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Vol ume 15 I s s ue 6 2012

the international magazine for the aquaculture feed industry


An overview
of the UK fish vaccination industry
Why check selenomethionine
levels in selenium yeast?
Extrusion technology for the
production of micro-aquatic feeds
and shrimp feeds
EXPERT TOPIC
Salmon
Volume 15 / Issue 6 / November-December 2012 / Copyright Perendale Publishers Ltd 2012 / All rights reserved
WHO CARES...
If profts in the aquaculture industry are as appetising as a salmon dinner?
As feed prices soar and formulation moves towards sustainability, aquaculture producers
must think differently to stay on the menu.
In all phases of the fshs life, proper nutrition will improve health. With decades of dedicated research,
the Aqua Advantage Programme responds to the challenges of todays aquaculture producers
through nutritional innovation, addressing issues such as growth and performance, feed effciency,
fesh quality and immunity.
So, when asked who cares about your proftability? Remember
DOES!
alltech.com | facebook.com/AlltechNaturally | @Alltech
Visit us at booth #219
Nashville, Tennessee
February 21-25, 2013
An internAtionAl mAgAzine for
the AquAculture feed industry
CONTENTS
aqua
I n t e r n a t I o n a l
feed
Volume 15 / Issue 6 / November-December 2012 / Copyright Perendale Publishers Ltd 2012 / All rights reserved
International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom.
All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept
no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. Copyright 2012
Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior
permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058
Aqua News
3 Lindeopensworldleading
aquacultureinnovationcentreinNorway
4 VIVChina:
Wildcaughtfishstilltoplayacriticalroleinfeedingpeopleintherunupto2050
5 Newglobalpartnershiptopromoteaquacultureinfightinghunger
6 AQUACULTUREUPDATES
7 AnewpartnershippromisesamoreefficientandsustainablefutureforEuropeanaquaculture
8 Expertsclosingthenetontargetedfishgenes
9 AcquisitioninEcuadortakesNutrecotoglobaltopthreeshrimpfeedproducer
Features
10 AnoverviewoftheUKfishvaccinationindustry
14 Yeastinaquaculture
20 Extrusiontechnologyfortheproductionofmicro-aquaticfeedsandshrimpfeeds
26 Whycheckselenomethioninelevelsinseleniumyeast?
28 EffectofSangrovit

onthegrowthandperformanceofseabass
38 INDUSTRYPROFILES
Regular items
8 THEAQUACULTURISTS
24 PHOTOSHOOT
30 EXPERTTOPIC-SALMON
42 INDUSTRYEVENTS
BiominWorldNutritionForum2012
Aqua2012
ISRMAXIndia
49 CLASSIFIEDADVERTS
50 THEAQUAFEEDINTERVIEW
52 INDUSTRYFACES
Cover image courtesy of Bryce Groark - brycegroark.com
WHO CARES...
If profts in the aquaculture industry are as appetising as a salmon dinner?
As feed prices soar and formulation moves towards sustainability, aquaculture producers
must think differently to stay on the menu.
In all phases of the fshs life, proper nutrition will improve health. With decades of dedicated research,
the Aqua Advantage Programme responds to the challenges of todays aquaculture producers
through nutritional innovation, addressing issues such as growth and performance, feed effciency,
fesh quality and immunity.
So, when asked who cares about your proftability? Remember
DOES!
alltech.com | facebook.com/AlltechNaturally | @Alltech
Visit us at booth #219
Nashville, Tennessee
February 21-25, 2013
www.perendale.co.uk
Editor
ProfessorSimonDavies
Email: simond@aquafeed.co.uk
Associate Editors
ProfessorKrishenRana
Email: krishenr@aquafeed.co.uk
AliceNeal
Email: alicen@perendale.co.uk
Editorial Advisory Panel
Abdel-FattahM.El-Sayed(Egypt)
ProfessorAntnioGouveia(Portugal)
ProfessorCharlesBai(Korea)
ColinMair(UK)
DrDanielMerrifield(UK)
DrDominiqueBureau(Canada)
DrElizabethSweetman(Greece)
DrKimJauncey(UK)
EricDeMuylder(Belgium)
DrPedroEncarnao(Singapore)
Subscription & Circulation
TutiTan
Email: tutit@aquafeed.co.uk
Design & Page Layout
JamesTaylor
Email: jamest@aquafeed.co.uk
International Marketing Team
DarrenParris
Email: darrenp@aquafeed.co.uk
LeeBastin
Email: leeb@aquafeed.co.uk
Latin American Office
IvnMarquetti
Email: ivanm@perendale.com
More information:
International Aquafeed
7 St George's Terrace, St James' Square
Cheltenham, GL50 3PT
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 1242 267706
Website: www.aquafeed.co.uk
F
orme,thislastmonthhasbeenquitehectichavingcrossedseveraltimezonesmakingtwoseparate
visitstoSEAsia,attendingVIVinBeijingandtheBIOMINWorldNutritionForuminSingapore.Ihad
thepleasuretooofmakinganinterimbriefvisittoNottinghamTrentUniversityinEnglandwhereI
wastheexaminerforaPhDstudentworkingonpoultrynutritionwhichisactuallysosimilarinmany
ways to my specialised subject of fish nutrition.We can interchange
manygoodideasherewithapplicationsinaquaculturebyappreciating
the fundamental biochemistry and physiology common to avian
speciesandfish.AsIsettheclocksbackforwinter,thedaysaregetting
distinctlyshorterandthewarmthandmemoryoftropicalSingaporeis
alasfadingawayasIreachformycardiganandmugofcocoa.Nomore
SingaporeSlingsforawhile,justtheoddweedram!
NonethelesstheBiominmeetingwasamostexcitingeventandvery
wellorganisedindeedwithmanyfriendsattendingtheaquaculture
sessionincludingmyformerstudentShaneHunterwhooperatesa
highlysuccessfulbusinessfromMaltaasanaquacultureconsultantand
whogaveamostenlighteningtalkon21stcenturyaquaculturelisting
anddiscussingnewsystemsandtechnologiesthatcouldrevolutionisetheindustry.Iattendedthecomplete
BIOMIN programme and learned so much about their formidable portfolio of activities for all farmed
livestockandIamsogratefulfortheirinvitation.Iwillreportlater.AnothergreattreatwastheBioMarine
BusinessConventionheldinLondonatFishmongersHallandareceptionintheHousesofParliamenton
theterracesoverlookingtheThames.IwasabletohelparrangethelocationforthisprestigiousvenueandI
oweaspecialthankstotheRightHonourableDouglasCarswellMPrepresentingClactonuponSeaforhis
supportandwhotakessuchaninformedinterestinaquacultureespeciallytilapiaandfishnutrition.
BioMarine attracted more than 200 delegates and was last held in Nantes, France.This meeting was
abletosetanagendaforasustainableaquacultureindustrywithahostofleadingexpertsfromacross
thespectrumofdisciplinesrangingfrommacro-algae,microalgae,shellfish,fishandtheaquafeedindustry.
Stake-holdersfromgovernment,legalandfinancialorganisationstogetherwithcommercewereableto
shareanddebateideasandbringaboutanagreedvisionandstrategythatcanbeforwardedtothose
whocanbringaboutchangeandmakedecisionsforthefuture.NextyearitwillbeheldinHalifax,Nova
ScotiaandIcantwaitsincetheCanadianHighCommissionersaysthelobstersaresogood!!
Turningtoourcurrentissue,weannouncenewsaboutauniqueInnovationCentreforAquaculturein
NorwaybytheLindeGrouptoserveR&Dandtoactashubforthedisseminationofadvancedtech-
nologiesandademonstration/facilityplatform.Thisisthetypeofvisionaryapproachthatothersshould
beundertakingifwearetoseeaquacultureprosperandwouldbeattractiveforuniversityinvolvement
onawiderlevel.WegetanindustryreviewfromDominiqueBureauandanoverviewoftheUKfish
vaccinationindustrybyKathyTaylorofSalmovacwhereitisvitaltonotethathealthyfisharecentralto
efficientproductionandutilisationoffeed.Theinteractionofdietandimmunologyisincludedlater.
AcomprehensivefeatureontheuseofvariousyeastsispresentedbyPhilippeTaconPhDofLesaffreFeed
Additives,Franceandthisisamosttimelyarticlegiventhemassiveinterestsinprebiotics,probioticsandSCP
typefeedingredientsderivedfromspecificfermentationprocesses
suchapotablealcohol(beerandwhisky)andnowtherapidexpan-
sion of bioethanol refineries using corn or wheat as substrates.
Talkingofyeastitisimportantthatwemakenoteofthespeciation
oftraceelementsandthattheformofseleniumandotherminerals
must be correct. Wilbert Litjens,Technical manager Optimin &
Betaine and Paul Perucchietti, Product manager Optimin, Selko
Feed Additives advise us of these facts in their technical article
focusingonseleniuminyeastasseleno-methionine.
Fish nutrition and feed technology is a complex blend of
sciences and as an editor and academic, I learn much from
thistradeandtechnicaljournal.Itcanbeheavyreadingbut
highlyinformative,itisourlastfor2012andsohaveagood
festiveseasonandwewillmeetagainin2013.
Professor Simon Davies
Croeso (Welcome in Welsh)
InthelastissueofInternational
Aquafeed,themainpictureon
pages26and27wascaptioned
incorrectly.Thecorrectcaption
reads,theCACisjointlyowned
byMarineHarvestNorway,
SkrettingandAkvaGROUP.Itisa
largescaleexperimentalfishfarm
usedfordocumentationpurposes,
locatedinHjelmelandinthe
CountyofRogalandinNorway,
anditisoperatedfortheowners
byMarineHarvestNorway
regionSouth.Thedocumenta-
tionpurposesareprimarilyrelated
todiets,butalsotechnicalequip-
mentandproduction(inlinewith
theinterestsoftheowners).There
isclosecollaborationwithNIFES
(NationalInstituteofNutritionand
SeafoodResearch)andNVI(the
NorwegianVeterinaryInstitute).
A big thank you to all of our supporters
in 2012 ...
...wewishyouallahappyandprosperousnewyear.
November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 3
L
inde Gases, a division of
The Li nde Group, has
announced the opening of
their state-of-the-art Innovation
Centre for Aquaculture, a pio-
neering R&D and testing unit
located at lesund in Norway.
The centre was formally opened
byNorway'sViceMinisterofthe
Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal
Affairs, Kristine Gramstad, at
an inauguration ceremony on
September20,2012.
The innovation centre, with its
location based in the hear t of
the world's most industrialised
fish farming community, will be a
leading aquaculture R&D centre
globally. In addition to highly
equippedlaboratories,thecentre
willfeatureanumberoftestand
demonstration aquaculture tanks,
the largest of which is 55 cubic
metres and has been built to a
highly innovative specification. A
highlightoftheinnovationcentre,
the tank will allow both aquac-
ulture technologists and cus-
tomersaliketoobservehowthe
latest oxygenation technologies
impact fish development within
anoptimalon-landfarmingenclo-
sure.Inadditiontoan
overhead wal kway
extendi ng the f ul l
diameterlengthofthe
tank, Linde has max-
imised obser vational
oppor t uni t i es vi a
eye-level inspection
windows and under-
waterlighting.
"Both the research
and devel opment
and the subsequent
testing of the latest
oxygenationtechnolo-
gies is unquestionably
needed to ensure the
futuresuccessofland-
based aquaculture,"
says Stefan Dullstein,
Head ofAquaculture andWater
Treatment, Linde Gases Division.
"Linde's dedicated Innovation
Centre forAquaculture will play
a leading role in the delivery of
such technologies and give cus-
tomers the opportunity to see
firsthandpioneeringoxygenation
systemsinoperation."
Li nde' s advanced aquacul -
ture technology has been devel-
oped in response to a progres-
sive trend that is seeing aquacul-
tureproductionbeingtransferred
fromseacagestoland-basedsites
for the full duration of a marine
fishs life. It is this change that
has confronted the fish farming
industr y with the challenge of
efficiently oxygenating large fish
tankstoaccommodatefishstock
frominfancytomaturity.
Inparticular,thelesundcentre
features Linde's innovative fish
farming oxygenation technology,
SOLVOX

OxyStream, a unique
low-pressureoxygenationsystem
which significantly increases fish
production volume, optimises
fish meat quality and consider-
ably improves fish farming oper-
ations from an environmental
standpoint.
www.linde.com
Linde opens world leading
aquaculture innovation centre in Norway
Along with the Linde
aquaculture specialists, the
inauguration of the centre was
attended by Kristine Gramstad,
Norwegian Vice Minister of
Fisheries and Costal Affairs
In addition to highly equipped
laboratories, the innovation centre
will feature a number of test and
demonstration aquaculture tanks.
A highlight of the innovation centre, the 55 cubic metre
tank, with its overhead walkway and inspection windows
will allow aquaculture technologists and customers to
observe how the latest oxygenation technologies impact fish
development.
November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 3
Aqua News
W
ildcatchhasawrong
image, says Gorjan
Ni kol i k, Associ ate
a director Animal Protein with
Rabobank I nt er nat i onal i n
Singapore.
It's being seen as if we are
robbing nature and as a result is
indecline,hetoldaninternational
audience attending a one-day
International China Summit on
the day preceding the opening
ofVIVChina,whichtookplacein
theNewChinaExhibitionCentre
inBeijing.
"The sector is changing and is
dynamicandshouldbecompared
with forestr y rather than an
exploitative operation.We can
removeacertainamount."
Hesaidthatwherepressurehad
beenappliedtoafisheryandthe
fishing operations were substan-
tial there was a vested interest
in maintaining stocks, managing
the resource and adopting reg-
ulations to control over fishing.
HepointedtofisheriesinNorth
America, Australia, Japan and
otherswhereregulationscontrol-
ling industry meant that industry
could invest in larger vessels,
operatesecurelywithquotasand
become profitable and sustain-
ablebusinesses.
"Unfortunately, that is not the
norm.ThroughoutAsiaandAfrica
in particular there is still a need
for regulation. Anywhere where
you have small artisan fisheries
you have damage to sustaina-
bility.Wearedoingagoodjobin
severalplacesbutmoreneedsto
beachieved."
Without the development of
aquaculture over the past 40-50
years,therewouldnothavebeen
any growth in fish consumption,
hetoldtheaudienceof300rep-
resentatives from the intensive
livestockindustries.Hesaidaqua-
culturenowmakesupabouthalf
of all fish processed for human
consumption.
While wild capture fish would
not increase in the years ahead,
aquaculture would see the total
fish producing industry increase
by four to six percent growth
for the next four to five years.
However, after that growth
would decline to about three
percentperyear.
He says the FAO forecasts
the world needing between 20
million to 25 million tonnes of
fish by 2020.That's a one-third
increase in less than a decade; a
target that is unlikely to be met,
hesuggested.
However, Mr Nikolik does see
fish playing an increasing role
in the human diet as the world
addressesthefoodneedsofnine
billion people by 2050. He says
there are some 300 species of
fishworldwidethatarecurrently
included in the human diet of
which some 50-60 species are
of primar y impor tance. While
the west and Japan have a pref-
erenceformarinespeciesintheir
diets, China in particular enjoys
fresh water species and carp in
par ticular. Sixty percent of the
world's aquaculture takes place
in China and the majority of the
fishproducediscarp.
When compared with terres-
trial animals, fish are particularly
efficient in converting feed into
flesh.While the feed conversion
rateforpigsisnowaround2.5:1
andpoultryat1.8:1andleaderin
the animal world, tilapia records
1.6:1,shrimpat1.5:1andsalmon
at 1.1:1.The latter is the most
advanced and may soon achieve
a1:1conversionrate!
"Why is it possible for fish to
achievetheseextraordinarycon-
version rates?" he posed rhetor-
ically.
Fish live in a world where
there's little effect of gravity and
as a result expend no energy to
fightgravity.Thereforethereisno
needtobuildmassivebonestruc-
tures to support their weight. In
addition, fish are endothermic -
meaningtheyneedtoexpendno
energytowarmtheirbodies.
"Everything they eat goes into
motion and growth. Also they
havehighfecundity,meaningthey
havelotsofoffspring."Pigsmight
be able to achieve an impres-
sive 27 piglets per year, but fish
can produce 50,000 eggs twice
a year with mor tality rates of
betweentwoandthreepercent,"
headds.
Other factors that Mr Nikolik
feel s wi th swi ng the bal ance
in favour of fish is the impos-
si bi l i ty of di seases movi ng
across the species barrier as
can happen between testerial
animals; "There is no disease
thatcanmovefromfishspecies
to a human."The structure of
the resource also favours fish
such as salt water, "which can't
beusedforanythingelse";many
land-based fish farming opera-
tions do not need fresh water
supplies; a minimal CO2 and
methane gas emission contri-
butionisalsoanadvantageover
terrestrialspecies.
For aquacul ture to achi eve
i t s pot ent i al , t he i ndust r y
needs huge i nvestments. I t's
an industry that is fragmented,
ranges f rom the devel oped
to devel opi ng countri es, has
no gl obal or regi onal mar-
keting policy and is uncoordi-
nated.There are currently too
many speci es bei ng f ar med
and resources i nto research
and development is spread too
thin, he adds. "We haven't even
chosenthespeciestofocuson,"
hetoldtheaudience.
Mr Ni kol i k says terrestri al
ani mal producti on systems
have been devel oped over
2000 years while aquaculture
islessthan40yearsoldandfor
some species just 15 years old.
While aquaculture does offer a
valuable source of protein for
the human diet in the decades
ahead, it has many obstacles to
overcome with the access to
resourcessuchascoastlineallo-
cation,beinglimitingfactors.
VIVChina:
Wildcaughtfishstilltoplaya
criticalroleinfeedingpeoplein
therunupto2050
4 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012
Aqua News
Mr Gorjan Nikolik of Rabobank International (right) with the
editor of International Aquafeed, Professor Simon Davies at the
International China Summit in Beijing
4 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012
Aqua News
T
heAquaculturist blog is a great place to keep up-to-date with the latest aquaculture news in between print editions of
InternationalAquafeed magazine. The blog, like the magazine, has an international focus with a range of stories, news and
events.
Samoa
The Redwood Region Economic Development Commission, Samoa is set to receive $70,000 from the Humboldt County Board
ofSupervisorstoestablishanaquaculturecentreinSamoa.Thecenterwillpotentiallygrowbothfreshwaterandsaltwaterspeciesof
plantsandanimals,includingabalone,fishandvegetables.-http://bit.ly/TCA5Ys
Jamaica
Jamaica'saquacultureindustryissettoreceiveaboostthanksto30millionEU-fundeddevelopmentplan.Thefourandahalfyear
ACPFishIIProgrammeincludesplansforlandandwateruseandablueprintforaquaculture.TheaimistorevitaliseJamaica'saquac-
ulturesub-sector,whichhasdeclinedbyalmostfiftypercentinthepastfiveyears-http://bit.ly/PlMKnt
USA
NewYork is known for its experimental food scene so it comes as no surprise to learn that products from vertical farms are
appearingonmenusacrossthecity.Verticalfarminginvolvesgrowsamultitudeofaqualifeinacolumn.Seaweed,mussels,andscallops
growatthetopofthewaterwithshellfishsuchasclamsandoystersbelow.Besidessavingspace,verticalfarmersclaimthepractice
helpsrestockmarinelife.Verticalfarmingisgrowingin
popularitysolookoutforproductsinarestaurantnear
yousoon.-http://bit.ly/T6WHQl
Kenya
Normallywereportonthegulfbetweenfishdemand
andsupplybutinKenyathestoryisreversed.Kenyans
are not eating enough fish to sustain the fish farming
industry.The government has been pushing aquacul-
turedevelopmentforsometime,investingSh5.7billion
over three years. But this has not persuaded Kenyans
toserveupfishathome;theaveragefishconsumption
inthecountryisjust3.7kgperpersonayear.-http://
bit.ly/QNH0gY
Scotland
Anewworld-classsalmonfarmatLochailort,Scotland
issetforcompletionin2013.TheMarineHarvestsite
will house a smolt hatchery which will be one of the
biggestfacilitiesintheworld.-http://bit.ly/RgLv5L
Sweden
ResearchersattheUniversityofGothenburg,Sweden
arestudyingthepotentialeffectsofaccumulatingantibi-
oticsintheseabed.Morethan10,000tonnesofantibi-
oticsareconsumedinEuropeeachyear,30-60percent
ofwhichpassthroughanimalsandhumanscompletely
unchanged.The different substances then reach the
ocean via hospitals, municipal sewage, fish farms and
run-offfromagricultureandlandfills.-http://bit.ly/Rpvdar
www.theaquaculturists.blogspot.com
The Aquaculturist
Aregularlookinsidetheaquacultureindustry
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November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 7
view
AQUACULTURE
by Dominique P Bureau, member
of the IAF Editorial Panel
On the Estimation
of the Digestible
Nutrient Contents
of Finished Feeds
Averylargeproportionof
aquaculturefeedmanufacturers
arenowformulatingtheir
feedsonadigestiblenutrient
basis.Thisprogressivemove
fromformulatingonatotal
nutrientbasistoformulating
ondigestiblenutrientsis
praiseworthysinceitis
providingamorerational
basisfortheproductionof
cost-effectivedietsadequately
meetingthenutrient
requirementsofanimals.
Everyyear,anincreasing
amountofinformationof
thedigestibilityofnutrients
ofdifferentingredientsis
becomingavailable.This
informationisinformally
compiledinanumber
ofreferencedocuments
andincreasinglyusedby
commercialfeedformulators.
Thequestionarisesasto
howreliableistheavailable
informationandhowitisbest
used.Inacontextofvery
highfeedcommoditiesprices,
theimpactofoverestimating
orunderestimatingdigestible
nutrientcontentsoffeed
ingredientscantranslateinto
significanteconomicalimpacts.
Forexample,variationsaslow
astwoorthreepercentage
pointsinthedigestibilityof
proteinorlipidsourcescan
translateintovariationsofas
muchas$10to30pertonne
offeedproduced,clearlynot
somethingnegligible.
Foryears,thedebate
aroundestimatesof
apparentdigestibilitywason
methodologicalissues(e.g.,
fecescollectionmethods)and
perhapsmoreimportantissues
havebeenneglected.Iwishto
brieflyhighlighttwoofthese
issuesinthiscolumn.
Ingredients,suchaspoultry
by-productsmeal,feather
meals,meatandbonemeals,
andDDGSareincreasingly
usedincommercialaquaculture
feedformulations.Asubstantial
amountofinformationof
theapparentdigestibilityof
protein,aminoacidsand
energyoftheseingredients
isavailableinthereference
literature.However,these
ingredientsareproducedusing
awidevarietyofequipment
andprocessinganddrying
conditions.Consequently,
significantdifferencesmayexist
intheapparentdigestibility
ofnutrientsamongstlots
(batches)oftheseingredients.
Verylittleworkhasbeendone
tomeaningfullycharacterise
thevariabilityofthedigestibility
andnutritivevalueofdifferent
lotsofthesameingredient.
Thisisamajorissueforfeed
manufacturerssincethese
ingredientsarefrequently
sourcedfromseveraldifferent
suppliers(brokers)andthese
suppliers,inturn,frequently
sourcetheseingredientsfrom
differentmanufacturingfacilities.
Anotherimportantissueisthe
waybywhichthedigestible
nutrientcontentsoffinished
feedscanbecomputed.In
feedformulation,thenutrient
contributionsofdifferent
ingredientsareusedto
predicttheconcentrationof
nutrient(orenergy)inthe
finishedfeed.Thecontribution
ofnutrientsofdifferent
ingredientisthusassumedto
beadditive.Itiscommonfor
nutritioniststoassumethatthe
digestiblenutrientsandenergy
contentsoffeedscanalso
becalculatedasthesumof
digestiblenutrientandenergy
contributionsofdifferentfeed
ingredients(calculatedfrom
thequotientofincorporation
levelinthefeed,theapparent
digestibilitycoefficient(ADC)
andthenutrientcontentofthe
ingredient).Whilepracticaland
generallyeffective,anincreasing
amountofevidencesuggests
thatthistypeofapproachmay
notbesuitableforseveral
typesofnutrients.
Aseriesofpublicationsfrom
theUniversityofGuelph(Hua
andBureau.2006.Aquaculture,
254:455-465;HuaandBureau.
2009.Aquaculture,294:
282-287;HuaandBureau.
2009.Aquaculture,286:271-
276;HuaandBureau2010.
Aquaculture,308:152-158)
showedthatthedigestible
phosphorus(P),starchand
lipidcontentsoffinished
feedscouldnotbecomputed
fromthesumofexpected
digestiblenutrientcontributions
ofthedifferentingredients.
Thisresearchindicatedthat
theformsunderwhichthese
nutrientsweresupplied(or
foundinthefinishedfeeds),the
levelsandinteractionsbetween
differentformsofthenutrients,
andtheeffectofsome
exogenousfactors(e.g.,water
temperature,%gelatinization)
hadtobetakenintoaccount
toaccuratelypredictthe
digestiblenutrientcontentsof
finishedfeeds.
Fortunately,thisresearch
alsoshowedthatmultiple
regressionequationsprovided
asimpleandpractical
approachofaddressingthis
challenge.Equationswhere
thusdevelopedforpredicting
thedigestibleP,starch
andlipidcontentoffeeds
manufacturedusingawide
arrayoffeedingredients.
Unfortunately,mostleast-cost
feedformulationsoftware
packagesarenotcurrently
designedtocarryoutan
optimization(least-costing)
ofthedigestibleP,starchand
lipidcontentsoffeedson
thebasisoftheseequations.
However,thesesimple
equationscanbeprogrammed
intofeedformulationsoftware
andtheeffectsofchanges
infeedformulationonthe
digestibleP,starchandlipid
contentsofthefinishedfeeds
beeasilycomputed.
Theseissuesshouldbeon
theradarscreenoffeed
manufacturersandmore
systematicandcommercially
relevantworkneedsto
bedonebyfishnutrition
researchersontheimportant
topicofestimatingthe
digestiblenutrientcontentsof
feeds.
AQUACULTURE
UPDATES
Climate change may make the
bodies of fish smaller, reports the
BBC. Scientists predict that fish
could shrink by up to 24 percent
if water temperatures continue to
rise. Warmer water means lower
levels of oxygen which reduce fish
bodyweight.
AstudypublishedbytheInstitute
of FoodTechnologists has found
that using fish oil as an alternative
to canola oil in nutrition bars
can provide omega-3 fatty acids
withoutchangingthetaste.
Anindooraquaculturefacilitywith
thecapabilitytoproduce17million
pounds of fish a year could be
coming to Montgomer y County,
NewYorkState,USA.Ifgiventhe
go-ahead, 'Project Aqua' would
create 175 jobs and receive more
than $175 million in initial private
investment.
An abalone trafficker in New
SouthWales, Australia has landed
thetoughestsentenceinthestate's
history for fisheries offences. The
55-year-oldmanwassentencedto
four years in jail and a AU$1000
fi ne after bei ng convi cted on
four counts of abalone trafficking
and one count of threatening an
fisheriesofficer.
The Ukrainian parliament has
approved new aquaculture laws.
The laws will map out plans for
aquaculture development and the
legalframeworkforbodiesinvolved
init.
Salmon farm expansion given the
go ahead in west coastTasmania.
Thethreemajorsalmonproducers
inTasmania ,Tassal, Petuna and
HuonAcquacultureplantoalmost
double the size of their farms in
Macquari e Harbour from the
current 5.5 square kilometres to
ninesquarekilometres.
The GlobalAquacultureAlliance
hascertifieditsfirstsalmonfarmsin
Australasia. The BestAquaculture
Practices programme has certified
two Mt. Cook Alpine Salmon Ltd.
farms in the Mackenzie Basin area
nearTwizel,NewZealand.
TheBritishColumbiaaquaculture
industryistoreceiveacashinjection
of $1.25 million from the Harper
Government. Eleven companies
willbenefitfromthemoney,which
is earmarked for sustainable and
innovative aquaculture projects in
theprovince.
Anewpartnership
promisesamore
efficientand
sustainablefuture
forEuropean
aquaculture
I
tiswelldocumentedthataqua-
culture faces increasing pres-
sures as demand for seafood
products grows while traditional
wildfisheriesareindecline.
A new European research
projectcalledIDREEM(Increasing
Industrial Resource Efficiency in
European Mariculture) has been
launchedtoprotectthelong-term
sustainability of European aquac-
ulturebydevelopinganddemon-
stratinganewinnovativeproduc-
tion technology, Integrated Multi-
TrophicAquaculture(IMTA).
The 5. 7 mi l l i on proj ect,
which started in October 2012,
is coordinated by the Scottish
Association for Marine Science
(SAMS) and delivered in col-
laboration with fourteen indus-
trial and research partners from
acrossEurope.
For the next four years, the
IDREEM consortium will develop
tools and methods to help the
European aquaculture industry
adopt more environmentally and
economicallyefficientpracticesusing
IMTAonacommercialscale.
IMTA is the combined culti-
vation of multiple commercially
farmedspeciesthatbelongtodif-
ferentlevelsonthefoodchain.In
an IMTA system, fish are farmed
together wi th other
species including
shellfish (such
as mussel s)
and algae or
s e a we e d ,
creati ng a
more ef fi -
cient,cleaner
a n d l e s s
wasteful pro-
ducti on system.
IMTAallowsnutrients
from fish farms that are oth-
erwise lost to the environment
tobeturnedintousefulproducts
astheyareutilisedbytheseaddi-
tionallygrownspecies.
IMTAaddressesconcernsabout
the future sustainability of aqua-
culture by increasing produc-
tivity and profitability while also
reducing waste and over-reliance
on raw materials from wild fish
stocks.
The IDREEM project will dem-
onstrate the benefits of IMTA
through pilot commercial-scale
testing, field research and mod-
elling. Interdisciplinary research
within IDREEM will examine the
obstacles and risks to the
use of IMTA systems
and develop tools
t o over come
t he s e c on-
s t r a i n t s ,
whether they
are economic,
environmental,
t e c h n i c a l ,
social or regula-
tory.
IDREEM pairs aquac-
ulture businesses and research
institutions in strategic partner-
ships to promote rapid imple-
mentati on, al l owi ng i nstant
tr ansf er between research
findings and commercial appli-
cations. The tools and methods
developed within IDREEM will
help aquaculture enterprises and
policymakersgainabetterunder-
standingoftherisksandbenefits
associatedwithIMTA.
The end result of the project
will be the creation of a more
efficient European aquaculture
industry, based on the develop-
ment of more economically and
environmentally efficient tech-
nology. IDREEM will deliver
tools and evidence to suppor t
the adoption of IMTA across
the aquaculture industry, helping
createemploymentandwidening
a market niche for IMTA-grown
seafoodproducts.
www.sams.ac.uk
"The end result of the project
will be the creation of a
more efficient European
aquaculture industry"
November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 7
Aqua News
ASIAN GATEWAY TO AN
AQUATIC WORLD OF WONDER
www.aquarama.com.sg
For more information, please contact:
Iman Tam aquarama-sg@ubm.com
co-located with
The 4th International Pet
& Accessories Exhibition
8 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012
Aqua News
S
cottish scientists are
homing in on the elusive
genes that could create
the perfect salmon and
revolutioniseaquaculture.Experts
at Landcatch Natural Selection,
basedinArgyll,andtheirresearch
partners,areaimingtobethefirst
in the world to locate the genes
that determine how susceptible
individual Atlantic salmon are to
certaindiseases.
It is another pioneering advance
fromLandcatchwhoin2007were
the first aquaculture company to
be involved in work to pinpoint
a gene influencing Infectious
Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN) which
poses a major threat toAtlantic
salmon.Theylateralsoprovedthat
sealiceresistanceisinherited,sub-
sequently producing juvenile fish
which were less susceptible.This
allowed breeding from selected
pedigree families and increased
geneticresistanceineachnewgen-
eration.
ThenewworkmeansLandcatch
and par tners are getting ever
nearer to the all-important genes
and are on target to have this
scienceforsaleandalreadyapplied
totheirsalmoneggsby2014.
Healthier, disease
resistant salmon
In what will be a major break-
through for the industry, eggs and
smolts will then be produced to
selectively breed healthier, disease
resistant salmon and other fish as
the technology can cross over to
otherspecies.
It will mean improved quality
products and an acceleration of
genetic techniques in farmed fish
whichtheindustryandcommenta-
torsbelieveisnecessarytoaddress
world food shortages caused by
climatechange.
Theworkacceleratesthepaceof
progressandwillhelpbreedersand
researchers examine traits in indi-
vidual fish and better understand
their general survivability, omega-3
level and grilsing or maturing
rates.
This involves a cutting-edge
genomic selection tool the SNP
Chipaglassslideusedtoanalyse
variations in DNA sequences, or
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
(SNPs), which act as biological
markers and help scientists locate
a range of genes associated with
disease.
Hundreds of thousands
of genetic markers
Therearemanymillionsofthese
variations in every species, and
thesecanbeusedasmilestoneson
theDNAmap.Scientists,whopre-
viouslyexaminedonlyfivemarkers
for one salmon gene, can now
interrogatehundredsofthousands
of markers for 20,000-30,000
genes.
Inessence,Landcatchcandiscover
moreinformationononefishthan
was previously available on thou-
sands.Thislevelofbreedingexper-
tise would normally take many
decades to reach, but Landcatch
willdoitinjusttwo.
DrAlanTinch,directorofgenetics
atLandcatchse-centreinAlloa,says
expertshavenarrowedthesearch
downtoabout100possiblegenes
having identified QuantitativeTrait
Loci (QTL) stretches of DNA
containing or linked to the genes
thatunderlieatrait.Hesays,We
are closing in on the genes all the
time. Its a bit like us knowing the
street where they live but we
just dont know yet which houses,
whereas previously we only knew
whattowntheylivedin.
We know that in that area (of
DNA)thereissomethingthathas
aneffectondiseaseresistanceand
there is a technical argument for
therebeingagenethere.
Theprogresshasbeenwelcomed
by Argyll and Bute constituency
MSP Michael Russell who says,I
am very pleased to see anArgyll-
based company at the forefront
of important research that should
have strong commercial and envi-
ronmentalbenefit.
Landcatch suppl i es geneti c
services andAtlantic salmon eggs
and smolts to the aquaculture
industry.Itusesselectivebreeding
to develop strains of salmon
whichcanperformtoever-higher
levels at every stage of produc-
tion from eggs to adult fish. The
firmispartoftheglobalHendrix
Genetics multi-species food pro-
ducti on organi sati on whose
missionistohelptheworldmeet
its food needs through innovative
andsustainablegenetictechniques
whichinformtheirbreedingproc-
esses.
The work to find the gene is
being undertaken with a number
of commercial and academic
par tners, including Edinburgh
University, Roslin Institute, Stirling
Institute of Aquaculture and
Glasgow University, with support
from the UKTechnology Strategy
Board.
Landcatch general manager Neil
Manchestersays,Themissinggenes
are like our Holy Grail and finding
themwillhavewidespreadpositive
implications. Breeding fish that
areresistanttoliceanddiseasewill
be an incredible achievement and
a major commercial breakthrough
foraquacultureandeffortstofight
thewaronhunger.
Expertsclosingtheneton
targetedfishgenes


2
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TOLL-FREE: 1-877-732-3276 | VOICE: 408-377-1065 | FAX: 408-884-2322 | www.reed-mariculture.com


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8 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012
I
am sure everyone involved in any fish
vaccination would really rather prefer
that they didnt have to vaccinate. It is
an expensive, time consuming, hazard-
ous and stressful process. So why do we
vaccinatefish?
Certainly in the salmon faming Industry, it
hasbecomeapartofthefreshwaterproduc-
tionprocessformanyyearsnowanditisonly
some of the most mature members of the
salmon industry remember what it was like
beforeoil-basedvaccinesweredeveloped.
Priortotheseeffectiveoil-basedvaccines,
salmonproducerscouldbeexpectedtoloose
maybe50percentoftheirstockstothemain
disease threat, Furunculous. Some farms suf-
feredmorethanothersbutallhadproblems
ofsomeformorother.Theonlyrealsolution
wastreatmentwithantibiotics,whichwasnot
onlyextremelyexpensivebutledtoproblems
withresistance.
The other problem was the negative
public perception of high usage of antibiotics
in a food animal. This, in conjunction with a
few high profile cases of use of unlicensed
antibiotics on fish farms, led to the industry
seeking a fresh approach to disease manage-
ment. The oil-based vaccines used today in
the aquaculture industry are all multivalent,
meaningtheypreventavarietyofdiseases,a
bitliketheMMRvaccineinhumans.
Why vaccinate?
Economics, logistics and risk involved
in injection mean that many alternative
approacheshavebeentried.Dipvaccinesand
in-feedvaccineshaveallbeentrialledbutdue
to the nature of how fish immune systems
work, these only have limited effects. If it
werethateasy,Iamsurehumanwouldprefer
tohaveatabletinsteadofaninjectionwhen
theygoonholiday!
The problem with putting vaccines in-
feed is that the in order for vaccines to
worktheyneedtocreatearesponseinthe
immunesystem-thebodyhastoreactto
aforeignsubstanceinthebodytoproduce
the antigens to give the immune
system the correct defences. If the
substance that creates this reaction in
thebodyisputintothefeed,thebodyis
designed to deal with this by digesting and
excreting it through the digestive system,
and it does not stimulate the immune
systemandthushasnoeffectinpreventing
disease.
Who vaccinates?
The Atlantic salmon industry through-
out the world has been familiar with intra-
peritoneal (by injection)
vaccinations for many
years. Trout farmers
occasionally vaccinate
for Enteric Redmouth
Disease (ERM) on high-
risksitesbutbecausethe
productioncycleismuch
quicker for trout than
salmon, most disease
canbemanagedthrough
dipvaccination.
The sea-bass industry
in the Mediterranean is
a big growth area at the
moment but is suffering
in the same way salmon
farmers did 25 years ago
with many sites loosing
maybe 50 percent of
theirstocks.Recentcom-
mercial production of an
effectiveoil-basedvaccine
haveledtomanyseabass
farmers now considering
vaccinationbyinjectionas
theonlyeffectivemethod
to control disease. Those
few that have invested
in a vaccination strat-
egyhaveseenbigfinancial
benefits from it and as
wordspreads,itislikelyto
becomecommonplacein
thisindustrytoo.
How is the procedure
carried out?
The fish are starved for 24 or 48 hours
(depending on time of year) prior to vac-
cination to empty the gut. The fish are then
crowded in the tank or cage before being
pumped or hand netted into an anaesthetic
bath. The fish take one to two minutes to
becomefullyanaesthetised.Thisisextremely
An overview
of the UK fish vaccination industry
by Kathy Taylor, Salmovac, UK
Melanisation (a permanent bruise like mark in the
flesh of the fish) causing downgrades at harvest.
Permanent damage and scarring inside the fish due
to damage by needle movement during vaccination
process.
10 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012
FEATURE
November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 11
important for vaccinator safety but also the
safety and welfare of the fish.
The fish are then delivered onto a stainless
steel table where the fish then are vaccinated
in a very specific area, with only a 3 mm toler-
ance. The team must achieve a 96 percent
accuracy target and considering most vaccina-
tors handle between 15-20,000 fish each this
is quite some achievement!
The fish are then returned to a recovery
tank and should come round from the anaes-
thetic within about two to three minutes.
There is always some level of mortality after
this high risk, stressful process but usually it is
just a few fish, around 100 for every 100,000
fish vaccinated. High mortalities immediately
after vaccination are usually attributed to poor
anaesthesia rather than the injection.
The consequences of poor vaccination
usually only become apparent months after
vaccination and can last up until harvest where
the financially consequences become appar-
ent. The main problems are:
Incorrect needle depth resulting in either
intra-muscular injection (needle too short) or
internal organ damage, including granuloma
(needle too long) which results in the fish not
growing properly due to damage to the gut.
Fish not being immune to the disease
because of incorrect dosage (or no vaccine)
being delivered.
Two of the main problems Salmovac
encounters as a
contract vaccina-
tion team, is poor
anaesthesia of the
fish and also poor
grading, prior to vac-
cination of the fish.
Poor anaesthesia of
the fish can lead to
high mortalities. If
fish are under anaes-
thetised, the whole
process becomes
stressful and danger-
ous for them (imag-
ine having a major
operation whilst
only partly sedated!).
On the other hand,
if they are over
anaesthetised, they
risk not recover-
ing quickly enough,
resulting in piles of
fish in the recovery
tank causing suffoca-
tion or even worse,
not recovering at all.
The other risk
factor here is to the
vaccinators. If the
mineral oils used in
10 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | november-December 2012 november-December 2012 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 11
FEATURE
C
M
Y
CM
MY
CY
CMY
K
ridgewaybio_quarterpage_print.pdf 1 29/10/2012 13:57
thevaccinesareaccidentallyinjectedintothe
finger,thevaccinatorwillrequireurgentmedi-
cal attention. The finger will have to be cut
open and the vaccine flushed out, otherwise
the resulting inflammation could result in
the blood supply to the finger tissues being
reducedandpossiblelossofthedigit.
How has vaccination developed?
Whenthefirstoil-basedvaccinesbecame
available for the salmon industry, quite a
few companies started vaccinating their own
fish believing (mistakenly) that this would
keep costs down, as they wouldnt have
to contract in extra labour. The problems
encountered and the
sometimes devastating
results of this quickly
led to most companies
employing contract vac-
cinationspecialists.
The main problems
were a lack of knowl-
edge about needle
depths and the results
of inaccurate vaccina-
tion, along with the
process taking a long
time because of the
inexperience and slow-
ness of untrained vac-
cinators. An inexperi-
encedteamofsixcould
probably manage to
vaccinatebetween150-
200,000 fish a week
whereasourteamscan
do 400-500,000 fish a
week!
Vaccines have devel-
oped tremendously in
the past 20 years, the
doseperfishusedtobe
0.2 ml and the vaccines
were very thick, difficult
toadministerandcauses
high side effects in the
fish. They are now 0.1
mlandmuchthinnerand
cause fewer side effects.
Someofthenewervac-
cines are now a 0.05
ml dose and again have
reduced side effects for
the fish while also giv-
ing increased protection
againstdisease.
Theimprovementsin
vaccine technology have
not only reduced the
side effects for the fish
but have also improved
theeaseofuseforvacci-
nators.Thesmallerdose
size is much easier to
administer, resulting in fewer cases of repeti-
tivestressinjuryandcarpeltunnelsyndrome.
Which species are
worth vaccinating?
Allspeciesareworthvaccinatingiftheeco-
nomicsofpreventingdiseaseratherthantreating
itstackup.Withthesalmonindustry,itisessen-
tialthatallfisharevaccinatedandastheseabass
industryexpandsandimprovesitislikelythatall
seabasswillhavetobevaccinatedto.Thekey
towhetheritisworthvaccinatingornot,relies
onwhetherthenisaneffectivevaccineataprice
that makes it viable to vaccinate and prevents
thelostofmarketsizefishtodisease.
How does vaccination
provide value for money?
The expense and hassle of vaccination is
far outweighed by potential losses at sea or
the heavy costs and logistics involved with
treatingfishatsea.Theotherfactortobear
in mind is fish welfare and the associated
regulations.MostScottishsalmonfarmsnow
subscribe to the RSPCA freedom foods
standard, which lays down welfare standards
for the aquaculture industry and vaccination
plays a key role in this. It costs a few pence
tovaccinateasmoltat30gbutthepriceof
losing a market size salmon to a preventable
disease is many, many times that amount.
Prevention is not only preferable, but finan-
ciallyessential,tocure.
Vaccination in action at Salmovac
The fish are delivered onto a stainless steel table
where the fish are vaccinated in a very specific area,
with only a 3 mm tolerance. The team must achieve
a 96 percent accuracy target and considering most
vaccinators handle between 15-20,000 fish each this
is quite some achievement!
About the author
Salmovac was founded in 2003 in
the north of Scotland in response to
a growing demand for quality contract
vaccination services within the Scottish
salmon industry. The directors, Kathy
andJohnFosterbothhadhadprevious
vaccination experience and a wealth
of knowledge of both fish health and
aquaculturepracticesalongwithaback-
ground in quality and business systems.
Theystartedwithjustoneteamoffive
people and successfully vaccinated five
millionsalmoninthefirstyear.Because
of the high quality and professional-
ism delivered by Salmovac, word soon
spread and contracts came flooding in.
However,theywerecarefulnottoover
stretchthemselvesinthefirstfewyears,
preferring to increase the business at a
sustainable rate, in order to keep the
quality of service and reputation of the
companyhigh.
Asaresultofthissustainablegrowth
of the business, they currently employ
over40peoplefromallovertheworld
and successfully vaccinated 60 million
fishlastseason!
In 2010, Kathy Foster (now Taylor)
purchased the business from her ex-
husband and now is the sole director
ofSalmovac.Whatwasadifficulttime
for the business back then has proved
tobeabenefitforthelongertermand
the business has continued to grow
and prosper with contracts not only in
Scotland but also in Ireland, Norway,
Spain,FranceandSwitzerland.
More InforMatIon:
Kathy Taylor, Salmovac
Tel: +44 1381 621914
Email: Kathy@salmovac.com
Website: www.salmovac.com
12 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012
FEATURE
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Excellent cleaning access | Filtered air inlet
Temperature control | Moisture control | Cleaning in Place
C L E A N C O N T R O L
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c ool and dr y
clean and lean
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Holland / USA / Argentina / China
12 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012
No hollow spaces | No cross contamination
Excellent cleaning access | Filtered air inlet
Temperature control | Moisture control | Cleaning in Place
C L E A N C O N T R O L
Swivel Valve Cooler MkII
c ool and dr y
clean and lean
info@geelencounterflow.com
www.geelencounterflow.com
T +31-475-592315
Geelen Counterflow
Holland / USA / Argentina / China
Y
east products are getting more
and more popular in aquaculture.
However many products (as a
wholeorasfractions)areonthe
aquaculture market at the moment and dif-
ferentiating between one from another can
bedifficult.Thissmallarticleaimsatshading
somelightsonthesubjectandexplainsthat
allyeastproductsarenotequal.
Yeastisaunicellularorganismbelongingto
thekingdomofFungi.Morethanathousand
specieshavebeenfoundintwomajorphyla:
Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in which
belong species able to duplicate by budding
suchasSaccharomycescerevisiae.
Due to their unique properties to grow
under aerobic conditions and produce gas
andethanolunderanaerobicconditions,some
yeast (mostly S. cerevisiae) have been used
forthemanufactureoffermentedfoodssuch
as bread , beer and wine for a long time.
Yeasts are also used as single sell protein
source in animal nutrition and in aquaculture
undervariousformsandspecies(Torulaspora,
Torulopsis, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyce et
caetera). It can be found for example in
shrimpandmarinefishlarvalfeedsorincluded
asaproteinsourceinaquafeeds.
The reasons for this extensive use is its
excellent nutritional contents, its easy supply
in dried form or under liquid form when
bakery yeast plants or breweries are near
aquafeedplants,andnowadaysacompetitive
priceinregardstootherproteinsourcessuch
as fish or soybean meal. Further applications
are being developed for yeast as functional
feed additives as probiotic live yeast, yeast
fractions(yeastcellwalls,yeastextracts)oras
a source for more purified products such as
beta-glucansandnucleotides.Theproduction
process of yeast can allow the possibility to
incorporatetracemineralsandthenproduce
highlybioavailableorganictraceminerals,also
knownasseleniumandchromiumyeast.
ThepinkyeastPhaffiarhodozyma,isnatu-
rallyrichinastaxanthinandhasbeenusedfor
some time as natural source of the pigment
in salmonids. Although now it tends to be
replaced by bacterial products which have a
higher concentration and whose cell wall is
more easily degraded. We will only refer in
thefollowingarticleonproductscomingfrom
S. cerevisiaeorigin.
Nutritional properties of yeast:
Typical dry yeast composition is 93-97
percentdrymatterandcancontainfrom40%
to 60 percent crude protein nitrogen, 35-45
percentcarbohydrates,and5-9percentlipids.
A quite important fraction of the nitrogen is
undertheformonnucleicacids(upto12%)
that can lead to produce significant level of
uric acid if consumed at high concentra-
tion, like meat. The Amino acid profile of
yeastisclosetosoybeanmealandtherefore
well adapted to animal nutrition; it is rich in
Glutamic acid and Lysine (up to 8%). Yeast
is naturally rich in B vitamins such as biotin,
thiamineandfolicacid.Italsoproducesniacin
butcontrarytosomebeliefdoesnotproduce
B12 Vitamin. Ergosterol which is a significant
fractionofyeastcellwall,alsoisalsoaprecur-
sorofVitaminD2byusingUVtreatments.
Bakers yeast
EveniftheirnameremainsSaccharomyces
cerevisiae (cerevisiae for beer), most of the
strains of Bakers yeast have been selected
fortheirhighfermentativepower,particularly
useful for bakers.Strains are specific to the
typeofbreadandtheregionwhereitissold,
inordertorespondtodifferentbreadmaking
conditions (French bread, white bread, flat
bread, croissant, etc.) and resist to different
process conditions (osmotic pressure from
high sugared bread, freezing, acidity of sour
dough,).
Bakers yeast comes as a pure and pri-
maryculturegrownonsugarsubstratesuch
as molasses. The production is performed
underverystrictconditionsinordertomain-
tainthegeneticpurity,consistency,specificity
and efficacy of the strains. (Figure 1). It can
besoldunderdifferentformsandpackaging
(instant dried yeast, active dry yeast, com-
pressed,cream).
The primary grown culture controlled
processmakesalsoaveryconsistentbasefor
the production of yeast extracts, autolysed
yeast, yeast cell walls and their derivate:
nucleotides and beta-glucans. Yeast cell
walls produced from Bakers yeast usually
have a high content of mannans. They are
Yeast in aquaculture
by Philippe Tacon PhD, Lesaffre Feed Additives, France
14 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012
FEATURE
November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 15
Figure 1: Yeast manufacturing process (primary grown culture)
recognised as good toxin binders. Fractions
coming from bakers yeast have a light beige
colour.
The most popular aquaculture application
of Bakers yeast is in hatcheries where it is a
majorfeedsourceforartemiaandrotifer(see
forexampleCouteauetal1990).
Brewers Yeast
Brewers yeast can be identified either
as the ferment used in brewery industries
(Yeastprimaryproduction)ortheby-product
of these industries which is the form mainly
used in aquaculture. In the latter case, yeast
biomass is harvested from the fermentation
vatsattheendofbeerfermentation.Itcanbe
soldunderliquidform(18-20%ofdrymatter)
but preferentially as inactive yeast spray or
drum dried. It can also
been grown as a more
controlled product and
specific strains and find
itswaytohumancareasafoodsupplement
andholistictherapeutic,alsoknownasnatural
brewersyeast.
Brewers yeast for aquafeed applications
issoldbytradingcompaniesasacommodity
based on the protein content, or by local
breweriesinneedtodispatchtheirslurry.The
quality and the supply of these products can
be inconsistent and depends greatly on the
sourceofsupply.
The nutritional content is similar as the
oneinbakersyeast,butcontainsmoretrace
minerals such as selenium and chromium.
The protein content of brewer yeast is rela-
tively high and and its amino acid content is
similar to bakers yeast. Numerous works
haveshowntheefficacyofBrewersyeastto
replace partially or totally the proteins found
infishandvegetablemealinfishandshrimp.
Shrimpfeedsformulatorstypicallyincorporate
brewersyeastintheirformulaattherateof
twotofourpercent.
Brewers yeast can be used to produce
yeastfractions,howeverduetothenatureof
brewersyeastandthespecificityofthepro-
ductionprocesses,thequalityislessconsistent
than in bakers yeast. Products coming from
breweryyeasttendtohaveadistinctivebitter
table 1: effect of live yeast actisaf on growth parameters in tilapia
under stress conditions. (n=3, P<0.05, measures with different letters are
significantly different)
treatment Survival (%) SGr FCr Per
Con 40% -10 fry 75.0ab 3.33a 3.11e 0.83ab
Con 40% -20 fry 64.8a 3.47a 3.26e 0.78ab
act 40% - 10 fry 87.5bc 5.80d 1.43abc 1.89cd
act 40% - 20 fry 92.6c 5.43c 1.01a 2.64d
act 27% - 10 fry 91.7bc 5.46cd 1.62bc 2.26c
act 27% - 20 fry 96.29c 5.24c 1.17ab 3.17e
14 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012 November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 15
FEATURE
Figure 2: Schema of a process to produce yeast
extracts and yeast cell walls
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smellandtasteandadarkercolourthanthe
onescomingfrombakersyeast.
Ethanol Yeast
Ethanol Yeast are harvested after hav-
ing performed alcoholic fermentation and
distillation for the conventional production
of Bioethanol from sugarcane, beet sugar
or grains syrup. In the first case, the yeast
biomass is harvested and then dried with
therecycledenergyusedtoheatthevegetal
material.Themajorityofethanolyeastcomes
fromBrazil.
Production prices and selling prices are
very low, however the quality, such as the
proteincontentisveryinconsistent.Thesup-
plydependsontheactivityofthebioethanol
plants and can also be inconsistent. Another
concern is the sanitary safety of these prod-
ucts.Antibioticsaresometimesaddedtothe
processinordertopreventbacteriacompet-
ing with the yeast for nutrients andavoiding
yield decrease. It is therefore possible that
some antibiotic residues and possibly other
toxinsmightbeleftinthefinaldriedproduct.
AutolysedyeastInactiveDriedYeast
Inactive and Autolysed yeast come from
primary grown cultures or Brewers yeast.
They are major products within the food
industryasflavourenhancersandinpetfood
asfeedattractants.Theyareusedinaquacul-
turefeedsasasourceofproteinandnitrogen.
Brewers yeast, and its ethanol equivalent, is
mostly favoured as it is cheaper than bakers
yeast. They are also easier supplied as yeast
suppliers prefer to sell the more controlled
andtailoredBakersyeastonfoodmarkets.
Inactive yeast is a yeast that has been
deactivatedbyhightemperaturedrying(often
spray drying). The cells come as a whole
and the cell wall is not ruptured making the
access to intracellular material (amino acids,
vitamins) difficult. A way to access these
materials is to partially hydrolyse the yeast
cellwalltoletthecellularcontentbepartially
released from the cell. This can be facilitated
by activating the internal autolytic enzymes
of the live yeast (autolysis), adding external
enzymes (notably pro-
teolysis) or playing on
the osmotic pressure
to rupture the cell wall
(plasmolysis). Different
grades of autolysed
yeast can be obtained
depending on the level
ofautolysis(frompartial
tototal).Thefinalprod-
uct is a mixture of cel-
lular content and yeast
cell wall. Furthermore
the autolysis process
degrades protein and
forms peptides (dipep-
tides to tetra peptides)
andoligonucleicacidswhicharereadilydigest-
ible by the animal. Again here depending on
theoriginalyeastmaterialused,autolysedand
inactiveyeastqualitycanbeverydifferent.
Live Yeast as probiotics
Liveyeasthelpsregulatethegutmicrobio-
ta.Itseffectshavebeenshown,firstinhuman
where it can reduce diarrhoea, especially
withchildren.Specificstrainshavethenbeen
developed and produced industrially such as
S. cerevisiae boulardii or S. cerevisiae Sc 47
(Actisaf) for the animal nutrition market. It is
acommonpracticenowtosupplementfeeds
to increase milk production in dairy cows
or help piglets
survival.
Live yeast
are charac-
terized by
their living
cells count,
expressed by
colonyforming
unit (cfu per
gram), typically
ten billions
cfu/g. Dosages
are made in
the feeds as
dilutionstoget
an efficient cfu
count per g of
feed,a1000folddilutiongivinga10e107per
goffeedforexample.Viabilityoftheyeastis
mandatory for its effect and cfus should be
checkedbeforeandafterpelletingusingplate
counts.
Despite the increasing use of yeast as
a probiotic in terrestrial animals, there
are only a few numbers of works studying
its effect in fish as a gut functions stabi-
liser. The major reason is that live yeast
does not resist the severe conditions of
the manufacturing processes of aquafeeds
(high temperatures, steam, long condi-
tioning times, see Aguirre-Guzzman et al
2002). The studies are then difficult to
transfer from lab conditions to farm using
commercialfeeds.
All the work published so far was made
with yeast either top dressed on feeds or
incorporated in pressed (uncooked) feeds.
Nevertheless some direct effects to the gut
maturationhavebeenfoundinseabasswitha
speciesextractedfromtherainbowtroutgut
Debaryomyces hansenii (see the works from
Tovar-RamirezandalsothereviewsbyChiet
al2006andGatesoupe2007).Marineyeasts
and yeasts isolated from fish seem a very
logicalchoicetouseinspeciesofaquaculture
interest. However, such material is often dif-
ficulttogrowunderindustrialconditionsand
didnotleadtothedevelopmentofanactual
productyet.Theproductsonthemarketare
thereforeoftenfromS.cerevisiaeorigin.Ithas
to be noted that up to now, no yeast prod-
uctshavebeenregisteredinEUasaprobiotic
inaquaculture.
As an example of S. cerevisiae effects,
(LaraFloresetal2003,2010)Table2shows
someworksdoneintilapiafryfedfor3weeks
with feeds supplemented with Actisaf (also
knwn as Biosaf) at 1 kg/T in two diets (40%
and 27% proteins) and at 2 crowded condi-
tions(1fryperLor1fryper2L).
Alltheyeasttreatmentsalsoincreasedthe
alkalinePhosphataseactivity,andwecanseea
betterimprovementoffeedconversionratio
(FCR) and survival under stressful conditions
(lowproteinpercentageandcrowdedcondi-
tions).Thereisalsoabetterproteinefficiency
ratio (PER) and digestive enzyme activity
whenActisafisused.
Live yeast can be used directly on farm,
where it has been showed (empirically) to
improve water quality in shrimp and fish
ponds. It is either used alone or mixed with
bacteria. Farms producing mash feed onsite
alsoaddyeastinordertodegradecellulolytic
materialtoensureabetterdigestion.
Yeast Culture or fermented yeast.
Yeast culture is a particular product in
whichyeastisallowedtoferment.Yeastbio-
16 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012
FEATURE
November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 17
Figure 4: Cumulative mortality after immersion
with L. anguiilarum (blue line is control, orange line
is Pronady at 0.5g/kg. n=3, Pronady significantly
decreases mortality at 120h. P<0.01)
Figure 3: Number of pellets remaining in the feeding tray one
hour after feeding (n=4, YE are significantly different than
control at P<0.05).
mass, substrate and fermented extracellular
metabolitesarethendried.
Yeast Extracts.
Yeast extracts (YE) come from the
further hydrolysis and purification of
autolysed yeast. Insoluble yeast cell walls
are separated from the cellular content
by centrifugation. YE are very soluble,
rich in peptides (up to 65%-70% of the
product), free amino-acids like glutamic
acidandvitamins.Theyalsocontainahigh
level of nucleic acid which can be further
purified to increase the level of tasty 5
nucleotides. They are used in aquaculture
in functional feeds, and hatcheries, as a
source of nucleotides complementing the
de novo synthesis of cells in multiplication
andhelpingboostimmunityandanti-stress
mechanisms.
Autolysed yeast and inactive yeast are
commonly mistakenly sold on the label
yeast extract in aquaculture. A good way
to differentiate them is to look at the
carbohydrate levels. Autolysed yeast has
around20-22%(mostlyfromtheremaining
YCW) whereas YE contain only three to
sixpercentofcarbohydrates.
Thesmallpeptidesandfreeaminoacids
inYEcanalsoproveapotentattractantfor
aquafeedinshrimp.Inatrialperformedin
Thailand with white shrimp L. vannamei.
Feed containing YE at 2 kg/T of feed was
presentedinfeedingtraysatthecornerof
hapasandtheremainingfeedwascounted
after one hour. We can see a faster feed-
ing when YE are included. (Tacon and
Suyawanish2011).
Yeast Cell walls
Yeast Cell Walls (YCW) represent
the shell of the yeast cell and are roughly
40-50 percent of the mass of the cell.
YCW are composed mainly of fibrous
polysaccharides glucans with beta 1,3 and
16 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012 November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 17
FEATURE
Figure 5: Yeast rich in organic selenium manufacturing process
MADE IN HOLLAND
AL30O
Almex b.v., Verlengde Ooyerhoekseweg 29, 7207 BJ Zutphen, The Netherlands, tel. +31 (0)575 572666, e-mail info@almex.nl, www.almex.nl
High capacity extruders and expanders.
AD System
beta1,6links,(50%and8%respectively),
mannansundertheformofMannoproteins
(40%) and chitin (2%) (see Lippke and
Ovalle1998).Furtherpurificationcanlead
to the production of either purified beta-
glucans (50% and up) and mannoprotein
(often used in wine making for clarifica-
tion). The presence of these compounds
often leads to the mislabelling of YCW as
MOSorBeta-glucans.
These two carbohydrate types are very
interestingfortheaquaculturemarket,beta-
glucansaredirectstimulatorsoftheimmune
systemsinshrimpandfish,uponthestimula-
tion of specific blood cells (granulocytes or
macrophages). Mannans are involved in the
binding to pathogenic bacteria (especially
those with pili having mannose receptors)
and eliminate them from the intestine. It
is also suspected that the mannanes act as
prebioticspromotingthegrowthofbeneficial
bacteria.
YCW have been shown to be effective
to improve the resistance to bacterial chal-
lengesinnumerousaquaculturespecies.Beta
glucans have to be use carefully in aquacul-
ture as some experiments report negative
effects in fish when used for prolonged
periods at high concentrations.. This can be
avoided by careful choosing the source of
YCWandusingthemeitherathighconcen-
tration (2 kg/T) only for a short period, or
alowconcentrationcontinuously(0.5g/Kg).
Anexampleofsea-bassjuvenilesfedwith
Pronady (a YCW of the Lesaffre group) at
0.5 g/kg of feed for 8 weeks can be seen
in Figure 4, showing a significant protection
against L. Anguillarum without any growth
differencewiththecontrol.Howeveramini-
mal amount of YCW seems needed to be
ingestedbeforechallengeinordertoprovide
anefficientimmunostimulationandsothere
might be a gap period when the product is
notefficient.(datafromDr.MorganeHenry,
HellenicCenterformarineResearch,2011)
YCWproducts,dependingonthequality
of the autolysed yeast separation, contain
also significant percentages of proteins and
lipids.Itshouldbenotedthatthelowerthe
levelofproteins,thehigheroflevelofcarbo-
hydrates,andthenthebetterimmunostimu-
lation from the YCW is. Various quality of
YCW are on the animal production market
andmajordifferencescanbefoundbetween
products depending on the strain, the sub-
strateusedtoproducetheyeast,andevent
thedryingprocess.
Mannans represent as most 25-27 per-
centofYCWingoodqualityYCWfrompri-
marygrownyeastsbutcanbefoundaslow
as 9 percent in crude preparation coming
from industry by-products. Glucans or poly-
glucose can range from 18 To 40 percent.
YCW Protein
level remains
the most con-
venient indica-
tor of quality,
the best prod-
uctsbeingthose
having lower
nitrogen con-
tent. The vari-
ability between
batchescanalso
be very high.
Texture should
becheckedfirst.
Good YCW
often have a
smooth, fine
texture, low
granulometry
andalightbeige
colour. There is
alsothetenden-
cy to believe
that all YCW
are the same
and that dif-
ferentiation of
products must
be done to the
highest level of
glucans (some-
times measured
as both alpha and beta forms)or mannans.
NotalltheYCWareequal.Efficiencyshould
be checked as a prerequisite to use, or
change,YCW.
At LFA we have conducted a survey
of four YCW (2 bakery and 2 brewery
yeasts) produced in 4 of our own factories
in the same L. Anguillarum challenge in sea
bass supplemented at 0.5 g/kg of feed for
8 weeks. Only 2 responded significantly (1
bakery,1brewery),theremaining2hadeven
negative results at 4 weeks (lower survival
thancontrol).Thisresultshowsfirstthatnot
all is understood in the way these products
work and that one particular YCW cannot
bereplacedbyanother.
Selenium Yeast
Yeast can be induced to be a source of
organic selenium, mainly under the form of
seleniomethionine, which is then stored in
proteins.Duringthegrowthofbakersyeast,
selenium is added to the medium and is
replacing sulphur in methionine. The excess
of selenium is then eliminated by careful
washing steps (see Figure 5) to ensure that
the selenium left is 97-99 percent organic.
Selenium yeast should be then checked for
the highest percentage of selenomethio-
nine and the consistency between batches.
Seleniomethionine is the main carbon-asso-
ciatedformofseleniumintheanimalsbody
and then allow making organic selenium
which are readily available when oxidative
stressreactionsoccur.
Themainapplicationwouldbeinaquacul-
tureasfishmealisamainsupplyofselenium
and the development of diets with less fish
meal will require compensation of selenium
in aquafeed formulae. Such an application
could be useful in preventing the oxidation
of poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in
fishflesh.Chromiumyeastisseldomusedin
aquaculturediets.
Conclusion
Yeast products are getting more fre-
quently used in aquaculture. Some appli-
cations are promising as the use as an
alternativesourceofproteinsorasasanitary
andwelfareenhancer.Howevermanyprod-
ucts ranging from crude ethanol yeast by-
products to more purified beta-glucans are
availableonthemarket.Thereforepotential
users must accurately select them in func-
tion of their targeted application. It is also
as important to select a reliable source of
the products to ensure a consistency of the
supply.
More InforMatIon:
Website: www.lesaffre.com
18 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012
FEATURE
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N
owadaysweoftenhearstartling
news such as, seven billionth
babybornorworldpopulation
may reach 9.2 billion by 2050
(world news, msnbc.com). Hunger is the
worldsnumberonehealthrisk,itkillsmore
people thanAIDS every year, one in seven
people in the world will go to bed hungry
tonight.
To overcome these issues, farmers must
produce 70 percent more food by 2050 to
feedthepopulation.Buttheimpendingcrisis
isthattheearthmayrunoutoffoodby2050.
2.4 billion extra people, no more land, how
willwefeedtheworldin2050?
Atthesametimewealsohearinthenews
that global fish consumption has hit a record
high. We have seen the commercial fishing
trendisdecliningwhereasaquaculturefarming
isgrowingrapidlyallovertheworld.
Is this supply enough to feed the future
population? May be not, but fish demand
is growing every day all over the world. To
maintainbaselineconsumptionineverycoun-
try,159milliontonsoffishisneededtofeed
the world population in 2030. This demand
is driven by population and income growth.
If a countrys aquaculture production follows
the recent trend, the expected aquaculture
growthratewillneedafourpercentincrease
annually.Tofeedagrowingworldpopulation,
the required aquaculture growth rate is 5.6
percentannually.
Some of the main challenges to achieve
these goals are proper and large-scale feed
production systems for micro aquatic feed.
Recently extruder manufacturers came up
withnewtechnologieswhichcansolvesome
of the aquaculture issues related to large
and commercial-scale feed, which is the key
for growth of aquaculture industry. The fun-
damental components of extrusion systems
have consisted of the following items for a
numberofyears:
1)Feeddeliverysystem
2)Preconditioning
3)Extruder
4)Dieandknifeassemblies
Although existing extrusion systems were
abletoproduceawiderangeofgoodquality
aquaticfeeds(bothfloatingandsinking),small
diameterpelletsizesweredifficulttoproduce
at reasonable or cost-effective throughputs.
Recent innovations in the basic hardware
componentspermitsmallerdiameterfeedsat
attractiveproductionthroughputs.
Feed delivery system
Hoppers or bins are an integral part of
a feeding device and are used to hold the
dry ingredients above the feeders. The feed
delivery system must be able to uniformly
feed both a dry and/or liquid ingredient or a
blendofingredients.
Generally,whentheaddedfatcontentofa
rawformulationexceeds12percent,thepor-
tionoffatabovethe12percentlevelshould
be introduced into the extrusion system in
a separate ingredient stream. The dry feed
portion is delivered to the extrusion system
throughaspecialisedmeteringdevicecapable
of providing uniform flow at any desired
extrusionrate.
Dry ingredients are usually free flowing,
and there are a number of capable feeding
devices which vary in their relative cost
and complexity. However, gravimetric or
loss-in-weightsystemsarenecessaryforthe
stable,precisemeteringofdryfeedforthe
productionofmicro-aquaticfeeds.Theraw
recipe is very finely ground or pulverized
anddoesnotpossessgoodflowproperties.
The feed system must be able to handle
these finely ground formulations and avoid
bridging and non-uniform metering of the
feed.
Automated feed delivery systems with
PLC control are the norm. Slurry tanks and
liquidfeedingdevices(pumps)areutilizedto
accomplish uniform metering of liquid ingre-
dients. The slurry tanks are often jacketed
forheatingorcookingandareequippedwith
agitators as required. Positive displacement
metering pumps deliver metered liquids at
constant rates by varying length of stroke or
speed of rotation. Slurries or liquids can be
premixedwithdryingredientsbutareprefer-
ably injected into preconditioning devices or
the extruder barrel. The nutrient profile of
larvalfeedsiscriticalandtheprecisemetering
ensurescorrectformulations.
Preconditioning
The dry portion of the feed and the
liquid portion are separately introduced into
a preconditioning device where they are
continuously mixed, heated, and moisturised
by the injection of hot water and/or steam.
Theintensemixingofwaterandsteamadded
tothedryfeedandtheabilitytoextendthe
retention time during the preconditioning
phase allows the moisture level to be main-
tainedatanoptimum.
Thisabilitytomaintainoptimummoisture
distribution not only initiates proper cooking
but also is reported as a significant factor in
the reduction of extruder barrel wear and
extruder shaft power per ton of product
processed.Thehighermixingintensityofnew
Extrusion technology for the
production of micro-aquatic
feeds and shrimp feeds
by Mian N. Riaz, Ph.D, Head of Extrusion Technology Program,
Food Protein R&D Center, Texas A&M University, USA
Image courtesy of Wenger
Manufacturing, USA
20 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012
FEATURE
November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 21
preconditioner designs improves hydration
andcooking,helpingtocapturethesteamin
the raw material. Excess steam can escape
the preconditioner and create fugitive dust
which creates housekeeping concerns in the
plantenvironments.
Better cooking with new precondition-
ers gives lower product viscosities which
improves extrudate flow through small
die orifices. The result is smaller pellets
and more uniform pellet size. The higher
mixing intensities in new preconditioner
designs is the result of unique beater
designs and more beater contacts per
retentiontime.
Extrusion
Extrudersaregenerallyclassifiedaseitherbeing
asingleortwin-screwdesign.Inbothdesigns,the
impactoffinalproductcharacteristicsareaffected
byscrewandbarrelprofile,screwspeed,process-
ing conditions (temperature, moisture, etc.), raw
materialcharacteristics,anddie/knifeselection.
The feeding zone of the extruder is that
area where the low-density discrete particles
of raw material are transported into the
extruder barrel inlet. This low-density, often
preconditioned, material is then transported
into the interior of the extrusion processing
chamber. The flow channel of the screw is
typically not filled in this zone due to the
air entrapped in the incoming material. The
incomingmaterialiscompressedslightlyinthis
zonewiththeairbeingexpelled.
Water, an excellent plasticizer, is typically
injected into the barrel in the feeding zone
to facilitate textural development, viscosity
development,andtoenhanceconductiveheat
transfer. The kneading zone of the cooking
extruder continues the compression started
in the feeding zone, and the flow channels of
theextruderscrewhaveahigherdegreeoffill.
As the degree of screw fill increases and
pressure begins to develop in the extruder
barrel, leakage flow (flow over the outside
diameter of the screw in a direction toward
the extruder inlet) and pressure flow both
increase. The mechanism of shear does not
begintoplayadominantroleuntilthescrew
flow channel is full. This full flow channel
conditionbeginsinthekneadingzone.
The flow channel fills, first, with loose
granular material which is compressed and
worked by shear as it passes through the
kneading zone. It is in the kneading zone
wherethediscreteparticlesofmaterialbegin
toagglomeratebecauseoftheirtemperature
increase resulting from conduction, direct
steam injection, and viscous energy dissipa-
tion.Here,thediscreteparticlesbegintoform
amoreintegralflowingdoughmass.
At the discharge
end of the knead-
ing zone, the extru-
date most typically
reaches its maxi-
mum compaction.
The shear in this
areaoftheextruder
barrel is moderate
and the extrudate
temperature begins
to increase. The
final cooking zone
is that area where
amorphousizing and
texturising occur.
Temperature and
pressure typically
increase most rap-
idly in this region
as shear rates are
highest because of
the extruder screw
configuration and
maximum compres-
sion of the extru-
date. The pressure,
temperature, and
resultingfluidviscos-
ity are such that the
extrudate will expel
from the extruder
die to form the
desired final product texture, density, color,
andfunctionalproperties.
Twin-screw systems are preferred for
extrusion of aquatic feeds smaller than 2
mm diameter due to their positive transport
andself-wipingcharacteristicswhichprevents
significant product build-up in the extruder
barrelwhichcouldlaterdislodgeandplugthe
small die orifices. The CTX system is a co-
rotatingsystemthatincludesataperedscrew
diameterwhichde-aeratestheextrudateand
makesiteasiertocreatehighdensityfeedsfor
goodsinkingcharacteristicswithouttheneed
forventedbarrels,pressurizeddensitycontrol
Image courtesy of Wenger Manufacturing, USA
20 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012 November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 21
FEATURE
devices,ordoubleextrusion.ByaddingaBPV
(Back Pressure Valve) after the extruder, the
necessary restriction is provided to expand
theproductiffloatingpelletsaredesired.
Die assemblies
The die is the most critical part of the
complete system as it determines prod-
uct shape and size, but also determines
throughputs and buoyancy properties of
the final aquatic feed. As pellet diameters
became smaller, the die created more
restriction and drastically reduced through-
puts.
One die assembly design that allowed
an increase in throughputs by increasing die
open area is the OTD (Oblique Tube Die).
Thisdieactuallyincreaseddieopenarea(the
number of orifices) by two to three times
which maintained high throughputs even for
smalldiameterproductsduetolargerdiehole
populations.Thetubescreatedlongerreten-
tion times for improved cooking. Pressure
drop in the tubes created a denser product
sothatmicro-aquaticfeedscouldbecooked
thoroughly but still maintain high densities
for sinking characteristics. The process was
still a short time/high temperature process,
which mini-
mised nutrient
destruction.
Floating prod-
ucts are pos-
sible by simply
decreasing die
openarea.
Process
guidelines
Process
guidelines
requiredfordie
holes smaller
than 1.2 mm
diameter:
1) Recipe to
contain ade-
quate starch
levelsforbind-
ing (at least
25%starchfor
floatingfeeds).
2) Maximum particle size of the recipe
must be smaller than one third the die
holesizes.
3) A spring-loaded knife blade is
recommended.
4) All mass flow inputs must be free of
material that is large enough to block
or partially block the die openings and
this includes the steam, water, fat, and
otherliquidinputs.Thewaterandsteam
linesgoingtotheextrudersystemneed
to be fitted with screen filters having
30 mesh (0.6 mm) openings and these
should be adequate if maintained. The
fat line (and fat source) also needs to
befilteredtoremovedebrislargerthan
30mesh(0.6mm).Allstrainers
or filters must be easy to clean
or they will get removed in the
heatofarunwhereliquidflows
are interrupted due to plugged
filters. It may be necessary to
have a dual filter set up for fish
solubles and fat lines. With this
installation,ifonefilterisplugged
you can close the valves to the
primary filter for cleaning and
open the valves for the second
forcontinuedoperation.
5)Thedryfeedmustpassthroughavibrat-
ing sifter after the grinder and before
theextruderlivebin.Thissiftermustbe
sized to remove particles the same size
or larger than the die openings. High
fishmealdietsplugvibratingsifterscreens
veryeasilyandtheindustryoftenemploys
rotarysifterstoavoidthisbottleneck.
6) Pneumatic conveying is required from
the extruder die to the dryer inlet for
severalreasons:
a) For product containment around the
die/knifearea.Thesmalldiameterfeeds
results in spillage in this area and will
causesanitationproblems.
b) For product separation. Floating feeds
have a tendency to stick together
when wet on belt or HVH conveyors
and pneumatic conveying enhances
separation.
c) For separation of tails from pellets.
Pneumatic systems scrub the product
and remove tails for later separation
duringsifting.
7) Fluid bed dryers are recommended
for products under 1.2 mm diameter
in size although horizontal dryers with
polyester screens can work with some
products.
8) Final product sifting after dryer and
before coating. This sifting operation is
criticalforthreereasons:
a) To remove overs (large tails and
doubles)forregrind.
b) To remove fines for regrind. This
prevents a mess during coating step
where the fines are also coated and
causebuildup.
c) To separate good pellets into several
different diameters depending on the
client criteria for size. The expecta-
tions from the industry will be for
tight specs on pellet size and this can
easily be controlled at this point by
sifting product and producing several
different sizes at the same time and
setting the standard for the industry.
Theprimary-sizedproductcanbesent
onthroughthesystemforcoatingand
into final product bins. The secondary
sizes can either be reworked or saved
separately in tote bags for coating and
bagginglater.
9)Productionprocedures.Thissmalldiam-
eter product requires a dedicated line,
strict startup and shutdown procedures
to avoid die plugging, and thorough
cleanup techniques. The extruder and
coater areas should be considered as
wet areas for cleaning. The coater
mayneedtobecleanedbetweeneach
different pellet size to avoid cross
contamination.
By following these guidelines and using
newlyinnovativeextruderpartsmicro-aquatic
floating feed can be produced on a large
scale basis. This micro-aquatic floating feed
willbethefoundationtostartfishfarmingon
commercial scale to fulfill the fish demand in
theworld.
More InforMatIon:
Email: mnriaz@tamu.edu
"This micro-aquatic floating
feed will be the foundation
to start fish farming on
commercial scale to fulfill the
fish demand in the world"
22 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012
FEATURE
November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 23
I
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r
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s
y

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f

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n
g
e
r

M
a
n
u
f
a
c
t
u
r
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n
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22 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012 November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 23
FEATURE
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24 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012 November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 25
TheVelellaResearchProject,whichranfromsummer2011toFebruary2012,raisedfishthroughto
harvestsizeforthefirsttimeinUSFederalwaters.Kampachi(atropicalyellowtail)wereraisedina
singleunanchored,submersiblenetpentetheredtoamannedsailingvessel,inwaterupto12,000feet
deep.Thefinalharvestcompletedthegrow-outcycleofsashimi-gradekampachifishfromthedrifterpen
thathasbeenridingeddiesintheopenocean,threeto75milesoffshoreoftheBigIslandofHawaii.
Thisfinalharvestfarsurpassedourexpectations,saysNeilAnthonySims,Co-CEOofKampachiFarms.
Thefishthrivedintheresearchnetpenfarfromshore,withphenomenalgrowthratesandsuperbfish
healthandwithoutanynegativeimpactonwaterquality,theoceanfloor,wildfishormarinemammals.
Thekampachiwerefedasustainablecommercialdietthatreplacedasignificantamountoffishmealandfish
oilwithsoyandotheralternativeagriculturalproteins.Noantibiotics,hormonesorpesticideswereused
throughouttheseven-monthtrial.
Thekampachireachedanaverageof5.6lbsinsixmonths,resultinginafirstharvestafullthree
monthsaheadofscheduleandafinalFCRof1.6:1.
Simssaysthatfishhealthwassuperbthroughoutthetrial,withanoverallmortalityrateoftwopercent
comparedwithastandardaquaculturemortalityrateof15percent.Sampletestingshowedthat
thekampachihadafatcontentof33percent,makingthisanextraordinarilyhealthyfishforhuman
consumption,highinheart-healthyOmega-3swithnodiscerniblemercuryorothercontaminants.
Itmakesperfectsensetoraisefishintheocean,wheretheybelong,saysSims.Thiswasahealthy,low-stress
environmentforthefish,andwethinkthatthisallowedthemtochanneltheirenergyintogrowingfaster.
ThemajorityofthesupportforthetrialcamefromtheIllinoisSoybeanAssociation,whichprovided
fundingfromtheIllinoisSoyCheckoffProgram.Theprojectgarneredadditionalsupportfromawidevariety
Photo courtesy of Rick Decker
TheVelellaResearchProject
PHotoSHoot
24 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012 November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 25
ofstakeholders,includingNationalScienceFoundation,InternationalCopperAssociation,
Lockheed-Martin,OceanFarmsTechnologiesandNOAA.
ThesuccessoftheVelellaresearchdemonstratesthatwecangrowfishintheopenoceanwith
nonegativeimpactonpristineoceanecosystems,saysSims.Wemustnowapplyourselvesto
responsiblyscaleupthisindustry,tomeetthegrowingglobaldemandforhigh-qualityseafood.
Thenextphaseoftheresearchwilltestasingle-pointmooringsixmilesoffshoreinwater6,000
feetdeep,wherethepencanmovefreelyincurrentsandstillbewithineasyrangeofshorefor
supplydeliveryandtelecommunicationssupportforremotecommandandcontrol.Thisnext
iterationoftheresearchwilltestanunmannedVelellaonasinglepointmooringsixmilesoffshore.
Photos above text: Courtesy of Bryce Groark - Photos around text: Courtesy of Jeff Milisen
S
elenium yeast is commonly used
in aquaculture to improve animal
performance and meat quality.
Samples of different selenised yeast
products were sourced in the EU and
USA. QA departments ofTrouw Nutrition
International and Selko
Feed Additives performed
a laboratory analysis on
these. Outcomes revealed
remarkable differences
between product samples
on most effective and
active compound, namely
selenomethionine(SeMet).
Selenium is one of the
essential trace elements in
aquaculture. It can be added
to aquafeed in two forms;
as inorganic selenite or as
organic selenium yeast. Each
form has different metabolic
routesandeffects.
Organicselenium-selenised
yeast - is regarded as a more
effectivewayofsupplementing
selenium. With more frequent
usage of selenised yeast and
increasingamountofsuppliers,
benchmarking on quality
becomes relevant. Selenised
yeast mainly consists of
selenomethionine (SeMet),
which can be converted
into selenocysteine (SeCys)
by natural turnover from
methionine into cysteine.
SeMet is regarded by animals
as normal methionine and
absorbed and processed
following the methionine
pathway. The SeMet will
be stored as methionine in
proteins and subsequently, tissues such as fillet
or organs will be enriched with the selenium.
This selenium is easily available when required
for the synthesis of selenoproteins (Figure 1).
Thissavesvaluabletimeandensuresafastand
effectivereactionincaseofstressoradisease.
Benchmark
Several samples of selenised yeast were
sourced from the market and analysed
for the most relevant selenium species at
the University of Pau, CNRS, France. This
research lab is known as professional and
repeatable for organic selenium
speciesdetermination.
The value of selenised yeast
was determined by the levels
of total selenium, SeMet, SeCys
and inorganic selenium. A total
of 11 samples from different
batches of a number of pro-
ducerswereexamined.Samples
were randomly numbered and
sent to the lab for analyses
by HPLC ICP-MS. Results are
showninTable1.Mostinterest-
ing is the variation in levels of
SeMet.Somesamplescontained
only half the level of SeMet
compared to other samples
(range from 24.8% to 69.7%).
SeCys levels are, as expected,
marginally present at all equal
levels. Unexpectedly, Sample 6
containedarelativehighlevelof
inorganicselenium(13.3%).
Need of
selenomethionine
Yeastisenrichedwithseleni-
umthroughgrowingitinamedi-
um with a controlled amount
of selenium and a shortage of
sulphur. If the yeast grows, it
mustsynthesisemethioninewith
selenium incorporated; SeMet.
ThehighertheSeMetlevels,the
morebeneficialtheyeastwillbe
as an organic selenium source
foraquaspecies.
It is widely accepted in
Why check selenomethionine
levels in selenium yeast?
by Wilbert Litjens, Technical manager Optimin & Betaine and Paul Perucchietti, Product manager Optimin, Selko Feed Additives,
The Netherlands
table 1:
S
a
m
p
l
e
total
Selenium
SeMet SeCys
Inorganic
Selenium
ppm
ppm as
Se
% of
total Se
ppm as
Se
% of
total Se
% of total
Se
1 3000 2090 69.7 140 4.6 < 2%
2 2260 1460 64.6 100 4.4 < 2%
3 2250 1110 49.1 70 3.3 < 2%
4 1910 920 48.3 190 9.7 < 2%
5 1890 1160 61.2 670 3.5 < 2%
6 1990 490 24.8 < 10 - 13.3%
7 2217 1069 48.2 51 2.3 < 2%
8 2377 1278 53.8 87 3.7 < 2%
9 2191 1092 49.8 59 2.7 < 2%
10 2027 854 42.1 49 2.4 < 2%
11 2239 1275 57.0 81 3.6 < 2%
26 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012
FEATURE
November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 27
scientific literature that SeMet is the most
effective and active compound in selenised
yeast bringing beneficial effects to organism.
The percentage of SeMet of total Se is the
bestindicatorforthevalueandbioavailability
oftheseleniumoutoftheyeast.
The analysis of the main organic selenium
metabolites (SeCys and SeMet) in relation
to the total selenium level gives a strong
evaluation on the success of the enrichment
process during production. Most selenised
yeastproductscontain97-99percentorganic
seleniumoftotalselenium.
ThedominantorganicseleniumformisSeMet,
whichcanbeaccurately(<5%variation)deter-
mined.SeCysispresentatfixed,lowlevels(2-5%)
and of minor
importance. The
remainders are
SeMet precur-
sors and SeCys/
SeMetintermedi-
ate amino acids.
Most of these
compounds are
lessornotvalua-
bletotheanimal
and are individu-
ally present at
verylowlevelsin
yeast.
Guaranteed high quality
Selko Feed Additives markets its own
premium quality selenised yeast; Optimin
SeY. On every batch, as well total selenium
as selenomethionine content is checked.
Minimal 63 percent selenium of total sele-
nium must be in the form of SeMet for the
batch to be released for customers. This
defined quality guarantees that aqua species
will get the most out of the selenium yeast
(Figure2).
AconsistentandhighlevelofSeMetoffers
numerousadvantages.Forexample,whenfor-
mulatingfeedalowerinclusionlevelisneeded
tomeetrequirementsandsavescostswithout
compromising animal performance. Besides,
when selenium enriched human foods such
as fish fillets are marketed, consistent and
highselenomethioninelevelsintheyeastfeed
is essential to make health claims on these
foods.
Atrialwithrainbowtroutevaluateddiffer-
entsourcesofseleniumandtheirsubsequent
effect on selenium levels in the fillet. Results
are presented in Figure 2 (feeding level in
ppm), showing a significant enrichment with
OptiminSeYoveranotherselenisedyeastand
inorganicselenium.
Conclusion
Thebenchmarkrevealedlargedifferences
in quality and consequently nutritional value
ofdifferentproducts.Itisbeneficialforafish
feed company or fish producer to compare
suppliers on SeMet levels and subsequent
pricing. Choosing a product which guaran-
tees selenomethionine is the best choice. It
gives maximal benefits to animals, enriches
animalproductsandlowersthecostoffeed
formula.
More InforMatIon:
Email: wilbert.litjens@nutreco.com
Website: www.selko.com
26 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012 November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 27
FEATURE
digestarom.biomin.net
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I
n recent years, aquaculture has gained in
importanceasarenewablesourceofdietary
protein and as a viable commercial activity.
Tomaintainthispositioninthefutureandto
continuetoprovideagoodinvestmentopportu-
nity,theproblemsthesectorcurrentlyfacesmust
beaddressed.Oneofthemoreimportantofthese
concernsisthecostoffeed,whichisestimated
tobe50-60percentofthetotalcostofproduc-
tion. Numerous studies on the use of different
feed formulations, feed ingredients and feeding
techniqueshavebeenconducted(Kaushiketal.,
2004;Thiessenetal.,2003;Martinezetal.,2004;
Enes et al.,2006; Izquierdo et al., 2003).These
studies have included assessments of various
alternative raw materials, vitamins and minerals,
monitoring the amount of feed provided to
thefish,andtheadditionofpigmentsandother
feed additives to the diet. In particular, various
feedadditiveswithgrowthpromotingproperties
cameintoprominenceinthesestudies(Franciset
al.,2005;Harounetal.,2006;Abdel-Tawwabetal.,
2008;Lara-Floresetal.,2003;LiandGatlin,2004;).
Growth promoting feed additives may contain
different ingredients as plant extracts, organic
acids,probiotics,hormonesetc.
The benzo[c]phenanthridine and protopin
alkaloids (QBA/PA) extracted from plants are
knowntohaveantimicrobial,anti-inflamatory,and
immune-modulatory effects (Vieira et al., 2008;
Rawling etal.,2009).Thesealkaloids
includesanguinarine,chelerythrineallocryptopine
andProtopin.
The commercial product Sangrovit

, an
organic and plant-based material containing
benzo[c]phenanthridine and protopin alkaloids
(QBA/PA), increases feed intake in various ani-
mals categories such as swine and poultry and
maystimulatedigestiveenzymesecretion,which
would improve feed digestibility, nutrient avail-
abilityandtherebyfeedconversion.
Inthepresentstudy,theeffectofSangrovit

ongrowth,feedutilisation,andliverandvisceral
fatreductionofseabass,wasinvestigated.
Materials and methods
This work was conducted at the Aegean
University Faculty of Fisheries
hatchery facilities in Urla-Iskele in
Turkey. Sea bass fry (average live
weight = 17.03 0.43 g) were
placedinnine300litrecylindrical-
conical polyester tanks (Figure
1). In this study, 585 sea bass in
total were used. Sixty five fish
were placed in each tank, and
there were three replications per
treatment. The experiment was
conducted during the month of
March, April and May 2010, for
a total of 90 days. The hatchery
water was obtained directly from
theseabypassingitthroughsand
filters in an open system, without
the use of any heating apparatus.
Watertemperaturewasbetween
14.3 0.18 and 16.49 0.170C,
dissolved oxygen was between
7.430.02 and 6.370.05 mg l-1.
The fish were fed three times
a day at rate of 0.7% - 1.1% of
total live weight, depending on
thewatertemperatureduringthe
experiment.
Threeexperimentaldietswere
formulated (44% crude protein,
16%fat,12%ash,and3470Cal/kg
diet)(Table1)tocontaindifferent
levels of Sangrovit

premix (1:10
dilution) (ANC Animal Nutrition
Center, PHYTO BIOTICS) which
wassupplementedat0.0(control
Group A), 50 ppm (Group B)
and 100 ppm (Group C) diet. The control and
treatmentgroupdietswereformulatedas2mm
extruded pellets by Agromarin Feed Factory
in Turkey. The nurient content of this pellet is
describedinTable1.
The diets were prepared under special
Effect of Sangrovit

on the growth and performance of sea bass


by Dr. Ali Y. Korkut and Dr. Aysun Kop, E.U. Faculty of Fisheries, Aquaculture Department, Izmir, Turkey
Table 1: Formulation of experimental diets.
raw Materials Group a Group B Group C
Herring meal* 260 260 260
anchovy meal** 180 180 180
Fish oil* 127 127 127
Soybean meal*** 217,97 217,47 216,97
Corn gluten 60% CP 30 30 30
Wheat gluten 10 10 10
Wheat meal 165 165 165
Vitamin/mineral Premix 10 10 10
Methionine and lysine 0,03 0,03 0,03
Sangrovit (ppm) 0 50 100
Moisture max 12 12 12
Crude ash max 12 12 12
Crude protein min 44 44 44
Crude fat min 16 16 16
Starch max 10 10 10
Metabolic energy Kcal/kg 3470 3470 3470
Crude fibre max 2,5 2,5 2,5
*65,5% CP, Peru
**71% CP, North of Turkey
***44% CP, ASA, USA
aProvided per kg of diet: 15 mg of vitamin A (500,000
IU/g); 15 mg of vitamin D3 (100,000 IU/g); 60 mg
of vitamin E (500 IU/g); 2.5 mg of vitamin K; 7.5 mg
of thiamin; 15 mg of riboflavin; 7.5 mg of pyridoxine;
87.5 mg of nicotinic acid; 2.5 mg of folic acid; 25 mg
of vitamin B12 (1,000 mg/kg); .5 g of inositol; 62.5 mg
of biotin (2%); 25 mg of calcium pantothenate; 2 g of
choline (50%).
28 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012
FEATURE
November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 29
conditions, and imported Sangrovit

was
added to the experimental feeds after being
dissolved in fish oil. Biometric measurements
for growth performance (body weight, total
length, fork length) were obtained at the
beginning of the study, and this process was
repeated every 30 days. Fish body weight
was determined using a 0.001 g precision
scale, and body length was measured using
a 30 cm ruler. Growth performance and
feed utilisation were assessed by net weight
gain (NWG), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR),
Spezific Growth Rate (SGR) and Condition
Factor (CF). Calculations of this formulations
weremadeasfollows:
FCR=feedintake/weightgain(Barriasand
Oliva-Teles,2000)
SGR= (ln Final Weight/ ln Initial Weight)/
days(BarriasandOliva-Teles,2000)
CF=FinalWeight/(FinalLength)3
Fish were anesthetised with a phenoxy-phe-
noliccompound.Also,atthebeginningandatthe
end of the experiment, five fish from each tank
were dissected to obtain their internal organs,
liver weights were recorded, and the visceros-
omatic(VSI)and
hepatosomatic(HSI)indexeswerethencalcu-
lated.Calculationsweremadeusingthefollowing
formulae(Metailler,1986;Kaushik,1998;Martinez
andVasquez,2001;Hosuetal.,2003;Chenget
al.,2005;Korkutetal.,2007):
HSI=LiverWeight/BodyWeightx100
VSI=VisceraWeight/BodyWeightx100
ANOVA was used to assess variance within
and among treatment groups and repetitions,
anddifferencesbetweeninitialandfinalmeasured
values were assessed using the t-test. Due to a
lack of homogeneity among groups, data were
analysed using the Kruskal-Willis test. Statistical
analysis was conducted using SPSS 09.01 for
Windows.
Results and discussion
The water parameters reflected the natural
waterconditionsinthelocationwherethestudy
was conducted. They were characteristic spring
semester conditions, and this environment had
no negative impact on fish development or
behavior,theirfeedingpattern,andoronthelevel
ofstressthattheyweresubjectedto.
Duringthestudyperiod,fishaverageliveweight
and live weight gain
for all treatment
groups increased
incrementally (Table
2). Final average
body weights for
Groups A, B and C
were 49.9071.28
g, 55.2431.03 g,
and 62.2171.35 g,
respectively. Group
AandGroupBfinal
averagebodyweights
werenotsignificantly
different (p>0.05),
but the final average
body weight of the
fishinGroupCwas
significantly greater
(p<0.05) than was
the final average
bodyweightoffishin
GroupA.
Mortality during
theexperimentwas20percent,19.4percentand
20percentforGroupsA,BandC,respectively
(Table2).ThevaluesforFCR,SGR,VSI,HSIand
CFarelistedinTable2,andalthoughincremental
trendsareevidentforeachparameterbasedon
Sangrovit

content, there were no significant


differences (p>0.05) among treatment groups,
except for the SGR in Group C (SGR 0.74),
whichwaselevatedrelativetoGroupA(control)
(SGR0.67)(p<0.05).
There have been few Sangrovit

studies
conducted using aquatic species, but Rawling et
al, 2009 reported on the effect of Sangrovit

in red tilapia (O. niloticus). Fish were fed equal


amounts of diets containing various proportions
ofSangrovit

for60days:25mg/kg(Diet25S),
50 mg/kg (Diet 50S) 75 mg/kg (Diet 75S) and
100mg/kg(Diet100S),andgrowth,performance
andhealthstatusweresubsequentlymonitored.
The Sangrovit

-fed fish gained signifi-


cantly more weight (71.858.98, 67.853.32,
66.801.98, 67.708.06 respectively) than
control fish (51.001.84). SGR was significantly
improved in Sangrovit

-fed fish (4.050.20,


3.980.08, 3.940.05, 3.960.18 respectively)
versuscontrolfish(3.540.06).
Similarly, we have shown here that sea bass,
whenfed100ppmSangrovit

for90days,exhibit
asignificantimprovementinbodyweightgainover
fishthatreceivenoSangrovitinthediet.Thevalues
forFCRforallgroupsweresimilar,butfishgrowth,
bodyweightgainandSGRforfishinGroupC(100
ppm)weresignificantlydifferentfromthecontrol
group. These data suggest that the application of
Sangrovit

to the diet of sea bass from the fry


stage through to harvest can contribute to low
mortality,agoodFCR,andimprovedgrowthand
performancerelativetofishthatdonotconsume
Sangrovit

.However,studiesoncommercialfarms
(soil pools, net cages, etc.) may provide different
results,duetothevaryingenvironmentalandfeed-
ingconditionsthatwouldbeencountered.
Inconclusion,recentincreasesinrawmate-
rialpriceshavemadeitnecessarytofindalterna-
tivefeedingredientsandfeedadditivesthatwill
help to reduce the overall cost of the rations.
Sangrovit

has been shown here to have a


positiveimpactonthegrowthandperformance
ofseabass,warrantingitsinclusioninthefeeding
programofthiseconomicallyimportantspecies.
References
Availablefromthepublisheronrequest
Table 2: Growth Performance Parameters for Experimental Groups
Parameters Group a
(Control)
Group B
(50 ppm)
Group C
(100ppm)
Initial number of fish 180 180 180
Initial average live
Weight (g)
17.0270,36 17.0370,44 17.0270,49
Final average live
Weight (g)
49.9071.28a 55.2431.03a 62.2171.35b
live Weight Gain (g) 32.880.41a 38.210.83b 45.191.18b
Mortality (number of
dead fish)
36 35 36
FCr 1.29 1.27 1.26
SGr 0.67a 0.71b 0.74b
VSI 6.84 6.81 6.69
HSI 1.79 1.73 1.67
CF 0.92 1.01 1.14
Values expressed as meansstandard deviation
abSignificant differences between groups are indicated by difference in
superscript letters.
28 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012 November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 29
FEATURE
30 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012
EXPERTTPIC
November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 31
Welcome to Expert Topic, a new feature for International Aquafeed. Each issue
will take an in-depth look at a particular species and how its feed is managed.
SALMON
EXPERT TOPIC
30 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012 November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 31
EXPERTTPIC
1
Atlantic
Canada
by Pamela Parker, Executive Director,
Atlantic Canada Fish Farmers
Association, Canada
A
tlantic Canada is the birthplace of
Canadas salmon farming industry.
Canadasfirstcommercialharvestof
farmedAtlanticsalmonintookplace
inLordsCove,DeerIslandin1979.
Today,aquacultureisa$2.1billionindustryin
Canada,employingover15,000workers.
Atlantic Canada produces approximately
55,000metrictonnesofsalmonannually,30per
centofCanadasfarmedsalmonproduction.The
sector is one of the regions biggest economic
drivers generating over $435 million in revenue
andemployingover3,500people.Inmanyrural
coastalcommunities,salmonfarmingisthemajor
employer and further growth potential exists.
Both production and employment are poised
to grow significantly in the near future with the
launchofNovaScotiasaquaculturedevelopment
strategy and with continued focus on develop-
ment in Newfoundland. Salmon is already the
largestagri-foodexportinNewBrunswick.
Although the vast majority of finfish farmers
grow salmon, many companies are growing
other finfish species such as cod, trout, arctic
char,sturgeonandhalibutaswellasmusselsand
seaweedsfromintegratedmulti-trophicaquacul-
turefarms.OfthefishfarmedinAtlanticCanada,
approximately 60 percent is exported to the
UnitedStates.
Canada has vast and dynamic ecosystems
andwhilesomefarmmanagementpracticesvary
depending on the environment, no Canadian
salmonproduceruseshormones,dyesorchemi-
cals in their feed and our farmed salmon is not
genetically modified. Less than three percent of
salmonfeedcontainsanantibiotic.
Because salmon farming is science-based,
our environmental and fish health management
practicesarecontinuallychangingandimproving
asnewresearchortechnologyemerges.
Canadaleadsthedevelopmentoffishmealand
fishoilreplacementinsalmonfeed.Inthe1990s,
wildfishbasedingredientsinfeedswereashighas
80percent.Today,itsaslowas20percent.
Atlantic Canadian feed producers work with
topresearcherstodeveloptheirownfeedusing
local ingredients whenever possible. The fish
waste from our processing facilities is now
being used to produce other animal feeds
(pets,poultry)sothatweareanetprotein
producer.
All the salmon farming companies
operating in eastern Canada are pri-
vately owned and operated by Atlantic
Canadians.Oursalmonfarmersarepas-
sionateandhardworkingpeoplewhoare
committed to building a locally based,
globallycompetitiveandenvironmentally
sustainable industry that will continue
to bring prosperity to our coastal com-
munities.
The Atlantic Canada Fish Farmers
Association (ACFFA) is an industry-fund-
ed association that has been working on behalf
of the salmon farming industry in the mari-
time region since 1987. The ACFFA represents
over 95 percent of salmon production in New
BrunswickandNovaScotiainadditiontoawide
rangeofbusinessesandorganizationinthesupply
andservice,technologicalandresearchsectors.
The ACFFA takes a leadership role in the
development and implementation of strategies
that are focused on fish health and welfare,
environmentalstewardship,innovationandsocial
responsibilitywithinourcommunities.
More InforMatIon:
Website: www.atlanticfishfarmers.com
3 1
2
5
4
New
Zealand
by Adam Hicks, Aquaculture New
Zealand, New Zealand
S
ince its beginnings in the
1970s, New Zealands
salmonfarmingindustryhas
evolved from a group of
innovative pioneers, to a profes-
sional, specialised and quality food
production sector focused on envi-
ronmental sustainability, food safety
andvalueaddedmarketing.
We are the worlds largest pro-
ducerofthepremiumChinook(King)
Salmon, with our 2011 harvest of
14,000tonnesaccountingforroughly
84percentoftotalglobalproduction.
LastyeartheNewZealandsalmon
industry generated $128 million in
revenue and provided employment
forhundredsofKiwis.
Roughly half of all salmon farmed
inNewZealand,isconsumedinNew
Zealand. It is readily available at local
supermarketsandrestaurantsmuch
of it served in family kitchens and
backyardbarbecues.Theremainderis
exportedtoover30countriesinclud-
ing Japan, US, Australia, Hong Kong
andCanada.
The premium species of salmon,
King Salmon is prized for its char-
acteristic rich flavour, delicate soft
texture and high Omega-3 content.
King Salmon is much harder to grow
than Atlantic salmon, but yields a
muchhigherqualityproduct.
Our farmed King Salmon are
growninthepristine,colderwatersoff
the South Island with the majority in
seapensinMarlborough,Canterbury
andSouthlandregions.Thefarmsare
locatedinareasselectedfortheirisola-
tion,waterqualityandflow.Afterbeing
placedwithinaseawaterfarm,asalmon
generallytakes19-31monthstogrow
to an optimum market size of around
3.54kg.Therearealsoanumberof
smallfreshwaterfarmsoperatinginthe
McKenzieCountryhydroelectric-canals.
New Zealand producers (New
Zealand King Salmon, Sanford, Akaroa
Salmon, Mt Cook Alpine Salmon,
Benmore Salmon and High Country
Salmon) are focused on nurturing the
salmonthroughouttheirnaturalgrowth
cycletoensurefishwelfareandguaran-
teehighqualityandsafesalmonforthe
consumer.
International feed production com-
panies Skretting, Ridley, Biomar and
Reliance supply the majority of New
Zealands salmon feed. The food is
specially blended for King Salmon with
fishmealandfishoil,withsomeproduc-
ersalsoincorporatingplantproteinsand
oils and by-products from the poultry
andmeatindustries,fromanimalsraised
forhumanconsumption.
The New Zealand salmon farming
industry now produces more fish pro-
teinthanitconsumeswithsomepro-
ducersachievingconversionratesbetter
than 1:1.19. Information supplied by
feedproducersshowthewildfishpro-
teinusedinfeedproductionissourced
primarily from the well-managed and
sustainable Peruvian anchovy fishery
(www.fishsource.org).
Core to the industry, is an uncom-
promising commitment to the respon-
sible management of our resources.
Our Environmental Codes of Practise
are independently recognised as world
leading,andourfarmingoperationsare
highly regulated and closely monitored
tomeetthestrictenvironmentalcondi-
tions of the New Zealand Resource
ManagementAct.
Salmon farming is an industry that
New Zealand can be proud of and at
the same time be excited about for
ourfuture.
More InforMatIon:
Website: www.salmon.org.nz or www.
aquaculture.org.nz
The history of New Zealand salmon
farming history has been captured in
Swimming Upstream, and is available by
emailing contact@kingsalmon.co.nz
2
32 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012
EXPERTTPIC
November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 33
British
Columbia,
Canada
by Mary Ellen Walling, Executive Director,
BC Salmon Farmers Association, Canada
S
almonfarmingisthelargestagricul-
tural business in British Columbia.
It produces around 80,000 metric
tonnes annually with a value of US
$450 million. The industry employs 6,000
people, of which 2,000 are
employeddirectlybyfarming
companies. The domestic
demand for BC salmon
is strong but the fish also
exported to the USA and
some specialty markets in
Japan,AsiaandIndia.
The BC Salmon Farmers
Association works in various ways
tolookaftertheneedsofitsmembers.
For example, regulatory responsibility for
the industry has recently been transferred
from the provincial to the federal govern-
ment. However, there is no specific aqua-
culture legislation in Canadian law. This
meansfarmershavetoworkwithinexisting,
older acts which are not always relevant
totheindustry.Theassociationisworking
with the Canadian Aquaculture Industry
Alliance to advocate for national
regulationforaquaculture.
Bringing the industry
together to effec-
tively manage
fish health is
also a prior-
ity for the
association.
Following
the 2002-03
IHN outbreak, the association developed a
viral management plan designed to respond
tofutureincidentsofdiseasemoreeffectively.
This plan was implemented in May 2012,
whenIHNwasdetectedatafarminnorthof
Tofino. There were culls at three farms and
weekly farm tours were postponed but the
spreadofthediseasewashalted.
There is a strong environmental move-
mentinBC.Theassociationiscommittedto
providinggoodinformationandengagingwith
questionsfromthepublic.Ithasalsoworked
with the WWF on its Salmon Aquaculture
Dialogue.
More InforMatIon
Website: www.salmonfarmers.org
3
32 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012 November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 33
EXPERTTPIC
A sustainable approach to aquaculture
The BioSustain programme targets the need for a sustainable approach in
food production, by evaluating and documenting the sustainability profle
of different feed types.
For further information please visit www.biosustain.no
www.biomar.com
W O R L D C L A S S F I S H F E E D BI OSUSTAI N
Immunonutrition
in fish farming:
A natural and
sustainable
solution
by D. Pacitti, S. A. M. Martin, C.J.
Secombes , Scottish Fish Immunology
Research Centre, Institute of Biological
and Environmental Sciences, University of
Aberdeen, United Kingdom
T
he rise of aquaculture has been
oneofthemostprofounddevelop-
ments in global food production
over the past 100 years, with pro-
ductionapproximatelydoublingeachdecade.
Aquaculture now delivers 39 percent of
aquaticfoodproductswiththeFAOrecord-
ing310speciesunderculturein2010.
Among these, salmonid fish (primarily
rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon) are the
mostintensivelyfarmedfishinmorethan30
countries representing 90 percent of global
marine aquaculture production. Salmonid
production, particularly Atlantic salmon,
increasedfrom299,000tonnesin1990to
1.9 million tonnes in 2010, at an average
annual rate exceeding 10 percent. Salmon
isoneofthefoodcategoriesthatisgrowing
at a significantly higher rate than the worlds
humanpopulation(FAO,2012).
However, the salmon farming industry is
vulnerabletotheadverseimpactsofdisease.
For example, in 2007 an outbreak of infec-
tious salmon anaemia (ISA) in Chile caused
morethan$2billioninlossesandreducedby
halftheChileanproductionofAtlanticsalmon
(Godoy et al, 2008). The common causative
agents of infectious diseases in aquaculture
include a range of bacteria, viruses, parasites
andoomycetes.
Whilstvaccinesexistforsomeofthesedis-
eases, it is clear that additional measures are
neededtogiveasuiteofapproaches
todiseasecontroltofarmmanagers.
This article will focus on one such
approach,involvingtheoptimisation
of the mineral component of the
diet. Knowledge of the impact of
mineral nutrition on immunological
function and health status of fish,
together with our greater understand-
ing of the salmonid genome and a new
suite of molecular tools, may offer a new
perspectiveenablingbetterprophylacticcon-
trolofstressanddisease.
Fish immunology
Theimmunesystemprotectsanorganism
against disease and participates in the main-
tenance of stable conditions during develop-
mentandgrowth,inflammatoryreactionsand
tissueinjury.Asinthehumanimmunesystem,
thefishimmunesystemisdividedintoinnate
andadaptivecomponents.
The innate system is an ancient system
that is based on a non-specific recognition
of a pathogen, that gives an instant reaction
buthasashortduration.Theinnateimmune
systemisofprimeimportanceintheimmune
defenceoffishandiscommonlydividedinto
three compartments: the epithelial/mucosal
barrier, secreted soluble mediators (e.g.
complement system, interferons, anti-
microbial peptides) and the cellular
components (e.g. phagocytic cells
suchasmacrophagesandgranu-
locytes).
The epithelial and
mucosal barrier of the
skin,gillsandalimentary
tract is an extremely
important bar-
rier in fish, being
constantly
immersed in
media con-
taining poten-
tially harmful
agents. The
humoral and cel-
lular defences repre-
sent the first response
oftheorganismoncesub-
ject to pathogen attack. However, a second
encounter with the same pathogen will not
resultinanenhancedresponse.
Incontrast,theadaptivearmischaracter-
isedbyspecificactivity,whichisnotaheritable
trait but reflects the immune experience of
eachindividual.Theresponseoftheadaptive
immune system is relatively slow initially but
islonglastingandhasamemorycomponent,
givingfasterandlargerresponsesonasecond
encounter.Themaineffectorcellsareadiffer-
entwhitebloodcelltypecalledlymphocytes.
During infection, the fast but generally short-
lived innate immune response precedes the
longerlastingmorespecificadaptiveimmune
response.Infishthislagperiodcanbeasmuch
as10-12weeks,whichhastobekeptinmind
whenconsideringprophylacticimmunological
controloffishdisease(Magnadottir,2010).
Immunonutrition
Traditionally the use of antimicrobials
andvaccinationhasbeenusedtofight
disease in fish farms. Today,
farmed Atlantic salmon
are routinely
vaccinated
against
a
number
of bacte-
rial and viral diseases
before seawater transfer.
However, fish vaccinology is still a
young and maturing science, and vac-
cinesformanypathogenshavenotyetbeen
developed.
It is a well-accepted concept that appro-
priate feed and feeding regimes support
optimum health. However the sustainability
of fishmeal and fish oil stocks has brought
about changes in aquafeed formulations that
aredemandingagreaterunderstandingofthe
role that alternative ingredients, feed addi-
tives, macro- and micro-nutrients and their
balanceplaysastheycandirectlyorindirectly
influence fish health and immune function
(Figure1).
4
34 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012
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November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 35
In terms of macronutrients, the protein
(and amino acids), carbohydrate and lipid/
fatty acid components can all impact on
healthstatus.Dietaryproteinsprovideessen-
tialandnon-essentialaminoacids,whichhave
acentralroleindefencemechanisms,asthey
are required for the synthesis of an array of
proteins involved in immune functions. The
useofalternativeplantproteinshasstilltobe
optimised for growth and immune function.
Lipids provide energy
and meet the
essen-
tial fatty acid
requirements of the
animal. It is known that
several polyunsaturated or
monounsaturated fatty acids are
involved in different immune functions,
exerting their influence through changes in
membrane fluidity, eicosanoid synthesis, for-
mation of lipid peroxides, regulation of gene
expression, apoptosis, alteration of antigen
presentation, or modulation of intestinal
microbiota. All of these processes and path-
wayshavesignificantrolesininflammationand
diseaseresistance.
Themicronutrientsalsorepresentafunda-
mentalcomponentoffishdiets.Micronutrients
comprise of vitamins (e.g. A, C and E),
carotenoids(e.g.-carotene,-caroteneand
-carotene) and minerals (e.g. calcium, mag-
nesium,iron,copper,zincandselenium).Since
many micronutrients are involved in several
biologicalpathways,aninadequateintakecan
lead to adverse effects on fish health due to
deficiency.
Vitamins
Vitaminsareorganiccompoundsrequired
in small amounts in the diet, because they
play major roles in growth, physiology, and
metabolism.Howeverincertaincircumstanc-
es, when the fish is exposed to certain kinds
ofstress,therequiredamountmaybetwoto
threetimeshigher.
Vitamin A has essential roles in vision,
growth,bonedevelopment,reproductionand
normalmaintenanceofepithelialtissue.Some
importantfunctionsofvitaminAincluderegula-
tionofcellulardifferentiationandproliferation,
resist-
ance to
infection as
well as embry-
onic development and
growth.
Vitamin C (or ascorbic acid)
is a co-factor for several enzymatic
reactions,
including col-
lagen synthesis
and the produc-
tion of stress
hormones by
interrenal and
chromaffin cells.
Vitamin C itself
is also a reduc-
tive compound
that acts as an
antioxidant dur-
ing oxidative
stress.
Vitamin E
compounds are
the major chain-
breaking antioxi-
dant; they have
an important
role in maintain-
ing the home-
ostasis of labile
metabolites
(suchasvitamins
and unsaturated
fatty acids) and
inprotectingthe
cell membranes
from oxidative
damage.
Vitamin sup-
plemented diets
can be given during aquaculture operations
thatarestressfulandpotentiallyimmunosup-
pressive. They are essential for a variety of
biologicalandphysiologicalfunctionsincluding
increaseddiseaseresistanceandwoundheal-
ing. A study conducted in rainbow trout fed
diets supplemented with vitamin C, showed
that this molecule increased complement
activity and lymphocyte proliferation. Other
studies have revealed that ascorbic acid sup-
plementation is able to alleviate the adverse
effects due to hypoxic conditions and tem-
peraturefluctuations(Oliva-Teles,2012).
Carotenoids
Carotenoids (tetraterpenoid organic pig-
ments) are naturally occurring in plants and
someotherphotosyntheticorganisms(some
typesofbacteriaandfungi).Theyprotectcells
against oxidative injury and ensure optimal
cellularfunctions,includingapoptosis,cellsig-
nallingandgeneregulation.Theimmunopro-
tective functions of the carotenoids depend
very much on the equilibrium between the
intra-andextracellularmilieuandonthetype
andconcentrationofthecarotenoid.
Despitetheroleofcarotenoidshaveinthe
nutritionofseveralfishandcrustaceanspecies,
onlyfewstudieshaveconsideredtheminrela-
tiontothehealthoftheorganism.Inrainbow
trout, activities of lysozyme, complement,
34 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012 November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 35
EXPERTTPIC
Healthy
Fish
With the most convincing health feed
products in the market EWOS offers:
- Solid documentation
- Proven performance in the water
- Compelling cost/beneft analysis
Contact your local EWOS representative
for details. Visit ewos.com
phagocytes and non-specific cytotoxicity can
beelevatedupon-caroteneandastaxanthin
supplementation.Theseeffectscanbefurther
enhancedwhenusingdietsenrichedforvita-
minsA,CandE.Inasubsequentinvestigation,
the same researchers validated the benefits
of carotenoids derived from marine algae,
which improved humoral as well as cellular
responses(Kiron,2012).
Minerals
Minerals are another important component
in the fish diet. In many cases their importance
is under-estimated and as a consequence their
amountinfishdietscanbebelowtherequiredlevel.
Moreover,severalstudieshaveshownthatcertain
minerals,whenprovidedtofishatdosesmarginally
aboveessentiallevelscaneffectivelyboostimmune
responsesandincreasestressresistance.
However, it is important not to exceed
the tolerated level with mineral augmenta-
tion, because toxic effects may occur (Figure
2). In higher vertebrates minerals are known
to impact general organism homeostasis and
immunity. Among the wide range of minerals
essentialfororganismwelfare,zincandselenium
have received particular attention. They are a
requiredcomponentformorethan300differ-
ent enzymes, which makes them fundamental
for the proper functioning of many metabolic
processesintheorganism,includingtheimmune
response(FerenkandEbringer,2003).
Zincisessentialduetoitsvitalstructuraland/
or catalytic importance in several proteins that
play important roles in fish growth, reproduc-
tion,development,visionandimmunefunction.
Consequently for fish, of the essential metals,
zinc is second in quantitative importance only
to iron. Dietary zinc minimum requirements
rangebetween1560mgkg
1
drymassofdiet
(it varies slightly amongst different fish species),
withthemaximumlevelthatispermittedinfish
dietsbytheEuropeanUnionbeing250mgkg-
1
.
Previous studies have shown a toxic effect in
rainbow trout fed zinc at concentrations ranging
between500-1000mgkg
1
.Itmayexertitstoxicity
byinterferingwithintracellularcalciumhomeostasis,
andaffectinghepaticcopperandhaemoglobinlevels.
In contrast, zinc supports a
healthy immune system and is
neededforwoundhealing.Indeed,
zinc deficiency has been shown
to compromise antibody produc-
tion,leadingtoreducedtitrespost-
immunisation.Adequatezincstatus
is essential for proliferation, matu-
ration and differentiation of cells
of the adaptive immune response.
Studies conducted on dietary zinc
supplementation have shown an
increased level of circulating lym-
phocytesinthebloodandchemo-
taxisofmacrophages,leadingtoan
overallimproveddiseaseresistance.
Selenium(Se)isanotherimportant
trace element for fish because it is a
constituent of more than 30 seleno-
proteins with fundamental structural
and enzymatic roles in the cell. Se
is primarily involved in antioxidant
defences, reproduction, synthesis of
thyroid hormones and the immune
response.TheSerequirementisesti-
mated to be 0.15-0.38 mg kg
1
(it
also slightly varies amongst different
fishspecies),withthemaximumlevel
infishdietspermittedbytheEuropean
Unionbeing0.5mgkg
-1
.
Selenium toxicity occurs in rain-
bow trout when the dietary intake
exceeds13mgkg
-1
.Se-deficientdiets
can profoundly affect the antioxi-
dant defences, metabolism and the
immune response in fish. In Se defi-
ciency, cell/tissue integrity can more
easily be compromised by oxidative
stress and inflammatory disorders
canoccur.
Different studies, conducted
both in mammalian and fish models, have
shownthatSeaugmentationisabletoalleviate
inflammatory reactions, boost the phagocytic
andkillingcapacityofthecellmediatedimmune
response,andincreasetheexpressionofcellular
components responsible for efficient antiviral-
defences.
Typically the dose range between levels
giving deficiency and those giving toxicity for
different minerals is quite narrow, and does
not leave a big margin for their supplementa-
tion. Apart from concentration level, another
important aspect is the bioavailability of these
micronutrientsinthediet.
Factors influencing bioavailability include the
level and form of the nutrient, particle size and
digestibilityofthediet,nutrientinteractionswhich
maybeeithersynergisticorantagonistic,stressand
pathological conditions of the fish, waterborne
mineralconcentrationandthespeciesundercon-
sideration. Of these factors, those related to the
chemical state are particularly important. If the
mineral is present in the diet in insoluble and
indigestibleform,uptakecanbeaffected.
Moreover,theelementcanforminsolubleand
non-absorbable substances in the gastrointestinal
tractoftheanimalthatmayeitherpreventorreduce
its uptake, transport and metabolism. Commonly,
mineralscanbeprovidedtothefisheitherasinor-
ganicsaltsoraschelatedororganicforms.
In recent years, there has been considerable
interestintheuseoforganictracemineralsrather
thansalts,onthegroundsthattheyaremorebio-
available or more similar, than inorganic sources,
toformsthatoccurintheorganism.Ifthemetal
chelateorcomplexisstableinthedigestivetract,
the metal would be protected from forming
complexes with other dietary components that
caninhibitabsorption,allowinggreaterassimilation.
Moreover,theingestionofmetalsintheinor-
ganicformmightfacilitatetheformationofreactive
ions which can promote oxidative stress in the
gastro-intestinaltract.Theuseoforganicchelated
mineralsisregardedasamorenaturalmethodof
trace element supplementation and may give a
largersaferangeforsupplementation(Watanabe
et al.,1997).
In the case of zinc and selenium, two prod-
ucts called Bio-Plex

and Sel-Plex

have been
producedbyAlltech,toproviderespectivelyzinc
and selenium augmentation into the animal diet.
Both contain a relatively higher amount of these
two metals complexed into organic compounds
derivedfromyeast.Numerousstudieshavealready
beenconductedindifferentmodels(mice,poultry,
pigsandfish)showingthebenefitsofmineral-yeast
enriched diets on animal welfare. The mineral-
enricheddietscanprovidearelativelyinexpensive,
sustainable and consumer friendly approach to
improve fish production, with a negligible impact
ontheenvironment.
Moreover, a better tolerance of higher con-
centrations of these two metals as yeast-derived
ingredients in animal feed has been found. This
combined with an increased activity of cellular
36 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012
EXPERTTPIC
November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 37
Figure 1: The concept of immunonutrition
in health maintenance (modified from
Kiron, 2012)
Figure 2: Schematic representation of the
relationship between element intake, tissue
element concentration and health indices.
The curve represents an essential trace
element which may produce adverse health
effects in conditions of deficiency or excessive
exposure. Intake A & B represent intakes
which produce minimal statistical significant
changes from normal value of one or more
health indices due to deficiency or toxicity
respectively (Modified from Spivey et al, 1982)
components involved in stress resistance and
immune responses in animals fed such diets,
leads to the conclusion that farmed animal feeds
enrichedwithorganicmetalcompoundsaresafeat
higherSe/Zndoses.However,moreinvestigations
are needed to better elucidate to what extent
these compounds can improve the fish immune
responseandresistancetostressors.
Conclusions
Itisimportanttoensurethatdietcomposition
meetsthefishrequiredlevelofessentialnutrients.
Thishasbeendonetoalargeextentwithgrowth
inmindbutitisalsoapossiblestrategythatcould
effectivelyincreasefishhealthstatus.Micronutrient
augmentation in particular may represent a sus-
tainable and environmental/consumer friendly
approachtoimprovefishresponsestomanykinds
ofstress(farmoperationsanddiseaseoutbreaks).
The concentration and the form in which these
micronutrientsaredeliveredtofishmustbetaken
into account and be optimised. New ingredients
andadditivesareemergingonthemarket,andgive
an opportunity to produce new formulations to
ensureahigherassimilationofthesecomponents
and reduce the potential for adverse affects of
micronutrientaugmentation.
References
Availableonrequest
A
moebic gill disease (AGD)
first emerged as a problem
in the 1980s inTasmania; it
is now a disease of inter-
national significance. AGD has now
been identified on the west coast of
USA, Chile, New Zealand, Japan, South
Africa, Ireland, Scotland, France, Spain
andNorway.
Currentmethodologiesofcontrolling
this disease involve bathing the fish in
eitherfreshwaterforanextendedperiod
of time; or in hydrogen peroxide for a
shortperiodoftime.
Despite the fact that AGD has been
around for several decades, there are
still significant gaps in our knowledge
about this disease. The causative agent
was only identified relatively recently. In
order for us to develop more effective
control strategies for AGD, we need to
improveourknowledgeoftheorganism
itselfandtheepidemiologyofthedisease.
Asexampleswheredoestheamoeba
livewhenasiteisfallowed?Doesithave
a reservoir in wild populations of fish?
Can it live independent of a host, for
how long? What depths does it prefer?
Is it phototactic? What environmental
conditions favour amoeba proliferation?
DoesAGDhavealinkwithbiofoulingor
harmfulalgae?Undernormalculturesitu-
ations, Chinook salmon are immune to
AGD, why? Will ingredient substitution
inthefeedhaveanyinfluenceonAGD?
Despitethediseasebeingaroundfor
almost30years,wehavestillalongway
togobeforewehavetotalunderstanding
ofthediseasewearetryingtodefeat.
5
Managing AGD (Amoebic
Gill Disease) in Atlantic
salmon:
Still a long way to go
by SmartAqua, Australia
36 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012 November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 37
EXPERTTPIC
INDUSTRYPRFILES
2

1
2
/
1
3
Theindustrytelluswhattheythinkabouttheyearthathasgonebyandwhatthefuturemayhold
38 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012 November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 39
NutriAd
Global consumption of seafood and fish is increasing world-wide. This increasing consumption
cannot be met by fisheries which are stagnating since decades. Aquaculture is filling the gap and
todayalready50%ofthefishandshellfishconsumedworldwideisfarmed.Globalaquafeedvolume
reached29millionmtin2010andisexpectedtogrowto70millionmtin2020.Aquacultureis
a young industry and many aspects are still under development, including feed formulation and
disease prevention strategies. Therefore, the aquafeed market offers great opportunities for the
developmentofnovelfeedadditivestoimprovefeedefficiencyandhealthprevention.ThisisexactlywhereNutriadseesitspotential!
NutriadhasfurtherincreaseditsfocusonaquaculturebysettingupaspecificBusinessUnitwithaclearmissiontomakeNutriadagloballeader
inspecialtyadditivesforaquafeed.TheAquafeedindustryishighlyspecializedandNutriadsBusinessUnitAquaculturecountswithdedicated
teamsforproductinnovation,productregistration,production,andcustomerservice.Customersaresupportedbyexperiencedaquaexperts
locatedinthemainaquacultureregions.
NutriadsBusinessUnitAquacultureemergedin2009fromjoiningknow-howandexpertisefromtwocorebusinessunitsoftheINVEgroup:
INVE Aquaculture and Nutriad. The current product portfolio is
focused on specialty additives developed through years of research
under lab trials and field verification under production conditions in
thefield.Keyproductsincludespeciesspecificdigestibilityenhancers
to reduce feed cost and improve performance (AQUAGEST),
palatability enhancers and attractants (AQUABITE), specialized
additivesreducingtheimpactonproductivityofdiseasesandparasitic
infestations (SANACORE, AQUASTIM, APEX AQUA),
mycotoxininactivators(TOXY-NILAQUA),additivestopreserve
aqua feeds and marine ingredients (OXY-NIL, SALMO-NIL,
MOLD-NIL),andlowinclusionpelletbinders(NUTRI-BIND).
www.nutriad.com
AQUAGEST

Digestibility enhancers
AQUABITE

Attractants and palatability enhancers


APEX

AQUA
Bio-active herbal extract
AQUASTIM

Immune-modulators
SANACORE

Natural growth promoters


NUTRI-BIND AQUA
Low inclusion binders
RESOLVING THE BOTTLENECKS
IN AQUAFEED
through innovation and expertise
smart aqua additives
for sustainable and cost-efcient aquafeed
www.nutriad.com
NAD0031_AD_Aqua_190x132_W2.indd 1 17-02-12 09:59
Bhler
Aquafeed-Whetherforfishorcrustaceans,whethersinkingorfloatingfeedsforevery
aquafeedproductBhlerofferstheperfectsolutionfromrawmaterialprocessing,mixing
andextrudingtodrying.Processexpertisecombinedwithcuttingedgetechnologysolutions
guarantees a cost- and energy-efficient process solution from stand-alone machines to
completeplants.
Innovation-Ourinnovationisbasedontheartofengineering.Yetinnovationcanoccur
ineveryjob,everywherearoundtheworld.Inthisconnection,theissueofjobrotationis
veryimportanttoBhler.Exchangingideasandexperiencesamongdifferentculturesand
workstylesisamusttoday.
Globalreach-Bhlerhasbeenaglobalplayerformanydecades,withamulticulturalteam
and a local presence extending across all the major markets of the world. Our service
organizationshavemorethan1,000peopleontheroadeverydayinthedifferentmarkets.
Bhler reacted early to the need of offering local adapted solutions, especially for the
emerging countries. We have built new plants and expertise in China, in India, in South
AmericaandinSouthAfricatoengineerandproducesolutionsadaptedtolocalneedsand
requirements.
Quality leadership - This attribute is manifested in quantifiable and transparent quality
targets which are defined in an open dialog with our customers so that promised
performanceisachievedandtheedgeinconfidencecanbefurtherincreased.
www.buhlergroup.com
Innovations for a better world.
Bhler AG, Feed & Biomass, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T +41 71 955 11 11, F +41 71 955 28 96
fu.buz@buhlergroup.com, www.buhlergroup.com
Fatten up your bottom line. Bhler high-performance animal and aqua feed production
systems are used by leading companies around the world. These producers know they
can rely not just on the technology itself, but also on the support that accompanies it. A
service combining local presence with global expertise both lowers feed mill operating
costs and increases capacity utilization. To fnd out more, visit www.buhlergroup.com
Aqua_Feed-July_2011.indd 1 28.07.2011 12:23:44
38 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012 November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 39
Wenger
Always Changing To Meet Customer Needs Back in 1935, when Wenger was established as a local
manufacturerofmixersandfeedmillingmachinery,thecompanysmainobjectivewastoaddvalueand
palatabilitytolow-qualityfeed.Today,astheworldsleadingsupplierofaquaticandpetfoodprocessing
systems,Wengerishelpingcustomersmeetanew,more-timelylistofobjectives,likeincreasingproduction
rates,loweringenergycostsandexpandingviablerecipeoptions.In2010alone,Wengerintroduced23
newinnovationsandwasissued11newpatentsinresponsetorapidlychangingneedsintheindustry.
Innovativedesigns-Availableinbothsinglescrewandtwinscrewconfigurations,Wengerextrudersboast
capacitiesashighas22tonne/hour.Twonewinnovations-Wengerdivergingconescrewsandoblique
dietechnologies-makeextrusionthesuperiorchoiceforproductionofevenhighcapacitymicroaquatic
feeds.
Knowledge,research,trainingandsupport-Wengercustomershaveaccesstothe2,500-square-meter
Wenger Technical Center for testing ideas and formulas. Wenger technical support also includes pre-
andpost-installationengineeringassistance,operatortrainingandon-siteattentiontoqualitycontroland
operational needs. Extensive inventories of replacement parts are maintained for prompt shipment to
customers.ServiceafterthesaleisstandardwithWengerproducts.
Operating around the globe - Wenger engineering, manufacturing, research
andadministrativefacilitiesarelocatedatthecompanysSabetha,Kansas,USA
headquarters.Plus,Wengerextensionresearchsitesareavailableatanumber
of universities and research centers around the world. Sales and service is
available through Wenger offices in the USA, Belgium, Taiwan, Brasil, China,
Turkey,andIndia,aswellasindependentagentsinstrategiclocationsaround
theworld.Infact,Wengerservesproducersofhundredsofdifferentagri-food
productsinmorethan90countries.
www.wenger.com
THE BEST WAY TO PREDICT THE FUTURE IS TO CREATE IT.
Peter F. Drucker
Turning ideas into opportunities.
PROGRESSIVE AQUAFEED PROCESSING
What will tomorrow bring
wenger.com
BElGIUm TAIWAN BRASIl CHINA TURkEY INDIA
Why retire a workhorse thats still doing the job?
Simply put, your old dryer may be costing you a bundle. In fact, todays
Wenger dryer could save you enough in operating effciency alone to cover the
replacement of your old dryer. Additionally, our new advanced dryer designs
give you less potential for cross-contamination and bacteria build-up; feature
new direct drive spreaders for level product bed and uniformity of fnal prod-
uct moisture; and afford quicker, easier inspection and cleaning.
Contact us now. With new concepts and fresh initiatives, were ready to help
you develop the product possibilities of the future.
Wenger12_AQ_210x147mm.indd 1 8/8/12 12:01 PM
Wynveen International BV is a Dutch based producer of a high professional range of
machines for production of fish feed, pet food and animal feed. Our versatility in feed
processingallowsustoadviseandrecommendthecorrectsolutionforyourapplications.
Fromrawmaterialprocessing,mixingandextruding/pelletingtodrying.
Our dual approach of being both a machine manufacturer and/or a turn key supplier,
enables us to provide our customers with a wide product range and the solution(s) they
need.Wedeliverhammermills,crylocsifters,mixers,coaters,dosingsystems(micro,midi
andintake),allkindsofconveyingequipmentandcompletepellet/cooling/dryinglines.Beside
delivery of our equipment we also install it on site making use of a broad team of highly
skilledandexperiencedsupervisors.
Within our organisation we facilitate our projects with an experienced engineering staff,
workingwithboth2Dand3Ddesigns.Whetheritisasoleengineeringjoboracomplete
feedmilldesign,ourexpertisewillserveyoutothebest.Ourproductionfacilitiesmakeuse
oflatesttechnologiestoensurehighqualityfinish,tosuitthedemandsinaquafeedindustry.
Thesearea.o.dusttightness,pelletfriendlyandyethighcapacity.
Reflection of 2012: Wynveen International BV. managed to continue her growth by
obtainingmajorcontractsforbuildingcompletefieldmills.Nexttothatthedevelopments
aroundherscopeofmachineshascontinued,thisresultedinagrowthofsalesofindividual
machinesaswell.Withthisapproach,welookforwardtopresenttoyouourpossibilities
onawordwidelevel.Ofcourseyouarealsomostwelcometovisitusorhavealookat
ourrenewedwebsite.
Thoughtsfor2013:WynveenInternationalBVislookingforwardtolaunchnewinnovative
andcosteffectiveproductsfortheaquacultureandlivestockindustry.Herebywefocuson
upgrades of the machines to meet higher capacities. Special attentions will also be given
tofinegrindingandtofindnewsolutionsforthevacuumcoatingprinciplesinthePetfood
andAquafeedindustry.suitabletostandvacuumwithoutmakinguseofanunderhopper.
www.wynveen.com
Wynveen International b.v.
Postbox 38
6666 ZG Heteren
The Netherlands
Tel : +31 (0)26 479 06 99
Fax : +31 (0)26 479 06 98
info@wynveen.com
www.wynveen.com
Your partner in technology,
equipment and plants for
animal- and aqua feed and
petfood.
Wynveen for:
Dosing and weighing of
raw materials
Grinding and mixing
Pelleting lines
Extrusion lines
Finished product handling
40 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012 November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 41
Aqua Nor 2013
Over the past 40 years, the Norwegian aquaculture industry has developed into one of the
mostmodernandadvancedintheworld.Norwegianproductionoffarmedfishhasgrownfrom
just100tonnesin1970toover1.1milliontonnesin2011.
Scienceandtechnologyhavebeenimportantcontributorstothissuccess,andatAquaNor,
modernaquaculturetechnologyispresentedtotheworld.
The exhibition, which is held every other year, alternating with the Nor-Fishing exhibition, is
organizedbythenon-profitNor-FishingFoundation.
It was the desire to exhibit aquaculture technology that was one of the main forces behind
establishingtheAquaNorexhibitionover30yearsago.In1979,aconferenceonaquaculture
washeldinTrondheim,Norway,andsomeoftheequipmentsuppliersweregivenpermission
toshowtheirproductsoutsidetheconferencehall.Thisbecameverypopular,anditwassoon
decidedtoorganizeanaquacultureexhibitioneveryotheryearinTrondheim,alternatingwith
theNor-Fishingexhibition.
Since then, Aqua Nor has developed into the largest aquaculture exhibition in the world,
attractingsome450exhibitorsand15,00020,000visitorsfromabout60countries.
During four days in August, the exhibition halls are busy with visitors from all over, and the
visitorshaveachancetogetup-datedonallthelatesttechnologyandknowledgeinmodern
fishfarming.
Aqua Nor is more than just an exhibition. Numerous seminars, presentations and mini-
conferences are held during the exhibition, and technical as well as commercial topics are
discussed.Justafewdaysbeforetheexhibitionitself,theEuropeanAquacultureSociety(EAS)
will hold their annual conference, Aquaculture Europe in Trondheim, from the 9th until the
12thofAugust.Inaddition,AquaNoroffersauniqueopportunitytoenlargeyournetworkin
theaquacultureindustry.
www.nor-fishing.no
AQUA NOR 2013
INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION
13-16 AUGUST
TRONDHEIM, NORWAY
www.nor-fshing.no
Supporting sustainable aquaculture, enabling growth
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production system in the world and it places
high demands on sustainability and safety. Meet these challenges and capitalize on growth
opportunitieswithourBOLIFORproductsforsustainableaquaculture.
Our BOLIFOR AQUA, BOLIFOR MSP and BOLIFOR MCP feed phosphates
ensurethehighestavailablephosphatesourcesforaquaculturedietswiththehighest
biological digestibility. This lets you accurately meet, without exceeding, the require-
mentsoffishandshrimpminimizingexcretionofexcessphosphorousintothewater
environment,andreducingfeedsupplementcostandenvironmentalimpact.
Our BOLIFOR FA 2300S is the optimal feed acidifier, consisting of a unique
formulaoforganicacidspreciselyencapsulatedbyacarrierofDiatomaceousEarthand
protected by a sorbic acid coating. Developed by a dedicated team of chemists and
nutritionists,thispatentedsystemactsasanexcellentfeedpreservativeandpromotes
betteroverallanimalhealthandperformance.
YarainternationalASAistheworldsleadingchemicalcompanyinconvertingenergy,natural
mineralsandnitrogenfromairintoessentialproductsforfarmersandindustrialcustomers.
YaraFeedPhosphates,adivisionofYaraInternationalASAsince2007,producesandsells
inorganicfeedphosphatesundertheBOLIFORtrademark.
Global sales presence: Yaras complete, world-class global sales, sourcing and distribution
networkenableustocreatesustainablesolutionsforyourbusinessandtocapitalizeonthe
futuretogether.
Businessmodel:Ourself-sufficientbusinessmodel,withourfullyintegratedmine-to-market
concept,enablesreliableavailabilityandoutstandingqualitycontrol.
Quality:YarasminingoperationinFinlandmakesYaraFeedPhosphatesthemostreliable
supplier in market and guarantees a final product with the lowest content of undesirable
elementsavailableonthemarket.
www.yara.com
40 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012 November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 41
YSI - International Aquafeed Contributor Profile (300 Words)
Overview
Increasedenvironmentalregulations,decreasingcleanwateravailability,andincreasingcosts
(tonamejustafew)areimpactingthesustainabilityoftheaquacultureindustry.YSIcanhelp
you solve these challenges by providing the innovative, cost-effective products and services
thatmakeyourjobeasierandimprovetheefficiencyofyourfacilities.
Solutions-Thebrandyoutrustforworld-classwaterqualitysamplinginstrumentationand
customerservicehasexpandedandimproveditsAquacultureMonitoring&Controlproduct
line. Our 5200A, 5400, and 5500D monitors are designed just for aquaculture systems
fromRAS,racewaysandponds,tocages,tanks,livehauls,aquariumsandresearch.
Dependability - Monitoring and controlling is managed locally by the instrument, not at a
centralPCordeviceassurancethattheentiresystemwon'tfail.
Scalability-UnliketypicalPLCsorDCPs,ourmonitorsareuser-scalableasyourfacilityneeds
change.Noengineersorprogrammersareneededtomakechangestoyoursystem.
MultiparameterandMultilocation
Youcandesignatotalfacilitysolutionwiththeabilitytomeasuremultipleprobes,virtuallyany
parameter,andmultiplelocations.
Feed Management - Feed Smart conditional feed timer software is included with every
monitor.Powerfulfeedingcapabilitiesinterfacewithmostpoweredfeeders.
Improved Management Tools - With AquaManager, you'll have access to quality data,
allowingyoutobettermanageyouroperationandimproveefficiency.SMSandemailalarms
willquicklynotifyyouifparametersexceeduser-definedlimits.Andyourdatacanbeaccessed
remotelyusingAquaManagerorthenewiPodapp.Weencourageyoutocontactusand
learn more from our world-class employees friendly, knowledgeable, customer-focused
technical advisers who are here to help you find new and better ways to do
yourjob.
www.ysi.com/aquaculture
Improvement
by nature
Natural
ingredients
for aqua feed
Whether youre looking for a
natural EU and USDA approved
pellet binder for your production of
stable pellets or natures best alternatives
for sh meal, you can contact Sonac. Sonac produces
valuable and essential ingredients for the production
of aqua feed.
Pro-Bind Plus a nutritional, gelatin based pellet
binder, especially for pelleted (shrimp) feed.
Blood meal a sh meal alternative, especially for
carnivorous sh species.
Muco-Pro

high contents of natural proteins,


amino acids and peptides.
Hemoglobin Powder high protein content and
good digestibility, for better feed conversion.
Sonac: Improvement by nature
Sonacisaleadingproducerofreliableingredientsofanimalorigin.ThankstoanactiveR&D
programme,reliableprocessesandsustainableproducts,Sonaccontinuouslyrespondstothe
changing market needs. By helping in improving recipes, techniques and processes, Sonac
addsvalueineverycase.Agoodgeographicalspreadinlocationsandawiderangeoffats,
proteins,mineralsandspecialtiesmakeSonacapartnerformanyinternationalproducersof
medicines,food,petfood,compoundfeedandfertilizers,worldwide.
Naturalingredientsforaquafeed
Whether youre looking for a natural EU and USDA approved pellet binder for your
productionofstablepelletsornaturesbestalternativesforfishmeal,youcancontactSonac.
Sonacproducesvaluableandessentialingredientsfortheproductionofaquafeed.
Pro-BindPlusanutritional,gelatinbasedpelletbinder,especiallyforpelleted(shrimp)
feed.
Bloodmealafishmealalternative,especiallyforcarnivorousfishspecies.
Muco-Prohighcontentsofnaturalproteins,aminoacidsandpeptides.
Hemoglobin Powder high protein content and good digestibility, for better feed
conversion.
www.sonac.biz
INDUSTRYEVENTS
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INDUSTRYEVENTS
6th-8thNovember12
*
GLOBALG.A.P.SUMMIT2012,
Madrid,Spain
Contact: Nina Kretschmer,
GLOBALG.A.P. c/o FoodPLUS GmbH,
Spichernstr. 55, 50672 Koeln,
Germany
Tel: +49 2215 7993693
Fax: +49 2215 799389
Email: kretschmer@globalgap.org
Web: www.summit2012.org
7th-9thNovember12
*
5thAlgaeWorldAsia,Novotel
SingaporeClarkeQuay,Singapore
Contact: Ms Fu Huiyan, 80 Parway
Parade, Singapore
Tel: + 65 63469113
Fax: +65 6345 5928
Email: huiyan@cmtsp.com.sg
Web: www.cmtevents.com/main.
aspx?ev=121141&pu=215128
13th-16thNovember12
*
EuroTier2012includingBioEnergy,
Hannover/Germany
Contact: DLG Service GmbH, DLG,
Eschborner Landstrasse 122, 60489
Frankfurt/Main, Germany
Tel: +49 6924 788265
Fax: +49 6924 788113
Email: expo@dlg.org
Web: www.dlg.org
20th-23rdNovember12
*
XIIInternationalSymposiumon
AquacultureNutrition,Villahermosa,
Tabasco,Mxico
Contact: Dr. Alfonso Alvarez and
M.C. Otilio Mndez Marn, Av,
Universidad s/n, Zona Cultura, Col.
Magisterial, Vhsa. Centro, Tabasco,
Mex. C.P. 86040, Mexico
Tel: +52 993 358 1500
Email: sinaxii@ujat.mx
Web: www.ujat.mx
3rd-4thDecember12
*
AquafeedPlatformEurope-12th
PracticalShortCourseTrends
andMarketsinAquacultureFeed
Ingredients,Nutrition,Formulation
andOptimizedProductionand
ProductQuality,NHHotel,Ghent,
Belgium
Contact: Ignace Debruyne, Smart
Short Courses, Haverhuisstraat 28,
B-8870 Izegem (Belgium)
Tel: +32 51 311274
Fax: +32 51 315675
Email: aquafeed@smartshortcourses.com
Web: www.smartshortcourses.com
4th-5thDecember12
*
6thInternationalAlgaeCongress,
Rotterdam,TheNetherlands
Contact: Tessa de Boer, Stationsplein
Noord 4, 3445 AD WOERDEN, The
Netherlands
Tel: +31 348 484002
Fax: +31 348 484009
Email: Tessa.deboer@dlg-benelux.com
Web: www.algaecongress.com
5th-7thDecember12
*
AlgaeTechnologyPlatformEurope
Day1:InvestorsmeetDevelopers
Day2-3:3rdPracticalShortCourse
onAlgaeHarvestingandProcessing
forValueAddedApplications,NH
Hotel,Ghent,Belgium
Contact: Ignace Debruyne, Smart
Short Courses, Haverhuisstraat 28,
B-8870 Izegem, Belgium
Tel: +32 51 311274
Fax: +32 51 315675
Email: algaeprocessing
@smartshortcourses.com
Web: www.smartshortcourses.com
7th-9thDecember12
*
ShanghaiInternationalFisheries&
SeafoodExposition2012,Shanghai
EverbrightConvention&Exhibition
Center,No.88CaobaoRd,Shanghai,
China
Contact: Shelly Zhou, 11F,Xiuseng
Building, No.129 South Laiting
Rd, Jiuting Town, Songjiang District,
Shanghai, 201615, China
Tel: +86 2134 140187
Fax: +86 2164 516467
Email: shelly.zhou@gehuaexpo.com
Web: www.sifse.com/en
13th-15thDecember12
*
IAIExpoandISRMAXExpo,IARI
Ground,PUSA,NewDelhi,India
Contact: Prachi Arora, # 923, Sector
9, U.E. Karnal, Haryana, 132001,
India
Tel: +91 9991 705621
Fax: +91 1842 231050
Email: marketing@pixie.co.in
Web: www.isrmaxriceandgrainexpo.co.in
EventsKey:
*
=Seeourmagazineatthisshow

=Moreinformationavailable
International
Aquafeed events go
mobile!
Review all of our industry's key events
for 2012/13 on our new Events sec-
tion on the Perendale Publishers App.
21st-25thFebruary13
*
Aquaculture2013,Nashville
Tennessee,USA
Contact: Mario Stael, Begijnengracht
40, 9000 Gent, Belgium
Tel: +32 92 334912
Email: mario@marevent.com
Web: www.was.org
13th-15thMarch13
*
AquaticAsia2013,BITEC,Bangkok
InternationalTrade&Exhibition
Centre,Bangkok,Thailand
Contact: Guus van Ham, P.O. Box 8800,
3503 RV Utrecht, The Netherlands
Tel: +31 302 952302
Fax: +31 302 952809
Email: aquatic.asia@vnuexhibitions.com
Web: www.aquatic-asia.net
13th-15thMarch13
*
VIVAsia2013,BITEC,Bangkok
InternationalTrade&Exhibition
Centre,88Bangna-tradRoad,Bangna,
Prakanong,Bangkok10260,Thailand
Contact: Anneke van Rooijen, P.O.
Box 8800, 3503 RV Utrecht, The
Netherlands
Tel: +31 302 952772
Fax: +31 302 952809
Email: viv.asia@vnuexhibitions.com
Web: www.viv.net
26th-28thMarch13
*
AGRAMiddleEast,Dubai
InternationalExhibitionCentre,
Dubai,UAE
Contact: Rizwan Mustafa, PO Box
28943, Dubai United Arab Emirates
Tel: +971 44 072424
Fax: +971 44 072485
Email: agramiddleeast@informa.com
Web: www.agramiddleeast.com
22nd-24thMay13
*
VIVRussia2013,InternationalCrocus
ExhibitionCenter,Moscow,Russia
Contact: Guus van Ham, P.O.
Box 8800, 3503 RV Utrecht, The
Netherlands
Tel: +31 302 952302
Fax: +31 302 952809
Email: viv.russia@vnuexhibitions.com
Web: www.viv.net
Making Sense
of Science
Knowledge management
to support technological
development and innovation
Organised by the European
Aquaculture Society in cooperation
with the Nor Fishing Foundation
Trondheim, Norway August 9-12, 2013 just before Aqua Nor 2013
EAS Premium Sponsors
www.easonline.org
INDUSTRYEVENTS
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I
wasprivilegedtomakeasixday
visit to Singapore as the guest
of Biomin for their prestigious
5thWorldNutritionForum(10th-
13th October) which is the first
time it was held outside Europe.
Asiawasanexcellentlocationgiven
themassiverequirementforanimal
production in this region and
Singaporebeingahubforbusiness
and commerce. This Austrian
basedcompanyiscertainlymaking
waves in aquaculture as well as
many other areas of animal nutri-
tion with interesting products and
innovativescience.
The conference was held at the
famousMarinaBaySandscomplex
incorporating the iconic hotel and
conventioncentre.Theconference
attractedover800delegatesfrom
over70differentcountriesensuring
ahealthyinternationalmixofbusi-
nessmenandwomen,academia,sci-
entists,technicalpersonnel,govern-
mentofficials,executivesandthose
involved in legislation, governance
and socio-economics.The theme
was sustainability and introduced
a new termNutri-Economics to
embrace the concept of providing
balancedglobalnutritionandpro-
ductivity as people, performance,
profitandplanet.
Eric Erber, founder of Biomin
and Director of the Executive
Board opened the meeting with
his unique vision and formula
to connect our current gener-
ation and future trends with the
economy and geopolitical changes.
Hisageofscarcityscenariocanbe
addressed with stronger integra-
tion and better supply chain man-
agement offering optimistic pros-
pectsahead,hesaidwithhisdeep
knowledge of the industry with a
great sense of commitment and
purpose.
The best selling author John
Naisbitt, a former advisor to both
Presidents Kennedy and Johnson
gaveanexpertinsightintoChinas
economic, cultural and political
transformationsandhowtheWest
canaccommodatetheseintoanew
globalmodelwithanemphasison
agriculture and food supply. Doris
Naisbitt, Director of the Naisbitt
China Institute inTianjin offered
her analysis of the political scene
and the growing influence of the
Chinese economy and how we
might respond and accommodate
suchchangeswithintheagro-food
sectorinthenextdecades.
Biomin produces a range of
products that can enhance the
nutritional value of commodities
in safer and more efficient animal
feeds for both terrestrial and
aquatic species.These can raise
production and improve animal
healthanddiseaseresistancewhilst
securing profit.There were many
eminent core speakers providing
a substantial scientific overview of
themanyfacetsofanimalproduc-
tion and the need to address the
nutrient requirements of animals
in relation to modern industry
demands and more importantly
consumer expectations for quality
and transparency of the food
chain.
For the aquaculture (AQUA)
breakout session a selection of
speakers from around the globe
gavedetailedanalysesofkeyareas
of aquaculture: helping to define
various issues, potential problems
andsolutionsbasedoninnovations
mainly with respect to feed tech-
nologyandthenutritionalsciences
of the various species now being
raised.
DrPatrickSorgeloosfromGhent,
Belgium started the proceedings
withanexpertoverviewofglobal
aquaculture production status and
the different systems employed
with an outlook for future devel-
opments. He discussed the scope
forplanningandmanagingaquacul-
tureandhowcontemporaryscien-
tificknowledgecanbemademore
applicabletotheproductionstages
offishandshrimp.
DrJorgeDiasoftheAquaculture
Research Group based in Faro,
Portugal spoke about the next
breakthrough in fish nutrition by
using metabolic programming
techniquesbasedongenomicsand
molecular biochemistry to better
understandtheroleofnutritionin
meeting the specific requirements
within changing culture conditions
andfordifferentfishspecies.
Themodellingofthebioenegetics
offishandothernutritionalrequire-
ments for protein and amino
acids was presented by Dr Brett
Glencross of CSIRO, Brisbane,
Australia.Hisviewwasthatwecan
generate more accurate and pre-
dictive models for fish growth and
nutrient requirements for mainte-
nance, growth and production for
varying temperatures and fish size.
This he said, would enable more
refined expression of absolute
nutritional requirements and opti-
mizedfeedformulationsleadingto
improvedoverallefficiency.
Taking this theme fur ther, Dr
A. Victor Suresh, of Integrated
Aquaculture International based
in Brunei, developed the princi-
plesoffeedformulationemploying
thelatestsoftwareandfeedingre-
dient analysis approach towards
more effective diets for farmed
aquatic animals. Liner Least Cost
November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 45
Professor Davies reports on the
BIOMIN WORLD NUTRITION FORUM 2012
INDUSTRYEVENTS
programmingiscriticalforthefeed
industryascommoditypricesvary
and can allow for rapid flexibility
inmeetingthetargetswithindiets
for balanced nutrition, selection of
ingredientsandcost.
Finally my former student Shane
Hunter critically evaluated the
currentaquaculturesystemsinuse
globally,butcasthisexperteyeon
thefutureofferingatantalisingper-
spectiveofnewemergingtechnol-
ogies for raising fish and shrimp
in hi-tec recirculation aquacul-
turesystems(RAS).Healsospoke
about a range of new equipment
for the remote sensing of fish in
tanks,cagesandpensincluding3D
camera profiling of fish to deter-
mine their size and mass. Non-
invasive approaches such as these
can greatly minimize stress and
also help monitor feed delivery
and optimize feed conversion effi-
cienciesespeciallyifwemoveinto
deep water off-shore aquaculture
pens.
I was impressed by the enthu-
siasm of these speakers and the
depth of questions from the
audience which included many
fromAsiawithrepresentationfrom
Thailand,VietnamandChina.
Biominrecognisesandappreciates
talented scientists and presented
their 2012 BRAIN award to David
JCaldwellofTexasA&MUniversity
intheUSAforhispioneeringwork
onprobioticsandmycotoxindeac-
tivatorsinpoultry.
Indeed there is no doubting
Biomins deserved expertise in
the field of mycotoxins and these
have equally important adverse
effectsinfishandshrimpandarea
growingconcern.Awholedaywas
devoted to this subject with key-
note speakers defining the nature
and complexity of these com-
pounds,theireffectsinanimallive-
stock such as poultry, swine and
ruminants.Biominareinvestinginto
sophisticated methods of analysis
toincreasethesensitivityofdetec-
tion in grains and concentrates.
Interestingly, global climate change
may dramatically shift the current
profile of mycotoxins in various
regions,makingsomelesscommon
but others becoming more pro-
nouncedatdifferenttemperatures
in the future. Biomin offers novel
feedadditivestogreatlyreduceor
eliminate these problems and the
conference also addressed new
avenues of research with enzymes
thatcanpotentiallydegrademyco-
toxins.The application of specific
biomarkers as indications of early
signs of toxicity in animals is also
being developed and this was
notedasadvancesinearlydiagnosis.
All these ideas could be applied
to aquaculture in the future with
promisingresultsforaquafeedsand
managementofstock.
Many of the oral presentations
were supported by posters and
documentation reflecting Biomins
agenda and R&D initiatives. Each
delegate was presented with a
hard-bound book featuring the
Forumspeakerspresentationsand
majorreviewarticles.Ifoundthisa
veryusefulreferenceformeasan
academic and for my students to
appreciateinPlymouth.
Likewithmostconferencesthere
was an excellent social aspect
with Biomin graciously hosting
two wonderful dinners.TheAsian
dinner emphasised the vibrant
Asian culture and we experience
somebeautifulmusicaldisplaysand
livelyentertainmentwhilstenjoying
the great food in the famous
Shangri-Lahotel.
Onthefinalnightweattendedthe
maininternationalgaladinnerheld
at the convention centre where
we experienced fine dining and a
rangeofentertainment.Thiswasa
great opportunity to network and
although I met up with many old
friendsIwasablemakemanynew
acquaintancesthathaveinterestsin
aquaculture, fish and shrimp nutri-
tionsciences.
The l ocati on of Si ngapore
provided a breathtaking back-
ground to the event and despite
the hectic schedules and the busy
meetings, I managed to enjoy a
few hours on the sky park of the
Marina Bay Sands Hotel at 200
metres high with its classic infinity
pool, bars and restaurants. It was
anexcellentwaytochargethebat-
teriesbeforethelongflightbackto
the UK and the ominous gloomy
winterdayslyingahead.
International best-selling author,
John Naisbitt, and the Director
of the Naisbitt China Institute
in Tianjin, Doris Naisbitt with
Simon Davies
November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 45
AQUA 2012
Prague, Czech Republic (1-5 September, 2012)
T
his 'Innovation and Products Review' focuses on
the Aqua 2012 event, and highlights the products
and developments that visitors to the event had an
opportunity to discuss with exhibitors. Joint events
between The European Aquaculture and World Aquaculture
societyoccuronceeverysixyears.Here,InternationalAquafeed
gives companies who exhibited an opportunity to remind our
readers of what they might of missed in our end-of-year show
andeventround-up.
AtAqua2012inPraguetheDutchcompany
LGempresentedtheinnovativeGemTubephoto-
bioreactor.Theeasy-to-operateGemTubesystem
makesitpossibleforhatcheriesandnurseries
toproducelargevolumesofhighqualityalgae
atlowcost.Itusesarevolutionarypatented
technologywithwavestocreatestableculture
conditionsandtopreventfouling.GemTube
photo-bioreactorsaresuitedforfragilealgal
speciesandareavailableatculturevolumesfrom
500tomorethan20thousandlitres.
www.lgem.nl
TherewasahappybuzzaroundtheSonacexhibition
standatAqua2012ascompanyrepresentatives
explainedtoconferencedelegatesthatsomeanimal
proteinshadbeenclearedforuseinaquafeedsfrom
June1,2013.
Whilememberstatesvotedforthereintroduction
ofnon-ruminantprocessedanimalproteins(PAPs)in
aquafeedsinmid-Julythisyear,GeertvanderVelden
ofSonacexplainedthatchangingrulesandregulations
toaccommodatethechangewouldtakesometime
andthentheyearlongwait.
www.sonac.biz
AliphosBlueLineisarangeofhighqualityfeedingredientsspecially
developedforuseinconcentratedaquaculturefeeds.
Therangeincludestracemetals,microencapsulatedproductsandhighly
digestibleinorganicfeedphosphates,suchasWindmillMonamphos

.
AliphosBlueLinereducestheneedforwildspeciesintheproduction
ofaquaculturefeedsandensureshealthy,productiveshand
seafood.
Be sure to include Blue Line in your feeds.
www.aliphos.com
animalnutrition@aliphos.com
Innovations & Products Review
-fromkeyindustryevents
46 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012 November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 47
Reduce deformities in larvae and fry
LARVIVA ProStart is the frst early weaning diet with a unique probiotic
approved by the European Food Safety Authorities for its documented effect
in reducing the occurrence of vertebral deformities in fsh larvae and fry.
www.larviva.com
gets fsh into shape
AQUAGEST

reducingfeedcostinshandshrimp
reducefeedcostbymaximizingtheefciencyof
digestiveandmetabolicprocesses
tayloredtotthedigestivephysiologyofeach
species
AQUAGEST

Sforshrimp,improving
hepatopancreasfunctionandefciencyoflipid
digestion,reducingcholesterolrequirements
AQUAGEST

OMFfortilapiaandcatsh,
improvinggrowth,feedconversionandlletingyield
AQUAGEST

CAFformarineshandsalmonids,
enhancingthedigestiveefciencyincarnivoroussh
fedreducedlevelsofshmeal
www.nutriad.com
Shellsh Diet 1800

is a mix of four marine


microalgae that all have demonstrated
success with a variety of bivalve shellsh
including oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops.
A mixed diet provides a much better
nutritional prole, increasing both growth
rates and survival across all life stages.
www.reed-mariculture.com
46 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012 November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 47
I
N
D
U
S
T
R
Y

E
V
E
N
T
S
INDUSTRYEVENTS
November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 49
T
his December the IARI
Grounds, PUSA, New
Delhi will play host to
eight concurrent trade shows
overthreedays.
Perendal e Publ i sher s Ltd,
the publisher of International
Aquafeedmagazine,isworkingin
associationwithPixieConsulting
SolutionLimitedtoputonwhat
promisestobeanaction-packed
series of events.The shows will
focus on the Indian agriculture
industriesprovidingvisitorswith
plenty of oppor tunities learn
amore about agriculture, aqua-
culture and rice and grain pro-
duction.
One of the trade shows, the
IAI AquaCulture Expo 2012,
is dedicated to all things fishy.
I t i s an
exhi bi -
tion and
c onf er-
e n c e
on t he
aquacul-
ture and fishing industries with
a global emphasis. Exhibitors
from all over the world will
launch, exhibit and promote
newproductsandservicesfrom
both industries.Visitors will be
abletogetthelowdownonthe
latest developments from the
fieldsofaquaculturetechnology,
fish feed, fish health and equip-
ment.
Why India?
I n d i a h a s a n i mp r e s -
si ve i nt er nat i onal r anki ng.
I t i s s econd i n t he wor l d
f or f ar m out put and al s o
the wor l ds second l ar gest
producerof wheatandr i ce.
I n addi ti on, the countr y i s
wi t hi n t he t op f i ve pr o-
ducer s of over 80 agr i cul -
tur al products.
At1.2billion,Indiaishometo
16 percent of the worlds pop-
ulation and boasts the worlds
fourthlargesteconomy.
Annualgrowthiseightpercent
so the demand for and oppor-
tunities within agriculture and
aquaculture are growing every
day.
Indian aquaculture
With a coastline of 8,129 km,
2 million sq km of exclusive
economic zone and 1.2 million
hectares of brackish bodies of
water, India offers a vast poten-
tial for development of seafood
production.
I ndi an s eaf ood expor t s
account for around 10 percent
of total production, more than
80 percent of which is made
up of shrimp, cuttlefish and
squid.
Fresh water fish farming is
booming at the moment and is
expected to grow annually at 8
percent.
Other events at ISRMAX
The ISRMAX Rice & Grain
Expo2012looksatthecomplete
valuechain,providingaspacefor
interested par ties across the
industrytomeet.
The IAI Expo Poultry & Meat
Expo2012focusesontheIndian
meat and poultry industry.The
countryhaspotentialtoincrease
the consumption of meat and
meat products in domestic and
international markets. Despite
this, there is a lack of advanced
technology, par ticularly at the
farm level, which is a constraint
in enabling this sector to take
a quantum jump in produc-
tionandproductivity.Theevent
aims to provide a platform for
all stakeholders to share knowl-
edgeandtechnology.
More InforMatIon:
www.iaiaquacultureexpo.co.in
ISRMAXIndia
December13-15,2012
IARIGround,PUSA,NewDelhi,India
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ADVERTS
November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 49
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50 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012 November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 51
How does AwF define responsible
and sustainable aquaculture?
Responsibleandsustainableaquacultureisusingappropriate
technologyforthegivensituationsothatitenhancesfish
productionwithoutnegativeeffectsorimpactsontheresources
used.BecauseAwFteachesbasicaquacultureprinciplesforvery
challengingsituations,weencourageusingtheKISprinciple
KeepitSimple.
How does AwF operate on a practical level?
Todate,AwFhasbeenaprojectsponsor,directingdonations
receivedtosupportingprojectsreviewedandapprovedby
ourTechnicalAdvisoryGroup.Wenormallyprovideproject
fundingintherangeofUS$10,000-15,000formulti-year
projects.WecollaboratewithotherNGOstoleveragetheir
resourceswhenpossible.Forexample,wecollaboratedwith
theMarineBiologicalLabinWoodsHole,MAtohelpdevelop
anAquacultureLearningCenter(ALC)inMarigot,Haiti.Novus
InternationalprovidedsignificanthelpwiththisprojectviaAwF.
What do you consider AwFs greatest
achievements or successes?
AwFsgreatestachievementtodatehasbeenitsabilityto
survive.WhatImeanbythisisthatwehavebeenableto
keepgoinginthefaceoffundingchallengesresultingfrom
theglobaleconomicmeltdownbeginningin2008.Donations
havedroppedoffsignificantlywhileprojectsubmissionshave
increased.Thishasforcedustolookathowweoperateand
trytocomeupwithabettersolution.
Ifanyonewastolookatourlistofcurrentandcompleted
projectsonourwebsitetheywouldfindthatwehavemanaged
todoalotwithverylittle.Imaginewhatwecoulddoifwe
couldattractsignificantlymorefunding.
What are the biggest challenges
aquaculture faces?
Inthedevelopedworld,itisdefinitelypubliceducationand
acceptanceasasignificantcomponentofthefoodproduction
industry.Thelackofknowledgeaboutaquaculturebythe
generalpubliciscontributingtoadysfunctionalregulatory
environmentinmanydevelopedcountries.Government
regulatoryagenciesappeartobechallengedwhenitcomesto
leadingorenablingthedevelopmentoftheindustry.Thereare
manygroupswithperspectivesandintereststhatareopposed
totherationalgrowthanddevelopmentofaquaculture.
Inthedevelopingworld,itistransferringknowledgeand
appropriatetechnologytopeoplesothattheycanapplyit
tofeedingthemselvesandtheirfamiliesandcommunities.
Governmentsofdevelopingworldcountriesdonothave
theresourcestodothisdirectly,butbycollaboratingwith
organisationssuchasAwF,itmaybepossibletoenablethe
responsibleandsustainabledevelopmentofaquaculture.
How is AwF responding to these challenges?
AwFhasbeengoingthroughare-thinkofhowweoperate.
TheoriginalvisionofMichaelNewwastousevolunteersto
traintheworldspooranddisadvantagedbutinrecentyears
wehavegoneoffcourseinthatwehavebecomeafunding
organisationratherthanaworkingorganisationputtingour
volunteersdirectlyintothefield.
AwFhasover300volunteersrepresentingawiderangeand
depthofaquacultureexpertise,knowledgeandwisdom.To
date,wehavenotbeenabletoutilisethistremendousfundof
intellectualcapitalinanysignificantmanner.
IthinkwehavefoundasolutionAquacultureLearning
Centers(ALCs).Thesewillbedemonstrationfarmswhere
appropriateaquaculturetechnologieswillbedisplayed.Courses
willbegivenbyourvolunteerswhowillalsomentorthelocal
staff.ALCswillsellfishtograduatesandprovideongoingtech
supportandknowledgetransfer.Theobjectiveistogetthe
ALCstobecomefinanciallyself-supportingandrunbythelocal
peoplewhosewelfareismostimprovedbythesuccessofthe
enterprise.
Frommyobservationsanddiscussionswithpeoplewhowork
ininternationaldevelopmentIhavelearnedthatwhenthe
fundingstopstheprojectsdie;thereisnoincentivetocontinue
becausethepeoplehavenottakenownershipoftheproject.
TheALCmodelismeanttochangethat.Rightfromtheget
go,thepeoplethatwillbenefitfromourhelpwillbedirectly
involvedinconstructingandstaffingtheALCs.Itwillfunction
asabusinessandwewilltraintheminbusinessskillsaswellas
aquacultureskills.TheendgoalistohavetheALCsbecome
financiallyself-sustainingwithintwotothreeyears.
Inthelargerpicture,weseelinkingtheALCsviamodern
technologiessothattheycanshareexperiences,lessons
learned,andbestpracticessothattheyleveragetheknowledge
theyhavecollectivelytodomore.Giventheadvancesin
mobilewirelesscommunicationindevelopingcountries,the
ALCswillbecomehubsforknowledgeandtechnologytransfer
tosurroundingcommunities.Thinkofthemasbroadcasting
centresthatcanalsobeusedbyotherNGOstoeducate
peopleaboutallsortsoftopicsfromnutritionandfood
preparationusingsolarorbiogasstovestowaterfiltrationand
publichygiene.Thepossibilitiesareendless.
What do you think the future
of the organisation is?
ThefutureofAwF,aswearenowenvisioningit,istobecome
anenablertoteachpeopleindevelopingcountrieshowto
improvetheirlivesusingaquaculturetechnologiesbutalso
collaboratingwithotherNGOgroupsandlocalgovernmentsto
provideasuiteofcomplementaryskillstosignificantlyimprove
qualityoflifeandfoodsecurity.
A
quaculture without Frontiers (AwF) is a registered charity whose mission is to promote and support responsible
and sustainable aquaculture to alleviate poverty and enhance food security for disadvantaged people. It is an
organisation of global volunteer aquaculture professionals who network; who are passionate about aquaculture and
its ability to engage, train and feed the disadvantaged; and who create initiatives, projects and programmes. Executive
Director Dave Conley speaks to International Aquafeed about AwF and the challenges it faces.
T
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The aquafeed interview
Anextendedversionofthis
interviewcanbefoundonthe
Aquaculturistblog.
50 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012 November-December 2012 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | 51
GlobalAquacultureAllianceselectsJeffFortasCFO
T
he GlobalAquacultureAlliance, the standards-setting organisation for aquaculture seafood, has chosen
GAAboardmemberJeffForttoserveasitsnewchieffinancialofficer.
Effectiveimmediately,Fortwillcoordinatefinancialprocesses,administrativeproceduresandpolicies,and
technologydevelopmentfortheinternationalnon-profit.
"GAAanditsBestAquaculturePracticescertificationprogramhavebeenimportanttomeonapersonaland
businesslevelformanyyears,"Fortsays."Iamalargeproponentofexpandingaquacultureproductionworld-
wide,anditmustbeaccomplishedusingresponsibleandsustainablemethods.Sincethisis--andhasalwaysbeen
--GAA'scoreposition,Iamhappytohelpguideitsactivitiesgoingforward.
www.gaalliance.org
AgriMarineappointsnewpresidentandCEO
T
hecleanaquaculturetechnologycompany,AgriMarineHoldingsInc.hasbeenappointedSeanWiltontosucceedRichard
Buchananaspresidentandchiefexecutiveofficerofthecompany.WiltonisalreadyadirectorofAgriMarineandhas
beenresponsibleforoverseeingthecompanystechnologysalesandlicensinginitiatives.Buchananwillremainadirector
ofAgriMarineHoldingsInc.andremainsmanagingdirectorforthecompanysChinesesubsidiaries,pendingaformaltransition.
WeareextremelypleasedthatMr.WiltonhasbeennamedasPresidentandCEOofAgriMarine,saysHarry
Knutson,AgriMarineschairman.Mr.Wiltonhasbeeninstrumentalinthedevelopmentandthecommercialisa-
tionofAgriMarinesuniquesolid-wallclosedcontainmenttechnology.
WiltonhasworkedwithAgriMarinesince2004,designinghatcheryandsolid-wallcontainmentrearingenvironments.
HehasservedasPresidentofAgriMarineIndustriesandmostrecentlywasresponsibleforLicensingandProjectJoint
Ventures.Hisengineeringexperienceencompassesamultitudeofdesigns,fromcomplexmunicipalwatersystemstothe
mostadvancedfishhatcherysystemsintheworldandthelargestcold-waterfishhatcheryinNorthAmerica.
www.agrimarine.com
CermaqawardedtheIR-Stockman-prize2012
C
ermaq won this years IR-Stockman-prize in the
category of small and medium sized listed com-
paniesinNorway.Initsassessment,thejuryhigh-
lighted Cermaqs equal treatment of market participants,
transparencyandcredibilityinitsinformation,andtheenvi-
ronmentalandsocialresponsibility.
Cermaqwontheawardincompetitionwithanumberof
otherlistedcompanies.Thejuryalsohighlightedtheavail-
ability of Cermaqs key personnel, and corporate govern-
anceasareaswherethecompanyreceivedhighscores.
Weaimtobeaccessibleandtohaveanopendialogue
withthefinancialmarket.Thisawardshowsthatweareon
therightpath,andinspiresustofurtherfocusontheareas
we believe are important; our core values, prudence and
transparency,saysCFOToreValderhaug.
The Stockman IR-Prize, which is awarded by the
NorwegianSocietyofFinancialAnalysts,goestothelisted
companies in Norway best to inform the financial com-
munity,shareholdersandothermarketparticipantsabout
theirongoingactivitiesaswellastopublishthebestannual
andquarterlyreportsbasedonfinancialanalysisprinciples.
52 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012
INDUSTRYFACES
A
Q
U
A
C
U
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T
U
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E

I
N

2
0
1
2
Photo is courtesy of NFF (The Norwegian society of financial analysts), and shows (from
the right): Lise Bergan, Corporate affairs director at Cermaq ASA, Tore Valderhaug, Chief
financial officer at Cermaq ASA, and representative from NFF.
52 | INterNatIoNal AquAFeed | November-December 2012
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fu.buz@buhlergroup.com, www.buhlergroup.com
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costs and increases capacity utilization. To fnd out more, visit www.buhlergroup.com
Aqua_Feed-July_2011.indd 1 28.07.2011 12:23:44