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1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 44

Example 2.3

A simple plane truss is made

of two identical bars (with E, A, and

L), and loaded as shown in the

figure. Find

1) displacement of node 2;

2) stress in each bar.

Solution:

This simple structure is used

here to demonstrate the assembly

and solution process using the bar element in 2-D space.

In local coordinate systems, we have

k k

1 2

1 1

1 1

' '

]

]

]

EA

L

These two matrices cannot be assembled together, because they

are in different coordinate systems. We need to convert them to

global coordinate system OXY.

Element 1:

45

2

2

o

l m ,

Using formula (32) or (33), we obtain the stiffness matrix in the

global system

X

Y

P

1

P

2

45

o

45

o

3

2

1

1

2

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 45

u v u v

EA

L

T

1 1 2 2

1 1 1 1

2

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

k T k T

]

]

]

]

]

]

'

Element 2:

135

2

2

2

2

o

l m , ,

We have,

u v u v

EA

L

T

2 2 3 3

2 2 2 2

2

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

k T k T

]

]

]

]

]

]

'

Assemble the structure FE equation,

u v u v u v

EA

L

u

v

u

v

u

v

F

F

F

F

F

F

X

Y

X

Y

X

Y

1 1 2 2 3 3

1

1

2

2

3

3

1

1

2

2

3

3

2

1 1 1 1 0 0

1 1 1 1 0 0

1 1 2 0 1 1

1 1 0 2 1 1

0 0 1 1 1 1

0 0 1 1 1 1

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

'

'

'

'

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 46

Load and boundary conditions (BC):

u v u v F P F P

X Y 1 1 3 3 2 1 2 2

0 , ,

Condensed FE equation,

EA

L

u

v

P

P 2

2 0

0 2

2

2

1

2

]

]

]

'

'

'

'

u

v

L

EA

P

P

2

2

1

2

'

'

'

'

[ ] ( )

1

1

2

1 2

2

2

1 1 1 1

0

0

2

2

'

'

+

E

L

L

EA P

P

A

P P

[ ] ( )

2

1

2

1 2

2

2

1 1 1 1

0

0

2

2

'

'

E

L

L

EA

P

P

A

P P

Check the results:

Look for the equilibrium conditions, symmetry,

antisymmetry, etc.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 47

Example 2.4 (Multipoint Constraint)

For the plane truss shown above,

P L m E GPa

A m

A m

1000 1 210

6 0 10

6 2 10

4 2

4 2

kN,

for elements 1 and 2,

for element 3.

, ,

.

Determine the displacements and reaction forces.

Solution:

We have an inclined roller at node 3, which needs special

attention in the FE solution. We first assemble the global FE

equation for the truss.

Element 1:

90 0 1

o

l m , ,

X

Y

P

45

o

3

2

1

3

2

1

x

L

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 48

u v u v

1 1 2 2

1

9 4

210 10 6 0 10

1

0 0 0 0

0 1 0 1

0 0 0 0

0 1 0 1

k

]

]

]

]

]

]

( )( . )

( ) N / m

Element 2:

0 1 0

o

l m , ,

u v u v

2 2 3 3

2

9 4

210 10 6 0 10

1

1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0

1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0

k

]

]

]

]

]

]

( )( . )

( ) N/ m

Element 3:

45

1

2

1

2

o

l m , ,

u v u v

1 1 3 3

3

9 4

210 10 6 2 10

2

05 05 05 05

05 05 05 05

05 05 05 05

05 05 05 05

k

]

]

]

]

]

]

( )( )

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

( ) N / m

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 49

The global FE equation is,

1260 10

05 05 0 0 05 05

15 0 1 05 05

1 0 1 0

1 0 0

15 05

05

5

1

1

2

2

3

3

1

1

2

2

3

3

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

'

'

'

'

. . . .

. . .

. .

. Sym.

u

v

u

v

u

v

F

F

F

F

F

F

X

Y

X

Y

X

Y

Load and boundary conditions (BC):

u v v v

F P F

X x

1 1 2 3

2 3

0 0

0

, ,

, .

'

'

and

From the transformation relation and the BC, we have

v

u

v

u v

3

3

3

3 3

2

2

2

2

2

2

0

'

( ) ,

]

]

]

'

'

+

that is,

u v

3 3

0

This is a multipoint constraint (MPC).

Similarly, we have a relation for the force at node 3,

F

F

F

F F

x

X

Y

X Y 3

3

3

3 3

2

2

2

2

2

2

0

'

( ) ,

]

]

]

'

'

+

that is,

F F

X Y 3 3

0 +

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 50

Applying the load and BCs in the structure FE equation by

deleting 1

st

, 2

nd

and 4

th

rows and columns, we have

1260 10

1 1 0

1 15 05

0 05 05

5

2

3

3

3

3

]

]

]

]

]

'

'

'

'

. .

. .

u

u

v

P

F

F

X

Y

Further, from the MPC and the force relation at node 3, the

equation becomes,

1260 10

1 1 0

1 15 05

0 05 05

5

2

3

3

3

3

]

]

]

]

]

'

'

'

'

. .

. .

u

u

u

P

F

F

X

X

which is

1260 10

1 1

1 2

0 1

5 2

3

3

3

]

]

]

]

]

'

'

'

'

u

u

P

F

F

X

X

The 3

rd

equation yields,

F u

X 3

5

3

1260 10

Substituting this into the 2

nd

equation and rearranging, we have

1260 10

1 1

1 3 0

5 2

3

]

]

]

'

'

'

'

u

u

P

Solving this, we obtain the displacements,

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 51

u

u

P

P

2

3

5

1

2520 10

3 0 01191

0 003968

'

'

'

'

'

'

.

.

( ) m

From the global FE equation, we can calculate the reaction

forces,

F

F

F

F

F

u

u

v

X

Y

Y

X

Y

1

1

2

3

3

5

2

3

3

1260 10

0 05 05

0 05 05

0 0 0

1 15 05

0 05 05

500

500

0 0

500

500

'

'

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

'

'

'

'

. .

. .

. .

. .

. ( ) kN

Check the results!

A general multipoint constraint (MPC) can be described as,

A u

j j

j

0

where A

j

s are constants and u

j

s are nodal displacement

components. In the FE software, such as MSC/NASTRAN,

users only need to specify this relation to the software. The

software will take care of the solution.

Penalty Approach for Handling BCs and MPCs

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 52

3-D Case

Local Global

x, y, z X, Y, Z

u v w

i i i

' ' '

, ,

u v w

i i i

, ,

1 dof at node 3 dofs at node

Element stiffness matrices are calculated in the local

coordinate systems and then transformed into the global

coordinate system (X, Y, Z) where they are assembled.

FEA software packages will do this transformation

automatically.

Input data for bar elements:

(X, Y, Z) for each node

E and A for each element

x

i

j

y

X

Y

Z

z

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