CENSORED MEDIA MEXICO, 2011

FUNDACIÓN MEPI

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

WHY THE INVESTIGATION?
In the last six years, the Mexican media has come under sharp attack by organized crime. Forty-one journalists were killed between 2007 and 2012, coinciding with a government crackdown against drug cartels. Most of them were murdered because of their reporting on crime, according to the Austria-based International Press Institute (IPI). The trend made Mexico the most dangerous country for the media last year. In 2010, the Fundación MEPI began monitoring self-censorship in local media. That first study was able to quantify black news holes throughout Mexico, places where media outlets had stopped reporting on most crime related to drug cartels. MEPI decided to launch a follow-up to the initial investigation. We monitored 14 out of 31 states in Mexico, covering 14 daily newspapers during 2011.

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

THE RESULTS
Fear of retaliation by organized crime continued to influence news outlets´ decision on what to publish.
Regional coverage of organized crime rose 100 percent compared to the year prior. News outlets reported 7 out of every 10 incidents about organized crime. More reporting did not improve the quality of coverage. Eighty percent of the monitored dailies failed to add clear context to their reporting. MEPI found federal and local government agencies failed to provide the regional media with timely and accurate information about crime and security. MEPI also identified a troubling pattern in several states largely controlled by a single cartel. In those regions, anti-crime coverage often outweighed reports on criminal incidents. In contested territories, the opposite was true, likely because organized crime did not have the same stronghold on media in those parts.

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

METHODOLOGY
We chose 14 online dailies with accessible archives.* We reviewed their crime stories during the year 2011. The articles were divided into two groups: stories that mentioned organized crime and those that did not. The content of each story was reviewed to determine state public safety trends and the hegemony of cartels. Factors considered were the use of official sources, narco language and how well the outlet explained the violence. Story content was also divided into two other categories: government anti-crime actions and organized crime activity. This review helped us understand how the news outlet portrayed drug-related violence to its readers.

_______ *In three states we only monitored six months of 2011 because of accessibility problems with the archives.
Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

Government Anti-Crime Actions Tracked Arrests Police Operations Official Reports Seizures, Raids

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

Organized Crime Activity Tracked • Executions • Extortions/Kidnappings • Attacks on Government Offices/ Personnel • Attacks on Police • Threats to Schools • Arson • Home Invasions • Shootouts, Heists and Armed Robberies • Narco Paraphernalia • Mass Graves • Jail Breaks and Riots • Attacks on Businesses • Cartel-linked Female Killings • Bombs, Grenades and MPG Attacks • Cartel-related Corruption • Road Blocks Known As Narco Blocks • Attacks on Public Transport • Attacks on Migrants • Attacks on Drug Rehab Clinics • Attacks Against Media • Body Snatching • Prostitution Tied to Cartels • Messages in Banners, Graffiti

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

STATE
Coahuila Nuevo León Ciudad Juárez Zacatecas Durango

MEDIA MONITORED ( 2011) MEDIA El Siglo de Torreón El Norte Norte Imagen Zacatecas El Siglo de Durango

CRIME GROUPS NAMED IN NEWS STORIES
Sinaloa Cartel/Zetas Gulf Cartel/Zetas Juarez Cartel and Sinaloa Cartel Not named Not named La Resistencia, Zetas, La Familia Michoacana, Milenio Cartel, Jalisco Nueva Generación Cartel
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

Guadalajara

El Informador

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

Sonora Tamaulipas Veracruz Morelia

El Imparcial El Mañana La Jornada Veracruz La Voz de Michoacán

Arellano Felix, Sinaloa Cartel Zetas Zetas and La Familia Not Named

Morelos

El Diario de Morelos

Cartel Pacifico Sur, Gulf Cartel, Beltran Leyva Cartel, Sinaloa Cartel, La Familia, Zetas
Zetas, Gulf Cartel and Beltran Leyva Cartel Zetas Sinaloa Cartel
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

Aguascalientes Hidalgo Sinaloa
Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

El Sol de Aguascalientes El Sol de Hidalgo El Noroeste

TORREÓN, COAHUILA

El Siglo de Torreón

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

2011 CRIME STORIES-GENERAL ANALYSIS EL SIGLO DE TORREÓN
140

120

100

80

60

40

Police stories that do not mention organized crime Police stories that do mention organized crime

20

0

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

DRUG-RELATED VIOLENCE AS PORTRAYED TO READERS

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Government anti-crime efforts
Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

Organized crime activities
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

**According to crime stories

TYPES OF CARTEL-RELATED MURDERS
Wrapped in blankets/With a bag over the head

Decapitated/Dismembered

Bound

Shootout

Executions

0 Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

*According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT HOMICIDES LINKED TO ORGANIZED CRIME
120

100

80

60

El Siglo de Torreón Government Statistics

40

20

0

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**According to the daily´s crime stories and government homicide statistics.

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT CRIME VICTIMS
400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

Series1

Members of organized crime 62

Local government officials 19

Federal government Municipal/state/tran officials sit police officers 7 29

Teenagers/Youth 84

Not specified 354
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**With data from El Siglo de Torreón

Public Safety Trends Reported by the News Outlet:
• • • Torreón is caught in the crossfire between two cartels battling for hegemony— the Zetas and Sinaloa Cartel. There were a greater number of reports on activities by organized crime than government actions. El Siglo de Torreón cited official sources when reporting on organized crime murders. When information is available, the daily publishes victims’ names and other descriptive characteristics that may help in the official identification of the bodies. Torreón is a vibrant industrial center and the business sector has been greatly affected by organized crime. Changes in daily life: -Physicians did not make house calls. -Schools taught children, as young as 6 years of age, how to protect themselves during shootings.
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

• •

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

Cartel Attacks on EL SIGLO DE TORREÓN
*November 2011. Three armed individuals attacked the newspaper's subscription offices, setting fire to a car parked near the entrance. The assailants sprayed the front façade with bullets from AK-47 rifles.

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

CIUDAD JUÁREZ, CHIHUAHUA

Norte

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

2011 CRIME STORIES-GENERAL ANALYSIS NORTE
350

300

250 Police stories that do not mention organized crime Police stories that do mention drug trafficking

200

150

100

50

0

January
*Only 6 months
Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

February

March

April

May

June

**According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

DRUG-RELATED VIOLENCE AS PORTRAYED TO READERS
450

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

Government anti-crime efforts
Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

Organized crime activities
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

**According to crime stories

TYPES OF CARTEL-RELATED MURDERS

Burned

Decapitated/Dismembered

Shootout

Executions

0 Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

50

100

150

200

*According to crime stories

250 www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT HOMICIDES LINKED TO ORGANIZED CRIME
350

300

250

200

Norte Government Statistics
150

100

50

0 January February March April May June Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus **According to the daily´s crime stories and government homicide statistics. www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT CRIME VICTIMS
400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

Series1

Members of organized crime 20

Local government 18

Federal government 5

Municipal/state/tra nsit police 27

Teenagers/Youth 66

Not specified 357
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**With data from Norte

Public Safety Trends Reported by the News Outlet:
• The daily Norte only reports on Ciudad Juarez, a vibrant city center that was overran by drug violence in 2010. MEPI monitored the first six months in 2011 when violence peaked before subsiding by year's end when the Sinaloa Cartel took over the territory from the Juarez Cartel and several smaller gangs. There is a general distrust of federal police forces in the city and according to local journalists, citizens tend to believe more in the word of local drug leaders than officials, despite the drug-related violence. Changes in daily life: -Local government officials warn youth against attending house parties after a number of mass murders at private homes. -Threats on schools multiply. Parents keep children away from school. -Organized crime groups focused recruitment efforts on youth. Young women were selected to collect extorsion money.

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

Durango, Durango

El Siglo de Durango

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

2011 CRIME STORIES-GENERAL ANALYSIS EL SIGLO DE DURANGO
60

50

40 Police stories that do not mention organized crime Police stories that do mention organized crime

30

20

10

0

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

DRUG-RELATED VIOLENCE AS PORTRAYED TO READERS

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

Government anti-crime efforts
Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

Organized crime activities
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

**According to crime stories

TYPES OF CARTEL-RELATED MURDERS

Burned

Strangled

Decapitated/Dismembered

Shootout

Executions

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

*According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT HOMICIDES LINKED TO ORGANIZED CRIME
250

200

150

El Siglo de Durango
100

Government Statistics

50

0

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**According to the daily's crime stories and government homicide statistics.

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT CRIME VICTIMS
350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

Members of organized crime Series1 47

Local government officials 17

Federal government officials 5

Municipal/state/tra Teenagers/Youth nsit police officers 23 24

Not specified 321
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**With data from El Siglo de Durango

Public Safety Trends Reported by the News Outlet:
• • The news outlet mentioned organized crime activity in its reporting but no specific cartels were named. In 2011 authorities in Durango found several mass graves with about 200 bodies in them. Security experts believe that the organized crime groups that buried the bodies were trying to hide them to avoid retaliation. The state is a contested territory among the Sinaloa Cartel and the Zetas. Organized crime used high-powered rifles and attacked state police forces in groups of up to 50 men.


During the first four months of 2011, the armed forces reported capturing 168 organized crime members, but the daily did not report on most of these arrests.
Changes in daily life: -Being a musician or lawyer became a high-risk profession. The Law College of Durango and the Musicians Conservatory reported high numbers of threats and kidnappings.

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

ZACATECAS, ZACATECAS

Imagen Zacatecas

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

2011 CRIME STORIES-GENERAL ANALYSIS IMAGEN ZACATECAS
140

120

100

80

60

Police stories that do not mention organized crime Police stories that do mention organized crime

40

20

0

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

DRUG-RELATED VIOLENCE AS PORTRAYED TO READERS

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

Government anti-crime efforts
Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

Organized crime activities
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

**According to crime stories

TYPES OF CARTEL-RELATED MURDERS

Beaten

Executions

Shootout

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

*According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT HOMICIDES LINKED TO ORGANIZED CRIME
35

30

25

20

Imagen Zacatecas
15

Government Statistics

10

5

0

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**According to the daily's crime stories and government homicide statistics.

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT CRIME VICTIMS
120

100

80

60

40

20

0

Series1

Members of organized crime 114

Local government 3

Federal government 10

Municipal/state/tra nsit police 10

Teenagers/Youth 10

Not specified 72
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**With data from Imagen Zacatecas

Public Safety Trends Reported by the News Outlet:
• Zacatecas is a state where the Zetas had considerable control in 2011. However, the stories in the daily quoted citizens expressing admiration and trust for the army units patrolling the state.


• • •

The daily reported on more anti-crime activities that on those actions carried out by organized crime, a trend that was common in states controlled by one cartel.
No cartels were named in the news stories. The daily described organized crime members as “armed groups” or “armed civilians.” In early 2011, reports on the kidnappings and release of state and municipal policemen highlighted cartel efforts to infiltrate the police. Changes in daily life: -Taxi drivers stopped night work out of fear for their safety. The Zetas often forced them to become lookouts and informants.

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

GUADALAJARA, JALISCO

El Informador

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

2011 CRIME STORIES-GENERAL ANALYSIS EL INFORMADOR
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Police stories that do not mention organized crime Police stories that do mention organized crime

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

DRUG-RELATED VIOLENCE AS PORTRAYED TO READERS

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

Government anti-crime efforts
Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

Organized crime activities
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

**According to crime stories

TYPES OF CARTEL-RELATED MURDERS

Strangled

Wrapped in blankets/With a bag over the head

Shootout

Bound

Executions

0

50

100

150

200

250

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

*According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT HOMICIDES LINKED TO ORGANIZED CRIME
100

90
80 70

60
50 40

El Informador Government Statistics

30
20 10 0

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**According to the daily's crime stories and government homicide statistics.

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT CRIME VICTIMS
200 180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

Series1

Members of organized crime 58

Local government 8

Federal government 1

Municipal/state/tra nsit police 14

Teenagers/Youth 62

Not specified 187
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**With data from El Imparcial

Public Safety Trends Reported by the News Outlet:
• El Informador, unlike other news outlets, benefitted from complete and timely crime reports from officials in Guadalajara, the country's second largest city. The news outlet provided context in their stories about public safety and organized crime as the city suffered, for the first time in recent memory, a bout of high-profile murder cases such as 26 bodies dumped in a city street. Guadalajara had been controlled by the Sinaloa Cartel until recently. The following cartels were identified in news reports as fighting for control in the state: La Resistencia, Zetas, La Familia, Nueva Generación Cartel and Milenio Cartel. Executions often took place during parties and at restaurants, in the presence of many witnesses. Cartels blocked principal streets to protest government detentions of their members. Bodies were found hog-tied and with a plastic bag over the head.

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

CIUDAD VICTORIA, TAMAULIPAS

El Mañana

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

2011 CRIME STORIES-GENERAL ANALYSIS EL MAÑANA
1000 900 800 700

600
500 400 300 200 100

Police stories that do not mention organized crime Police stories that do mention organized crime

0

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

DRUG-RELATED VIOLENCE AS PORTRAYED TO READERS

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

Government anti-crime efforts
Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

Organized crime activities
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

**According to crime stories

TYPES OF CARTEL-RELATED MURDERS

Decapitated/ Dismembered

Executions

Shootout

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

*According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT HOMICIDES LINKED TO ORGANIZED CRIME
300

250

200

150

El Mañana Government Statistics

100

50

0

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

** According to the daily's crime stories and government homicide statistics.

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT CRIME VICTIMS
80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Series1

Members of organized crime 12

Local government 0

Federal government 1

Municipal/state/tra nsit police 0

Teenagers/Youth 0

Not specified 73
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**With data from El Mañana

Public Safety Trends Reported by the News Outlet:
• Tamaulipas is a state largely controlled by the Zetas Cartel, which enforced tight editorial restrictions on the media in 2011. Yet, the outlet rarely acknowledged organized crime. The handful of crime stories it did report on took place in the Texas Valley including extortions and shootings. This had not been prevalent in the 2010 MEPI study. For the second year in a row, El Mañana, appeared to observe almost complete self-censorship. The few stories on organized crime reported in 2011 focused on the Zetas´ competing cartel, the Gulf Cartel. The daily frequently overlooked stories that did not reflect well on the Zetas. For instance in 2011, the daily did not write about the murder of blogger La Nena de Laredo who was presumably slain by Zetas for her critical reports on local crime. Tamaulipas is an international transportation hub. There are 16 bi-national bridges between Tamaulipas and the Texas Valley.

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

MONTERREY, NUEVO LEÓN

El Norte

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

2011 CRIME STORIES-GENERAL ANALYSIS EL NORTE
120

100

80

60

Police stories that do not mention organized crime Police stories that do mention organized crime

40

20

0

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

DRUG-RELATED VIOLENCE AS PORTRAYED TO READERS

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

Government anti-crime efforts
Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

Organized crime activities
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

**According to crime stories

TYPES OF CARTEL-RELATED MURDERS
Burned

Bound

Decapitated/ Dismembered

Shootout

Executions

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

*According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT HOMICIDES LINKED TO ORGANIZED CRIME
250

200

150

El Norte
100

Government Statistics

50

0

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

** According to the daily's crime stories and government homicide statistics.

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT CRIME VICTIMS
600

500

400

300

200

100

0

Series1

Members of organized crime 351

Local government 15

Federal government 16

Municipal/state/tra nsit police 84

Teenagers/Youth 218

Not specified 531
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**With data from El Norte

Public Safety Trends Reported by the News Outlet:
• • Monterrey endured a bloody year as two cartels, the Zetas and the Gulf Cartel, battled for control of this wealthy industrial and financial center. El Norte is considered among the country's best newspapers. Its reporting on the drug conflict is extensive and the outlet was among the few Mexican dailies monitored that provided context in news accounts and did follow-ups. El Norte enjoyed an engaged readership, which often commented at length at the end of stories on public safety. It also published a special section on deaths connected to organized crime. The outlet fully identified minors linked to organized crime activities. It reported on car accidents stemming from car chases between organized crime groups and the armed forces, which have taken over police duties. People supported and respected the federal forces which patrolled the city in 2011, according to the outlet. They were weary of local police, which were identified by readers as poliZe, tranZite and muniZipal, using the Z as a reference to the Zeta cartel.

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

Public Safety Trends Reported by the News Outlet (continued):
• • • • The outlet reported on so-called body rescues by cartels that stole bodies at crime scenes before police could identify them. Between 2010 to 2011 female homicides nearly tripled. In 70 percent of the cases the women were decapitated. Cartels increasingly used children 10 to 15 years old as lookouts and drug runners. Cartels retaliated against individual enemies by killing their entire family.

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

JALAPA, VERACRUZ

La Jornada

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

2011 CRIME STORIES-GENERAL ANALYSIS LA JORNADA
40

35

30

25

20

Police stories that do not mention organized crime Police stories that do mention organized crime

15

10

5

0

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

DRUG-RELATED VIOLENCE AS PORTRAYED TO READERS

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

Government anti-crime efforts
Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus **According to crime stories

Organized crime activities
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

TYPES OF CARTEL-RELATED MURDERS

Executions

Shootout

0 Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

5

10

15

20

25 www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

*According to the police stories

VIOLENT HOMICIDES LINKED TO ORGANIZED CRIME
140

120

100

80

La Jornada
60

Government Statistics

40

20

0

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**According to the daily´s crime stories and government homicide statistics.

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT CRIME VICTIMS
160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

Members of organized crime

Local government

Federal government

Municipal/state/transit police

Teenagers/Youth

Not specified

Series1 86 Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

0

4

10

0

**With data from La Jornada

148 www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

Public Safety Trends Reported by the News Outlet:
• The year 2011 was among the most violent for the southern state of Veracruz and for its journalism community. Four journalists were targeted and killed by alleged organized crime hitmen. In 2010, MEPI monitored the daily El Dictamen based in Jalapa, Veracruz. For the second study, that daily had limited online reporting of crime. So for 2011 MEPI chose to monitor the regional version of the national daily La Jornada. During the first three months of 2011, the daily reported on an alarming growth in organized crime activity. According to journalists, the Zetas had held tight controls over the state for the last few years. But the arrival of the Mexican Navy, challenged that group's power base. The outlet reported that transit police colluded with the Zetas, and that human trafficking and livestock theft generated income for organized crime. The daily warned readers that criminal groups were recruiting youth as lookouts and campesinos to grow marijuana.

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

CUERNAVACA, MORELOS

El Diario de Morelos

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

2011 CRIME STORIES-GENERAL ANALYSIS EL DIARIO DE MORELOS
160

140

120

100

80

Police stories that do not mention organized crime Police stories that do mention organized crime

60

40

20

0

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

***According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

DRUG-RELATED VIOLENCE AS PORTRAYED TO READERS

439

438.5

438

437.5

437

436.5

436

Government anti-crime efforts
Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

Organized crime activities
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

***According to crime stories

TYPES OF CARTEL-RELATED MURDERS

Strangled

Wrapped in blankets/With a bag over the head

Decapitated/Dismembered

Bound

Executions

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

*According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT HOMICIDES LINKED TO ORGANIZED CRIME
35

30

25

20

El Diario de Morelos
15

Government Statistics

10

5

0

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**According to the daily´s crime stories and government homicide statistics.

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT CRIME VICTIMS
120

100

80

60

40

20

0

Series1

Members of organized crime 10

Local government 2

Federal government 1

Municipal/state/tra nsit police 10

Teenagers/Youth 56

Not specified 98
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**With data from El Diario de Morelos

Public Safety Trends Reported by the News Outlet:
• Morelos is a state that until 2010 had been controlled by the Beltran Leyva drug cartel. But with the takedown of the cartel´s top leaders, the organization lost hegemony. Several other groups began fighting for control of the state. Morelos was one of the states where the MEPI study found that the presence of competing cartels benefitted press coverage. Without a single cartel exerting control, the media was able to operate more freely. El Diario de Morelos attempted to provide context to crime stories. It always quoted authorities in their articles. The daily explained turf battles among crime groups. The outlet published the content of narco messages, unlike most other dailies, and often detailed gruesome killings. About nine out of 10 executions included a narco message, commonly used by cartels to send messages to other organized crime groups. Organized crime lookouts developed sophisticated techniques such as the use of surveillance cameras to monitor drug territories. The daily wrote stories about organized criminals mocking authorities.

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

AGUASCALIENTES, AGUASCALIENTES

El Sol de Aguascalientes

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

2011 CRIME STORIES-GENERAL ANALYSIS EL SOL DE AGUASCALIENTES
60

50

40

30

Police stories that do not mention organized crime Police stories that do mention organized crime

20

10

0

January
*Only 5 months Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

February

March

April

May
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

**According to crime stories

DRUG-RELATED VIOLENCE AS PORTRAYED TO READERS

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Government anti-crime efforts
Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

Organized crime activities
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

**According to crime stories

TYPES OF CARTEL-RELATED MURDERS

Strangled

Executions

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

*According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT HOMICIDES LINKED TO ORGANIZED CRIME
16

14

12

10

El Sol de Aguascalientes
8

Government Statistics

6

4

2

0

January
Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

February

March

April

May
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

**According to the daily´s crime stories and government homicide statistics.

VIOLENT CRIME VICTIMS
25

20

15

10

5

0

Members of organized crime

Local government

Federal government

Municipal/state/transit police

Teenagers/Youth

Not specified

Series1 10 Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

0

0

2

2

**With data from El Sol de Aguascalientes

21 www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

Public Safety Trends Reported by the News Outlet:
• El Sol de Aguascalientes named the Zetas cartel in their stories and said the group was fighting with another criminal organization. La Familia Michoacana has been identified by Mexican federal forces as having some control in this state. But the daily never mentioned them. As in other states where the Zetas or the Familia Michoacana wielded some control, the press reported more on government anti-crime efforts. The daily included narco messages in their stories and employed language used by narcos to describe guns and types of crimes, such as “levanton,” which means kidnapping.

• •

The daily reported that organized crime often recruited children as young as 15 years
old.

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

PACHUCA, HIDALGO

El Sol de Hidalgo

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

2011 CRIME STORIES-GENERAL ANALYSIS EL SOL DE HIDALGO
300

250

200

150

Police stories that do not mention organized crime Police stories that do mention organized crime

100

50

0

January
*Only 5 months Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

February

March

April

May
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

**According to crime stories

DRUG-RELATED VIOLENCE AS PORTRAYED TO READERS

100 90 80 70 60

50
40 30 20 10 0

Government anti-crime efforts
Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

Organized crime activities
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

**According to crime stories

TYPES OF CARTEL-RELATED MURDERS
Shootout

Burned

Wrapped in blankets/With a bag over the head

Executions

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

*According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT HOMICIDES LINKED TO ORGANIZED CRIME
12

10

8

El Sol de Hidalgo
6

Government Statistics

4

2

0

January
Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

February

March

April

May
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

**According to the daily´s crime stories and government homicide statistics.

VIOLENT CRIME VICTIMS
18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

Members of organized crime

Local government

Federal government

Municipal/state/transit police

Teenagers/Youth

Not specified

Series1 0 Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

4

0

0

5

**With data from El Sol de Hidalgo

16 www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

Public Safety Trends Reported by the News Outlet:
• • • Hidalgo is a state where the Zetas held control of most drug trafficking routes. The outlet did not use narco language, such as “levanton” (kidnapping) but preferred the word “desaparicion.” The daily wrote about prostitution rings, which they downplayed by identifying them as escort services. Prostitution is largely controlled by the Zetas, according to national sex workers union. The outlet also wrote about contraband and piracy, important revenue generating activities for organized crime.

The daily rarely quoted officials in their crime stories.

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

MORELIA, MICHOACÁN

La Voz de Michoacán

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

2011 CRIME STORIES-GENERAL ANALYSIS LA VOZ DE MICHOACÁN
160

140

120

100

80

Police stories that do not mention organized crime Police stories that do mention organized crime

60

40

20

0

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

DRUG-RELATED VIOLENCE AS PORTRAYED TO READERS

600

500

400

300

200

100

0 Government anti-crime efforts Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus Organized crime activities www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

**According to crime stories

TYPES OF CARTEL-RELATED MURDERS

Stab

Bound

Shootout

Executions

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

*According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT HOMICIDES LINKED TO ORGANIZED CRIME
90

80

70

60

50

40

La Voz de Michoacán Government Statistics

30

20

10

0

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**According to the daily´s crime stories and government homicide statistics.

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

Public Safety Trends Reported by the News Outlet:
• Michoacan is state that is widely controlled by La Familia Michoacana and its splinter group the Knights Templars. However, La Voz de Michoacan, never named either group in its daily crime stories. It did not provide context to crime incidents or draw obvious conclusions about crime patterns. Like other states where one cartel dominated the territory, most crime stories focused on government anti-crime efforts. The newspaper based its reports on military and federal police bulletins. Few stories cited local or state police. Extortion had been a serious problem in this state for the last few years. However, the extortion antics seemed to have escalated and victims were now forced to hand over titles to land and other real estate property. The state is considered dangerous by the Mexican Red Cross, which employed conflict zone procedures while operating in the state. All stories had bylines. Photographs were graphic.
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

• •

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

HERMOSILLO, SONORA

El Imparcial

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

2011 CRIME STORIES-GENERAL ANALYSIS EL IMPARCIAL
250

200

150

Police stories that do not mention organized crime
100

Police stories that do mention organized crime

50

0

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

DRUG-RELATED VIOLENCE AS PORTRAYED TO READERS

900 800 700

600
500 400 300 200 100 0 Government anti-crime efforts Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus Organized crime activities www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

**According to crime stories

TYPES OF CARTEL-RELATED MURDERS

Bound

Shootout

Executions

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

*According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT HOMICIDES LINKED TO ORGANIZED CRIME
60

50

40

30

El Imparcial Government Statistics

20

10

0

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**According to the daily´s crime stories and government homicide statistics.

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT CRIME VICTIMS
18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Series1

Members of organized crime 11

Local government 3

Federal government 1

Municipal/state/tra nsit police 11

Teenagers/Youth 0

Not specified 17
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**With data from El Imparcial

Public Safety Trends Reported by the News Outlet:
• • Sonora state is controlled by two organized crime groups, the Sinaloa Cartel and remnants of the Beltran Leyva Cartel. The daily El Imparcial provided context in news stories on organized crime. It quoted official sources who consistently identified victims as members of organized crime. However, in stories where government representatives were the victims, officials did not provide immediate information on the cause of death. The outlet used narco terminology to refer to specific crimes and even weapons.

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

CULIACÁN, SINALOA

El Noroeste

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

2011 CRIME STORIES-GENERAL ANALYSIS EL NOROESTE
180

160

140

120

100

80

Police stories that do not mention organized crime Police stories that do mention organized crime

60

40

20

0

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**According to crime stories

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

DRUG-RELATED VIOLENCE AS PORTRAYED TO READERS

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

Government anti-crime efforts
Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

Organized crime activities
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

**According to crime stories

TYPES OF CARTEL-RELATED MURDERS
Decapitated/Dismembered

Wrapped in blankets/With a bag over the head

Shootout

Bound

Executions

0 Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

100

200

300

400

*According to crime stories

500 600 www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT HOMICIDES LINKED TO ORGANIZED CRIME
180

160

140

120

100

80

El Noroeste Government Statistics

60

40

20

0

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**According to the daily´s crime stories and government homicide statistics.

www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

VIOLENT CRIME VICTIMS
350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0 Series1

Members of organized crime 63

Local government 14

Federal government 5

Municipal/state/tra nsit police 64

Teenagers/Youth 197

Not specified 308
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

**With data from El Noroeste

Public Safety Trends Reported by the News Outlet:
• Sinaloa, the seat of Mexico´s oldest organized crime group, the Sinaloa Cartel, experienced unprecedented violence in 2011 as the Zetas tried penetrate their territory. The Zetas incursion was in response to the Sinaloa cartel´s involvement in Veracruz the same year. The Sinaloa Cartel has controlled this region for the last 30 years. El Noroeste and other media in this state operate under a sort of détente with the cartel. The media knows its limits. It does not publish names of cartel leaders, nor logistics about drug operations. Narco messages printed by the outlet often identify the victims and give the reason as to why they were killed. The daily had access to crime scenes and official investigation documents. The daily wrote stories that warned citizens of organized crime antics. One activity they wrote on described how criminals posed as couples with children to rent residential properties that were used as stash houses, or to hide kidnap victims. Readers demanded that the daily do more investigations.
www.fundacionmepi.org @FMEPI

Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus

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