink. d’éistinn (DAY*SH-tin), d’éisteá ; ending with d’éistí, people used to listen. d’fhanainn (DAHN-in), d’fhantá ; ending with d’fhantaí, people used to wait. If the verb begins with a vowel, the negative question in the past habitual begins with “nach n_ “, as in : nach n-ólainn? (nahk* NOH-lin), didn’t I used to drink? , and ending with nach n-óltaí? nach n-éistinn?, nach n-éisteá? , and ending with nach n-éistí, didn’t people used to listen. CLEACHTADH The following Irish sentences have either the past habitual or the conditional form of the verb. Picture in your mind whether the action actually used to occur in the past or is only an imagined condition. Léimeadh sé trasna an chlóis. Chloisfinn é. Mholaimis na leanaí (LAN-ee). Dhoirtidís an bainne amach. Chrochadh sí a cóta suas. Chnagfainn

(K*NAHK-hin) ar an doras. Dhúntaí an geata ar a deich a chlog. D’ólfá é. Ní cheapaimis é sin. Mhúintí anseo é sin. Nach mbrisfí é? Key: He used to jump across the yard. I would hear him. We used to praise the children. They used to pour out the milk. She used to hang up her coat. I would knock on the door. The gate used to be closed at ten o’clock. You would drink it. We didn’t used to think that. That used to be taught here. Wouldn’t it be broken? VOCABULARY Here are more adjectives: leictreach (LEK-trahk*), electric. Solas leictreach; electric light. breise (BRESH-e), extra. Cóip bhreise, an extra copy; ceann breise, an extra one. tais (tash), damp. Seomra tais, a damp room; urláir thaise, damp floors. ámharach (AW*-vwuhr-ahk*), lucky. Daoine ámharacha, lucky persons. mí-ámharach (mee-AW*-vwuhr-ahk*), unlucky. Capall mí-ámharach, an unlucky horse. cúng (koong), narrow. Bóithre cúnga, narrow roads.

Lesson 115 CLEACHTADH AITHEANTAIS (A-huhn-tish); recognition drill Chleachtaimis an pianó. Chrochtaí ar an doras é. Ní ólaimis mórán bainne. Nach stadadh an traein ag an stáisiún seo? D’fheiceadh sí na páistí ag teacht abhaile. D’fhreagróinn Seán dá mbeadh am go leor agam. Nach scríobhtá chuici? An nglantá do shílear sa samradh? Nach n-éisteá leis an gclár seo? All of the sentences above are in the aimsir ghnáthchaite (gnaw*-HAH-tye), past habitual tense, except for one. Key: We used to practice (on) the piano. It used to be hung on the door. Didn’t the train used to stop at this station? She used to see the children coming home. I would answer Seán if I had enough time. Didn’t you used to write to her? Did you used to clean your cellar in the summer? Didn’t you used to listen to this program? GRAMMAR For the second conjugation of verbs, such as bailigh or ceannaigh, the past habitual is slightly different. Read this series over several times: bhailínn (VWAHL-een), I used to gather bhailíteá (vwahl-EE-taw*), you used to gather bhailíodh (VWAHL-ee-ohk*) sé, he used to gather bhailíodh sí, she used to gather bhailímis (VWAHL-ee-mish), we used to gather bhailíodh sibh (shiv), you-all used to gather bhailídís (VWAHL-ee-deesh), they used to gather bhailítí (VWAHL-ee-tee), people used to gather The forms resemble those for the first conjugation (verbs such as dún and bris) but have a more emphasized (ee) sound in the verb. The forms also somewhat resemble the modh coinníolach, too, except for the absence of the (h) sound directly after the basic part of the verb. For example, “I would gather” is bhaileoinn, but “I used to gather” is bhailínn. The negative forms begin with: ní bhailínn, I didn’t used to gather. For questions, start with: an mbailínn? (un MAHL-een), did I used to gather? The negative questions begin with: nach mbailínn?, didn’t I used to gather? Now go through the 32 forms with the verb deisigh, repair or mend. The first forms will be: dheisínn ní dheisínn an ndeisínn nach ndeisínn. If the second conjugation verb has a broad consonant before the final syllable, such as ceannaigh or ordaigh, there is no change in pronunciation or spelling of the word endings, but the “a” remains before the ending: cheannaínn (HYAN-een), I used to buy; cheannaíteá (hyan-EE-taw*), you used to buy, and so on. If the verb begins with a vowel, a “d” precedes the declarative form: d’ordaínn (DOHRD-een), I used to order d’éirínn (DEYE-reen), I used to get up Also, in the negative question, the particle “nach” causes an (n) sound to precede the verb form. An example: nach n-ordaítí é? didn’t it used to be ordered? With the verbs that are syncopated or slightly compressed in sound, the forms resemble the others except for the effects of the syncopation. One such verb is imir, play. D’imrínn (DIM-reen), I used to play; d’imríteá (dim-REE-taw*), you used to play. Another of these is freagair (FRAG-ir), answer. D’fhreagaínn (DRAG-reen), I used to answer; d’fhreagraíteá (drag-REE-taw*), you used to answer. Cleachtadh leis an aimsir ghnáthchaite: Read these sentences over aloud or, better still, have someone who is familiar with the pronunciation read them to you. Picture the activity and the person or persons doing it. Several future-tense sentences and modh coinníollach sentences are included. An míníteá na fadhbanna? (FEYEB-uh-nuh). Cheannódh sibh é. Ghoidídís rothair. Nach n-aontaídís leat? D’ordaímis é sin. An mbailítí an bruscar? Nach n-imríodh sé peil? Dheisínn gluaisteáin. Nach n-úllmhaítí an bia gach lá? Líonfaidh Seán an citeal. Key: Did you used to explain the problems? You-all would buy it. They used to steal bicycles. Didn’t they used to agree with you? We used to order that. Did the trash used to be collected? Didn’t he used to play football? I used to repair autos. Didn’t the food used to be prepared everyday? Seán will fill the kettle.

Focail nua: Several double prepositions in Irish are followed by the genitive or possessive. An example that you have already seen in these lessons is os cionn, meaning above. Os cionn an bhoird (ohs kyuhn uh VWIRD) means “above the table”. Three others are: go ceann (goh KYOUN); to the end of or for the duration of. Examples: go ceann na cuairte (nuh KOO-ahrt-ye), for the duration of the visit; go ceann na míosa (MEES-uh) seo, to the end of this month; go ceann an chogaidh (K*UHG-ee), for the duration of the war. It can also mean “to the top of”, as in : go ceann an chnoic, to the top of the hill. i gceann (i GYOUN), at the end of (one meaning). For example: i gceann coicíse (KEYE-kee-shuh), at the end of a fortnight, in two weeks’ time. i gcionn (i GYUN) means this also. ar feadh (er fa), during or along. An example: ar feadh an bhóthair is “along the road”. Sentences: Beidh mé ann go ceann míosa, I will be there for a month. Beidh mé sa bhaile i gceann míosa, I will be home at the end of a month. Chonaic mé Nóra ar feadh an lae sin, I saw Nora during that day. Fuair mé mo lón ar feadh na sráide sin, I got my lunch along that street.

Lesson 116 GRAMMAR An aimsir ghnáthchaite (EYEM-sheer gnaw*-K*AH-tye), or past habitual tense, for tá To express “I used to be, you used to be”, etc., in Irish, these are the forms: bhínn (veen), I used to be bhíteá (VEE-taw*), you used to be bhíodh sé (VEE-ohk* shay*), he used to be bhíodh sé, she used to be bhímis (VEE-mish), we used to be bhíodh sibh, you-all used to be bhídís (VEE-deesh), they used to be bhítí (EE-tee), people used to be Repeat this series several times, until you have thoroughly memorized it. Now review the modh coinníolach for tá: bheinn (ven), bheifeá (VE-faw*), bheadh sé, sí, (ve-YUHK*), bheimis (VE-mish), bheadh sibh, bheidís (VE-deesh), bheifí (VE-fee). Note that the forms somewhat resemble the ones for the aimsir ghnáthchaite. At first, you will have to stop and think to avoid confusing the two tenses. Remember that the aimsir ghnáthchaite has a (vee) sound at the beginning of each form, but the conditional has a (ve) sound. The negative forms for the past habitual (I didn’t used to be, etc.) begin with: ní bhínn (nee veen). Say all eight forms aloud, putting (nee) before each declarative form already learned in this lesson. For questions (did I used to be?, or; didn’t I used to be?), the series begins with: an mbínn? (un meen), did I used to be?; nach mbínn? (nahk* meen), didn’t I used to be? The last forms are: An mbítí (un MEE-tee), did people used to be?; nach mbítí?, didn’t people used to be? Indirect speech with an aimsir ghnáthchaite “Go” and “nach” are the connecting words, and must always be there. Examples: Deir Áine (AW*-ne) go mbíodh a hathair ag obair roimh (rev) a seacht a chlog; Áine says that her father used to be working before seven o’clock. Dúirt an dochtúir nach mbídís chomh (hoh) láidir sin; the doctor said that they didn’t used to be that strong. With other verbs besides tá: Déarfainn (DER-hin) go n-óladh na páistí uisce in áit bainne; I would say that the children used to drink water instead of milk. Chualamar (K*OO-uh-luh-muhr) go gceannaítéa troscán sa siopa sin; we heard that you used to buy furniture in that store. Síleann Séamas go ndúntaí na doirse (DIR-she) tar éis na ranganna; Séamas thinks that the doors used to be closed after the classes. COMHRÁ A return to the three associates of Lesson 112, who are one in their purpose of moving furniture into a dwelling. Éamann: Cén t-urlár atá a teastáil (TAS-taw*-il) uait don tolg seo, a Phádraigín? Pádraigín: Cuirigí sa seomra suite é, i lár an tseomra. Ba cheart dúinn an seantolg a chaitheamh (K*AH-huhv) amach gan mhoil, ach fanfaimid go ceann tamaill. Mícheál: Cuir mata ar thaobh an toilg, sin nó scríobfaimid é ag gabháil (uh guh-VWAW*-il) tríd an doras. Pádraigín: Déanta anois. Suas an staighre libh anois. Éamann: Tarraing, a Mhícheál. Nílim in ann an meáchan (MYAW*K*-huhn) iomlán (UM-law*n) a thógáil. Mícheál: Táim ag déanamh mo dhichill (YEE-hil). Brúigh ar an gcos dheiridh (YER-i), agus tarraingeoidh mé. Beimid tríd an doras gan stró. Pádraigín: Ná tarraingigí trasna an urláir é! Tá mé direach tar éis céir (kay*r) a chuir air. Millfidh sibh an snas. Éamann: Ná bí buartha, a Phádraigín. Táimid an-chúramach.

Mícheál: Cas ar chlé (hlay*) ar thaobh eile den chéad doras eile, a Éamainn. Ansin lig an tolg síos go curamach. Éamann: Sin é é! Cad é an chéad rud eile anois? An leabhragán, b’fhéidir? Nó an cófra tarraiceán? Pádraigín: Thug mé isteach liom an deasc agus sibhse ag déanamh síorchainte faoin mball troscáin beag sin. Micheál: Ach níl ann ach cúpla maidí éadroma, cosúil le troscán go léir inniu. Key: Éamann: What floor do you want for this sofa, Pádraigín? Pádraigín: Put it in the sitting room, in the middle of the room. We should throw out the old sofa right away, but we will wait a while. Micheál: Put a mat on the side of the sofa, or else we will scratch it going through the door. Pádraigín: It’s done now. Up the stairs with you now. Éamann: Pull, Micheál. I can’t lift the entire weight. Micheál: I’m doing my best. Push on the back leg, and I will pull. We’ll be through the door without effort. Pádraigín: Don’t pull it across the floor! I have just waxed it. You’ll ruin the polish. Éamann: Don’t worry, Pádraigín. We are very careful. Micheál: Turn to the left on the other side of the next door, Éamann. Then let down the sofa carefully. Éamann: That’s it. What’s the next thing now? The bookcase, maybe? Or the chest of drawers? Pádraigín: I brought in the desk while you were talking on and on about that little piece of furniture. Micheál: But that’s only a couple of light sticks, like all the furniture today. Notes: Irish often tends to use a verb and a noun instead of a verb alone. Examples are “cuir snas air” and “cuir céir air” for English “polish it” and “wax it”. “céir, an chéir, na céarach, na céaracha”, are the forms for “wax”. “Céirnín” means a record, which was of wax many years ago.

Lesson 117 The last part of the aimsir ghnáthchaite or past habitual tense concerns the irregular verbs. In every one of these, the aimsir ghnáthchaite derives directly from the present tense, with the changes you are familiar with for first conjugation verbs, such as dún or caith. For example: Tar has tagaim for “I come.” “I used to come” is thagainn. The rest of the forms are: thagtá, thagadh sé, sí, thagaimis, thagadh sibh, thagadís, thagtaí. The negative begins with; ní thagainn. The questions begin with: an dtagainn? nach dtagainn? For the other briathra neamhrialta: Téim, I go. Théinn (HAY*-in), I used to go,; théití, people used to go. Feicim, I see. D’fheicinn (DEK-in), I used to see, d’fheictí, people used to see. Cloisim, I hear. Chloisinn (K*LISH-in), I used to hear, chloistí, people used to hear. Deirim, I say. Deirinn (DER-in), I used to say, deirtí, people used to say. Déanim, I do. Dhéanainn (YAY*N-in), I used to do, dhéantaí, people used to do. Beirim air, I seize him. Bheirinn air, I used to seize him, bheirtí air, people used to seize him. faighim, I get. D’fhaighainn (DEYE-in), I used to get, d’fhaightí (DEYE-tee), people used to get. Tugaim, I give. Thugainn, (HUG-in), I used to give, thugtaí, people used to give. Ithim (i-him), I eat. D’ithinn (di-hin), I used to eat, d’ití, people used to eat. Cleachtadh leis an aimsir ghnáthchaite Léigh na habairtí seo leanas (LAN-uhs) agus cum pictiúr i d’intinn faoin ghníomh agus faoin ghníomhaire. Read the following sentences and form a picture in your mind of the action and of the agent. Sílim go dtéití ann sa samhradh. Ní bhfaighinn airgead roimh (rev) an Aoine. Thagadh sé abhaile tar éis an chluiche (K*LI-he). Nach n-ithidís íasc? An dtugadh sibh seanleabhair don ospidéal? Chloistí go minic é sin. Cloisim go bhfeicteá an múinteoir ar an traein. Deireadh sí a paidreacha roimh a naoi a chlog. Dhéanamis bábóga sa mhonarcha sin. Key: I think that people used to go there in the summer. I didn’t used to get money before Friday. He used to come home after the game. Didn’t they used to eat fish? Did you-all used to give old books to the hospital? That used to be heard often. I hear that you used to see the teacher on the train. She used to say her prayers before nine o’clock. We used to make dolls in that factory. Special expressions; cora cainte (KOH-ruh KEYEN-te) or idioms In Irish, as in every language, there are special ways of expressing ideas that employ prepositions. For example, in English, relying on someone may become “counting on him.” Or a person may “live off” someone else. “Ar” (er) means “on” most of the time, but it has other meanings. Here are some examples of idiomatic use. Several you may have met already. Tá áthas (AW*-huhs) orm, I am happy. Cloisim go mbíodh áthas ar Sheán, I hear that Seán used to be happy. Tá fearg (FAR-ruhg) air, he is angry. Bheadh fearg ar Mháire, dá mbeadh an bus mall, Mary would be angry if the bus were late. Tá brón air, he is sad. Beidh brón ar Sheán, Seán will be sad. Tá náire (NAW*-re) air, he is ashamed. Bhí náire ar a iníon, his daughter was ashamed. Tá amhras (OU-ruhs) air, he is doubtful. Bíonn amhras ar mo mháthair, my mother is always doubtful. Tá ionadh (OON-uh) air, he is surprised. Bheadh ionadh ar ár n-athair dá bhfeicfeadh sé é seo, our father would be surprised if he saw this. Often, the reason for the emotion must be added, to tell what has caused it. With the expressions above, except for “fearg”, the word faoi (fwee), meaning “under” follows. Examples: Tá áthas orm faoin mbronntanas seo, I am happy about this present. An bhfuil brón ort faoi do mhadra?, are you sad about your dog? Bheadh amhras orm faoin droichead sin, I used to be doubtful about that bridge, I used to have doubts about that bridge. An mbeidh ionadh ort faoin bpraghas (breyes)?, will you be surprised at the price? With fearg, a person is angry “with” something or someone. For example: Bhí fearg orm le Nóra, I was angry at (with) Nóra. To speak about fear, this is the form: Tá eagla (AH-gluh) orm. Another form is: Tá faitíos (FWAH-tees) orm. In Irish, one is afraid “before” rather than “at”. Tá eagla orm roimh (rev) an mbus, I am afraid of the bus, the bus frightens me. Tá eagla orthu roimhe (REV-e). They are afraid of him. The forms for roimh with the pronouns are: romham (ROH-uhm), before me romhat (ROH-uht), before you roimhe (REV-e), before him roimpi (REM-pee), before her

romhainn (ROH-in), before us romhaibh (ROH-iv), before you-all rompu (ROHM-puh), before them When more explanation is needed, a sentence such as: Tá eagla orm go bhfuil an doras dúnta, I’m afraid that the door is closed, is typical. Not as close to English are: Tá bród orm as mo mhac, I am proud of my son. In Irish, you are proud “out of”, rather than “of”. For jealousy, the difference is even greater. Tá éad orm leat, I am jealous of you. Bhíodh éad air le Séamas, he used to be jealous of Séamas. Cleachtadh leis na réamhfhocail (RAY*V-oh-kil) (prepositions) Feictear dom go bhfuil amhras ar an ndochtúir faoin othar (OH-huhr) sin. It seems to me that the doctor has doubts about that patient. Bheadh áthas ar gach duine faoin aimsir, dá mbeadh an ghrian amuigh. Everyone would be happy about the weather if the sun were out. Beidh náire ort faoi do mhadra, you will be ashamed of your dog. Nach mbíodh eagla ort roimh eitilt (E-tilt)? Didn’t you used to be afraid of flying? Bhí brón ar na héisteoirí faoi bhás an cheoltóra sin. The listeners were sad over the death of that musician. Tá fearg orm le Dóirín. Chuirfeadh sí fearg ar dhuine ar bith. I am angry at Dórín. She would make anyone angry (put anger on anyone).

Lesson 118 Cleachtadh le briathra Learn these verbs and nouns, and then read the sentences following the lists: VERBS: cabhraigh (KOU-ree) le, ag cabhrú (KOU-roo), cabhraithe (KOU-ruh-he), cabhraíonn sé (KOU-ree-uhn shay*) le, cabhróidh (KOU-roh-ee) sé le; help, helping, helped, he helps, he will help. This verb is followed by “le”, as in “Cabhraím le Múiris (MWIR-ish), I help Maurice”. béic (bay*k), ag béiceadh (BAY*K-uh), béicthe (BAY*K-he), béiceann sé, béicfidh (BAY*K-hee) sé; yell, shout shouting, shouted, he shouts, he will shout. Bhéic sé dom (VAY*K shay* duhm), he shouted to me. eitil (E-til), ag eitilt (eg E-tilt), eitilte, eitlíonn sé, eitleoidh sé (et-LOH-ee shay*); fly, flying, flown, he flies, he will fly. adhain (EYE-in), ag adhaint, adhanta (EYE-uhn-tuh), adhnann sé (EYE-nuhn shay*), adhanfaidh sé (EYE-uhn-hee shay*); kindle or light, lighting, lit, he lights, he will light. dóigh (DOH-ee), ag dó, dóite (DOH-i-te), dónn sé (dohn shay*), dófaidh sé (DOH-hee shay*); burn, scorch, burning, burnt, he burns, he will burn. NOUNS: adhmad (EYE-muhd), an t-adhmad, an adhmaid (un EYE-mwid); wood, timber, the wood, of the wood. 1st declension, masculine. ordóg (ohr-DOHG), an ordóg, na hordóige (hohr-DOH-i-ge), na hordóga; thumb. 2nd declension, feminine. méar (may*r), an mhéar (vay*r), na méire (nuh MAY*R-e), na méara; finger. 2nd declension, feminine. lámhainn (LAW*-vwin), an lámhainn, na lámhainne (LAW*-vwin-ye), na lámhainní (LAW*-vwin-yee); glove. 2nd declension, feminine. gás (gaw*s), an gás, an gháis (GAW*sh); gas, the gas, of the gas. 1st declension, masculine. iascaire (EES-kuh-re), an t-iascaire, an iascaire, na hiscairí; fisherman, the fisherman, of the fisherman, the fishermen. 3rd declension, masculine. iasc (EE-uhsk), an t-iasc, an éisc (AY*shk), na héisc; fish, the fish, of the fish, the fish. 1st declension, masculine. Read the following sentences, forming a mental picture of the activity and the agent, without actually translating word for word: Cabhróidh Seán liom, má bheidh sé ann amárach. Bhéiceadh sé suas an staighre dá mhac. Dá ndófá an t-iasc, ní bheadh rud ar bith le n-ithe againn. D’eitlíomar ar an eitleán (ET-i-law*n) is mó sa domhan (DOH-wuhn). Éileoimid os cionn (ohs KYUN) an tí dhóite. Dóim gás sa teach seo, ach dhómar gual anuraidh (uh-NOOR-e). D’adhnainn an tine ar a sé a chlog, ach anois bíonn an aimsir ró-the. Dhóigh sé a mhéar ar an sorn. Chabhróinn leat dá dtiocfá thart anseo. Key: Seán will help me if he is here tomorrow. He used to shout upstairs to his son. If you were to burn the fish, we wouldn’t have anything to eat. We flew on the largest airplane in the world. We will fly over the burned house. I burn gas in this house, but we burned coal last year. I used to light the fire at six o’clock, but now the weather is too hot. He burned his finger on the stove. I would help you if you came over here. Notes on the new words: Another way of saying “help” in Irish is “tabhair cabhair dom”, meaning “give me help.” This is another example of how Irish often expresses an idea with a verb and a noun, as well as a special verb alone. Cabhair belongs to a small group of nouns called the fifth declension. Its forms: cabhair (KOU-ir), an chabhair, na cabhrach (KOU-rahk*), na cabhracha; help, the help, of the help, the helps. You have probably seen the name “An Cumann Cabhrach”, which means “The Society of Help”, or “The Aid Society.” “Dóigh” is a first conjugation verb, like dún and bris, but in the present tense “dóigh” is slightly different. dóim (DOH-im), I burn, dónn tú (dohn too), you burn, dónn sé, sí, dóimid (DOH-i-mid), we burn, dónn sibh, dónn siad, dóitear (DOH-i-tyuhr), it is burned. A few other verbs resemble “dóigh”. Clóigh (KLOH-ee), means “print”. Clóitear anseo é; it is printed here. Reoigh (ROH-ee), means “freeze”. Reofaigh sé (ROH-hee shay*) an t-iasc, he will freeze the fish. Do not use “adhmaid” for a clump of trees, which is a “coill” (kwil), a wood in English. An bord adhmaid (EYE-mwid) is a wooden table. Lámhainn comes from the word for hand, lámh. The English word “glove” is also derived from words for hand, but the derivation is not as apparent. Eitilt is one of a family of words relating to aerial flight. Eite means wing, and eitleán, an t-eitleán (un TET-i-law*n), na heitleáin (nuh HET-ilaw*-in); airplane, the airplane, the airplanes, is a derived word. Iascaire is one of a few 4th declension words ending in -e and signifying occupation or job descriptions. Scoláire is another, and cigire (KIG-i-re) means inspector; na scoláirí and na cigirí are the plurals. GRAIMÉIR The preposition “ar” can give other meanings to verbs that it follows. For example, “lig ar” means to pretend. Lig sé air nach bhfaca sé an madra; he pretended that he didn’t see the dog.

Lig ort nach bhfuil tú anseo; pretend that you are not here. This differds from “cuir i gcás,” which means “suppose,” as in “Cuir i gcás go bhfuil tú ar an ngealach (er uhng AL-uhk*),” suppose that you are on the moon. “Cuir isteach ar” means to interfere with someone. “Chuir sé isteach orm,” he interrupted me, he broke in on what I was doing. RECOGNITION DRILL FOR VERBS Dódh an séipéal. D’adhanfainn an tine dá mbeadh cipín agam. Chabhríodh Brian le fear an phoist. Béicfidh sibh nuair a fheicfidh sibh an bád nua. D’eitil sí amach trasna na farraige. Ligeadh Séamas air go mbíodh sé breoite. Tá sé ag adhaint na tine anois. Níor chuir sé sin isteach orm gur shroich mé an chathair. Key: The church was burned. I would light the fire if I had a match. Brian used to help the postman. You will shout when you see the new boat. She flew out across the sea. Séamas used to pretend that he was sick. He is lighting the fire now. That man didn’t interrupt me until I reached the city.

Lesson 119 CLEACHTADH LE BRIATHRA; practice with verbs Cuir Gaeilge ar na sraitheanna seo: I believe. I believed. I used to believe. I will believe. I would believe. I fly. I flew. I used to fly. I will fly. I would fly. I see. I saw. I used to see. I will see. I would see. You don’t read. You didn’t read. You didn’t used to read. You won’t read. You wouldn’t read. Does he collect? Did he collect? Did he used to collect? Will he collect? Would he collect? Key: Creidim. Chreid mé (hyred may*). Chreidinn. Creidfidh mé (KRET-hee may*). Chreidfinn (HYRET-hin). Eitlím (ET-i-leem). D’eitil mé. D’eitlínn (DET-leen). Eitleoidh mé (et-LOH-ee may*). D’eitleoinn (det-LOH-in). Feicim. Chonaic mé. D’fheicinn. Feicfidh mé. D’fheicfinn (DEK-hin). Ní léann (LAY*-uhn) tú. Níor léigh tú. Ní léiteá. Ní léifidh (LAY*-hee) tú. Ní léifeá (LAY*-faw*). An mbailíonn sé? Ar bhailigh sé? An mbailíodh (MAHL-ee-ohk*) sé? An mbaileoidh (mahl-YOH-ee) sé? An mbaileodh (mahl-YOHK*) sé? Cuir Béarla ar an focail seo leanas (LAN-uhs): Nár cheannaigh tú é? Nach n-éistfidh tú leo? An ithimis iad? D’imíomar linn. Léimfeadh sé. Nach ndúnadh sibh é? Key: Didn’t you buy it? Won’t you listen to them? Did we used to eat them? We departed (took ourselves off). He would jump. Didn’t you-all used to close it? Réamhfhocail (RAY*V-ohk-il); prepositions More uses for the word “ar”, meaning generally “on”: When an indefinite location is meant, “ar” does not cause aspiration of the word after it. Learn these examples: ar bord; on board (a ship, train, or generally present). ar muir (er MWIR); at sea; ar farraige; at sea. ar talamh (er TAH-luhv); on land. ar bóthar; on the road, traveling. ar cruinniú; meeting, in session. Examples: Níl Seán ar bord fós; Seán’s not on board yet. Is deas tú bheith ar bord againn; good to have you on board. Bhí an long ar muir le tamall fada; the ship was at sea for a long time. Is fearr leis an gcat bheith ar talamh; the cat prefers to be on land. Bhínn (veen) ar bóthar le linn na míosa go léir; I used to be on the road the whole month. An bhfuil an t-uachtarán agus na múinteoirí ar cruinniú fós?; are the president and the teachers still meeting? To describe certain actions or conditions, “ar” may be followed by a verbal noun or other kind of noun. Learn these phrases: ar fiuchadh (FYOOK*-huh); boiling ar mire (MIR-e); very angry, also ar buile (BWIL-e) ar fáil; available ar meisce; intoxicated ar siúl (shool); going on, happening ar seilbh (SHEL-iv); in the possession of ar seachrán (SHAHK*-raw*n); astray, in error ar iasacht (EE-sahk*t); on loan, borrowed Examples: Tá an t-uisce ar fiuchadh; the water is boiling. Bhí an cat ar mire; the cat was very angry, wild with rage. Níl an t-airgead ar fáil anois; the money is not to be had now. An bhfuil sé ar meisce?; is he drunk? Cad tá ar siúl ann?; what is happening there? Beidh mé ar seilbh an tí go luath; I will be in possession of the house soon. Tá Seán ar seachrán ar an gcnoc; Seán is wandering astray on the hill. Fuair mé an leabhar ar iasacht; I borrowed the book. GRAMMAR The subjunctive, an modh fóshuiteach (foh-HI-tahk*) san aimsir láithreach Irish has a separate form for expressing the equivalent of “I hope that __ “, or “May it __,” or “It should __ .” This is called the present tense of the subjunctive mood. It is simple to form and use. Here are several examples to memorize before looking at the rules for forming the mood and tense:

go dtaga do ríocht (REE-ohk*t); may Thy kingdom come go maire tú (MAH-re too); may you live, long life to you. go mbeannaí Dia dhuit (goh MAN-ee DEE-uh git); may God bless you. go raibh maith agat; thank you (may you have good). The negative form is introduced by “nár” (naw*r) and is usually imprecation or wish for unfavorable outcome or for punishment, although a few exceptions are found: Nár agrá Dia air é; may God not punish him for it. Nár laga Dia a lámh; may God not weaken his hand. For first-conjugation verbs (such as dún or mol) ending in a broad consonant, the basic forms end in “a”: go dúna, go mola, go n-óla. For first-conjugation verbs ending in a slender consonant, such as caith or bris, the basic forms end in “e”; go gcaithe, go mbrise, go n-éiste. For second-conjugation verbs, such as bailigh or ceannaigh, “í” is the ending: go mbailí, go gceannaí. A complete listing, to be read aloud several times: go ndúna mé (goh NOON-uh may*), may I close. go ndúna tú; go ndúna sé; go ndúna sí. go ndúnaimid, may we close; go ndúna sibh; go ndúna siad. go ndúntar é, may it be closed. nár dhúna mé (naw*r GOON-uh may*), may I not close. nár dhúna tú; nár dhúna sé; nár dhúna sí. nár dhúnaimid, may we not close; nár dhúna sibh; nár dhúna siad. nár dhúntar é, may it not be closed. For “cuir”, the first form is: go gcuire mé (goh GIR-e may*). For “imigh”, the first form is: go n-imí mé (goh NIM-ee may*). For the irregular verbs, this tense is based on the present tense and is entirely regular, as you can see from these: go dtaga mé, go dté mé, go bhfeice mé, go ndeire mé, go gcloise mé, go ndéana mé, go bhfaighe mé, go dtuga mé, go mbeire mé air, go n-ithe mé.

Lesson 120 GRAMMAR The present subjunctive for the second conjugation has all forms except two ending in “__ í”. An example: go gceannaí (goh GAN-ee) mé, I hope that I buy go gceannaí tú, I hope that you buy go gceannaí sé, sí; I hope that he, she buys go gceannaímid, I hope that we buy go gceannaí sibh, I hope that you-all buy go gceannaí siad, I hope that they buy go gceannaítear (goh GAN-ee-tuhr) é, I hope that it is bought The negative forms begin with: nár cheannaí (naw*r HYAN-ee) mé, I hope that I don’t buy; the final one is: nár cheannaítear é. There is a small group of second-conjugation verbs, ending in -il, -in, -is, and -ir that contract slightly (as they do in other tenses) in the modh foshuiteach or subjunctive. The letter “i” drops out, as in these examples. Oscail, open go n-osclaí mé, may I open go n-osclaímid (goh NOHSK-lee-mid), may we open go n-osclaítear (goh NOHSK-lee-tuhr) é, may it be opened nár osclaí mé, may I not open nár osclaímid, may we not open nár osclaítear é, may it not be opened Cosain (KUH-sin), defend go gcosnaí (goh GUHS-nee) mé, I hope that I defend go gcosnaímid, I hope that we defend go gcosnaítear é, I hope that it is defended nár chosnaí (naw*r K*UHS-nee) mé, I hope that I don’t defend nár chosnaímid, I hope that we don’t defend nár chosnaítear é, I hope that it is not defended Imir, play go n-imrí mé, may I play go n-imrímid (goh NIM-ree-mid), may we play go n-imrítear (goh NIM-ree-tuhr) é, may it be played nár imrí mé, may I not play nár imrímid, may we not play nár imrítear, may it not be played Inis (IN-ish), tell, relate go n-insí mé, may I tell go n-insímid, may we tell go n-insítear é, may it be told nár insí mé, may I not tell nár insímid, may we not tell nár insítear é, may it not be told An modh foshuiteach le “tá” With this verb, the word “raibh” (rev) is the main one for the present subjunctive: go raibh mé, I hope that I am, may I be go raibh tú, go raibh sé, go raibh sí go rabhaimid (goh ROU-uh-mid), I hope that we are, may we be go raibh sibh, go raibh siad go rabhthar (ROU-huhr), I hope that it is ___ ná raibh mé (naw* rev), I hope that I am not, may I not be ná raibh tú, ná raibh sé, ná raibh sí ná rabhaimid, I hope that we are not, may we not be ná raibh sibh, ná raibh siad ná rabhthar (naw* ROU-huhr), I hope that it is not ___ Before practice to illustrate how this modh foshuiteach serves in communicating ideas, here are some words for expressing wishes: VERBS fóir (FOH-ir), ag fóirithint (uh FOH-ri-hint), fóirthe (FOH-ir-he), fóireann sé, fóirfidh sé; save, saving, saved, he saves, he will save (usually with “ar”)

agair (AH-gir), ag agairt, agartha (AH-gahr-huh), agraíonn sé, agróidh sé; avenge or take retribution for, avenging, avenged, he avenges, he will avenge (with “ar” for “on”) beannaigh (BAN-ee), ag beannú (uh BAN-oo), beannaithe (BAN-uh-he), beannaíonn sé, beannóidh sé; bless or greet, blessing, blessed, he blesses, he will bless ( with “do”) maire (MAH-re), ag maireachtáil (uh MAHR-ahk*-taw*-il), martha (MAHR-huh), maireann sé, mairfidh sé; live, living, lived, he lives, he will live éalaigh (AY*-lee), ag éalú (eg AY*-loo), éalaithe (AY*-luh-he), éalaíonn sé, éalóidh sé; escape, escaping, escaped, he escapes, he will escape NOUNS eilifint (EL-i-fint), an eilifint, na heilifinte, na heilfintí; elephant, the elephant, of the elephant, the elephants gluaisteán (GLOOSH-tyaw*n), an gluaisteán, an ghluaisteáin, na gluaisteán; automobile, the auto, of the auto, the autos trócaire, an trócaire, na trócaire; mercy, the mercy, of the mercy COMHRÁ Cruinníonn ár gcairde chun rudaí tabhachtacha a phlé Deasún: Go mbeannaí Dia dhuit, a Bhríd. Bríd: Go mbeannaí Dia is Muire dhuit, a Dheasúin. Pól: Cheannaigh mo bheann gúna nua, a Mháire. Máire: Go maire sí agus go gcaithe sí é. Séamas: Thiomáin mé mo ghluaisteán trasna do chlóis, a Nóra. Nóra: Go léime eilifint éalaithe in airde ar do ghluaisteán, a Shéamais. Pádraig: Anois, tá cara liom i bpriosún (i bri-SOON), a Eibhlín. Eibhlín: Go n-éalaí sé go luath. Seán: Chaill (k*eyel) mé d’fháinne, a Bhláthnaid. Bláthnaid: Go bhfóire Dia ort, a Sheáin. Seoirse (SHOHR-she): Mháraigh mo mhac do chat, a Chaitlín. Caitlín: Nár agraí Dia air é. Key: Our friends gather to discuss important things. Deasún: May God bless you (Hello), Bríd. Bríd: Hello, Deasún. Pól; My wife bought a new dress, Mary. Mary: May she live and wear it. Séamas: I drove my car across your yard, Nóra. Nóra: May an escaped elephant jump up on your car, Séamas. Pádraig: Now, a friend of mine is in prison, Eibhlín. Eibhlin: I hope he escapes soon. Seán: I lost your ring, Bláthnaid. Bláthnaid: May God help you, Seán. Seoirse: My son killed your cat, Cáitlín. Cáitlín: I hope that God doesn’t punish him for it.

Lesson 121 CLEACHTADH BRIATHRA: practice with verbs Read the following sentences aloud, or have someone who is familiar with the pronunciation guide of these lessons read them to you. Do not translate them in your mind. Instead, form a mental picture of, and perhaps an emotion concerning, the idea and the agent. Ullmhaímid bia le haghaidh an lóin. Níor ullmhaíomar an fheoil inné. Nach n-ullmhaímid an t-iasc roimh an fheoil? An ullmhóimid dinnéar roimh teacht do mhic? D’ullmhóimis ceann eile, dá mbeimis in ann an fheoil a fháil. Deisíodh an seandroichead tar éis na timpiste. Déantar pinn níos fearr ná iad sin. Cheapfá go mbeidís gan mhaith ar bith. Ghoidfí é, dá bhfágfá (VWAWK-faw*) ar an tsráid é. Key: We prepare food for the lunch. We didn’t prepare the meat yesterday. Don’t we prepare the fish before the meat? Will we prepare dinner before the coming of your son? We would prepare another one, if we were able to get the meat. The old bridge was repaired after the accident. Better pens than those are made. You would think that they were no good at all. It would be stolen, if you were to leave it on the street. Notes: “Teacht” is a verbal noun and can serve as an ordinary noun. GRAMMAR The verb “is” has its own modh foshuiteach, aimsir láithreach, or subjunctive, present tense. It is very simple: gura (GU-ruh) and nára (NAW*Ruh) are the forms before words beginning with any consonant, including “f”. Before words beginning with a vowel, the form becomes “gurab” (GUR-uhb) and “nárab” (NAW*R-uhb). These four forms generally occur only in certain expressions, such as the examples here: Gura slán an scéalaí (SHKAY*L-ee); good luck to the story teller. Nára mhaith an mhaise (VWAH-shuh) dó é; I hope it’s no good to him. Gurab amhlaidh (OU-lee) duit; May it be the same to you. This is the reply to “Nollaigh shona dhuit”, Merry Christmas, etc. Nárab olc an mhaise dó é; I hope that he will benefit from it. Foirmeacha le “ar” To ask another person to describe something, say, “Cuir síos air”. Literally, this means, “Put down on it”. “Send for him” is: Cuir fios air; put knowledge on him. To ask someone to force another person to do something, say “Tabhair air é a dhéanamh” (YAY*N-uhv). “Socraigh air” means “Decide on it”. Cleachtadh leo seo: Cuirfinn síos ar an teach, dá mbeifeá anseo; I would describe the house, if you were here. Cuireadh fios ar an ndochtúir; the doctor was sent for. Nár chuire tú síos ar an timpiste; I hope you won’t describe the accident. Chuirfinn fios ar m’iníon; I used to send for my daughter. Thug sé orm an carr a fháil; he made me get the car. Thabharfadh sé ar a mháthair a bhricfeasta a ullmhú, dá mbeadh sí sa bhaile; he would make his mother get (prepare) his breakfast, if she were home. Socraíonn siad ar chruinniú go tapaidh (TAHP-ee); they decide on a meeting quickly. Shocraíomar ar bhrat urláir aréir; we decided on a rug last night. Liosta focal briathra scaip (skahp), ag scaipeadh ( uh SKAHP-uh), scaipthe, scaipeann sé, scaipidh sé; scatter, scattering scattered, he scatters, he will scatter. ceistigh (KESH-tee), ag ceistiú (KESHT-yoo), ceistithe, ceistíonn sé, ceisteoidh sé; question, questioning, questioned, he questions, he will question. nigh (ni), ag ní, nite (NI-te), níonn sé, nífidh (NEE-hee) sé; wash, washing, washed, he washes, he will wash. croith (kri), ag croitheadh, croite (KRI-te), croitheann sé, croitfidh sé; shake, shaking, shaken, he shakes, he will shake. maraigh (MAHR-ee), ag marú, maraithe, maraíonn sé, maróidh sé; kill, killing, killed, he kills, he will kill. Ainmfocail (AN-im-OH-kil) bruscar (BRUS-kuhr), an bruscar, an bhruscair; refuse, rubbish, the refuse, of the refuse; 1st declension. cosamar (KOHS-uh-muhr), an cosamar, an chosamair; garbage; 1st declension. frog (frohg), an frog, an fhroig (un rig), na froganna; frog, the frog, of the frog, the frogs; 1st declension. méara (MAY*R-uh), an méara, an mhéara, na méaraí; mayor, the mayor, of the mayor, the mayors; 3rd declension COMHRÁ Leanann ár gcairde lena ngnóthaí an-tabhachtacha; our friends continue with their important affairs: Diarmuid: Chuireamar ár mbruscar amach aréir. Siobhán: Go mbailítear do bhruscar roimh a scaiptear é.

Breandán: Phós m’iníon é, phóg sí é, ach tá sé ina fhrog fós. Róisín: Go ndéana Dia trocaire orthu beirt. Daithí: Bhí mé amuigh go mall aréir. Ríobhca (REEV-kuh) (Rebecca): Nár cheistí d’athair thú. Donall: Chroith mé fein agus an méara lámh le chéile ar maidin. Fionnuala: Nár nitear do lámh go brách. Niall: Fuaireamar an t-airgead agus an talamh (TAH-luhv). Pádraigín: Nár chaillimid go deo iad. Peadar: Bhí an cat ag lorg na luch. Eithne: Go maraí sé gach luch. Key: Diarmuid: We put our trash out last night. Siobhán: May your trash be collected before it is scattered. Breandán: My daughter married him, she kissed him, but he’s still a frog. Róisín: May God have mercy on the two of them. Daithí: I was out late last night. Ríobhca: I hope your father doesn’t question you. Donall: Myself and the mayor shook hands this morning. Fionnuala: May your hand never be washed. Niall: we got the money and the land. Pádraigín: May we never lose them. Peadar: The cat was looking for the mice. Eithne: May he catch every mouse. Nótaí: “He questioned me” can be either “Chuir sé ceist orm” or “cheistigh sé mé”. “Beirt”, two persons, can precede or follow the compound prepositions. “Beirt agaibh” means ‘two of you”, and “orthu beirt” means “on two of them” or “on both of them”.

Lesson 122 Cleachtadh leis an gclaoninsint (GLAY*-uhn-IN-shint); practice with indirect speech Read the following sentences aloud. Do not translate them word for word, but instead form a mental picture of the action and the agents. Deir sé go mbeidh sé ag cur sneachta roimh i bhfad. Chualamar nár fhill sí ar scoil anuraidh. Dúirt Mícheál liom gan glaoch ar a dhochtúir. D’fheicfeá go bhfuil an bus in aice an stáisiúin, dá mbeifeá lasmuigh den oifig. Níor cheapamar go gcloisfeá an chéad traein eile. Déarfaidh mé le Réamonn gan teacht anseo amárach. Déaradh Brian liom dul abhaile ach gan an doras tosaigh a ligint oscailte. Dúirt Síle liom gur cheannaíodh sí troscán sa siopa ilranna sin. Ghuíomar gan na saighdiúirí a fhilleadh. D’iarrfaidh mé air an leabhar a cheannach dom. Key: He says that it will be snowing before long. We heard that she didn’t return to school last year. Mícheál told me not to call (telephone) his doctor. You would see that the bus is next to the station, if you were outside the office. We didn’t think that you would hear the next train. I will tell Réamonn not to come here tomorrow. Brian would tell me to go home but not to leave the front door open. Síle told me that she used to buy furniture in that department store. We prayed that the soldiers would not return. I will ask him to buy the book for me. Nótaí: “Lasmuigh (lahs-MWEE) de” means “outside of”; “laistigh (lahsh-TEE) de” is “inside of”. “Ilranna” means “many departments or sections”, from “roinn”, a share or part of. “Nár fhille na saighdiúirí” were the words actually spoken in connection with the next to the last sentence. GRAMMAR An modh ordaitheach (un moh OHRD-i-hahk*); the imperative mood Orders or commands in Irish are given in several ways beside the simple forms for speaking directly to one or several persons. “Las an solas” means that you want one person, the person being spoken to, to light the light. “Lasaigí an solas” is an order to two or more persons. If you want someone else to light the light, you would say in English “Let him light the light” or “Have him light the light”. In Irish, there is a special form for this in every verb: Lasadh sé an solas Other examples: Oladh sé an tae; let him drink the tea. Ritheadh sí abhaile; have her run home. Ceannaíodh (KAN-ee-ohk*) sé an tolg (TUHLluhg); have him buy the sofa. Imíodh (IM-ee-ohk*) sí leí; have her depart. For “Have them ___ “, the forms are: lasaidís an solas; have them light the light. Olaidís an tae; rithidís abhaile; ceannaídís an tolg; imídís leo. For ordering ourselves to do something, which is the equivalent of the English “Let us ___ “, the Irish forms are: Lasaimis (LAHS-uh-mish) an solas; ólaimis an tae; rithimis abhaile; ceannaímis (KAN-ee-mish) an tolg; imímis linn. There is even a form for ordering one’s self to do something, although it is not common. It is the same as the present tense, “Lasaim an solas”, which means approximately “Let me light the light” or “I am going to light the light”. It is more common in a few negative forms, such as “Ná cloisim é sin”; Don’t let me hear that, I don’t want to hear that”. Finally, there is an imperative for the free form, an fhoirm shaor: Lastar an solas; have someone light the light, let the light be lit. This form is often a prohibition. For example, the equivalent of “No smoking” or “smoking prohibited” is “Ná caitear tobac”. Read these complete lists aloud and picture the effect of each command: lasaim las lasadh sé lasadh sí lasaimis lasaigí lasaidís lastar é

bailím bailigh bailíodh sé bailíodh sí bailímis bailígí bailídís bailítear é For orders to refrain from an action, which is the negative command, add, “ná” (naw*) before the forms above: Ná cuirim, ná cuir, ná cuireadh sé, ná cuireadh sí, ná cuirimis, ná cuirigí, ná cuiridís, ná cuirtear é. If the verb begins with a vowel, prefix an “h” to it: Ná hól an deoch sin; ná hóladh sí an t-uisce, don’t let her drink the water, make sure she doesn’t drink the water. Examples of usage for an modh ordaitheach: Téimis abhaile; let’s go home. Fanimis anseo; let’s stay here. Ná seastar anseo; no standing here. For “tá”, the forms are: bím, bí, bíodh sé, bíodh sí, bímis, bígí, bídís, bítear For the regular verbs, the imperative forms are nearly all regular. Tar; come, has: tagaim, tar, tagadh sé, tagadh sí, tagaimis, tagaigí, tagaidís, tagtar. Tabhair; give, has: tugaim, tabhair, tugadh sé, tugadh sí, tugaimis, tugaigí, tugaidís, tugtar. Abair; say, has: abraim, abair, abradh sé, abradh sí, abraimis, abraigí, abraidís, abairtear. In Irish, “to have” makes use of “tá” with “ag”. Emotions and illnesses need “tá with “ar”. The imperative, as well as the subjunctive for wishing, must have a form of “tá” in these instances. Examples: Bíodh arán agat; have some bread. Bíodh ceann eile agat; have another one. Bíodh pláta ag Séamas; let Séamas have a plate. Bíodh áthas ort; be happy. Ná bíodh eagla ort; don’t be afraid. Ná bíodh éad ort; don’t be jealous. Go raibh áthas ort; may you be happy. Go raibh biseach air; may he recover. Go raibh saol fada agat; may you have a long life. Ná raibh dóiteán dea leithead sin agat; I hope you don’t have a fire like that.

Lesson 123 CLEACHTADH BRIATHRA; practice on verbs Below are several sentences. Read them aloud or have someone familiar with the pronunciation of Irish read them to you, phrase by phrase. Do not translate them in your mind. Instead, form a mental picture of the action and of who or what is doing it. Also, try to form an emotion, such as sympathy, disappointment, hunger, surprise, joy, etc., about the activity. If you don’t understand at the first reading or hearing, wait a few seconds and then try again. You will probably retain a few words of the sentence, and a second reading or hearing will give you more. Only if you fail after four or five tries should you look at the key under the sentences. Dhún na fir doirse tar éis an chéilí. Bheadh sé ina luí roimh a lón, mura mbeifeá ann. Ní ordóidh mé rud ar bith as catalóg ordú phoist. An mbristí mórán soillse sráide nuair a bhí tú i d’óige, a athair? Ná bailítear airgead ag an gcruinniú seo. Nach gcnagfaidh tú ar an bhfuinneog ar thaobh eile an tí? Coimeádaigí na ceapairí sin, agus gheobhaidh mé buidéal bainne. Déarfainn go mbeadh an fómhar chomh te agus a bhí sé riamh. Key: The men closed the doors after the céilí. He would be lying down before his lunch, if you weren’t there. I won’t order anything out of a mail-order catalog. Were many street lights broken when you were young, father? No money is to be collected at this meeting (Don’t let money be collected ). Won’t you knock on the window on the other side of the house? Keep those sandwiches, and I will get a bottle of milk. I would say that the autumn would be as hot as it ever was. The word “catalóg” should be obvious to you. It is a direct borrowing from English. The following word, “ordú,” should be close enough to “order” in English to cause you to connect it with “catalóg” and think of a mail-order catalog, even if you can not immediately work out the grammar details. GRAMMAR Nearly the last important area of Irish that these lessons have not yet covered is the grouping of sentences or clauses together in ways that are slightly more complicated than merely saying “and” or “but” to join two sentences. Up to now, these lessons have encouraged you to speak, and to write and think, in short sentences. This was done to help you speak and write without overly long deliberation. By now, you should be able to reply to someone with an answer that is relevant to some degree, even if only “Abair arís é sin, más é do thoil é.” The relative clause form of which: Chonaic mé an buachaill a d’imigh abhaile ar maidin; I saw the boy who departed for home this morning, is an example, improves your style in Irish, allowing you to speak and write better Irish. Read these examples over, out loud of course, several times to understand what is called the nominative case. Do not bother to learn the grammatical terms for this, however. Merely learn how to use the form. Éisteann sé leis an múinteoir atá sa rang eile; he listens to the teacher who is in the other class. Chuir mé ar an mbord an leabhar a thit ar an urlár; I put on the table the book that fell on the floor. Tiománann Máire an bus a bhuail a seanathair; Mary drives the bus that hit her grandfather. Is é sin an fear a d’ól an cupán tae tamall ó shin; that’s the man who drank a cup of tea a while ago. Is í seo an cailín a dhéanfaidh an obair; This is the girl who will do the work. Léim na daoine a bhí ann thar an mballa; The people who were there jumped over the wall. This should give you a sense of how to form the relative. The small word (called a particle) that means “who” or “that” in English is “a.” It causes aspiration in the verb after it. “The child who cries” is: An páiste a ghoileann. In the present and future tenses, the particle “a” is followed by the ordinary form of the verb, with initial letter aspirated if possible: an bhean a itheann feoil; the woman who eats meat an fear a cheapann é sin; the man who thinks that an dochtúir a dhéanann an obair; the doctor who does the work an traein atá anseo; the train that is here na daoine a ólfaidh fíon; the people who will drink wine an ceoltóir a chasfaidh an t-amhrán; the musician who will sing the song In the past, past habitual, and conditional tenses or moods, the particle “a” is followed by the form of the verb that you have already learned, with the “d” preceding vowels and “f”. Here are examples: an fear a chaith an liathróid; the man who threw the ball an bhean an d’ól an tae; the woman who drank the tea an dochtúir a d’fhág an scian san oifig; the doctor who left the knife in the office na cailíní a chaitheadh toitíní; the girls who used to smoke cigarettes an madra a d’óladh beoir; the dog that used to drink beer an t-iascaire a d’fhilleadh abhaile go luath; the fisherman who used to return home early

an péintéir a gheallfadh é sin; the painter who would promise that an cat a d’ólfadh an t-uisce salach; the cat who would drink the dirty water an bus a d’fhanfadh sa stáisiún; the bus that would remain in the station Then, with “tá,” some examples are: an t-uachtarán atá breoite; the president who is sick an samhradh a bhí te; the summer that was hot an loch a bhíodh fuar; the lake that used to be cold an bád a bheidh ann; the boat that will be there an léine a bheadh saor; the shirt that would be cheap We will begin practice with this in the next lesson, but in the meantime try to use this form in your thinking, speaking, and writing of Irish. Do not worry about making mistakes in usage. Merely try to be clear and follow your developing linguistic instinct.

Lesson 124 RELATIVE CLAUSES In sentences with relative clauses of the type in which the word “who” or “what” is in the nominative case, such as: I saw the man who collects newspapers; chonaic mé an fear a bhailíonn nuachtáin, you often need to express the negative. In the sentence above, this would be: Chonaic mé an fear nach mbailíonn nuachtáin; I saw the man who doesn’t collect newspapers. “Nach” (nahk*) connects the clauses for the negative, for all tenses except the past, where “nár” (naw*r) takes its place. Even in the past tense, however, the irregular verbs “déan, abair, téigh, feic, faigh, tá” are preceded by “nach”. Read aloud the following examples of “nach” or “nár” usage with the nominative relative structure. Try to develop a general sense of how the relative clause is formed, so that you will be ready for the practice at the end of this lesson: An aimsir láithreach; the present tense Seo é an buachaill nach mbearrann sé fós é féin; this is the boy who does not shave (himself) yet. Cuirim sa bhosca na píosaí aráin nach bhfuil ite; I put into the box the pieces of bread that are not eaten. Tugann sé do Mháire staidéir mhargaidh (STAH-day*r VWAHR-uh-gee) nach n-ordaíonn sí; he gives Máire marketing surveys that she doesn’t order. An aimsir chaite (K*AHT-ye); the past tense Faighim (FEYE-im) leabhair nár tháinig tríd an bpost; I get books that didn’t come through the mail. Déarfaidh mé é sin leis an gcigire nár scríobh litir ar bith chugam (HOO-uhm); I will say that to the inspector who didn’t write any letter to me. Ná díol an bhó nár ith a féar; don’t sell the cow that didn’t eat its grass. For the few irregular verbs that take “nach” in the past tense: Labhróidh Seán leis an bhfear nach ndearna an obair i gceart; Seán will talk with the man who didn’t do the work properly. Ghlan mé na fuinneoga nach raibh briste; I cleaned the windows that weren’t broken. Imeoidh Bláthnaid ar eitilt nach ndeachaigh fós chuig Boston; Bláthnaid will leave on a flight that didn’t go to Boston yet. An aimsir ghnáthcaite; the past habitual tense Labhraím gach lá le múinteoir nach bhfoghlaimíodh an Iodáilis; I talk every day with a teacher who didn’t used to study Italian. Is é sin an bus nach dtéadh ar an ardbhóthar; that’s the bus that didn’t used to go on the highway. Fuair mé na hainmneacha de na páistí nach n-óladh bainne; I got the names of the children who didn’t used to drink milk. An aimsir fháistineach; the future tense Taispeáin dom an duine nach mbeidh ann amárach; show me the person who won’t be here tomorrow. D’éisteamar leis an amhránaí nach n-imeoidh roimh an samhradh seo chugainn (rev-uh SOU-ruh shuh HOO-in); we listened to the singer who will not leave before next summer. An modh coinníollach; the conditional mood Dúirt sé é sin le daoine nach gcreidfeadh é; he told that to people who wouldn’t believe it. Sin é an t-iascaire nach rachadh amach tar éis meán-lae; that is the fisherman who wouldn’t go out after noon. CLEACHTADH Cuir Gaeilge ar na habairtí seo leanas; Translate these following sentences into Irish: I put out the cat that howled (béic) all night. I gave milk to the cat that didn’t howl all night. I will see the woman who lost the ring. I would see the woman who didn’t lose the expensive ring. Key: Chuir mé amach an cat a bhéic an oíche go léir. Thug mé bainne don chat nár bhéic an oíche go léir. Feicfidh mé an bhean a chaill an fáinne. Feicfidh mé an bhean nár chaill an fáinne daor ( or “costasach”). Notice that tenses can be mixed in this sentence forming. For example, “I saw who will “ or “He would give that was .” The accusative case with the relative

This apparently formidable subject becomes simple when the everyday meaning of it is explained by illustration: I prepared the lunch that Seán ate; d’ullmhaigh mé an lón a d’ith Seán. He will sell the boat that he bought last year; díolfaidh sé an bád a cheannaigh sé anuraidh. The rule for “nach” and “nár” hold here, too. Samplaí: D’fhill sé ar an doras nár oscail an múinteoir; he returned to the door that the teacher didn’t open. Chuir mo mháthair ar an mbord an gloine nach bhfaca mé; my mother put on the table the glass that I didn’t see. The danger of ambiguity or misunderstanding can arise here, however. Obviously, in the sentences just preceding, there is no mistaking who or what is doing or receiving the action in the second clause. For example, a door does not open a teacher, nor does a boat buy a person. In other situations, however, the meaning may not be clear: Sin é an fear a thuigeann Seán, This could be either “That is the man who understands Seán” or “That is the man whom Seán understands.” To avoid the ambiguity, follow this pattern: Sin é an fear a dtuigeann Seán é; that is the man whom Sean understands; and keep the meaning of “Sin é an fear a thuigeann Seán” as “That is the man who understands Seán.” The “a” relative word in this usage eclipses instead of aspirating. In the past tense, “ar” and “nár” serve, with an “é,” “í,” or “iad” at the sentence end. The six irregular verbs: “déan, abair, téigh, feic, faigh, tá” are preceded by “a” and “nach” in the past, with eclipses occurring. Examples: Chonaic mé an fear a bhuaileann mná; I saw the man who strikes women. Chonaic mé an fear nach mbuaileann mná; I saw the man who doesn’t strike women. Chonaic mé an fear a mbuaileann mná é; I saw the man whom women strike. Chonaic mé an fear nach mbuaileann mná é; I saw the man whom women don’t strike. Chonaic mé an fear ar bhuail mná. Chonaic mé an fear ar bhuail mná é. Chonaic mé an fear a fhuair Seán. Chonaic mé an fear a bhfuair Seán é.

Lesson 125 Graiméar: an forainm coibhneasta (fohr-AN-im KIV-nas-tuh) This, the relative pronoun, may serve in several ways beside the ones you have learned. In English, an example would be: I saw the child to whom I gave the money. In less stilted form, although not as pleasing to grammarians, it is: I saw the child that I gave the money to. The second form is close to the Irish equivalent: Chonaic mé an páiste a dtugaim an t-airgead dó. To say: I saw the child that I don’t give the money to, the Irish equivalent is: Chonaic mé an páiste nach dtugaim an t-airgead dó. “A” and “nach” here both cause eclipsis when they introduce the relative clause for this type of sentence, in all tenses except the past tense, and even there several of the irregular verbs are preceded by “a” and “nach.” With all except “téigh, déan, abair, feic, faigh, tá”, the words to introduce the relative clause in the past tense are “ar” and “nár,” and they cause aspiration, as usual. An example of the past tense: I saw the girl that I gave the newspaper to; Chonaic mé an ghirseach ar thug mé an nuachtán di. Note that because “girseach” is baininscneach (feminine), the last word must be di, “to her.” CLEACHTADH; practice Here are some sentences to help you learn an tuiseal tabharthach (TUSH-uhl TOO-uhr-hahk*), or dative case, with relative clauses. Read each sentence out loud, get the meaning by mental picture (not by translation), and then substitute the noun following the sentence for the words in italics. Change the end word when necessary. Chuala mé an t-amhránaí a ndúirt tú leis. The woman. Bhris Caitríona an fhuinneog ar tháinig mé tríthi. The windows. Baileoidh sibh na cupáin nach bhfuil caife iontu. The bottle. D’fheicfá an carr nár cuireadh an bosca faoi. The chair. Feicfidh siad an chathair ar fhill Séamas uaithi. The countries. Is é seo an leabhar a bhfuair sí an scéal uaidh. The girl. Cheannaigh an rialtas an garáiste a ndearna Niall na plátaí ann. The farm. Key: I heard the singer that you spoke to. an bhean léi. Caitríona broke the window that I came through. na fuinneoga tríothu. You-all will collect the cups that don’t have coffee in them. an buidéal ann. You would see the car that didn’t have the box put under it (under which the box was not put), an chathaoir fuithí. They will see the city that Séamas returned from. na tíortha uathu. This is the book that she got the story from. Is í seo an ghirseach uaithi. The government bought the garage that Niall made the plates in. an fheirm inti. Follow the word order and form given above, with the preposition last, when you speak or write. After you have had sufficient practice, you will be ready for an alternative form for several (but not all) prepositions: Just as in English, in which you can say either “I see the box that I place the letter in” or “ I see the box in which I place the letter,” it is possible in Irish to say either: Feicim an bosca a gcuirim an litir ann; or: Feicim an bosca ina gcuirim an litir. In the past tense, this alternative becomes: Feicim an bosca ar chuir mé an litir ann; or: Feicim an bosca inar chuir mé an litir. The prepositions that allow this choice are: i; in, with forms: ina, inar do; to, for, with forms: dá, dár

de; off, also with forms: dá. dár faoi; with forms: faoina, faoinar ó; from, with forms: óna, ónar trí; through; trína, trínar The forms ending in “r” are for the past tense only and cause aspiration of the verb following them. Here are examples: Dhíol Diarmaid an leabhar ina raibh an litir. D’fhill Nóra ar an siopa ina bhfuair sí na húlla. Chonaic mé an teach ina bhfanfaidh sé. Is é sin an múinteoir dá dtugaim mo cheacht baile (home lesson, homework). Phóg sé an cailín dár thug sé an fáinne. Chonaic mé an droichead dá léimeann sé (the bridge from which he jumps). D’imigh mé ón gcnoc dár thit sé; I left the hill from which he fell. Tógfaimid (TOHK-hi-mid) an t-úrlar faoina gcuireadh Seán na prátaí; We will raise the floor under which Seán used to put the potatoes. Is é sin an t-ordú faoina bhfuaireamar an cíos; that’s the order under which we got the rent. Faigh an ceann faoinar chuireamar na boscaí; get the one under which we put the boxes. Glaoigh ar an duine óna gcloiseann tú é sin; call the person from whom you hear that. Rachaidh sé isteach sa teach ónar tháinig sé; he will go into the house that he came from. Dúnfar an bóthar trína dtiománfadh an bus; the road through which the bus would drive will be closed. Táthar ag dúnadh an fhuinneog trínar sháigh sé a cheann; the window through which he stuck his head is being closed. Ceisteanna sa tuiseal tabharthach; questions in the dative case To ask the question: “To whom did you give the money?”; Cé dó ar thug tú an t-airgead? ((kay* goh) is the usual pronunciation.) The answer to this could be: Thug mé do Sheán é. Other examples: Cé leis a ndúirt sí?; with whom did she talk. Cad leis ar oscail siad an doras?; what did they open the door with? Cad ann a raibh an bia?; what was the food in? Cad de ar thit sé?; from what did he fall? Cé uaidh a bhfaigheadh sí é?; from whom would she get it? The dependent form of the verb is the one in these questions, but in the answer either the dependent or independent may be needed. For example: Bhí an bia i mála; nach raibh an bia sa bhosca? A short answer can nearly always be given by a few words beginning with the preposition. Examples: Cé leis a ndúirt sí? Le Dóirín. Cad ann a raibh an bia? I mbosca.

Lesson 126 Cleachtadh leis an forainm coibhneasta (fohr-AN-im-KIV-nas-tuh) Read the following following sentences aloud, or have someone read them to you. Form a mental picture of the action and of what is the agent. Is é sin an stáisiún raidio a chraol an clár faoi Phádraig Mac Piarais (PEER-ish). Thug Eoghan go dtí an t-ospidéal an fear an bhuail an trucail é. Tabharfaidh Brónach (BROHN-ahk*) a gcéirníní don chailín a dtugann sí na téipeanna di. Key: That’s the radio station that broadcast the program about Pádraig Pearse. Eoghan took the man whom the truck hit to the hospital. Brónach (the Irish equaivalent of “Dolores”) wiull give their records to the girl to whom she gives the tapes. Next, review one verb in several ways and tenses: Ba é sin an fear a mholann na Spáinnigh (SPAW*-in-yee). Scríobh mé chuig an mbean a mhol na cláir Iodáileacha. Labhraíomar leis an mbuachaill a mholadh a dhochtúir. Glaofaidh mé ar an mbainisteoir nach molfadh m’obair. Key: That was the man who praises the Spaniards. I wrote to the woman who praised the Italian programs. We talked with the boy who used to praise his doctor. I will telephone the manager who wouldn’t praise my work. More sentences for practice: Bhí cruinniú againn leis an gcigire a molann na múinteoirí é. Ullmhaíodh leabhair ar mhol scholáirí iad. Sin é an feirmeoir nach moladh an rialtas riamh é. Key: We had a meeting with the inspector whom the teachers praise. Books were prepared which students praised. That’s the farmer that the government never praised. Finally, with the tuiseal tabharthach, or dative: Chuaigh mé abhaile leis an bpóilín ar dhíol mé an ticéad dó inné. Crochfaidh mé mo chóta suas lasmuigh den seomra a raibh mé ann ar maidin. Is é sin an áit ina mbeidh na báid iascaireachta. Key: I went home with the policeman to whom I sold the ticket yesterday. I will hang my coat up outside the room in which I was this morning. That’s the place that the fishing boats will be in. Questions and answers with the dative case: Cad leis a mbuaileann tú na scoláirí? Le scrúdaithe (SKROO-duh-he) deacra. Cé dó ar thug sibh bhur sean-éadaí? Do fhear saibhir (dar SEYE-vir), go nadúrtha. Cé leis a rachaidh tú chuig an aerphort? Le Seoirse, má’s mian leis. Cé aige a bhfuil an teach is mó? Ag an gclann is boichte, sílim. Key: What do you hit the students with? With difficult tests. To whom did you-all give your old clothes? To a rich man, naturally. Who will you go to the airport with. With George, if he wishes. Who has the biggest house? The poorest family, I think. “AN TÉ” A USEFUL EXPRESSION The words “an té” (un tay*) mean approximately “he who” or “the person who” and can serve as those phrases do in English, except that often in Irish a subject word must be added in the second clause. Examples: An té ar thug an leabhar nótaí duit ní raibh sé i láthair san iarnóin; The person who gave you the notebook was not present this afternoon. Note that the subject “sé” was added in Irish but was not needed in English. An té nach bhfuil láidir ní mór dó bheith glic; he who is not strong must be clever. This is a seanfhocal Éireannach, or Irish proverb. Sometimes the preposition “do” is combined to form “don té,” meaning “to the person who.” An example: Tabhfarfaidh an bainisteoir an ceann sin don té a gheobhaidh an t-ordú is mó; The manager will give that one to the person who gets the largest order. Why say or write “an té” instead of “an duine”? It is a matter of style to some extent. The proverb above would not seem the same unless “an té” were to begin it. Concerning style itself, you have reached a point now at which you should be conscious of good style in Irish. You are able to express yourself clearly and understandably in speech and writing, but there is room for improvement in the style in which you express yourself. This improve-

ment comes from speaking with fluent and well-educated cainteoirí dúchais, and from reading the best in Irish literature, such as the classics and the work of good modern writers. The larger dictionaries, such as De Bhaldraithe and Ó Domhnaill, are also a help, with many selected ways of expressing ideas in good Irish style. At all times, however, remember that lack of polished style or even want of the exact word should not deter you from speaking or writing. Get the closest word that you can, or change the form of sentence if you must, but say or write something in Irish. Is fearr droch-Ghaeilge na deaBhéarla. An réamhfhocal “as” (un RAY*V-oh-kuhl as); the preposition “as” This word means “from” or “out of” and is part of many idioms or special expressions that have a meaning different from what the separate words might indicate. Some of the simpler common phrases: as baile: away from home, gone. “Cá bhfuil Seán?” “As baile atá sé.” d’éirigh sí as; she resigned, left the job, society or venture. as a mheabhair (VYOU-ir); out of his mind, wrong. As in English, this phrase serves to indicate that you dispute someone else’s opinions or views. as an tslí (tlee); out of place, inconsistent, unwarranted as cuimse (KWIM-she); extraordinary, atrocious, etc. Other idioms with “as”: Bain triail as, try it. Cad as duit? where are you from? The answer: Is an Corcaigh mé. Tháinig sé slán as; he escaped safely, he survived. However: Cad a tháinig as? means: Whqt came of it? What happened? Dhá bhua as a chéile; two wins in a row, one after the other. Objects can be “as a chéile”, too. Trí bhord as a chéile; three tables put together in a row. Bainfear geit astu; they will be startled, (a sudden start will be obtained from them). Baineadh geit asam; I was startled. Brisfear as a phost é; he will be discharged, dismissed, lose his job. Cuir as an solas; put out the light. Thit sé as a chéile; it fell apart. Tá muinín agam astu; I have confidence in them.

Lesson 127 An forainm coibhneasta (fohr-AN-im KIV-nas-tuh) le “is”; the relative pronoun with “is” The verb “is” has its own form for relative clauses. The simplest form relies on “is” and “nach” to connect the clauses in the present tense. Read these examples aloud several times to form an idea of this: Cuir ort hata is maith leat; put on a hat that you like. Cuir ort an hata is fearr leat; put on the hat you prefer. Cuir ar an mbord an gloine (GLIN-e) nach maith leis; put the glass he doesn’t like on the table. Is é sin an fear is múinteoir sa scoil lán-Ghaelach; that’s the man who is a teacher in the all-Irish school. Is ceacht é nach fadhb mhór dom; it is a lesson that isn’t a big problem for me. Is casúr é sin nach cúis náire duit; that’s a hammer that’s not a (source of/cause of) disgrace to you. For an aimsir chaite agus an modh coinníollach, the past tense and conditional mood, “ba” (or “ab”) and “nár” are the words connecting the clauses. These words cause aspiration of consonants following them. Examples of an aimsir chaite: Chuir sí uirthi an hata ba mhaith léi; she put on the hat she liked. Chaith Nóirín amach an tolg nár mhaith liom; Nóirín threw out the sofa that I didn’t like. Fuair Annraoi (AHN-ree) an ceann ab fhearr leat; Annraoi got the one that you preferred. Ba é Brian an fear ba láidre sa tír; Brian was the man who was the strongest in the country (the strongest man in the country). Ba chasúr é sin nár chúis náire do Chiarán; that was a hammer that wasn’t a disgrace to Ciarán. Ba í sin an cailín ab airde sa rang; that was the tallest girl in the class. Examples of an modh coinníollach: Thabharfainn é don fheirmeoir ba bhoichte (VWIK*-te) sa cheantar, dá mbeadh sé agam; I would give it to the farmer who would be the poorest in the district, if I had it. Bheinn ar mo mhúinteoir ar fhearr sa scoil dá gcuirfinn suim (sim) i m’obair; I would be the best teacher in the school if I took interest in my work. For the dative and genitive cases (an tuiseal tabharthach agus an tuiseal ginideach) in the present tense, the connecting words are “ar” (“arb” before a vowel) and “nach,” without aspiration of a following consonant. Examples with the dative: Is é seo an fear ar leis an carr sin; this is the man to whom that car belongs. Is í sin an bhean arb ainm léi Nóra; That’s the woman whose name is Nora. D’fhill mé leis an bhfear nach leis an carr sin; I returned with the man whose car that isn’t (who doesn’t own that car). With the genitive: Thug mé é don fhear ar múinteoir a mhac; I gave it to the man whose son is a teacher. Is é seo an dochtúir arb aoi a bhean; this is the doctor whose wife is a guest. Is í sin an bhean arb é a mac a bhí ann inné; that’s the woman whose son it was who was there yesterday. D’fhan mé leis an mbuachail nach scoláire a dheirfiúr (yri-FOOR); I waited for the lad whose sister is not a student. In the past tense and the conditional, the dative and genitive forms require “ar” and “nár” if the next word begins with a consonant or with an “f” followed by a consonant. “Ar” and “nár” cause aspiration of the initial consonant. The words “arbh” (ER-ruhv) and “nárbh” (NAW*R-ruhv) connect the clauses if the next word begins with a vowel or an “f” followed by a vowel. Examples of the dative: Ba dochtúir é ar mhian leis bád seoil a cheannach; he was a doctor who wished to buy a sailboat. Ba dochtúir í nár mhian léi bheith ina cónaí anseo; she was a doctor who did not wish to be living here. Chonaic mé fear arbh áil leis dul ag obair; I saw a man who wanted to go to work. Ba scoláire í nár mhaith léi bheith déanach; she was a student who didn’t like to be late. Examples of the genitive in the aimsir chaite agus modh coinníollach: Ba é sin an fear ar mhian lena athair fanacht anseo; that was the man whose father wanted to stay here. Nár chuir sé sa seomra eile an páiste nárbh áil lena mháthair dul abhaile?; didn’t he put into the other room the child whose mother didn’t want to go home? D’fheicfeá an cailín arbh áil a hathair teach eile a cheannach; you would see the girl whose father would want to buy another house. An réamhfocal (RAY*V-ohk-uhl) “de”; the preposition “de” This word, meaning “off” or “of”, is part of several common expressions: de ghnáth (de GNAW*), usually de ló is d’oíche (de loh is DEE-he). day and night de ghlanmheabhair (de gluhn-VYOU-ir), by heart (in memorizing) Fuair sé bás den ocras; he died of hunger.

In addition, you can be “buíoch dí”, grateful to her, or “buíoch diot”, grateful to you, or “buíoch de Mháire”, grateful to Mháire. Bheinn cinnte de, dá ndéarfadh sé é; I would be certain of it if he were to say it. “de” is useful in expressing partial amounts. A part or piece of the bread is “píosa den arán.” (“A piece of bread,” however, is “píosa aráin,” with “aráin” in the genitive case.) Bain diot do chóta; take off your coat. Fiafraigh diom; ask me (literally, ask of me). Jumping from and falling from involve “de”; thit sé den teach; he fell off the house. Léimfidh sé den droichead; he will jump off the bridge. If some person or object exceeds another by some measurement, the “de” is useful: Tá Séamas níos airde ná Tomás de dhá orlach; Séamas is taller than Tomás by two inches. Bheadh an loch níba dhoimhne (GIV-ne) ná an abhainn (OU-in) de naoi dtroith (dri), dá romhrófaí amach é; the lake would be deeper than the river by nine feet if it were to be dug out.

Lesson 128 Cleachtadh leis an forainm coibhneasta le “is” (practice with the relative pronoun for “is”) After a review of Ceacht 127, you should be able to put the relative clause to work in expressing thoughts involving the verb “is” in Irish. Cuir Gaeilge ar na habairtí seo leanas, ar dtús an tuiseal ainmneach: The chair that I like. The chair you don’t like. A room you would like. The seat you would prefer. The one you wouldn’t wish. Next, an tuiseal tabharthach, or dative case; “to whom” or “with whom” would be a part of the literal translation: The girls whose house it is (literally: “with whom it is”). The visitors who like the trip (:is áil liom; I like). The cat doesn’t like the cold (use “is maith liom” form). The girls whose house it was. The doctor who would like to be here (use “is áil liom” form). The girls whose house it wouldn’t be. The doctor who wouldn’t like to be here. Finally, the tuiseal ginideach or genitive case; “whose” would be a part of the English form: The inspector whose daughter is a student. A man whose food is bread. The teacher whose son isn’t a painter. The man whose mill was a home. The teacher whose room was an office. The lad whose brother was not a manager. The woman whose husband was not a fisherman. The key to these phrases: For the nominative: An chathaoir is maith liom. An chathaoir nach maith leat. Seomra ba mhaith leat. An suíochán ab fhearr leat. An ceann nár mhian leat. For the dative: Na cailíní ar leo an teach. Na cuairteoirí arb áil leo an turas. An cat nach maith leis an fuacht. Na cailíní ar leo an teach. An dochtúir arbh áil leis bheith anseo. Na cailíní nár leo an teach. An dochtúir nárbh áil leis bheith anseo. For the genitive: An cigire ar scólaire a iníon. Fear arb arán a bhia. An múinteoir nar péintéir a mhac. An fear ar theach a muileann. An múinteoir arbh oifig a sheomra. An buachaill nár bhainisteoir a dheartháir. An bhean nárbh iascaire a fhear céile. Réamhfhocail; prepositions The preposition “do” usually means “to” or “for”. Sometimes it means movement toward, but usually the meaning is the equivalent of the English “I gave that to him”, which is a usage in the dative case. Expressions indicating a form of possession occur: Cad is ainm duit? What is your name? Cad is aois duit? What is your age? Refusing someone can be: Díultóidh sé duit; he will refuse you. Forgiving someone is: Mhaith sé dom; he forgave me. This réamhfhocail can also carry the meaning of the possessive or genitive. For example, with an t-ainm briathartha or verbal noun, you may say: Ar teacht isteach dom; while I was coming in, or upon my entrance. Ag dul abhaile dom; as I was going home, is another example. The expression “He is a friend of John” can be “Is cara do Sheán é”. Or “He is a son of my uncle” can be “Is mac do m’uncail é.” The first word for a person must be indefinite and the second must be definite, such as a person’s name or with “the” before it. Another way of saying this is: Is cara le Séamas é; he is a friend of James. Two other expressions with “do” are: Feictear dom; it seems to me. Tuigtear dom; it is my understanding.

The réamhfhocail “le” generally means “with”, but can also indicate extent or purpose. Le déanaí; recently. Le fada; for a long time. Le tamall; for a while. Beidh sé anseo le ceann eile a fháil; he will be here to get another one. If some activity is to be done in the near or distant future, then: Tá obair le déanamh; there is work to be done. Tá ceacht le cleachtadh agam; I have a lesson to practice. Idioms with several verbs need “le”: Aontáim leat; I agree with you. Chuir sé geall liom; he promised me. Fanfaidh sé liom; he will wait for me. Thaitin an dráma liom; I liked the play. Díolann sé bróga linn; he sells shoes to us. The réamhfhocail “ó” means “from” in the general sense. It is part of several important expressions, such as: Cad tá uait? What do you want? Cad a bhí ó Sheán? What did Seán want? Creid uaim é; believe me. An ceacht deireanach; the last lesson This is the last lesson in the series designed to give you a basic grasp of the Irish language. By now you should have an effective command of the language adequate to carry on some conversation and understand spoken and written Irish. The essential verb forms, word order, formation of noun plurals, the combination of prepositions and pronouns, and the elementary vocabulary of words and idioms are part of this. Further studies of Irish will depend on your opportunities, which are of two principal types: talking with other speakers, of any degree of proficiency; and reading and listening to tapes and records. The degree to which your work is structured will depend on your natural inclination. Some persons will benefit most from constant conversation with others, while other learners consider that they must progress in an orderly manner through grammar books, such as “Réchúrsa Gramadaí”, and through books of graded difficulty, with the assistance of dictionaries along the way. A persistent effort to write Irish is a good way to improve your style and vocabulary. Irish-speaking friends in Ireland, or in the United States, can help with this. A regular correspondence will let you improve painlessly.