W

e give great importance to the landscape
due to the richness of what it contains, as it
is a combination of nature and culture, of historical
events and of social and economic changes. If we
look at the territory as in a mirror, we’ll see man’s
life and actions, his continuous renewal and the
signs of age.
Lombardy, bounded to the north by the impressive
arc of the Alps and containing the largest Italian
lakes, has a great variety of climates and environments in its 23,856 km2, rarely found in such a limited area. A range of wide, sweeping terraces colour
the whole picture like brushstrokes, sloping down
from the eternal snows of the Alps to the wooded
pre-Alpine plateaus, then merging into a narrow
band of mainly urbanised hills and finally opening
up into the vast plain. A height difference of 4000
metres from the summit of the Bernina to the
waters of the Po, a panorama that is breathtaking
for anyone seeing it from the air.
The Lombard landscape is rapidly changing but still
bears the marks of the choices made and actions
taken in the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and
modern times. Appreciating these ancient signs and
understanding the specific nature of the land of
Lombardy makes you realise its historic continuity
and the singular harmony that links man and the
environment, this is one of the tasks that the Council
for Tourism of the Lombard Region has set itself.
Moreover, seeing it from a viewpoint that takes in a
wide field allows the beauty of some of the most
world-famous urban structures, architecture, monuments and works of art to be enjoyed.

Massimo Zanello
Councillor for Tourism
Lombard Region

... I am reminded of how once, from amid the bleak
chaos of rock and snow at the head of an Alpine pass,
I looked upon the far stretching view of Lombardy,
shimmering in the sunshine and extending in one
splendid panorama of blue lakes and green rolling hills
until it melted into the golden haze which draped the
far horizon.
Arthur Conan Doyle

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Lombardy
In Northern Italy lies a land guarded to the north by high mountains, the Alps, with their rocky peaks and extensive glaciers and
with pastures and wide wooded valleys at their feet. These
mountains form a barrier from the cold of Northern Europe and
here the sky is often an intense brilliant azure which can become
flushed in shades of red at sunset. The sky is “so beautiful when
it is fine, so splendid, so peaceful” according to the description
of Alessandro Manzoni, one of Italy’s greatest novelists. This land
is bounded to the south by the Po, a river which runs majestically through a green, luxuriant plain. Other rivers, too, carry their
abundant waters from the Alps to the Po and along their course
feed some of the most beautiful lakes in the world, with shores
covered by lush vegetation - chestnut woods, massed blooms,
exotic plants, olive groves, vineyards and orchards - places
where the climate is mild and the atmosphere peaceful. This
land, described by Shakespeare as “the pleasant garden of great
Italy”, is Lombardy. Milan, one of the most important cities in
Europe, is its capital. Whoever arrives in Lombardy encounters a
modern, industrialised region in which life is lived to the full; but
where it can also be easy to discover evidence of famous art and
history, as well as places where peace and tranquillity reign and
areas of great natural interest and fine landscapes.
Man has been settled in this fortunate land for many millennia;
some have left the sign of their presence by drawings carved into
its rocks. There are, for example, thousands of “rock carvings” in
the Val Camonica which record the life of prehistoric tribes
through pictures of hunting, battle, homes and magic symbols.
Other ancient peoples have left evidence of their presence in
Lombardy. At Sirmione, for example, you can admire the imposing ruins of a villa built nearly two thousand years ago by the
Romans on the splendid peninsula which extends into Lake
Garda. You can find numerous artefacts from the daily life of the
past in the museums of Lombardy.
Many centuries ago, in Mediaeval times, many castles to house
soldiers were built in this land while high walls were raised to
enclose and defend the cities and towns. It was an era disturbed
by frequent wars, not only by invaders, but also between the
cities of Lombardy themselves. Some castles are now silent
museums and picturesque tourist attractions where the heavy
armour, swords, halberds and arquebuses of their soldiers are
kept on display for the public.
Peace-loving men also lived in Lombardy, who left imposing evidence of their presence, the Christian monks are one of the
most important examples. They built monasteries in both cities
and remote spots surrounded by woodland. They led a simple
life of prayer and meditation. Many monasteries, as well as being
spiritual centres, were places of welcome for travellers and pilgrims and became centres for the diffusion of humanistic and
scientific culture. The monks created splendid illuminated
codices, drained the marshlands and were a reference point for
the surrounding population.
During the last millennium skilled architects embellished the
Lombard cities with many structures: churches, cathedrals, large
public and private buildings and even royal palaces for princes.
Splendid squares were created which are still meeting places
today appreciated by the general public. Over the last few centuries large villas enhanced by parks and gardens were built in
country areas and on the hills and shores of the lakes, where the
aristocracy passed pleasant holidays. Churches, palazzos and villas were enriched by works of art by painters and sculptors,
many of whom were great masters. We can admire “minor art
works” of past centuries everywhere in Lombardy: walls of stone
or brick, wrought iron gates, sculpted marble doors, carved stone
fountains and an abundance of works in wood. These are the

fruit of the labour of skilled artisan craftsmen: masons, smiths,
carvers and carpenters. Other skilled hands made fine musical
instruments, gold and silver artefacts, fabrics in wool and silk.
The Lombard merchants took these goods to faraway countries,
where they were appreciated for their quality and style.
Lombardy has also known how to attract artists from other
regions, providing them with good working conditions. About
five centuries ago Leonardo da Vinci had a long stay in Milan,
where he was not only able to show his skill as a painter - painting the world-famous “Last Supper” and other important works
- but also as a scientist, inventor and engineer. In more recent
times this land has attracted composers such as Verdi and
Puccini, whose lyric works were first staged at La Scala Opera
House in Milan and are now known throughout the world.
Lombardy is a hospitable land not only for great artists, but also
for anyone gifted with initiative, enthusiasm and dedication to
work. Indeed labour is the major resource of modern Lombardy,
allowing it to be the leader in many sectors throughout the
world. The craftsmanship, creativity and sense of beauty of the
artists of the past has been retained; all elements which not
infrequently make a Lombard product unique, as in the case of
an article of clothing, a silk fabric, a piece of furniture or pottery.
Lombardy is also a hospitable land for whoever comes as a
tourist. In Milan and in artistic cities, large and small, you can
admire fine buildings, museums and works of art; you can go
shopping in elegant shops and modern shopping malls. At the
lakes you can find refined hotels and go on pleasant excursions
by boat or take part in sports such as swimming and sailing, tennis and golf. In summer you can have a restorative holiday in the
Lombard mountains going on long excursions and breathtaking
climbs, while in winter they offer beautiful ski tracks in a sunny
environment. The spas with thermal baths give splendid opportunities to devote yourself to your health and physical wellbeing. Going along the “wine roads” and taking part in the many
folk festivals are the chance to discover the rich offering of fine
food and drink and to appreciate local specialities: preserved
meat delicacies, cheese, sweets and fruit. Fine restaurants give
the opportunity to sample typical Lombard dishes based on rice,
meat, mushrooms and freshwater fish. Music lovers can attend
performances of lyric opera in theatres rich in tradition, you can
find classical music concerts in the splendid halls of ancient
palazzos and churches and, during the mild summer evenings,
in squares full of atmosphere. And anyone coming to Lombardy
for work can easily find a spot for a relaxing break and will then
return later for a long holiday with family or friends.

Leonardo da Vinci: l’Ultima Cena (the Last Supper ) – detail

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ùÚÓ ·˚ÎË ‚ÂÏÂ̇ ÔÓÒÚÓflÌÌ˚ı ‚ÓÈÌ, ‚Â‰Û˘ËıÒfl Ì ÚÓθÍÓ
ÔÓÚË‚ ˜ÛÊÂÒÚ‡ÌÌ˚ı ‚ÚÓÊÂÌËÈ, ÌÓ Ë ‚ÓÈÌ ‚ÌÛÚËÛÒÓ·Ì˚ı,
‚Â‰Û˘ËıÒfl ÏÂÊ‰Û ÎÓÏ·‡‰ÒÍËÏË „ÓÓ‰‡ÏË. çÂÍÓÚÓ˚ ËÁ ˝ÚËı
Á‡ÏÍÓ‚ Ò„ӉÌfl Ô‚‡ÚËÎËÒ¸ ‚ ÚËıË ÏÛÁÂË, ÊË‚ÓÔËÒÌ˚Â
ÚÛËÒÚ˘ÂÒÍË ‰ÓÒÚÓÔËϘ‡ÚÂθÌÓÒÚË; ÚflÊÂÎ˚ ‰ÓÒÔÂıË Ë
ÓÛÊË Óı‡Ìfl‚¯Ëı Ëı ÍÓ„‰‡-ÚÓ ‚ÓËÌÓ‚, - ϘË, ‡Î·‡‰˚,
‡Í·ÛÁ˚, - Ò„ӉÌfl ‚˚ÒÚ‡‚ÎÂÌ˚ ‰Îfl ÔÓ͇Á‡ ÔÓÒÂÚËÚÂÎflÏ.
çÓ Ì ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ÓËÌ˚ ̇ÒÂÎflÎË ˝ÚË ÁÂÏÎË, Á‰ÂÒ¸ ÊËÎË Ú‡ÍÊ Ë
ÏËÌ˚ β‰Ë, ÓÒÚ‡‚Ë‚¯Ë ÔÓÒΠҷfl Á̇˜ËÚÂθÌ˚È ÒΉ,
Ò‡Ï˚È flÍËÈ ÔËÏÂ ˝ÚÓÏÛ – ıËÒÚˇÌÒÍË ÏÓ̇ıË. éÌË
ÒÚÓËÎË Ò‚ÓË ÏÓ̇ÒÚ˚Ë, Í‡Í ‚ „ÓÓ‰‡ı, Ú‡Í Ë ‚ ÓÚ‰‡ÎÂÌÌ˚ı
ÏÂÒÚ‡ı, ÔÓÒÂ‰Ë „ÛÒÚ˚ı ÎÂÒÓ‚; ‚ÂÎË ÔÓÒÚÛ˛ ÊËÁ̸, ÓÚ‰‡‚‡flÒ¸
ˆÂÎËÍÓÏ ÏÓÎËÚ‚Â Ë Ï‰ËÚ‡ˆËË. åÌÓ„Ë ÏÓ̇ÒÚ˚Ë ·˚ÎË ÌÂ
ÚÓθÍÓ ‰ÛıÓ‚Ì˚ÏË ˆÂÌÚ‡ÏË, ÌÓ Ë ÚÂÏË ÏÂÒÚ‡ÏË, „‰Â ÏÓ„ÎË
̇ÈÚË ÔËÒÚ‡ÌË˘Â Ë ÔÂ‰ÓıÌÛÚ¸ ÔÛÚÌËÍË Ë Ô‡ÎÓÏÌËÍË,
ÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚flÒ¸, Ú‡ÍËÏ Ó·‡ÁÓÏ, ˆÂÌÚ‡ÏË ‡ÒÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÂÌËfl
„ÛχÌËÒÚ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ÍÛθÚÛ˚ Ë Ì‡ÛÍË. åÓ̇ı‡ÏË ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌ˚
‚ÂÎËÍÓÎÂÔÌ˚ ÛÍÓÔËÒÌ˚ ÍÓ‰ÂÍÒ˚, ÛÍ‡¯ÂÌÌ˚ ÚÓ̘‡È¯ËÏË
ÏËÌˇڲ‡ÏË, ÓÒÛ¯ÂÌ˚ Á‡·ÓÎÓ˜ÂÌÌ˚ ÁÂÏÎË, Ó·ËÚ‡ÚÂÎË
ÏÓ̇ÒÚ˚ÂÈ ÒÎÛÊËÎË ÔËÏÂÓÏ ÊËÚÂÎflÏ ÓÍÛʇ˛˘Ëı
ÔÓÒÂÎÂÌËÈ.
í‡Î‡ÌÚÎË‚˚ ‡ıËÚÂÍÚÓ˚ ÔÓ¯ÎÓ„Ó Ú˚Òfl˜ÂÎÂÚËfl ÛÍ‡ÒËÎË
ÎÓÏ·‡‰ÒÍË „ÓÓ‰‡ ÏÌÓ„Ó˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ÏË ÔÂÍ‡ÒÌ˚ÏË Á‰‡ÌËflÏË:
ˆÂÍ‚flÏË, ÒÓ·Ó‡ÏË, ˜‡ÒÚÌ˚ÏË ‰‚Óˆ‡ÏË Ë Á‰‡ÌËflÏË
Ó·˘ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓ„Ó ı‡‡ÍÚÂ‡, ÍÓÓ΂ÒÍËÏË ÔÓÍÓflÏË. Å˚ÎË
ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ˚ ˜Û‰ÂÒÌ˚ ÔÎÓ˘‡‰Ë, ÔÓ ÒÂÈ ‰Â̸ ÓÒÚ‡˛˘ËÂÒfl
ËÁβ·ÎÂÌÌ˚Ï ÏÂÒÚÓÏ ‚ÒÚÂ˜Ë ‰Îfl „ÓÓʇÌ. ëÂ‰Ë ÔÂÍ‡ÒÌÓÈ
ÔËÓ‰˚ Ò Â ıÓÎχÏË Ë ÓÁÂ‡ÏË ‰Îfl Á̇ÚË ÒÚÓËÎËÒ¸ ·Óθ¯ËÂ
Á‡„ÓÓ‰Ì˚ ‚ËÎÎ˚, ÛÍ‡¯ÂÌËÂÏ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı fl‚Îfl˛ÚÒfl Ò‡‰˚ Ë
Ô‡ÍË. ñÂÍ‚Ë, ‰‚Óˆ˚ Ë ‚ËÎÎ˚ ı‡ÌflÚ ˆÂÌÌÂȯËÂ
ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËfl ÊË‚ÓÔËÒË Ë ÒÍÛθÔÚÛ˚, ÏÌÓ„Ë ËÁ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı
‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌ˚ Á̇ÏÂÌËÚ˚ÏË Ï‡ÒÚÂ‡ÏË. èÓ‚Ò˛‰Û ‚ ãÓÏ·‡‰ËË
¢ Ò„ӉÌfl Ï˚ ÏÓÊÂÏ Ì‡Ò·ʉ‡Ú¸Òfl ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËflÏË Ú‡Í

̇Á˚‚‡ÂÏÓ„Ó «Ï‡ÎÓ„Ó ËÒÍÛÒÒÚ‚‡» ÔÓ¯Î˚ı ‚ÂÏÂÌ: ˝ÚÓ
͇ÏÂÌ̇fl Ë ÍËÔ˘̇fl Í·‰Í‡, ÍÓ‚‡Ì˚ ӄ‡‰˚ Ë ¯ÂÚÍË,
Ï‡ÏÓÌ˚ ÂÁÌ˚ ÔÓÚ‡Î˚, ÙÓÌÚ‡Ì˚ ËÁ Ó·‡·ÓÚ‡ÌÌÓ„Ó Í‡ÏÌfl
Ë ·ÂÒ˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ ËÁ‰ÂÎËfl ËÁ ‰Â‚‡. ÇÒ ˝ÚÓ – ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËfl
ÚÛ‰‡ ÛÏÂÎ˚ı ÂÏÂÒÎÂÌÌËÍÓ‚: ͇ÏÂÌ˘ËÍÓ‚, ÍÛÁ̈ӂ,
ÂÁ˜ËÍÓ‚ ÔÓ Í‡ÏÌ˛ Ë ÔÓ ‰Â‚Û. ÑÛ„ËÏË ÛÏÌ˚ÏË Ë ÛÏÂÎ˚ÏË
Û͇ÏË ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌ˚ ·ÂÒˆÂÌÌ˚ ÏÛÁ˚͇θÌ˚ ËÌÒÚÛÏÂÌÚ˚,
ÁÓÎÓÚ˚ ÛÍ‡¯ÂÌËfl, ¯ÂÒÚflÌ˚Â Ë ¯ÂÎÍÓ‚˚ Ú͇ÌË;
ÎÓÏ·‡‰ÒÍË ÍÛÔˆ˚ ‚ÂÁÎË ˝ÚË ÚÓ‚‡˚ ‚ ‰‡ÎÂÍË ÒÚ‡Ì˚, „‰Â Ëı
Ú‡Í ˆÂÌËÎË Á‡ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Ó Ë ·ÂÁÛÔ˜Ì˚È ‚ÍÛÒ.
ч‚‡fl ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ÔÓ‰ÛÍÚË‚ÌÓÈ ‡·ÓÚ˚, ãÓÏ·‡‰Ëfl
ÔË‚ÎÂ͇· Ú‡ÍÊ ıÛ‰ÓÊÌËÍÓ‚ ËÁ ‰Û„Ëı ӷ·ÒÚÂÈ: ÓÍÓÎÓ ÔflÚË
ÒÚÓÎÂÚËÈ Ì‡Á‡‰ ‚ åË·Ì ‰Ó΄Ó ‚ÂÏfl ÊËÎ ãÂÓ̇‰Ó ‰‡
ÇË̘Ë, ‡·ÓÚ‡‚¯ËÈ Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ì ÚÓθÍÓ Í‡Í ıÛ‰ÓÊÌËÍ Ì‡‰ Ò‚ÓÂÈ
Á̇ÏÂÌËÚÓÈ ÙÂÒÍÓÈ «í‡È̇fl ǘÂfl» Ë ‰Û„ËÏË Ò‚ÓËÏË
‚‡ÊÌ˚ÏË ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËflÏË, ÌÓ Ë ‡ÎËÁÓ‚‡‚¯ËÈ Ò·fl ͇Í
Û˜ÂÌ˚È, ËÁÓ·ÂÚ‡ÚÂθ Ë ËÌÊÂÌÂ. åÌÓ„Ó ÔÓÁ‰Ì ˝Ú‡ ÁÂÏÎfl
ÔË‚ÎÂÍ· Í Ò· ÍÓÏÔÓÁËÚÓÓ‚ ÇÂ‰Ë Ë èÛ˜˜ËÌË, ÓÔÂ˚
ÍÓÚÓ˚ı, ÔÓÁ‚Û˜‡‚ ‚ÔÂ‚˚ ‚ åË·ÌÒÍÓÏ Ú‡Ú ㇠ë͇·,
ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚ Ò„ӉÌfl ‚ÒÂÏÛ ÏËÛ.
ãÓÏ·‡‰Ëfl „ÓÒÚÂÔËËÏÌÓ ÓÚÍ˚‚‡ÂÚ ‰‚ÂË Ì ÚÓθÍÓ ‚ÂÎËÍËÏ,
ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚Ï ıÛ‰ÓÊÌË͇Ï, ÌÓ ‚ÒÂÏ, ÍÚÓ Ì‡‰ÂÎÂÌ ËÌˈˇÚË‚ÓÈ,
Ê·ÌËÂÏ ‡·ÓÚ‡Ú¸ Ë ÚÛ‰Óβ·ËÂÏ. à ‚ Ò‡ÏÓÏ ‰ÂÎÂ, Ò„ӉÌfl ‚
ãÓÏ·‡‰ËË ÚÛ‰ – ˝ÚÓ „·‚ÌÂȯËÈ ÂÒÛÒ, ÔÓÁ‚ÓÎfl˛˘ËÈ ·˚Ú¸ ‚
‡‚‡Ì„‡‰Â ‚Ó ÏÌÓ„Ëı ÒÂÍÚÓ‡ı ÏËÓ‚Ó„Ó ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰ÒÚ‚‡.
á‰ÂÒ¸ ÚÂÔÂÚÌÓ ı‡ÌflÚÒfl Á̇ÌËfl Ë ÒÓÁˉ‡ÚÂθÌ˚ Ú‡‰ËˆËË
χÒÚÂÓ‚ ÔÓ¯ÎÓ„Ó, ıÛ‰ÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚È ‚ÍÛÒ Ë ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ó
ÔÂÍ‡ÒÌÓ„Ó – ˝ÚÓ Ú ÒÓÒÚ‡‚Îfl˛˘ËÂ, ÍÓÚÓ˚ Á‡˜‡ÒÚÛ˛ ‰Â·˛Ú
ÔÓ‰ÛÍˆË˛ ÎÓÏ·‡‰ˆÂ‚ ÌÂÔÓ‰‡Ê‡ÂÏÓÈ, ˉÂÚ ÎË ˜¸ Ó·
Ó‰ÂʉÂ, ¯ÂÎÍÓ‚ÓÈ Ú͇ÌË, Ï·ÂÎË ËÎË ËÁ‰ÂÎËË ËÁ ÍÂ‡ÏËÍË.
ꇉۯÌÓ ÔËÌËχÂÚ ãÓÏ·‡‰Ëfl Ë ÚÛËÒÚÓ‚: ‚ åË·ÌÂ Ë ‰Û„Ëı
·Óθ¯Ëı Ë Ï‡Î˚ı „ÓÓ‰‡ı ӷ·ÒÚË ÚÛËÒÚ Û‚Ë‰ËÚ ÔÂÍ‡ÒÌ˚Â
Ô‡ÏflÚÌËÍË, ·Ó„‡Ú˚ ÏÛÁÂË, ˜Û‰ÂÒÌ˚ ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËfl ËÒÍÛÒÒÚ‚‡,
ÒÏÓÊÂÚ ÒÓ‚Â¯ËÚ¸ ÔÓÍÛÔÍË ‚ ˝Î„‡ÌÚÌ˚ı χ„‡ÁË̘Ë͇ı ËÎË ‚
ÒÓ‚ÂÏÂÌÌ˚ı ÚÓ„Ó‚˚ı ˆÂÌÚ‡ı. ÑÎfl ÌÂ„Ó ÓÚÍÓ˛Ú ‰‚ÂË
ËÁ˚Ò͇ÌÌ˚ „ÓÒÚËÌˈ˚, ÒÚÓfl˘Ë ̇ ·Â„‡ı ÓÁÂ, ÔÓ ÍÓÚÓ˚Ï
ÏÓÊÌÓ ÒÓ‚Â¯ËÚ¸ ÔËflÚÌÛ˛ ÔÓ„ÛÎÍÛ Ì‡ ͇ÚÂ ËÎË ÊÂ
Á‡ÌflÚ¸Òfl ‡Á΢Ì˚ÏË ‚ˉ‡ÏË ÒÔÓÚ‡, Ú‡ÍËÏË Í‡Í Ô·‚‡ÌËÂ,
Ô‡ÛÒÌ˚È ÒÔÓÚ, ÚÂÌÌËÒ Ë „ÓθÙ. ãÂÚÓÏ ÎÓÏ·‡‰ÒÍË „Ó˚
‰‡‰ÛÚ ‚‡Ï ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ ‰Ó΄Ëı ÔÓ„ÛÎÓÍ Ë ‚Ô˜‡ÚÎfl˛˘Ëı
‚ÓÒıÓʉÂÌËÈ, ÁËÏÓÈ Ê Ô‰ÎÓÊ‡Ú ‚‡Ï ÔÂÍ‡ÒÌ˚Â
„ÓÌÓÎ˚ÊÌ˚ ÒÔÛÒÍË, Á‡ÎËÚ˚ ÒÓÎ̈ÂÏ. Ç ·‡Î¸ÌÂÓÎӄ˘ÂÒÍËı Ë
ÚÂχθÌ˚ı ÍÛÓÚ‡ı ÂÒÚ¸ ‚ÒÂ, ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÓ‚ÂÒÚË ‚ÂÏfl Ò
ÔÓθÁÓÈ ‰Îfl Á‰ÓÓ‚¸fl Ë Ò‡ÏÓ˜Û‚ÒÚ‚Ëfl. äÚÓ-ÚÓ Á‡ıÓ˜ÂÚ ÔÓÈÚËÒ¸
«‚ËÌÌ˚ÏË Ï‡¯ÛÚ‡ÏË», ÔËÌËχfl Û˜‡ÒÚË ‚ ‡ÁÌÓÓ·‡ÁÌ˚ı
̇Ó‰Ì˚ı Ô‡Á‰ÌË͇ı Ë „ÛÎflÌËflı, ÓÚÍ˚‚‡fl ‰Îfl Ò·fl ·Ó„‡ÚÛ˛
‚ËÌÓ„‡ÒÚÓÌÓÏ˘ÂÒÍÛ˛ ÍÛθÚÛÛ Ó·Î‡ÒÚË, ‰Â„ÛÒÚËÛfl ÏÂÒÚÌ˚Â
ÍÓη‡Ò˚, Ò˚˚, Ò·‰ÓÒÚË, ÙÛÍÚ˚. àÁ˚Ò͇ÌÌ˚ ÂÒÚÓ‡Ì˚
Ô‰ÎÓÊ‡Ú ‚‡Ï Óڂ‰‡Ú¸ ·Î˛‰‡ ÎÓÏ·‡‰ÒÍÓÈ ÍÛıÌË,
ÔË„ÓÚÓ‚ÎÂÌÌ˚ ËÁ ËÒ‡, ÏflÒ‡, „Ë·Ó‚, ÔÂÒÌÓ‚Ó‰ÌÓÈ ˚·˚.
ã˛·ËÚÂÎË ÏÛÁ˚ÍË ÒÏÓ„ÛÚ ÔÓÒÂÚËÚ¸ ÓÔÂÌ˚È ÒÔÂÍÚ‡Íθ ‚ Ó‰ÌÓÏ
ËÁ ·Ó„‡Ú˚ı Ú‡‰ËˆËflÏË Ú‡ÚÓ‚ ËÎË ÔÓÒÎÛ¯‡Ú¸ ÍÓ̈ÂÚ
Í·ÒÒ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ÏÛÁ˚ÍË ‚ Á‡Î ÒÚ‡ËÌÌÓ„Ó ‰‚Óˆ‡ ËÎË ˆÂÍ‚Ë, ‡
ÔËflÚÌ˚Ï ÎÂÚÌËÏ ‚˜ÂÓÏ – ‚ ˜‡Û˛˘ÂÈ ÂÒÚÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÈ
‰ÂÍÓ‡ˆËË ÔÎÓ˘‡‰Ë. чÊ ÚÓÚ, ÍÚÓ ÔËÂÁʇÂÚ ‚ ãÓÏ·‡‰Ë˛ ÔÓ
‡·ÓÚÂ, ·ÂÁ ÚÛ‰‡ ̇ȉÂÚ ÏÂÒÚÓ, „‰Â ÏÓÊÌÓ ÔËflÚÌÓ ÔÓ‚ÂÒÚË
‚ÂÏfl Ë ÍÛ‰‡ ÏÓÊÌÓ ·Û‰ÂÚ ‚ÂÌÛÚ¸Òfl ̇ ÓÚ‰˚ı Ò ÒÂϸÂÈ ËÎË Ò
‰ÛÁ¸flÏË.

Cremona - a Stradivarius violin

Milan - La Scala Opera House

Val Camonica – prehistoric rock carvings

Sirmione – ruins of the Roman villa

1 MILAN • Il Duomo (Cathedral)

2 MILAN • Sforzesco Castle

3 MILAN • Abbey of Chiaravalle

4 MORIMONDO • The Abbey

5 CESANO MADERNO • Villa Arese Borromeo

6 MONZA • Villa Reale

7 CARATE BRIANZA • Basilica and Baptistery of Agliate

8 TREZZO SULL ’ADDA • The Castle and the River Adda

9 LAKE VARESE

10 VARESE • Villa Ponti

11 VARESE • The Sacro Monte (Holy Mountain)

12 ANGERA

13 LEGGIUNO • The Hermitage of Santa Caterina del Sasso

14 LAKE MAGGIORE • The Cannero Castles and Lombardy shore

15 CASTIGLIONE OLONA

16 COMO AND THE LAKE

17 LENNO • Villa del Balbianello

18 TREMEZZO • Villa Carlotta

19 BELLAGIO

20 CAMPIONE D’ ITALIA

21 LAKE PUSIANO AND MOUNT RESEGONE

22 INVERIGO • Villa La Rotonda

23 LECCO

24 VARENNA

25 DERVIO • Village of Corenno Plinio

26 COLICO • Abbey of Piona

27 CIVATE • San Pietro al Monte

28 BRIVIO

29 IMBERSAGO • Villa Pio Falcò

30 BERGAMO • Città Alta (Old Upper City)

31 BERGAMO • The centre of the Città Alta (Old Upper City)

32 CRESPI D’ADDA • The Workers’ Village

33 CORNELLO DEI TASSO

34 CLUSONE

35 LOVERE

36 URGNANO

37 MOUNT PRESOLANA

38 BRESCIA

39 MONTE ISOLA (MOUNT ISLAND)

40 PASSIRANO • The castle

41 CAPO DI PONTE

42 MOUNT ADAMELLO

43 LAKE IDRO and the Anfo fortifications

44 SIRMIONE

45 GARDONE RIVIERA • The Villa “Il Vittoriale”

46 The “Italia” Boat

47 LIMONE SUL GARDA

48 PAVIA

49 LA CERTOSA (THE CHARTERHOUSE) OF PAVIA

50 CHIGNOLO PO • The Castle

51 THE CONFLUENCE OF THE PO AND TICINO RIVERS

52 LOMELLO • The Baptistery

53 MORNICO-LOSANA

54 PONTE NIZZA • The Abbey of St. Alberto di Butrio

55 LODI

56 LODI VECCHIO • The Basilica of San Bassiano

57 ABBADIA CERRETO • The Abbey

58 ORIO LITTA • The Villa Litta

59 SANT’ANGELO LODIGIANO • The Castle

60 CREMONA • Il Duomo (Cathedral) and Torrazzo

61 PIZZIGHETTONE

62 TORRE DE’ PICENARDI • Villa Sommi-Picenardi

63 SAN GIOVANNI IN CROCE • Villa Medici del Vascello

64 CREMA

66 CASTEL GABBIANO • Villa Griffoni Sant’Angelo

67 MANTUA • The Historic Centre

68 MANTUA • The Ducal Palace

69 CURTATONE • The Sanctuary of the Graces

70 SAN BENEDETTO PO • The Abbey of Polirone

71 SABBIONETA

72 CASTELLARO LAGUSELLO

73 SOLFERINO

74 SONDRIO • The Monastery of San Lorenzo

75 PIZZO BADILE

76 CHIAVENNA

77 MORBEGNO

78 THE BERNINA GROUP

79 BORMIO

80 FORNI GLACIER

PHOTOGRAPH CAPTIONS
Cover photo
VIGEVANO - Piazza Ducale
The Piazza Ducale is one of the most beautiful squares in Italy and it is very pleasant to
walk under the porticoes that surround it and stop awhile at one of the open-air tables
outside the bars facing onto the square. The curved façade of the Cathedral forms the
bottom of the Piazza and the tower of a large castle rises to one side.
1 MILAN - Il Duomo (Cathedral)
This is the principal building of Milan and built entirely of marble. Construction began at
the end of the XIV century and lasted many centuries. The exterior is decorated with
about 3500 statues and a large number of spires. A large gold-plated statue, the
“Madonnina” the symbol of Milan, stands on the tallest spire (about 110 metres). The
roof of the cathedral can be visited and from there you can see a panorama of the city
and the Alps.
2 MILAN - Sforzesco Castle
It was built in the XV century as the residence and castle of the Lords of Milan, it currently contains museums and libraries. Michelangelo’s sculpture, the “Pietà Rondanini”,
can also be seen there and one of the halls contains a fresco attributed to Leonardo da
Vinci. In summer the courtyards of the castle are the site of shows and concerts.
3 MILAN – Abbey of Chiaravalle
Its construction dates back to the XII and XIII centuries and was the work of Cistercian
monks who drained the surrounding marshland for agriculture. The distinctive tower was
added in the XIV century and the cloisters are also striking.
4 MORIMONDO - The Abbey
It was founded by Cistercian monks in the XII century who drained the surrounding
marshland to allow the construction of farms and water mills. It is still today located in
a peaceful agricultural area. Evocative concerts of ancient music are held here, as in
other abbeys.
5 CESANO MADERNO - Villa Arese Borromeo
The Villa was built in the XVIII century by the noble Milanese Borromeo family. The
square in front is often used for open-air events. At the rear of the building a large park
with centuries old trees and fountains can be visited.
6 MONZA - Villa Reale
This is an extensive building built as the summer residence of the Austrian Archduke
who was governor of Milan in the XVIII century. The Palace is surrounded by a vast park
in which the well-known motor racing circuit is also sited.
7 CARATE BRIANZA - Basilica and Baptistery of Agliate
The Basilica and Baptistery were built about a thousand years ago. There is a large stone
font in the Baptistery in which those who wanted to become Christian were immersed
during the christening rite of “Baptism”.
8 TREZZO SULL’ADDA - The Castle and the River Adda
Only the large tower remains of the ancient castle which dominates the River Adda.
Going from there you can follow a footpath to visit the natural river environment, rich in
flora and fauna. One of the first hydroelectric power stations in Italy also rises above the
river, it is considered a jewel of “industrial archaeology”.
9 LAKE VARESE
Lake Varese is enclosed by green-clad hills and mountains. Varese, known as “The
Garden City” due to its many villas, gardens and parks, stands on a slope which gradually descends to the Lake.
10 VARESE - Villa Ponti
This is an important architectural work of the XIX century and is surrounded by a large
and beautiful park open to the public. Many other beautiful old villas with gardens and
art collections can be found in Varese and the surrounding area.
11 VARESE - The Sacro Monte
This is an important sanctuary located on the summit of a wooded hill with a fine view.
It is reached for worship on foot along a long uphill path with 14 large chapels at the
sides. These contain groups of painted life-size statues depicting the life of Jesus Christ.
12 ANGERA
Angera is a tourist town dominated by a large mediaeval castle which contains ancient
frescoes and the Museo della Bambola (Doll Museum). The castle is in a panoramic
position and Lake Maggiore and the Alps can be admired from it.
13 LEGGIUNO - The Hermitage of Santa Caterina del Sasso
A hermitage was established here in the XII century in a magnificent panoramic position
overhanging Lake Maggiore. A monastery was later built, which is still inhabited today. It
can be reached on foot along a steep path, or from the Lake. Classical music concerts
are also held here. In spring a very beautiful pergola of wisteria is in flower.
14 LAKE MAGGIORE - The Cannero Castles and Lombardy shore
These castles built on two small islands were, in the past, the refuge of brigands. This
Northern part of the Lake was described in the famous novel “A Farewell to Arms” by
Ernest Hemingway.
15 CASTIGLIONE OLONA
It is an ancient mediaeval town which, in the XV century, was strikingly beautified with
churches and fine buildings by an art-loving Cardinal. Inside these buildings you can
admire numerous works of art, of which the XV century Tuscan School frescoes are
famous.
16 COMO and the lake
The city still has the ancient plan of the fortified town built two thousand years ago by
the Romans and there are many important churches and buildings. You can take boat
excursions from Como to some of the most picturesque and famous places in Italy. The
city is also renowned for the production of fine silk fabrics.

17 LENNO - Villa del Balbianello
The Villa was built at the end of the 1700’s by a Milanese Cardinal as a spot for pleasant holidays on Lake Como. It is located at the end of a magnificent promontory and in
one of the most fascinating landscapes in the world. Some of the romantic scenes from
the film “Star Wars II” were recently shot here.
18 TREMEZZO - Villa Carlotta
It is very famous for its gardens facing Lake Como in which, in spring, you can admire
the extensive blooming of azaleas and rhododendrons. There are many works of art
inside the Villa.
19 BELLAGIO
Bellagio is an elegant holiday resort located on a promontory in the middle of Lake
Como, where the climate is particularly mild. As well as a fascinating historic centre
Bellagio has aristocratic villas with large gardens. The panoramic view of the Lake with
the snow-covered Alps in the background is especially beautiful.
20 CAMPIONE D’ITALIA
This is a small Italian tourist city on the shores of Lake Lugano, completely surrounded
by Switzerland. It has important architectural buildings among which the Casino, famous
for its legal gambling, is the most well-known.
21 LAKE PUSIANO and MONTE RESEGONE
Lake Pusiano is one of the five small lakes of the Brianza, a hilly area with abundant
green vegetation and a good climate. Here, over the last few centuries, aristocratic
Milanese built themselves country homes. Monte Resegone, one of the most beautiful
in Lombardy, forms the background to the Lake.
22 INVERIGO - Villa La Rotonda
This is one of the finest villas in the Brianza. The Villa is currently the site of a Christian
foundation dedicated to aid for handicapped people.
23 LECCO
Lecco is well-known as a city due to being described in the most important novel in
Italian literature, “The Betrothed” by Alessandro Manzoni. Its characteristic landscape
inspired the background of Leonardo da Vinci’s most famous painting, the “Mona Lisa”.
24 VARENNA
This ancient town stands on a small promontory extending into Lake Como. There is a
romantic footpath along the side of the Lake perfumed by the delicate scents of the surrounding gardens. The gardens of the ancient villas in Varenna are famous for centuriesold cypress trees and exotic plants.
25 DERVIO - Village of Corenno Plinio
Corenno Plinio is a tiny old village on the shores of Lake Como, it has a fine castle and
artistic mediaeval tombs facing the church. The roads leading to the small port and the
lake are narrow and steep.
26 COLICO - Abbey of Piona
The Abbey dates from the XII century and has a fine cloister. It stands on a wooded
peninsula which extends into Lake Como. Only the song of the birds is heard in this
silent spot. A small community of monks devoted to prayer and work still lives here
today.
27 CIVATE - San Pietro al Monte
These places are only reached by climbing a steep path on foot. The main church is a
surprise as it contains very important and ancient fresco and sculpture masterpieces.
28 BRIVIO
Brivio is a village with ancient houses and a castle facing the shores of the River Adda.
The river flows through an area surrounded by green woods. The old ferry joining the
two banks of the River Adda, a copy of the one designed by Leonardo da Vinci, can still
be found a few kilometres to the south.
29 IMBERSAGO - Villa Pio Falcò
This large villa was the country home of an aristocratic family in the XVIII century. The
Villa stands on the summit of a hill from where a fine view can be enjoyed. It is typified
by a garden in the “Italian Style”.
30 BERGAMO - Città Alta
Built on a hill, the old “Città Alta” is completely encircled by a large wall which was built
in the XVI century. The wall is flanked by large tree-lined avenues giving a fine view of
the plain and mountains of Northern Italy.
31 BERGAMO - The centre of the Città Alta
The Città Alta has a fine square surrounded by churches and ancient palaces and towers. It is very pleasant to linger awhile outside in the square, especially on warm summer evenings. The narrow streets, only accessible on foot, give the tourist the impression of moving back many centuries in time.
32 CRESPI D’ADDA - The Workers’ Village
At the end of the XIX century the Crespi family, industrial entrepreneurs, founded this
workers’ village with the aim of creating a harmonious partnership between the factory
and their workers’ homes. UNESCO has included the village in its list of World Heritage
Sites.
33 CORNELLO DEI TASSO
This is a tiny mediaeval village still crossed by the ancient trade route which stretched
from Lombardy to north Europe. This was the birthplace of the Tasso family who, for
many centuries, created and managed an important postal service which covered the
whole of Europe.
34 CLUSONE
The small town has an ancient square where a tower with a large and complex XVI century clock can be seen. There is a large XV century fresco depicting an impressive
“Triumph of Death” on the outer wall of a small Clusone church.

35 LOVERE
This is a pretty little tourist town on Lake Iseo with ancient streets, palazzos and churches. The Palazzo Tadini contains an important museum with ancient paintings and some
collections of objets d’art, many concerts are held in the “Sala della Musica”.
36 URGNANO
Urgnano is a town located in an agricultural area of the plain. There is a castle where a
festival in ancient mediaeval costumes is held every year. The church has a fine belltower decorated with large statues.
37 MONTE PRESOLANA
This is one of the loveliest mountains in the PreAlps of Lombardy, at sunset it is tinted
an evocative red. Its foothills contain an area rich in meadows and woodlands, with
important summer and winter holiday resorts.
38 BRESCIA
This is the largest city in Lombardy after Milan. It has a wealth of fine buildings and works
of art and also possesses ruins of a temple and theatre about two thousand years old,
from the Roman era. The castle which dominates Brescia hosts a museum with old
weapons and finely decorated armour.
39 MONTE ISOLA
Monte Isola is a large wood-covered island located in the middle of Lake Iseo. The mild
climate allows cultivation of olives. A beautiful view of the Lake and surrounding mountains can be enjoyed from the top of the island.
40 PASSIRANO - The castle
This castle is one of the many buildings from the past which are found in this hilly area
rich with vineyards and known as “Franciacorta”. Among the finest still and sparkling
wines in Italy are produced in these vineyards.
41 CAPO DI PONTE
This is a small town with two fine old churches. There are some very important “rock
carvings” to be found here, namely drawings engraved in rocks polished by long-gone
glaciers. The carvings were done some thousands of years ago by prehistoric peoples.
42 MONTE ADAMELLO
This is an extensive mountain group with peaks close to 3500 metres in height. It is an
ideal spot for excursions, rock climbing and skiing. It is also possible to visit trenches
from the First World War, when the Italian army fought the Austrian army on these
peaks.
43 LAKE IDRO and the Anfo fortifications
The Lake is long and narrow in shape and surrounded by high mountains, it thus seems
similar to a Norwegian fjord. The Fortifications stand on the steep sides of the mountain which overlooks the small town of Anfo. It is a military emplacement, centuries old
and the site of numerous battles.
44 SIRMIONE
The extensive and impressive ruins of a Roman villa nearly two thousand years old and
also a fine castle can be found on the Sirmione peninsula. Sirmione is one of the most
important tourist destinations in Italy due to its panoramic position, its thermal baths and
the mild climate of Lake Garda.
45 GARDONE RIVIERA – The Villa “Il Vittoriale”
Vittoriale is the name of the home of the eccentric poet and patriot Gabriele D’Annunzio.
The Villa is sumptuously furnished and souvenirs and records of the daring exploits of
D’Annunzio during the First World War are preserved here, even including an aeroplane
and the keel of a ship. The Villa also contains an open-air theatre.
46 The “Italia” Boat
Sailing across the waters of a lake in a boat is one of the most pleasurable experiences
which a tourist in Lombardy can have. You can also enjoy all water sports on the lakes,
such as swimming, sailing and windsurfing.
47 LIMONE SUL GARDA
This is one of the most popular and picturesque tourist resorts on Lake Garda. Due to
the mild climate it is possible to grow olives and lemons.
48 PAVIA
Pavia is an important city due to its numerous mediaeval buildings, among which are
some high towers. It stands on the banks of the River Ticino, crossed by an ancient covered bridge which is one of the tourist attractions of the city. It is also the site of an
important old university.
49 La Certosa (the Charterhouse) of Pavia
This is one of the most visited buildings in Northern Italy and dates back to the end of
the XIV century. The façade of the church is entirely in marble and richly decorated. The
interior contains several artistic masterpieces. The monks, devoted to meditation and
work, once lived in the small cells at the side of the Great Cloister.
50 CHIGNOLO PO - The Castle
The castle was built in the XIII century as a military fort. It was later transformed into a
splendid country house and was extended by a large “Italian” garden. The room in which
Napoleon stayed can be seen inside the castle.
51 The confluence of the Po and Ticino rivers
The Po is the largest river in Italy and, for a long stretch, defines the southern boundary
of Lombardy. The River Ticino, with its typical light blue colour, is flanked by a protected
nature reserve in which live numerous species of animals and plants.
52 LOMELLO - The Baptistery
The Baptistery of Lomello dates from the V century. It is octagonal in shape and the
ancient font holds the Holy Water used for the Christian rite of Baptism. An old XI century church stands alongside the Baptistery.
53 MORNICO-LOSANA
This small village is located south of Pavia, in an area typified by gentle hills extensively

cultivated with vineyards which produce excellent red and white wines.
54 PONTE NIZZA – The Abbey of St. Alberto di Butrio
The Abbey stands isolated among the woods. It was founded in the XI century by
Alberto, a man who decided to live alone in prayer and meditation after having abandoned his wealth. This place later became the site of a small monastic community. Fine
ancient frescoes are to be found inside the Abbey.
55 LODI
The large central square of Lodi invites one to pause and admire the fine ancient buildings which surround it. It is pleasant to stroll along the streets of the historic centre,
peeping into craft pottery shops or those with gastronomic delicacies.
56 LODI VECCHIO - The Basilica of San Bassiano
The Basilica is of very ancient origin. Its façade is a fine example of the art of building
in brick and several craft guilds contributed financially to its construction. It stands in an
isolated position in the middle of the fields.
57 ABBADIA CERRETO - The Abbey
This was built in the XII century and was the home of monks who drained the surrounding marshland. The semi-twilight of the large spaces inside the church is very
evocative. An octagonal tower stands above the church.
58 ORIO LITTA - The Villa Litta
This is a sumptuous mansion constructed as the holiday home of an aristocratic family
in the XVIII century. It contains a chapel, a theatre, a large park and terraces with a
panoramic view of the surrounding countryside, to the extent that it was known as “Little
Versailles”.
59 SANT’ANGELO LODIGIANO - The Castle
The Castle was built in the XIII century and restored at the start of the XIX century. It currently contains three museums: an Art Gallery, the Bread Museum and the Agricultural
Museum. The Castle is also famous as the philanderer and writer Giacomo Casanova
stayed here in the XVIII century.
60 CREMONA - Il Duomo (Cathedral) and Torrazzo
The centre of Cremona has one of the finest squares in Italy. The high brick bell-tower
known as the “Torrazzo” is very famous, a fine view can be seen from its top. Cremona
is the home town of the most famous violin maker in the world, Antonio Stradivarius
who lived in the XVII century.
61 - PIZZIGHETTONE
The small town is surrounded by large walls built in past centuries and which are among
the most complete and impressive in Lombardy. In 1524, after being defeated in battle, the King of France was imprisoned in a tower facing the River Adda.
62 TORRE DE’ PICENARDI - Villa Sommi-Picenardi
The Villa was originally a castle built for defence, but was later transformed into a luxurious home with a fine garden. The Villa is still surrounded by a moat full of water, as
was usual for defending ancient castles.
63 SAN GIOVANNI IN CROCE – Villa Medici del Vascello
It was a castle built in the XV century for military purposes. Less than a century later it
became the country home of the mistress of the Lord of Milan, the famous portrait “The
Lady with the Ermine” by Leonardo da Vinci is a memory of that lady. It is surrounded
by a large park of trees.
64 CREMA
The sight of Crema from above shows its mediaeval origin and the traces of the ancient
wall. Long stretches of the wall and the entry gates to the city still remain. Walking in the
centre of Crema is a continuous pleasant discovery of ancient and artistic buildings.
65 SONCINO - The Castle and Village
The Castle of Soncino is one of the finest in Lombardy, often used in historical films.
The whole village encircled by ancient walls is still well preserved.
66 CASTEL GABBIANO - Villa Griffoni Sant’Angelo
It was first a castle and was later transformed into a country house. This Villa is enhanced
by a large and beautiful “Italian” garden.
67 MANTUA - The Historic Centre
Mantua is one of the most important art cities in Lombardy. It is enclosed on three sides
by the lakes formed by the River Mincio. The lakes are beautiful with water-lily flowers.
Mantua has a wealth of fine buildings, churches and museums which contain great
works of art.
68 MANTUA - The Ducal Palace
The name “Ducal Palace” includes the various buildings which constituted the splendid
court of the Lords of Mantua, rich in numerous works of art. The Castle of San Giorgio
forms part of the palace and contains a fresco painted by Mantegna, “The Bridal
Chamber” one of the most important Italian art works.
69 CURTATONE - The Sanctuary of the Graces
The Sanctuary of the Graces is bordered by a nature area formed by the River Mincio.
The square in front of the Sanctuary is famous for the religious pictures drawn on it by
artists of many nationalities on the feast which is held every year in August.
70 SAN BENEDETTO PO – The Abbey of Polirone
The Abbey was built immediately after the year 1000. It was one of the most important
and largest monasteries in Northern Italy. The monks devoted themselves to drainage
of the surrounding marshland and to creating illuminated manuscripts. It currently holds
several museums.
71 SABBIONETA
This was built by the Prince of Mantua in the XVI century with the intention of creating
an “ideal city”. In Sabbioneta after many centuries the great walls, city entry gates,
streets, palazzos, churches and a splendid theatre are still in good condition; this is why
the town attracts many visitors.

72 CASTELLARO LAGUSELLO
This is a fortified village close to a small lake. The ancient structure is well preserved and
it is included in the list of the “most beautiful villages in Italy”. Anyone visiting Castellaro
will also appreciate its restaurants.
73 SOLFERINO
This is the site where, around the massive square tower known as the “Watchtower of
Italy”, a great battle against the Austrian army was fought in 1859 for Italian independence. The fighting was so bloody that it prompted the Swiss philanthropist J. H. Dunant
to found the humanitarian organisation, The Red Cross.
74 SONDRIO - The monastery of San Lorenzo
The monastery stands among the vineyards on a hill not far from the centre of Sondrio,
on the site of an ancient castle. Sondrio is the capital of the Valtellina, which is a long
valley surrounded by high mountains. The mild climate along the bottom of the valley
is ideal for growing vines from which some of the best red wines in Italy are made.
75 PIZZO BADILE
This is a granite mountain about 3300 m high situated on the frontier between Italy and
Switzerland. It is one of the most important peaks in the Alps thanks to its place in
mountaineering history.
76 CHIAVENNA
This small city retains an historic appearance with aristocratic palazzos, narrow streets
and small squares ornamented with stone fountains, there is also a museum containing mediaeval sculpture and gold artefacts. Chiavenna is famous for its “Crotti”, these
are small picturesque taverns where you can sample the many local gastronomic specialities.
77 MORBEGNO
This is a small town with an interesting historic centre with fine churches and palazzos.
Morbegno is also famous for the typical cheeses and hand-woven rugs, both made
according to the tradition of centuries.
78 THE BERNINA GROUP
This is an extensive mountain group characterised by its many glaciers. It marks the frontier between Italy and Switzerland. Pizzo Bernina (4050 m) is the highest peak in
Lombardy.
79 BORMIO
Bormio is one of the most important summer and winter tourist resorts in the mountains of Lombardy, its thermal baths have been famous for centuries. It has an ancient
historic centre and its famous and extensive ski runs attract numerous tourists and host
important international races.
80 FORNI GLACIER
This is the largest glacier valley in Italy and extends over about 13 square kilometres. It
is located inside the Stelvio National Park, the largest protected nature area in Italy. The
Park is valued for its flora and fauna, the beauty of the Alpine landscape and the large
number of glaciers and important peaks, the goal of climbers.
Photo on back of book
MONTE DISGRAZIA
The summit of this mountain has the unmistakable shape of a gigantic blade of rock.
The peak is almost 3700 m high.

Varese – the uphill path to Sacro Monte

Lodi - the central square

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2 åËÎ‡Ì – ä‡ÒÚÂÎÎÓ ëÙÓˆÂÒÍÓ
á‡ÏÓÍ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ ‚ ïV ‚ÂÍÂ Í‡Í ÂÁˉÂ̈Ëfl Ë ÍÂÔÓÒÚ¸ ‰Îfl ÒÂÏ¸Ë Ô‡‚ËÚÂÎÂÈ
åË·̇. ë„ӉÌfl Á‰ÂÒ¸ ‡ÁÏ¢‡˛ÚÒfl ÏÛÁÂË Ë ·Ë·ÎËÓÚÂÍË. á‰ÂÒ¸ ̇ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl
Ú‡ÍÊ ÒÍÛθÔÚÛ‡ åËÍ·ÌʉÂÎÓ, Ú‡Í Ì‡Á˚‚‡Âχfl è¸ÂÚ‡ êÓ̉‡ÌËÌË, ‡
ÓÒÔËÒ¸ Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó ËÁ Á‡ÎÓ‚ ÔËÔËÒ˚‚‡˛Ú ÛÍ ãÂÓ̇‰Ó ‰‡ ÇË̘Ë. ãÂÚÓÏ ‚Ó
‚ÌÛÚÂÌÌËı ‰‚ÓË͇ı Á‡Ï͇ ÛÒÚ‡Ë‚‡˛ÚÒfl ÒÔÂÍÚ‡ÍÎË Ë ÔÓ‚Ó‰flÚÒfl ÍÓ̈ÂÚ˚.
3 åËÎ‡Ì - Ä··‡ÚÒÚ‚Ó ä¸fl‡‚‡ÎÎÂ
Ä··‡ÚÒÚ‚Ó ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌÓ ‚ ïII-XIII ‚‚. ÏÓ̇ı‡ÏË ˆËÒÚÂˆË‡Ìˆ‡ÏË, ÍÓÚÓ˚Â
ÓÒÛ¯ËÎË ÔË΄‡˛˘Ë Á‡·ÓÎÓ˜ÂÌÌ˚ ÁÂÏÎË, ˜ÚÓ·˚ ÔÓÚÓÏ Ó·‡·‡Ú˚‚‡Ú¸ Ëı. Ç
ïIV ‚. ·˚· ‰Ó·‡‚ÎÂ̇ ı‡‡ÍÚÂ̇fl ·‡¯Ìfl. é˜Â̸ ‚Ô˜‡ÚÎfl˛Ú ‚ÌÛÚÂÌÌËÂ
ÏÓ̇ÒÚ˚ÒÍË ‰‚ÓËÍË.
4 åÓËÏÓÌ‰Ó – Ä··‡ÚÒÚ‚Ó
éÒÌÓ‚‡ÌÓ ÏÓ̇ı‡ÏË ˆËÒÚÂˆË‡Ìˆ‡ÏË ‚ ïII ‚. éÒۯ˂ Á‡·ÓÎÓ˜ÂÌÌ˚ ÁÂÏÎË,
ÏÓ̇ıË ÒÓÁ‰‡ÎË ÛÒÎÓ‚Ëfl ‰Îfl ÒÚÓËÚÂθÒÚ‚‡ ÙÂÏ Ë ‚Ó‰flÌ˚ı ÏÂθÌˈ. Ö˘Â
Ò„ӉÌfl ‡··‡ÚÒÚ‚Ó Ì‡ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ‚ ÒÔÓÍÓÈÌÓÈ ÒÂθÒÍÓıÓÁflÈÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÈ ÁÓÌÂ. ä‡Í Ë ‚
‰Û„Ëı ‡··‡ÚÒÚ‚‡ı, Á‰ÂÒ¸ ÔÓ‚Ó‰flÚÒfl Á‡Ï˜‡ÚÂθÌ˚ ÍÓ̈ÂÚ˚ ÒÚ‡ËÌÌÓÈ
ÏÛÁ˚ÍË.
5 óÂÁ‡ÌÓ å‡‰ÂÌÓ – ÇËη ÄÂÁ ÅÓÓÏÂÓ
ÇËη ÔÓÒÚÓÂ̇ ‚ XVIII ‚. Á̇ÚÌÓÈ ÏË·ÌÒÍÓÈ ÒÂϸÂÈ ÅÓÓÏÂÓ. ç‡ ÔÎÓ˘‡‰Ë
ÔÂ‰ ‚ËÎÎÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÔÓ‚Ó‰flÚÒfl ‡Á΢Ì˚ ÏÂÓÔËflÚËfl ̇ ÓÚÍ˚ÚÓÏ
‚ÓÁ‰ÛıÂ. ᇠÁ‰‡ÌËÂÏ ‡ÒÍËÌÛÎÒfl ·Óθ¯ÓÈ Ô‡Í Ò ‚ÂÍÓ‚˚ÏË ‰Â‚¸flÏË Ë
ÙÓÌڇ̇ÏË, ÓÚÍ˚Ú˚È ‰Îfl ÔÓÒ¢ÂÌËfl.
6 åÓ̈‡ – äÓÓ΂Ò͇fl ‚Ëη
ùÚÓ ·Óθ¯Ó Á‰‡ÌËÂ, ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌÌÓ ‚ ͇˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ÎÂÚÌÂÈ ÂÁˉÂ̈ËË ‡‚ÒÚËÈÒÍËÏ
˝ˆ„ÂˆÓ„ÓÏ, ÍÓÚÓ˚È fl‚ÎflÎÒfl Ô‡‚ËÚÂÎÂÏ åË·̇ ‚ XVIII ‚. Ñ‚Óˆ ÓÍÛÊÂÌ
Ó„ÓÏÌ˚Ï Ô‡ÍÓÏ, ̇ ÚÂËÚÓËË ÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó Ì‡¯ÎÓÒ¸ ÏÂÒÚÓ ‰‡Ê ‰Îfl
ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌÂÈ¯Â„Ó ‡‚ÚÓ‰Óχ.
7 ä‡‡Ú Åˇ̈‡ – ŇÁËÎË͇ Ë ·‡ÔÚËÒÚÂËÈ ÄθflÚÂ
à ·‡ÁËÎË͇ Ë ·‡ÔÚËÒÚÂËÈ (ÍÂÒÚËθÌfl) ·˚ÎË ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ˚ ÓÍÓÎÓ Ú˚Òfl˜Ë ÎÂÚ
̇Á‡‰. ÇÌÛÚË ·‡ÔÚËÒÚÂËfl ̇ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ·Óθ¯‡fl ͇ÏÂÌ̇fl ‚‡Ì̇, ‚ ÍÓÚÓÛ˛
ÔÓ„ÛʇÎË ‚Ó ‚ÂÏfl ËÚۇ· Í¢ÂÌËfl ÚÂı, ÍÚÓ ÔËÌËχΠıËÒÚˇÌÒÍÛ˛ ‚ÂÛ.
8 íˆˆÓ ÒÛÎΒĉ‰‡ – Á‡ÏÓÍ Ë Â͇ ĉ‰‡
éÚ ÒÚ‡ËÌÌÓ„Ó Á‡Ï͇ ÓÒڇ·Ҹ ·‡¯Ìfl, ‚ÓÁ‚˚¯‡˛˘‡flÒfl ̇‰ ÂÍÓÈ Ä‰‰‡.
éÚÔ‡‚Ë‚¯ËÒ¸ ÓÚ ÌÂÂ, ÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÓÈÚË ÔÓ Ô¯ÂıÓ‰ÌÓÏÛ Ï‡¯ÛÚÛ,
ÔÓ΄‡˛˘ÂÏÛ ÔÓ ÂÒÚÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÈ ˜ÌÓÈ ÔËÓ‰Â, ·Ó„‡ÚÓÈ ÙÎÓÓÈ Ë Ù‡ÛÌÓÈ.
ç‡ ÂÍ ̇ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl Ӊ̇ ËÁ ÔÂ‚˚ı ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌÌ˚ı ‚ àÚ‡ÎËË
„ˉÓ˝ÎÂÍÚÓÒڇ̈ËÈ fl‚Îfl˛˘‡flÒfl Ò„ӉÌfl Ô‡ÏflÚÌËÍÓÏ «ÔÓÏ˚¯ÎÂÌÌÓÈ
‡ıÂÓÎÓ„ËË».
9 éÁÂÓ Ç‡ÂÁÂ
éÁÂÓ Ì‡ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ‚ ÓÍÛÊÂÌËË ıÓÎÏÓ‚ Ë „Ó, ÔÓÍ˚Ú˚ı ‡ÒÚËÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸˛. ç‡
ÒÍÎÓÌ ıÓÎχ, ÒÔÛÒ͇˛˘Â„ÓÒfl Í ÓÁÂÛ, ÒÚÓËÚ „ÓÓ‰ LJÂÁÂ, ÍÓÚÓ˚È Ì‡Á˚‚‡˛Ú
„ÓÓ‰ÓÏ-Ò‡‰ÓÏ ËÁ-Á‡ ·Óθ¯Ó„Ó ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚‡ ‚ËÎÎ, Ò‡‰Ó‚ Ë Ô‡ÍÓ‚.
10 LJÂÁ – ÇËη èÓÌÚË
ùÚ‡ ‚Ëη - ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌË ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌÓ„Ó ‡ıËÚÂÍÚÓ‡ XIX ‚., ‡ÒÔÓÎÓÊÂ̇ ‚
·Óθ¯ÓÏ Í‡ÒË‚ÓÏ Ô‡ÍÂ, ÓÚÍ˚ÚÓÏ ‰Îfl ÔÓÒ¢ÂÌËfl. Ç Ç‡ÂÁÂ Ë Â„Ó
ÔË„ÓÓ‰‡ı ̇ıÓ‰flÚÒfl Ë ‰Û„Ë Í‡ÒË‚˚ ÒÚ‡ËÌÌ˚ ‚ËÎÎ˚ Ò Ò‡‰‡ÏË Ë
ÒÓ·‡ÌËflÏË ËÒÍÛÒÒÚ‚.
11 LJÂÁ – ë‡ÍÓ åÓÌÚ (ë‚fl˘ÂÌ̇fl „Ó‡)
ùÚÓ ‚‡ÊÌÓ ҂flÚËÎË˘Â Ì‡ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ̇ ‚Âıۯ͠ÔÓÍ˚ÚÓ„Ó ÎÂÒÓÏ ıÓÎχ.
ÇÂÛ˛˘Ë β‰Ë ÔÓ‰ÌËχ˛ÚÒfl Ò˛‰‡ Ô¯ÍÓÏ, ÔÓ‰ÂÎ˚‚‡fl ‰ÎËÌÌ˚È ÔÛÚ¸ ‚ „ÓÛ.
ljÓθ ‰ÓÓ„Ë, ‚Â‰Û˘ÂÈ Í Ò‚flÚËÎˢÛ, ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ˚ 14 ˜‡ÒÓ‚ÂÌ, ‚ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı
̇ıÓ‰flÚÒfl ‡ÒÔËÒ‡ÌÌ˚ ÒÍÛθÔÚÛÌ˚ „ÛÔÔ˚ ‚ ̇ÚÛ‡Î¸ÌÛ˛ ‚Â΢ËÌÛ,
‡ÒÒ͇Á˚‚‡˛˘ËÂ Ó ÊËÁÌË àËÒÛÒ‡ ïËÒÚ‡.
12 Ä̉ÊÂ‡
ùÚÓ Ì·Óθ¯ÓÈ ÚÛËÒÚ˘ÂÒÍËÈ ˆÂÌÚ, ̇‰ ÍÓÚÓ˚Ï „·‚ÂÌÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ ·Óθ¯ÓÈ
Ò‰Ì‚ÂÍÓ‚˚È Á‡ÏÓÍ. Ç Á‡ÏÍ ÒÓı‡ÌËÎËÒ¸ ÒÚ‡ËÌÌ˚ ÙÂÒÍË, ‚ ÌÂÏ Ú‡ÍÊÂ
̇ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl åÛÁÂÈ äÛÍÓÎ. á‡ÏÓÍ Á‡ÌËχÂÚ Ô‡ÌÓ‡ÏÌÛ˛ ÔÓÁËˆË˛, ÓÚÚÛ‰‡ ÏÓÊÌÓ
β·Ó‚‡Ú¸Òfl ÓÁÂÓÏ ã‡„Ó å‡‰ÊÓÂ Ë ‚ˉ‡ÏË ÄθÔ.
13 ã‰ÊÛÌÓ – ÒÍËÚ ë‚. ä‡ÚÂËÌ˚ ‰Âθ ë‡ÒÒÓ
Ç XII ‚. Á‰ÂÒ¸, ̇ ÛÚÂÒ ̇‰ ÓÁÂÓÏ ã‡„Ó å‡‰ÊÓÂ, ÓÚÍÛ‰‡ ÓÚÍ˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl
‚ÂÎËÍÓÎÂÔÌ˚È Ó·ÁÓ, Ó·ÓÒÌÓ‚‡ÎÒfl ÓÚ¯ÂθÌËÍ. ÇÔÓÒΉÒÚ‚ËË ·˚Î ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ
ÏÓ̇ÒÚ˚¸, ‰ÂÈÒÚ‚Û˛˘ËÈ Ë ÔÓÌ˚ÌÂ. ÑÓ·‡Ú¸Òfl Ò˛‰‡ ÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÓ‰Ìfl‚¯ËÒ¸
Ô¯ÍÓÏ ÔÓ ÍÛÚÓÈ ÚÓÔËÌÍÂ, ÎË·Ó ÒÓ ÒÚÓÓÌ˚ ÓÁÂ‡. á‰ÂÒ¸ ÔÓ‚Ó‰flÚÒfl
ÍÓ̈ÂÚ˚ Í·ÒÒ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ÏÛÁ˚ÍË. ÇÂÒÌÓÈ Ì‡‚ÂÒ ËÁ „ÎˈËÌËÈ „ÛÒÚÓ ÔÓÍ˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl
ˆ‚ÂÚ‡ÏË.
14 ã‡„Ó å‡‰ÊÓ – á‡ÏÍË ä‡ÌÌÂÓ Ë ÔÓ·ÂÂʸ ãÓÏ·‡‰ËË
ùÚË Á‡ÏÍË, ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌÌ˚ ̇ ‰‚Ûı χÎÂ̸ÍËı ÓÒÚӂ͇ı, ÍÓ„‰‡-ÚÓ ÒÎÛÊËÎË
Û·ÂÊˢÂÏ ‡Á·ÓÈÌË͇Ï. ùÚ‡ Ò‚Â̇fl ˜‡ÒÚ¸ ÓÁÂ‡ ÓÔË҇̇ ‚ Á̇ÏÂÌËÚÓÏ
ÓχÌ ùÌÂÒÚ‡ ï˝ÏËÌ„Û˝fl «èÓ˘‡È, ÓÛÊË».
15 ä‡ÒÚËθÓÌ éÎÓ̇
ùÚÓ Ò‰Ì‚ÂÍÓ‚˚È ÔÓÒÂÎÓÍ, ÍÓÚÓ˚È ‚ ïV ‚. ÔÓ ÔË͇ÁÛ Í‡‰Ë̇·-β·ËÚÂÎfl
ËÒÍÛÒÒÚ‚, ·˚Î Á̇˜ËÚÂθÌÓ ÛÍ‡¯ÂÌ ˆÂÍ‚flÏË Ë Á‰‡ÌËflÏË. àÌÚÂ¸Â˚ ˝ÚËı

18 íÂωÁÓ – ÇËη ä‡ÎÓÚÚ‡
ÇËη Ó˜Â̸ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚ̇ Ò‚ÓËÏË Ò‡‰‡ÏË, ‚˚ıÓ‰fl˘ËÏË Ì‡ ÓÁÂÓ äÓÏÓ, ‚ÂÒÌÓÈ
Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ó·ËθÌÓ ˆ‚ÂÚÛÚ ‡Á‡ÎËË Ë Ó‰Ó‰ẨÓÌ˚. Ç Á‰‡ÌËË ‚ËÎÎ˚ ÒÓı‡Ìfl˛ÚÒfl
ÏÌÓ„Ó˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËfl ËÒÍÛÒÒÚ‚‡.
19 ÅÂη‰ÊÓ
ÅÂη‰ÊÓ – ˝ÚÓ ˝Î„‡ÌÚÌ˚È ÔÓÒÂÎÓÍ ‰Îfl ÓÚ‰˚ı‡, ‡ÒÔÓÎÓÊË‚¯ËÈÒfl ̇
‚ÓÁ‚˚¯ÂÌÌÓÒÚË ‚ ˆÂÌÚ ÓÁÂ‡ äÓÏÓ, „‰Â ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ Ïfl„ÍËÈ ÍÎËχÚ. äÓÏÂ
Ó˜‡Ó‚‡ÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ËÒÚÓ˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó ˆÂÌÚ‡, ‚ ÅÂη‰ÊÓ ÏÌÓ„Ó ‡ËÒÚÓÍ‡Ú˘ÂÒÍËı
‚ËÎÎ Ò ·Óθ¯ËÏË Ô‡͇ÏË. éÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ÔÂÍ‡Ò̇ Ô‡ÌÓ‡Ï‡ ÓÁÂ‡, ÙÓÌÓÏ
ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ÒÎÛÊ‡Ú ‚ˉ˚ Á‡ÒÌÂÊÂÌÌ˚ı ÄθÔ.
20 ä‡ÏÔ¸ÓÌ ‰’àÚ‡ÎËfl
ùÚÓ Ì·Óθ¯ÓÈ ÚÛËÒÚ˘ÂÒÍËÈ ËڇθflÌÒÍËÈ „ÓÓ‰ÓÍ, ‡ÒÔÓÎÓÊÂÌÌ˚È Ì‡
·Â„‡ı ÓÁÂ‡ ãÛ„‡ÌÓ, ÒÓ ‚ÒÂı ÒÚÓÓÌ ÓÍÛÊÂÌÌ˚È ÚÂËÚÓËÂÈ ò‚ÂȈ‡ËË.
á‰ÂÒ¸ ÂÒÚ¸ ‚‡ÊÌ˚ ËÒÚÓ˘ÂÒÍË ԇÏflÚÌËÍË, ÌÓ „ÓÓ‰ÓÍ ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÂÌ
·Î‡„Ó‰‡fl ÏÂÒÚÌÓÏÛ ä‡ÁËÌÓ, „‰Â ‡Á¯ÂÌ˚ ‡Á‡ÚÌ˚ ˄˚.
21 éÁÂÓ èÛÁˇÌÓ Ë „Ó‡ êÂÁ„ÓÌÂ
éÁÂÓ èÛÁˇÌÓ – Ó‰ÌÓ ËÁ ÔflÚË Ï‡ÎÂ̸ÍËı ÓÁÂ Åˇ̈˚, ıÓÎÏËÒÚÓÈ
„ÂÓ„‡Ù˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ÁÓÌ˚ Ò ·Ó„‡ÚÓÈ ‡ÒÚËÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸˛ Ë ·Î‡„ÓÔËflÚÌ˚Ï ÍÎËχÚÓÏ.
Ç ˝ÚËı ÏÂÒÚ‡ı ÏË·ÌÒ͇fl Á̇ڸ ÔÓ¯Î˚ı ‚ÂÍÓ‚ ÒÚÓË· Ò· Á‡„ÓÓ‰Ì˚Â
‰Óχ. îÓÌÓÏ ÒÎÛÊËÚ ÓÁÂÓ Ë „Ó‡ êÂÁ„ÓÌÂ, Ӊ̇ ËÁ Ò‡Ï˚ı Í‡ÒË‚˚ı ‚
ãÓÏ·‡‰ËË.
22 àÌ‚ÂË„Ó – ÇËη «ã‡ êÓÚÓ̉‡»
ùÚÓ Ó‰Ì‡ ËÁ Ò‡Ï˚ı Í‡ÒË‚˚ı ‚ËÎÎ Åˇ̈˚. ë„ӉÌfl Á‰ÂÒ¸ ‡ÒÔÓ·„‡ÂÚÒfl
ıËÒÚˇÌÒÍËÈ ÙÓ̉, Á‡ÌËχ˛˘ËÈÒfl ÔÓÏÓ˘¸˛ ËÌ‚‡Îˉ‡Ï.
23 ãÂÍÍÓ
ùÚÓÚ „ÓÓ‰ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÂÌ, Ú‡Í Í‡Í ÓÌ ÓÔËÒ˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËË ÔËÒ‡ÚÂÎfl
ÄÎÂÒ҇̉Ó å‡Ì‰ÁÓÌË «é·Û˜ÂÌÌ˚»,- Ò‡ÏÓÏ Á̇˜ËÚÂθÌÓÏ ÓχÌ ‚
ËڇθflÌÒÍÓÈ ÎËÚÂ‡ÚÛÂ. ljÓıÌÓ‚ÎÂÌÌ˚È ı‡‡ÍÚÂÌ˚Ï, ÌÂÓ·˚˜Ì˚Ï ÏÂÒÚÌ˚Ï
ÔÂÈÁ‡ÊÂÏ, ãÂÓ̇‰Ó ‰‡ ÇËÌ˜Ë Ì‡ÔË҇ΠÙÓÌ Ò‚ÓÂÈ Ò‡ÏÓÈ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌÓÈ Í‡ÚËÌ˚,
«ÑÊÓÍÓ̉‡».
24 LJÂÌ̇
ùÚÓÚ ÒÚ‡ËÌÌ˚È ÔÓÒÂÎÓÍ ÒÚÓËÚ Ì‡ Ì·Óθ¯ÓÈ ‚ÓÁ‚˚¯ÂÌÌÒÚË, ‚‰‡˛˘ÂÈÒfl ‚
ÓÁÂÓ äÓÏÓ. á‰ÂÒ¸ ÏÓÊÌÓ ÒÓ‚Â¯ËÚ¸ ÓχÌÚ˘ÂÒÍÛ˛ ÔÓ„ÛÎÍÛ ‚‰Óθ ·Â„‡
ÓÁÂ‡, ‚‰˚ı‡fl ÚÓÌÍËÈ ‡ÓÏ‡Ú ·ÎËÁÎÂʇ˘Ëı ˆ‚ÂÚÛ˘Ëı Ò‡‰Ó‚. è‡ÍË ÒÚ‡ËÌÌ˚ı
‚‡ÂÌÌÒÍËı ‚ËÎÎ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚ Ò‚ÓËÏË ‚ÂÍÓ‚˚ÏË ÍËÔ‡ËÒ‡ÏË Ë ˝ÍÁÓÚ˘ÂÒÍËÏË
‡ÒÚÂÌËflÏË.
25 ÑÂ‚ËÓ – ÅÓ„Ó äÓÂÌÌÓ èÎËÌËÓ
äÓÂÌÌÓ èÎËÌËÓ – ˝ÚÓ Íӯ˜Ì˚È ÒÚ‡ËÌÌ˚È ÔÓÒÂÎÓÍ Ì‡ ·ÂÂ„Û ÓÁÂ‡ äÓÏÓ;
Á‰ÂÒ¸ ̇ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl Í‡ÒË‚˚È Á‡ÏÓÍ Ë ËÌÚÂÂÒÌ˚ Ò‰Ì‚ÂÍÓ‚˚ Á‡ıÓÓÌÂÌËfl
ÔÂ‰ ˆÂÍÓ‚¸˛. ìÁÍËÂ Ë ÍÛÚ˚ ÛÎÓ˜ÍË ÔË‚Ó‰flÚ Í Ì·Óθ¯ÓÏÛ ÔÓÚÛ Ë
ÓÁÂÛ.
26 äÓÎËÍÓ – Ä··‡ÚÒÚ‚Ó èËÓ̇
Ä··‡ÚÒÚ‚Ó ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌÓ ‚ XII ‚., Á‡Ï˜‡ÚÂÎÂÌ Â„Ó ‚ÌÛÚÂÌÌËÈ ‰‚ÓËÍ.
ê‡ÒÔÓÎÓÊÂÌÓ ‡··‡ÚÒÚ‚Ó Ì‡ ÔÓÍ˚ÚÓÏ ÎÂÒÓÏ ÔÓÎÛÓÒÚÓ‚Â, ‚‰‡˛˘ÂÏÒfl ‚ ‚Ó‰˚
ÓÁÂ‡ äÓÏÓ. Ç ˝ÚËı ÒÔÓÍÓÈÌ˚ı ÏÂÒÚ‡ı ÒÎ˚¯ÌÓ ÚÓθÍÓ ÔÂÌË ÔÚˈ. ֢ Ò„ӉÌfl
Á‰ÂÒ¸ ÊË‚ÂÚ Ì·Óθ¯‡fl ÏÓ̇¯ÂÒ͇fl Ó·˘Ë̇, Ô‰‡‚‡flÒ¸ ÏÓÎËÚ‚Â Ë ÚÛ‰Û.
27 óË‚‡Ú – ë‡Ì-è¸ÂÚÓ ‡Î¸ åÓÌÚÂ
ÑÓ·‡Ú¸Òfl ‰Ó ˝ÚËı ÏÂÒÚ ÏÓÊÌÓ ÚÓθÍÓ Î˯¸ Ô¯ÍÓÏ, ‰ÓÎ„Ó ‚Á·Ë‡flÒ¸ ÔÓ
ÍÛÚÓÈ ÚÓÔËÌÍÂ. É·‚̇fl ˆÂÍÓ‚¸ ۉ˂ËÚ ÔÛÚ¯ÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌË͇ ˆÂÌÌÂȯËÏË
‰‚ÌËÏË ¯Â‰Â‚‡ÏË ÙÂÒÍÓ‚ÓÈ ÊË‚ÓÔËÒË Ë ÒÍÛθÔÚÛ˚.
28 ÅË‚ËÓ
ÅË‚ËÓ – ˝ÚÓ ÔÓÒÂÎÓÍ, ÒÚ‡ËÌÌ˚ ‰Óχ Ë Á‡ÏÓÍ ÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó ÒÏÓÚflÚ Ì‡ ·Â„‡
ÂÍË Ä‰‰‡. êÂ͇ ÔÓÚÂ͇ÂÚ ÔÓ ÁÂÎÂÌ˚Ï ÎÂÒËÒÚ˚Ï ÏÂÒÚ‡Ï. Ç ÌÂÒÍÓθÍËı
ÍËÎÓÏÂÚ‡ı Í ˛„Û – ÒÚ‡ËÌ̇fl Ô‡ÓÏ̇fl ÔÂÂÔ‡‚‡, ÒÓ‰ËÌfl˛˘‡fl ·Â„‡ ÂÍË
ĉ‰‡, ˝ÚÓ ‚ÓÒÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌË ËÌÊÂÌÂÌÓ„Ó ÔÓÂÍÚ‡ ãÂÓ̇‰Ó ‰‡ ÇË̘Ë.
29 àÏ·ÂÒ‡„Ó – ÇËη èËÓ î‡Î¸ÍÓ
ùÚ‡ ·Óθ¯‡fl ‚Ëη ·˚· Á‡„ÓÓ‰ÌÓÈ ÂÁˉÂ̈ËÂÈ Á̇ÚÌÓÈ ÒÂÏ¸Ë ‚ XVIII ‚.
ÇËη ÒÚÓËÚ Ì‡ ‚Âıۯ͠ıÓÎχ, ÓÚÍÛ‰‡ ÓÚÍ˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÂÍ‡ÒÌ˚È ‚ˉ,
„·‚̇fl ‰ÓÒÚÓÔËϘ‡ÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸ ‚ËÎÎ˚ -  «ËڇθflÌÒÍËÈ Ò‡‰».
30 ÅÂ„‡ÏÓ – ÇÂıÌËÈ „ÓÓ‰
èÓÒÚÓÂÌÌ˚È Ì‡ ıÓÎÏÂ, ÒÚ‡ËÌÌ˚È «ÇÂıÌËÈ ÉÓÓ‰» ÔÓÎÌÓÒÚ¸˛ ÓÍÛÊÂÌ
ÏÓ˘Ì˚ÏË ÍÂÔÓÒÚÌ˚ÏË ÒÚÂ̇ÏË, ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌÌ˚ÏË ‚ XVI ‚. ÉÛÎflfl ‚‰Óθ ÒÚÂÌ ‚
ÒÂÌË ÔÂÍ‡ÒÌ˚ı ‡ÎÎÂÈ, ÏÓÊÌÓ Î˛·Ó‚‡Ú¸Òfl Ô‡ÌÓ‡ÏÓÈ ‡‚ÌËÌ˚ Ë ‚ˉÓÏ „Ó
Ò‚ÂÌÓÈ àÚ‡ÎËË.
31 ÅÂ„‡ÏÓ – ñÂÌÚ ÇÂıÌÂ„Ó ÉÓÓ‰‡
Ç «ÇÂıÌÂÏ ÉÓӉ» ÔÂÍ‡Ò̇fl ÔÎÓ˘‡‰¸, ̇ ÍÓÚÓÛ˛ ‚˚ıÓ‰flÚ ˆÂÍ‚Ë,
ÒÚ‡ËÌÌ˚ ‰‚Óˆ˚ Ë ·‡¯ÌË. ïÓÓ¯Ó ÓÚ‰ÓıÌÛÚ¸ ̇ ÔÎÓ˘‡‰Ë, ÓÒÓ·ÂÌÌÓ ÚÂÔÎ˚ÏË
ÎÂÚÌËÏË ‚˜Â‡ÏË. ìÁÍË ÛÎÓ˜ÍË, ÔÓ ÍÓÚÓ˚Ï ÏÓÊÌÓ ÔÓÈÚË ÚÓθÍÓ Ô¯ÍÓÏ,
ÒÓÁ‰‡˛Ú Û ÚÛËÒÚÓ‚ ËÎβÁ˲ ‚ÓÁ‚‡Ú‡ ‚Ó ‚ÂÏÂÌË Ì‡ ÏÌÓ„Ó ‚ÂÍÓ‚ ̇Á‡‰.
32 äÂÒÔË ‰’ĉ‰‡ – ꇷӘËÈ ÔÓÒÂÎÓÍ
ùÚÓÚ ‡·Ó˜ËÈ ÔÓÒÂÎÓÍ ·˚Î ÓÒÌÓ‚‡Ì ‚ ÍÓ̈ XIX ‚. ÒÂϸÂÈ ÔÓÏ˚¯ÎÂÌÌËÍÓ‚
äÂÒÔË Ò ˆÂθ˛ ÒÓÁ‰‡ÌËfl „‡ÏÓÌ˘ÌÓ„Ó ÒÓÒÛ˘ÂÒÚ‚Ó‚‡ÌËfl Ù‡·ËÍË Ë ÊËÎˢ‡
‡·Ó˜Ëı. ùÚÓÚ ÔÓÒÂÎÓÍ ·˚Î Á‡ÌÂÒÂÌ ûçÖëäé ‚ ÒÔËÒÓÍ ÏÂÒÚ, fl‚Îfl˛˘ËıÒfl

«‰ÓÒÚÓflÌËÂÏ ˜ÂÎӂ˜ÂÒÚ‚‡».
33 äÓÌÂÎÎÓ ‰ÂÈ í‡ÒÒÓ
ùÚÓ Íӯ˜Ì˚È Ò‰Ì‚ÂÍÓ‚˚È ÔÓÒÂÎÓÍ, ˜ÂÂÁ ÍÓÚÓ˚È Â˘Â Ò„ӉÌfl ÔÓıÓ‰ËÚ
‰‚Ìflfl ÚÓ„Ó‚‡fl ‰ÓÓ„‡, ‚Â‰Û˘‡fl ËÁ ãÓÏ·‡‰ËË Ì‡ Ò‚Â Ö‚ÓÔ˚. éÚÒ˛‰‡
ÔÓËÒıÓ‰ËÚ ÒÂϸfl í‡ÒÒÓ, ÍÓÚÓ˚ ·˚ÎË ÒÓÁ‰‡ÚÂÎflÏË Ë ‚ Ú˜ÂÌË ÏÌÓ„Ëı ‚ÂÍÓ‚
ÛÔ‡‚Îfl˛˘ËÏË ‚‡ÊÌÂȯÂÈ ÔÓ˜ÚÓ‚ÓÈ ÒÎÛÊ·˚, Óı‚‡Ú˚‚‡‚¯ÂÈ ÚÂËÚÓ˲ ‚ÒÂÈ
Ö‚ÓÔ˚.
34 äÎÛÁÓÌÂ
ç‡ ÒÚ‡ËÌÌÓÈ ÔÎÓ˘‡‰Ë „ÓӉ͇ ‚ÓÁ‚˚¯‡ÂÚÒfl ·‡¯Ìfl Ò ·Óθ¯ËÏË Ë ‚ÂҸχ
ÒÎÓÊÌÓ ÛÒÚÓÂÌÌ˚ÏË ˜‡Ò‡ÏË XVI ‚. ç‡ ‚̯ÌÂÈ ÒÚÂÌ ˆÂÍÓ‚ÍË – ·Óθ¯‡fl
ÙÂÒ͇ XV ‚. Ò ‚Ô˜‡ÚÎfl˛˘ËÏË ÒˆÂ̇ÏË íËÛÏÙ‡ ëÏÂÚË.
35 ãÓ‚ÂÂ
ùÚÓ Í‡ÒË‚˚È ÚÛËÒÚ˘ÂÒÍËÈ ˆÂÌÚ ÒÓ ÒÚ‡ËÌÌ˚ÏË ÛÎӘ͇ÏË, Á‰‡ÌËflÏË Ë
ˆÂÍ‚flÏË, ÒÚÓfl˘ËÈ Ì‡ ·ÂÂ„Û ÓÁÂ‡ ‰’àÁÂÓ. ÇÓ ‰‚ÓˆÂ 퇉ËÌË ‡ÒÔÓ·„‡ÂÚÒfl
ËÌÚÂÂÒÌ˚È ÏÛÁÂÈ, ‚ ÒÓ·‡ÌËË ÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó ÒÚ‡ËÌ̇fl ÊË‚ÓÔËÒ¸ Ë ‡Á΢Ì˚Â
Ô‰ÏÂÚ˚ ËÒÍÛÒÒÚ‚‡; ‚ «åÛÁ˚͇θÌÓÏ á‡Î» ÔÓ‚Ó‰flÚÒfl ÏÌÓ„Ó˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚Â
ÍÓ̈ÂÚ˚.
36 ì̸flÌÓ
ùÚÓÚ ÔÓÒÂÎÓÍ ‡ÒÔÓÎÓÊÂÌ ‚ ÒÂθÒÍÓıÓÁflÈÒÚ‚ÂÌÌÓÈ ÁÓÌ ‡‚ÌËÌ˚. Ç Á‡ÏÍÂ
ÂÊ„ӉÌÓ ÔÓ‚Ó‰ËÚÒfl Ô‡Á‰ÌËÍ ‚ ÒÚ‡ËÌÌ˚ı Ò‰Ì‚ÂÍÓ‚˚ı ÍÓÒÚ˛Ï‡ı;
ÔÂÍ‡Ò̇fl ÍÓÎÓÍÓθÌfl ˆÂÍ‚Ë ÛÍ‡¯Â̇ ·Óθ¯ËÏË ÒÚ‡ÚÛflÏË.
37 ÉÓ‡ èÂÁÓ·̇
ùÚÓ Ó‰Ì‡ ËÁ Ò‡Ï˚ı Í‡ÒË‚˚ı „Ó ãÓÏ·‡‰ÒÍËı Ô‰„ÓËÈ ÄθÔ; Á‡Í‡Ú
ÓÍ‡¯Ë‚‡ÂÚ „ÓÛ ‚ Í‡ÒÌ˚È ˆ‚ÂÚ. ì ÔÓ‰ÌÓÊËfl „Ó˚ – ÎÛ„‡ Ë ÎÂÒ‡, Á‰ÂÒ¸ ÏÌÓ„Ó
ÍÛÓÚÌ˚ı ÔÓÒÂÎÍÓ‚, Í‡Í ‰Îfl ÎÂÚÌ„Ó, Ú‡Í Ë ‰Îfl ÁËÏÌÂ„Ó ÓÚ‰˚ı‡.
38 Å¯ˇ
Å¯ˇ – ‚ÚÓÓÈ „ÓÓ‰ ãÓÏ·‡‰ËË ÔÓ ‚Â΢ËÌ ÔÓÒΠåË·̇. ÉÓÓ‰ ·Ó„‡Ú
Ô‡ÏflÚÌË͇ÏË Ë ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËflÏË ËÒÍÛÒÒÚ‚‡, Á‰ÂÒ¸ ÂÒÚ¸ Ú‡ÍÊ ÓÒÚ‡ÚÍË ı‡Ï‡ Ë
Ú‡Ú‡ ËÏÒÍÓÈ ˝ÔÓıË, ÍÓÚÓ˚Ï ÓÍÓÎÓ ‰‚Ûı Ú˚Òfl˜ ÎÂÚ. Ç ‚ÓÁ‚˚¯‡˛˘ÂÏÒfl ̇‰
„ÓÓ‰ÓÏ Á‡ÏÍ Ò„ӉÌfl ‡ÒÔÓ·„‡ÂÚÒfl ÏÛÁÂÈ, ‚ ÍÓÚÓÓÏ ı‡ÌËÚÒfl ÒÚ‡ËÌÌÓÂ
ÓÛÊËÂ Ë ËÁ˚Ò͇ÌÌÓ ÛÍ‡¯ÂÌÌ˚ ‰ÓÒÔÂıË.
39 åÓÌÚ àÁÓ·
ùÚÓ ·Óθ¯ÓÈ, ÔÓÍ˚Ú˚È ÎÂÒÓÏ ÓÒÚÓ‚, ̇ıÓ‰fl˘ËÈÒfl ÔÓÒ‰ËÌ ÓÁÂ‡ ‰’àÁÂÓ.
åfl„ÍËÈ ÍÎËÏ‡Ú ÔÓÁ‚ÓÎflÂÚ ‚˚‡˘Ë‚‡Ú¸ ÓÎË‚˚. ë ‚ÂıÌÂÈ ÚÓ˜ÍË ÓÒÚÓ‚‡
ÓÚÍ˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ÔÂÍ‡Ò̇fl Ô‡ÌÓ‡Ï‡ ÓÁÂ‡ Ë ·ÎËÁÎÂʇ˘Ëı „Ó.
40 è‡ÒÒË‡ÌÓ - á‡ÏÓÍ
ùÚÓÚ Á‡ÏÓÍ – Ó‰ËÌ ËÁ ÏÌÓ„Ó˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ı Ô‡ÏflÚÌËÍÓ‚ ÔÓ¯ÎÓ„Ó, ÍÓÚÓ˚Â
̇ıÓ‰flÚÒfl ‚ ˝ÚÓÈ ıÓÎÏËÒÚÓÈ, ÔÓÍ˚ÚÓÈ ‚ËÌÓ„‡‰ÌË͇ÏË ÁÓÌÂ, ÍÓÚÓ‡fl
̇Á˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl î‡Ì˜‡ÍÓÚ‡. àÁ ‚˚‡˘ÂÌÌÓ„Ó Á‰ÂÒ¸ ‚ËÌÓ„‡‰‡ ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰flÚÒfl
Ó‰ÌË ËÁ Ò‡Ï˚ı ÎÛ˜¯Ëı ·ÂÎ˚ı Ë Ë„ËÒÚ˚ı ‚ËÌ àÚ‡ÎËË.
41 ä‡ÔÓ ‰Ë èÓÌÚÂ
ùÚÓ Ì·Óθ¯ÓÈ „ÓÓ‰ÓÍ Ò ‰‚ÛÏfl ÒÚ‡ËÌÌ˚ÏË Í‡ÒË‚˚ÏË ˆÂÍ‚flÏË. Ç ˝ÚËı
ÏÂÒÚ‡ı ·˚ÎË Ì‡È‰ÂÌ˚ ËÌÚÂÂÒÌÂȯËÂ Ú‡Í Ì‡Á˚‚‡ÂÏ˚ «Ì‡Ò͇θÌ˚Â
„‡‚˛˚»- ËÒÛÌÍË, ‚˚ˆ‡‡Ô‡ÌÌ˚ ̇ Ò͇·ı, ÓÚÔÓÎËÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ı ËÒ˜ÂÁÌÛ‚¯ËÏË
Ò„ӉÌfl ΉÌË͇ÏË. ùÚË ËÒÛÌÍË ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌ˚ ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ Ú˚Òfl˜ ÎÂÚ Ì‡Á‡‰
‰ÓËÒÚÓ˘ÂÒÍËÏ ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍÓÏ.
42 ÉÓ‡ ĉ‡ÏÂÎÎÓ
ùÚÓ Ó·¯Ë̇fl „Ó̇fl „ÛÔÔ‡, ‚Â¯ËÌ˚ ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ‰ÓÒÚË„‡˛Ú ÔÓ˜ÚË 3500 Ï.,
ˉ‡θÌÓ ÏÂÒÚÓ ‰Îfl „ÓÌ˚ı ÔÓ„ÛÎÓÍ, Ò͇ÎÓ·Á‡ÌËfl Ë ÒÔÛÒ͇ ̇ Î˚ʇı.
á‰ÂÒ¸ ÏÓÊÌÓ Û‚Ë‰ÂÚ¸ Ú‡Ì¯ÂË ‚ÂÏÂÌ èÂ‚ÓÈ ÏËÓ‚ÓÈ ‚ÓÈÌ˚,
ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡‚¯ËıÒfl ‚ ·Óflı ËڇθflÌÒÍÓÈ ‡ÏËË Ò ‡‚ÒÚËȈ‡ÏË.
43 éÁÂÓ ‰’à‰Ó Ë ÍÂÔÓÒÚ¸ ‰’ÄÌÙÓ
ùÚÓ ÓÁÂÓ ‚˚ÚflÌÛÚÓÈ ÙÓÏ˚, ÓÍÛÊÂÌÌÓ ‚˚ÒÓÍËÏË „Ó‡ÏË, ̇ÔÓÏË̇ÂÚ ÔÓ
‚Ë‰Û ÌÓ‚ÂÊÒÍËÈ Ù¸Ó‰. ç‡ ÍÛÚ˚ı ÒÍÎÓ̇ı „Ó˚, ‚ÓÁ‚˚¯‡˛˘ÂÈÒfl ̇‰
„ÓÓ‰ÍÓÏ ÄÌÙÓ, ÒÚÓËÚ ÍÂÔÓÒÚ¸, ‚ÓÂÌÌÓ ÒÓÓÛÊÂÌË ÏÌÓ„Ó‚ÂÍÓ‚ÓÈ ‰‡‚ÌÓÒÚË,
„‰Â ÔÓıÓ‰ËÎË ÏÌÓ„Ó˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ ·ËÚ‚˚.
44 ëËÏËÓÌÂ
ç‡ ÔÓÎÛÓÒÚÓ‚Â ëËÏËÓÌ ÒÓı‡Ìfl˛ÚÒfl Ó·¯ËÌ˚Â Ë „‡Ì‰ËÓÁÌ˚ ‡Á‚‡ÎËÌ˚
ËÏÒÍÓÈ ‚ËÎÎ˚, ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌÌÓÈ ÓÍÓÎÓ ‰‚Ûı Ú˚Òfl˜ ÎÂÚ Ì‡Á‡‰, ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ Í‡ÒË‚˚È
Á‡ÏÓÍ. Å·„Ó‰‡fl Ò‚ÓÂÏÛ Ô‡ÌÓ‡ÏÌÓÏÛ ‡ÒÔÓÎÓÊÂÌ˲, ‡ Ú‡ÍÊ Ïfl„ÍÓÏÛ
ÍÎËχÚÛ, Ó·ÛÒÎÓ‚ÎÂÌÌÓÏÛ ÓÁÂÓÏ É‡‰‡ Ë ÚÂχÏ, ëËÏËÓÌ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl Ó‰ÌËÏ
ËÁ Ò‡Ï˚ı ‚‡ÊÌ˚ı ÚÛËÒÚ˘ÂÒÍËı ˆÂÌÚÓ‚ àÚ‡ÎËË.
45 ɇ‰ÓÌ êË‚¸Â‡ – ÇËη «ÇËÚÚÓˇÎ»
ÇËÚÚÓˇÎ – ̇Á‚‡ÌË ÂÁˉÂ̈ËË ˝ÍÒˆÂÌÚ˘ÌÓ„Ó ÔÓ˝Ú‡ Ë Ô‡ÚËÓÚ‡
ɇ·˽ΠђÄÌÌÛ̈ËÓ. ÇËη Ô˚¯ÌÓ Ó·ÒÚ‡‚ÎÂ̇, Á‰ÂÒ¸ ÒÓı‡Ìfl˛ÚÒfl
‰‡„ÓˆÂÌÌ˚ ÂÎËÍ‚ËË Ë Ô‡ÏflÚÌ˚ Ô‰ÏÂÚ˚, ÍÓÚÓ˚ ÒÎÛÊËÎË Ñ’ÄÌÌÛ̈ËÓ ‚
Â„Ó ËÒÍÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ı Ô‰ÔËflÚËflı ‚Ó ‚ÂÏfl èÂ‚ÓÈ ÏËÓ‚ÓÈ ‚ÓÈÌ˚. ëÂ‰Ë ÌËı
–Ò‡ÏÓÎÂÚ Ë ÍËθ Ô‡ÓıÓ‰‡. ÇËη ËÏÂÂÚ Ò‚ÓÈ Ú‡Ú ÔÓ‰ ÓÚÍ˚Ú˚Ï Ì·ÓÏ.
46 ä‡ÚÂ «àÚ‡ÎËfl»
ÅÓÓÁ‰ËÚ¸ ‚Ó‰˚ ÓÁÂ ̇ ͇ÚÂ – Ó‰ÌÓ ËÁ Ò‡Ï˚ı ÔËflÚÌ˚ı ‚ÂÏflÔÓ‚ÓʉÂÌËÈ
ÚÛËÒÚÓ‚ ‚ ãÓÏ·‡‰ËË. äÓÏ ÚÓ„Ó, ÓÁÂ‡ ‰‡˛Ú ‚ÓÁÏÓÊÌÓÒÚ¸ Á‡ÌËχڸÒfl
‚Ó‰Ì˚ÏË ‚ˉ‡ÏË ÒÔÓÚ‡, Ú‡ÍËÏË Í‡Í Ô·‚‡ÌËÂ, Ô‡ÛÒÌ˚È ÒÔÓÚ, ͇ڇÌË ̇
‚Ë̉ÒÂÙÂ.
47 ãËÏÓÌ ÒÛΠɇ‰‡
ùÚÓ Ó‰ËÌ ËÁ ̇˷ÓΠÔÓÒ¢‡ÂÏ˚ı ÚÛËÒÚ˘ÂÒÍËı ˆÂÌÚÓ‚, ‡ÒÔÓÎÓÊÂÌÌ˚ı ̇
ÓÁÂ ɇ‰‡. åfl„ÍËÈ ÍÎËÏ‡Ú ÔÓÁ‚ÓÎflÂÚ ‚˚‡˘Ë‚‡Ú¸ ÓÎË‚˚ Ë ÎËÏÓÌ˚.
48 臂Ëfl
ÉÓÓ‰ Ò ÏÌÓ„Ó˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ÏË Ò‰Ì‚ÂÍÓ‚˚ÏË Ô‡ÏflÚÌË͇ÏË, ÒÂ‰Ë ÍÓÚÓ˚ı
ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ‚˚ÒÓÍËı ·‡¯ÂÌ. 臂Ëfl ÒÚÓËÚ Ì‡ ·Â„‡ı ÂÍË í˘ËÌÓ, ˜ÂÂÁ
ÍÓÚÓÛ˛ ÔÂÂÍËÌÛÚ ÒÚ‡ËÌÌ˚È Í˚Ú˚È ÏÓÒÚ, fl‚Îfl˛˘ËÈÒfl „·‚ÌÓÈ
ÚÛËÒÚ˘ÂÒÍÓÈ ‰ÓÒÚÓÔËϘ‡ÚÂθÌÓÒÚ¸˛ „ÓÓ‰‡. á‰ÂÒ¸ ̇ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl Ó‰ËÌ ËÁ
‚‡ÊÌÂȯËı Ë ÒÚ‡ËÌÌÂȯËı ÛÌË‚ÂÒËÚÂÚÓ‚.
49 臂ËÈÒ͇fl é·ËÚÂθ
ùÚÓ Ó‰ËÌ ËÁ Ò‡Ï˚ı ÔÓÒ¢‡ÂÏ˚ı Ô‡ÏflÚÌËÍÓ‚ Ò‚ÂÌÓÈ àÚ‡ÎËË, ÒÚÓËÚÂθÒÚ‚Ó
ÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó ·˚ÎÓ Ì‡˜‡ÚÓ ‚ ÍÓ̈ XIV ‚. î‡Ò‡‰ ˆÂÍ‚Ë ÔÓÎÌÓÒÚ¸˛ ‚˚ÔÓÎÌÂÌ ËÁ
Ï‡ÏÓ‡ Ë ·Ó„‡ÚÓ ÛÍ‡¯ÂÌ. ÇÌÛÚË Ì‡ıÓ‰flÚÒfl ÏÌÓ„Ó˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ ¯Â‰Â‚˚. Ç

χÎÂ̸ÍËı ‰ÓÏË͇ı, ÒÚÓfl˘Ëı ÔÓ ÒÚÓÓÌ‡Ï ÏÓ̇ÒÚ˚ÒÍÓ„Ó ‰‚Ó‡ ÊËÎË ÏÓ̇ıË,
ÔÓÒ‚fl˘‡‚¯Ë ҂Ó ‚ÂÏfl ωËÚ‡ˆËË Ë ÚÛ‰Û.
50 äË̸ÓÎÓ èÓ - á‡ÏÓÍ
á‡ÏÓÍ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ ‚ XIII ‚. Í‡Í ‚ÓÂÌ̇fl ÍÂÔÓÒÚ¸. ÇÔÓÒΉÒÚ‚ËË ÓÌ ·˚Î
Ô‚‡˘ÂÌ ‚ Ô˚¯ÌÛ˛ Á‡„ÓÓ‰ÌÛ˛ ÂÁˉÂÌˆË˛, Á‰ÂÒ¸ ·˚Î ‡Á·ËÚ ·Óθ¯ÓÈ
Ô‡Í ‚ ËڇθflÌÒÍÓÏ ÒÚËÎÂ. èÓÒÂÚËÚÂÎË Á‡Ï͇ ‚ˉflÚ ÍÓÏ̇ÚÛ, ‚ ÍÓÚÓÓÈ
ÓÒڇ̇‚ÎË‚‡ÎÒfl ç‡ÔÓÎÂÓÌ.
51 åÂÒÚÓ ÒÎËflÌËfl ÂÍ èÓ Ë í˘ËÌÓ
êÂ͇ èÓ – ˝ÚÓ Ò‡Ï‡fl ÍÛÔ̇fl Â͇ àÚ‡ÎËË, ‚‰Óθ ÔÓÚflÊÂÌÌÓ„Ó Û˜‡ÒÚ͇
ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ÔÓıÓ‰ËÚ ˛Ê̇fl „‡Ìˈ‡ ãÓÏ·‡‰ËË. êÂ͇ í˘ËÌÓ, ‚Ó‰˚ ÍÓÚÓÓÈ
ËÏÂ˛Ú ÌÂÓ·˚˜Ì˚È „ÓÎÛ·ÓÈ ˆ‚ÂÚ, ÔÓÚÂ͇ÂÚ ÔÓ ÚÂËÚÓËË, ̇ıÓ‰fl˘ÂÈÒfl ÔÓ‰
Óı‡ÌÓÈ „ÓÒÛ‰‡ÒÚ‚‡, ÊË‚ÓÚÌ˚È Ë ‡ÒÚËÚÂθÌ˚È ÏË ˝ÚÓÈ ÁÓÌ˚ ‚ÂҸχ ·Ó„‡Ú Ë
‡ÁÌÓÓ·‡ÁÂÌ.
52 ãÓÏÂÎÎÓ – ŇÔÚËÒÚÂËÈ
ŇÔÚËÒÚÂËÈ ãÓÏÂÎÎÓ ÓÚÌÓÒËÚÒfl Í V ‚. ùÚÓ ÒÓÓÛÊÂÌËÂ, Ëϲ˘Â ‚ Ô·ÌÂ
‚ÓÒ¸ÏËÛ„ÓθÌËÍ, ‚ÌÛÚË ÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó ÒÓı‡ÌflÂÚÒfl ‡ÌÚ˘̇fl ‚‡Ì̇ ‰Îfl Ò‚flÚÓÈ
‚Ó‰˚, ËÒÔÓθÁÓ‚‡‚¯‡flÒfl ‰Îfl ıËÒÚˇÌÒÍÓ„Ó Ó·fl‰‡ Í¢ÂÌËfl. êfl‰ÓÏ Ò
·‡ÔÚËÒÚÂËÂÏ ‚˚ÒËÚÒfl ÒÚ‡ËÌ̇fl ˆÂÍÓ‚¸ XI ‚.
53 åÓÌËÍÓ - ãÓÁ‡Ì‡
ùÚÓÚ Ï‡ÎÂ̸ÍËÈ ÔÓÒÂÎÓÍ Ì‡ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl Í ˛„Û ÓÚ è‡‚ËË, ‚ ÁÓÌÂ, ı‡‡ÍÚÂËÒÚË͇
ÍÓÚÓÓÈ – Ïfl„ÍË ıÓÎÏ˚, ÔÓÍ˚Ú˚ ‚ËÌÓ„‡‰ÌË͇ÏË; ËÁ ˝ÚÓ„Ó ‚ËÌÓ„‡‰‡
ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰flÚ ‚ÂÎËÍÓÎÂÔÌ˚ ·ÂÎ˚Â Ë Í‡ÒÌ˚ ‚Ë̇.
54 èÓÌÚ çˈˆ‡ – Ä··‡ÚÒÚ‚Ó ë‡ÌÚ-Äθ·ÂÚÓ ‰Ë ÅÛÚËÓ
Ä··‡ÚÒÚ‚Ó ÒÚÓËÚ Û‰ËÌÂÌÌÓ ÒÂ‰Ë ÎÂÒÓ‚. éÌÓ ÓÒÌÓ‚‡ÌÓ ‚ XI ‚. ˜ÂÎÓ‚ÂÍÓÏ ÔÓ
ËÏÂÌË Äθ·ÂÚÓ, ÍÓÚÓ˚È ¯ËÎ ÊËÚ¸ ‚ Ó‰ËÌÓ˜ÂÒÚ‚Â ‚ ÏÓÎËÚ‚Â Ë Ï‰ËÚ‡ˆËË,
ÓÒÚ‡‚Ë‚ ‚Ò ҂Ó ·Ó„‡ÚÒÚ‚Ó. ÇÔÓÒΉÒÚ‚ËË Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ó·ÓÒÌÓ‚‡Î‡Ò¸ Ì·Óθ¯‡fl
ÏÓ̇¯ÂÒ͇fl Ó·˘Ë̇. ÇÌÛÚË ‡··‡ÚÒÚ‚‡ – ˆÂÌÌ˚ ÒÚ‡ËÌÌ˚ ÙÂÒÍË.
55 ãÓ‰Ë
ÅÓθ¯‡fl ˆÂÌÚ‡Î¸Ì‡fl ÔÎÓ˘‡‰¸ ãÓ‰Ë Ô˄·¯‡ÂÚ ÓÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚ¸Òfl Ë
ÔÓβ·Ó‚‡Ú¸Òfl ̇ ÔÂÍ‡ÒÌ˚ ÒÚ‡ËÌÌ˚ Á‰‡ÌËfl, ÍÓÚÓ˚ Â ÓÍÛʇ˛Ú.
èËflÚÌÓ ÔÓ„ÛÎflÚ¸Òfl ÔÓ ÛÎÓ˜Í‡Ï ËÒÚÓ˘ÂÒÍÓ„Ó ˆÂÌÚ‡, Á‡„Îfl‰˚‚‡fl ‚
χ„‡ÁË̘ËÍË, ÚÓ„Û˛˘Ë ÍÂ‡Ï˘ÂÒÍËÏË ËÁ‰ÂÎËflÏË Û˜ÌÓÈ ‡·ÓÚ˚ Ë
ÓÚÏÂÌÌ˚ÏË „‡ÒÚÓÌÓÏ˘ÂÒÍËÏË ÔÓ‰ÛÍÚ‡ÏË.
56 ëÚ‡˚È ãÓ‰Ë – ŇÁËÎË͇ ë‡Ì-ŇÒÒˇÌÓ
ŇÁËÎË͇ ÓÒÌÓ‚‡Ì‡ ‚ „ÎÛ·ÓÍÓÈ ‰‚ÌÓÒÚË. Ö ه҇‰ – ÔÂÍ‡ÒÌ˚È ÔËÏÂ
ÒÚÓËÚÂθÌÓ„Ó ËÒÍÛÒÒÚ‚‡ ËÁ ÍËÔ˘‡. ëÚÓËÚÂθÒÚ‚Ó ·‡ÁËÎËÍË ‚ÂÎÓÒ¸ ̇
Ò‰ÒÚ‚‡ ‡Á΢Ì˚ı ÍÓÔÓ‡ˆËÈ ÂÏÂÒÎÂÌÌËÍÓ‚. ç‡ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ‚ Û‰ËÌÂÌÌÓÏ
ÏÂÒÚÂ, ÔÓÒÂ‰Ë ÔÓÎÂÈ.
57 Ä··‡‰Ë‡ óÂÂÚÓ – Ä··‡ÚÒÚ‚Ó
Ä··‡ÚÒÚ‚Ó ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌÓ ‚ XII ‚., Á‰ÂÒ¸ ÊËÎË ÏÓ̇ıË, ÍÓÚÓ˚ Á‡ÌËχÎËÒ¸
ÓÒÛ¯ÂÌËÂÏ Á‡·ÓÎÓ˜ÂÌÌ˚ı ·ÎËÁÎÂʇ˘Ëı ÁÂÏÂθ. èÓÎÛÚÂ̸ Ò‚Ó·Ó‰ÌÓ„Ó
‚ÌÛÚˈÂÍÓ‚ÌÓ„Ó ÔÓÒÚ‡ÌÒÚ‚‡ ÒÓÁ‰‡ÂÚ ÓÒÓ·Û˛ ‡ÚÏÓÒÙÂÛ. 燉 ˆÂÍÓ‚¸˛
‚ÓÁ‚˚¯‡ÂÚÒfl ·‡¯Ìfl ‚ÓÒ¸ÏË„‡ÌÌÓÈ ÙÓÏ˚.
58 éËÓ ãËÚÚ‡ – ÇËη ãËÚÚ‡
ùÚÓ ÓÒÍӯ̇fl Á‡„ÓӉ̇fl ÂÁˉÂ̈Ëfl, ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ̇fl ‰Îfl Á̇ÚÌÓÈ ÒÂÏ¸Ë ‚ XVIII
‚. ç‡ ÚÂËÚÓËË ‚ËÎÎ˚ ËÏÂÂÚÒfl Ì·Óθ¯‡fl ˆÂÍÓ‚¸, Ú‡Ú, ·Óθ¯ÓÈ Ô‡Í Ë
Ô‡ÌÓ‡ÏÌ˚ ÚÂ‡Ò˚, ÓÚÍÛ‰‡ ÓÚÍ˚‚‡ÂÚÒfl ‚ˉ ̇ ÓÍÛʇ˛˘Û˛ ÔËÓ‰Û,·Î‡„Ó‰‡fl ‚ÒÂÏÛ ˝ÚÓÏÛ ‚ËÎÎÛ Ì‡Á˚‚‡˛Ú «Ï‡ÎÂ̸ÍËÏ ÇÂÒ‡ÎÂÏ».
59 ë‡ÌÚ-Ä̉ÊÂÎÓ ãӉˉʇÌÓ – á‡ÏÓÍ
á‡ÏÓÍ ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ ‚ XIII ‚. Ë ÓÚÂÒÚ‡‚ËÓ‚‡Ì ‚ ̇˜‡Î XIX ‚. ë„ӉÌfl Á‰ÂÒ¸
‡ÒÔÓÎÓÊËÎËÒ¸ ÚË ÏÛÁÂfl: ıÛ‰ÓÊÂÒÚ‚ÂÌÌ˚È ÏÛÁÂÈ, ÏÛÁÂÈ ıη‡ Ë ÏÛÁÂÈ
ÒÂθÒÍÓ„Ó ıÓÁflÈÒÚ‚‡. á‡ÏÓÍ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÂÌ Ú‡ÍÊÂ Ë ÔÓÚÓÏÛ, ˜ÚÓ ‚ XVIII ‚. Á‰ÂÒ¸
ÓÒڇ̇‚ÎË‚‡ÎÒfl Á̇ÏÂÌËÚ˚È ‡‚‡ÌÚ˛ËÒÚ Ë ÔËÒ‡ÚÂθ ÑʇÍÓÏÓ ä‡Á‡ÌÓ‚‡.
60 äÂÏÓ̇ – ä‡Ù‰‡Î¸Ì˚È ÒÓ·Ó Ë íÓ‡ˆˆÓ
ñÂÌÚ‡Î¸Ì‡fl ÔÎÓ˘‡‰¸ äÂÏÓÌ˚ – Ӊ̇ ËÁ Ò‡Ï˚ı Í‡ÒË‚˚ı ‚ àÚ‡ÎËË.
á̇ÏÂÌËÚ‡ ‚˚ÒÓ͇fl ÍÓÎÓÍÓθÌfl, ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ̇fl ËÁ ÍËÔ˘‡, ÍÓÚÓÛ˛ Á‰ÂÒ¸
̇Á˚‚‡˛Ú «íÓ‡ˆˆÓ» (·‡¯Ìfl), Ò ‚˚ÒÓÚ˚ ÍÓÚÓÓÈ ÏÓÊÌÓ Î˛·Ó‚‡Ú¸Òfl
ÔÂÍ‡ÒÌÓÈ Ô‡ÌÓ‡ÏÓÈ. äÂÏÓ̇ – Ó‰Ë̇ Ò‡ÏÓ„Ó Á̇ÏÂÌËÚÓ„Ó ÒÍËÔ˘Ì˚ı ‰ÂÎ
χÒÚÂ‡ ‚ ÏËÂ: ÄÌÚÓÌËÓ ëÚ‡‰Ë‚‡Ë, ÍÓÚÓ˚È ÊËÎ ‚ XVII ‚.
61 èˈˆË„ÂÚÚÓÌÂ
ÉÓÓ‰ÓÍ Á‡ÏÍÌÛÚ ‚ÌÛÚË ‚ÌÛ¯ËÚÂθÌ˚ı ÍÂÔÓÒÚÌ˚ı ÒÚÂÌ, ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌÌ˚ı ‚
ÔÓ¯Î˚ ‚Â͇ Ë fl‚Îfl˛˘ËıÒfl Ò‡Ï˚ÏË ıÓÓ¯Ó ÒÓı‡ÌË‚¯ËÏËÒfl Ë ÏÓ˘Ì˚ÏË ‚
ãÓÏ·‡‰ËË. Ç „·‚ÌÓÈ ÍÂÔÓÒÚÌÓÈ ·‡¯ÌÂ, ˜ÚÓ ÔÂ‰ ÂÍÓÈ Ä‰‰‡, ‚ 1524 „.,
ÔÓÒΠÔÓË„‡ÌÌÓ„Ó Ò‡ÊÂÌËfl, ·˚Î Á‡ÚÓ˜ÂÌ ÍÓÓθ î‡ÌˆËË.
62 íÓ ‰Â’è˘Â̇‰Ë – ÇËη ëÓÏÏË-è˘Â̇‰Ë
á‡ÏÓÍ, ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌÌ˚È Í‡Í Á‡˘ËÚÌÓ ÒÓÓÛÊÂÌËÂ, ‚ÔÓÒΉÒÚ‚ËË ·˚Î Ô‚‡˘ÂÌ
‚ ÓÒÍÓ¯ÌÛ˛ ÂÁˉÂÌˆË˛ Ò ÔÂÍ‡ÒÌ˚Ï Ô‡ÍÓÏ. à Ò„ӉÌfl, Í‡Í Ë ‚ÒÚ‡¸
‚Ëη-Á‡ÏÓÍ ÓÍÛÊÂ̇ ‚ÓÏ, ̇ÔÓÎÌÂÌÌ˚Ï ‚Ó‰ÓÈ, ÒÎÛÊË‚¯ËÏ ‰Îfl Á‡˘ËÚ˚ „Ó
Ó·ËÚ‡ÚÂÎÂÈ.
63 ë‡Ì-ÑÊÓ‚‡ÌÌË ËÌ äӘ – ÇËη åÂ‰Ë˜Ë ‰Âθ LJ¯ÂÎÎÓ
á‡ÏÓÍ ·˚Î ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌ ‚ XV ‚.‰Îfl ‚ÓÂÌÌ˚ı ˆÂÎÂÈ. åÂÌ ˜ÂÏ ÒÚÓ ÎÂÚ ÒÔÛÒÚfl
ÒÚ‡ÌÓ‚ËÚÒfl Á‡„ÓÓ‰ÌÓÈ ÂÁˉÂ̈ËÂÈ Î˛·Ó‚Ìˈ˚ Ô‡‚ËÚÂÎfl åË·̇; ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÂÌ
ÔÓÚÂÚ ˝ÚÓÈ ‰‡Ï˚, ÔÓ‰ ̇Á‚‡ÌËÂÏ «Ñ‡Ï‡ Ò „ÓÌÓÒÚ‡ÂÏ», ÔË̇‰ÎÂʇ˘ËÈ
ÍËÒÚË ãÂÓ̇‰Ó ‰‡ ÇË̘Ë. ä Á‰‡Ì˲ ÔË΄‡ÂÚ Ó·¯ËÌ˚È Ô‡Í.
64 äÂχ
Çˉ äÂÏ˚ Ò‚ÂıÛ Û·Âʉ‡ÂÚ ‚ Ò‰Ì‚ÂÍÓ‚ÓÏ ÔÓËÒıÓʉÂÌËË „ÓÓ‰‡,
ÔÂÍ‡ÒÌÓ ‚ˉÌÓ, „‰Â ÔÓıÓ‰ËÎË Â„Ó ‰‚ÌË ÍÂÔÓÒÚÌ˚ ÒÚÂÌ˚. ëÓı‡ÌËÎËÒ¸
Ëı Ù‡„ÏÂÌÚ˚ Ë ‚˙ÂÁ‰Ì˚ ‚ÓÓÚ‡ ‚ „ÓÓ‰. èÓ„ÛÎË‚‡flÒ¸ ÔÓ ËÒÚÓ˘ÂÒÍÓÏÛ
ˆÂÌÚÛ äÂÏ˚, ‚˚ ÔÓÒÚÓflÌÌÓ ÓÚÍ˚‚‡ÂÚ ‰Îfl Ò·fl ÔÂÍ‡ÒÌ˚ ÒÚ‡ËÌÌ˚Â
Á‰‡ÌËfl.
65 ëÓ̘ËÌÓ – á‡ÏÓÍ Ë ÔÓÒÂÎÓÍ
á‡ÏÓÍ ëÓ̘ËÌÓ – Ó‰ËÌ ËÁ Ò‡Ï˚ı Í‡ÒË‚˚ı ‚ ãÓÏ·‡‰ËË, Â„Ó ˜‡ÒÚÓ ÏÓÊÌÓ
ۂˉÂÚ¸ ‚ ËÒÚÓ˘ÂÒÍËı ÙËθχı. ïÓÓ¯Ó ÒÓı‡ÌËÎÒfl ÔÓÒÂÎÓÍ, ÓÍÛÊÂÌÌ˚È
‰‚ÌËÏË ÍÂÔÓÒÚÌ˚ÏË ÒÚÂ̇ÏË.

66 ä‡ÒÚÂΠɇ··¸flÌÓ – ÇËη ÉËÙÙÓÌË ë‡ÌÚ-Ä̉ÊÂÎÓ
ë̇˜‡Î‡ ˝ÚÓ ·˚Î Á‡ÏÓÍ, ‚ÔÓÒΉÒÚ‚ËË ÒÚ‡‚¯ËÈ Á‡„ÓÓ‰ÌÓÈ ÂÁˉÂ̈ËÂÈ.
èÂÍ‡ÒÌ˚È ·Óθ¯ÓÈ Ô‡Í ‚ ËڇθflÌÒÍÓÏ ÒÚËΠÔˉ‡ÂÚ ‚ËÎΠ·Óθ¯Û˛
ˆÂÌÌÓÒÚ¸.
67 å‡ÌÚÛfl – àÒÚÓ˘ÂÒÍËÈ ˆÂÌÚ
å‡ÌÚÛfl – Ó‰ËÌ ËÁ Ò‡Ï˚ı ‚‡ÊÌ˚ı „ÓÓ‰Ó‚ ËÒÍÛÒÒÚ‚ ãÓÏ·‡‰ËË. ë ÚÂı ÒÚÓÓÌ
„ÓÓ‰ ÓÍÛÊÂÌ ÓÁÂ‡ÏË, Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚ÏË ÂÍÓÈ åË̘Ó. éÁÂ‡ ÛÍ‡¯‡˛Ú
ˆ‚ÂÚÛ˘Ë ÎÓÚÓÒ˚. Ç å‡ÌÚÛ ÏÌÓÊÂÒÚ‚Ó ‰‚ÓˆÓ‚, ˆÂÍ‚ÂÈ Ë ÏÛÁ‚, ‚ ÍÓÚÓ˚ı
ı‡ÌflÚÒfl ‚ÂÎËÍË ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËfl ËÒÍÛÒÒÚ‚‡.
68 å‡ÌÚÛfl – ÉÂˆÓ„ÒÍËÈ Ñ‚Óˆ
ç‡Á‚‡ÌËÂÏ «ÉÂˆÓ„ÒÍËÈ Ñ‚Óˆ» Ó·˙‰ËÌÂÌ˚ fl‰ Á‰‡ÌËÈ, Ó·‡ÁÛ˛˘Ëı
‚ÂÎËÍÓÎÂÔÌ˚È ‰‚ÓˆÓ‚˚È ÍÓÏÔÎÂÍÒ Ô‡‚ËÚÂÎÂÈ å‡ÌÚÛË, ÒÓ‰Âʇ˘ËÈ ‚ Ò·Â
ÏÌÓ„Ó˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËfl ËÒÍÛÒÒÚ‚‡. á‡ÏÓÍ ë‡Ì-ÑÊÓ‰ÊÓ fl‚ÎflÂÚÒfl
˜‡ÒÚ¸˛ ‰‚ÓˆÓ‚Ó„Ó ÍÓÏÔÎÂÍÒ‡, ËÏÂÌÌÓ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ̇ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl Á̇ÏÂÌËÚ‡fl
«ëÛÔÛÊÂÒ͇fl äÓÏ̇ڇ», ‡ÒÔËÒ‡Ì̇fl Ä.å‡ÌÚÂ̸fl,- Ó‰ÌÓ ËÁ Ò‡Ï˚ı
Á̇˜ËÚÂθÌ˚ı ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËÈ ËڇθflÌÒÍÓ„Ó ËÒÍÛÒÒÚ‚‡.
69 äÛÚ‡ÚÓÌ – ë‚flÚËÎˢ ÑÂÎΠÉ‡ˆËÂ
ë‚flÚËÎˢ ÑÂÎΠÉ‡ˆË ÒÓÒ‰ÒÚ‚ÛÂÚ Ò ÔËÓ‰Ì˚Ï Á‡Ôӂ‰ÌËÍÓÏ,
Ó·‡ÁÓ‚‡ÌÌ˚Ï ÂÍÓÈ åË̘Ó. èÎÓ˘‡‰¸ ÔÂ‰ Ò‚flÚËÎˢÂÏ ÔÓÎۘ˷
ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌÓÒÚ¸ ·Î‡„Ó‰‡fl ÚÓÏÛ, ˜ÚÓ Í‡Ê‰˚È „Ó‰ ‚ ‡‚„ÛÒÚÂ, ÔÓ ÒÎÛ˜‡˛ Ô‡Á‰ÌË͇,
ıÛ‰ÓÊÌËÍË ËÁ ‡ÁÌ˚ı ÒÚ‡Ì ‡ÁËÒÓ‚˚‚‡˛Ú  ÂÎË„ËÓÁÌ˚ÏË Ò˛ÊÂÚ‡ÏË.
70 ë‡Ì-ÅẨÂÚÚÓ èÓ – Ä··‡ÚÒÚ‚Ó èÓÎËÓÌÂ
Ä··‡ÚÒÚ‚Ó ÔÓÒÚÓÂÌÓ Ò‡ÁÛ ÔÓÒΠ1000 „Ó‰‡ Ë fl‚ÎflÎÓÒ¸ Ó‰ÌËÏ ËÁ Ò‡Ï˚ı
‚‡ÊÌ˚ı Ë ·Óθ¯Ëı ÏÓ̇ÒÚ˚ÂÈ Ò‚Â‡ àÚ‡ÎËË. åÓ̇ıË Á‡ÌËχÎËÒ¸ ÓÒÛ¯ÂÌËÂÏ
·ÎËÁÎÂʇ˘Ëı ·ÓÎÓÚËÒÚ˚ı ÁÂÏÂθ Ë ÒÓÁ‰‡‚‡ÎË ÍÌË„Ë, ÛÍ‡¯ÂÌÌ˚Â
ÏËÌˇڲ‡ÏË. ë„ӉÌfl Á‰ÂÒ¸ ‡ÁÏ¢‡˛ÚÒfl ÌÂÒÍÓθÍÓ ÏÛÁ‚.
71 뇷·¸ÓÌÂÚ‡
èÓÒÚÓÂ̇ ‚ XVI ‚. „ÓÒÛ‰‡ÂÏ å‡ÌÚÛË Ò ˆÂθ˛ ÒÓÁ‰‡ÌËfl «Ë‰Â‡Î¸ÌÓ„Ó „ÓÓ‰‡».
èÓ ÔÓ¯ÂÒÚ‚ËË ÏÌÓ„Ëı ‚ÂÍÓ‚ ‚ 뇷·¸ÓÌÂÚ ÒÓı‡Ìfl˛ÚÒfl ÏÓ˘Ì˚ ÍÂÔÓÒÚÌ˚Â
ÒÚÂÌ˚, ‚˙ÂÁ‰Ì˚ ‚‡Ú‡ ‚ „ÓÓ‰, ÛÎˈ˚, Á‰‡ÌËfl, ˆÂÍ‚Ë Ë ‚ÂÎËÍÓÎÂÔÌ˚È Ú‡Ú.
ÇÒ ˝ÚÓ ÔË‚ÎÂ͇ÂÚ ·Óθ¯Ó ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚Ó ÚÛËÒÚÓ‚.
72 ä‡ÒÚÂηÓ ã‡„ÛÁÂÎÎÓ
ùÚÓ ÛÍÂÔÎÂÌÌ˚È ÔÓÒÂÎÓÍ, ÒÚÓfl˘ËÈ ‚·ÎËÁË ÓÚ Ì·Óθ¯Ó„Ó ÓÁÂˆ‡. Å·„Ó‰‡fl
Ò‚ÓÂÈ ıÓÓ¯ÂÈ ÒÓı‡ÌÌÓÒÚË ÓÌ ‚ıÓ‰ËÚ ‚ ˜ËÒÎÓ «Ò‡Ï˚ı Í‡ÒË‚˚ı
Ò‰Ì‚ÂÍÓ‚˚ı ÔÓÒÂÎÍÓ‚ àÚ‡ÎËË». èÓÒ¢‡˛˘Ë ä‡ÒÚÂηÓ ÚÛËÒÚ˚ ÒÏÓ„ÛÚ
Ú‡ÍÊ ÔÓ ‰ÓÒÚÓËÌÒÚ‚Û ÓˆÂÌËÚ¸ ÏÂÒÚÌ˚ ÂÒÚÓ‡Ì˜ËÍË.
73 ëÓθÙÂËÌÓ
á‰ÂÒ¸, ÓÍÓÎÓ Ï‡ÒÒË‚ÌÓÈ Í‚‡‰‡ÚÌÓÈ ·‡¯ÌË ÔÓ‰ ̇Á‚‡ÌËÂÏ «¯ÔËÓÌ àÚ‡ÎËË» ‚
1854 „. ÔÓËÁÓ¯ÎÓ ‚‡ÊÌÓ Ò‡ÊÂÌËÂ Ò ‡‚ÒÚËÈÒÍÓÈ ‡ÏËÂÈ Á‡ ÌÂÁ‡‚ËÒËÏÓÒÚ¸
àÚ‡ÎËË. ÅÓÈ ·˚Π̇ÒÚÓθÍÓ ÍÓ‚ÓÔÓÎËÚÌ˚Ï, ˜ÚÓ ˝ÚÓ ÔÓ‰‚Ë„ÎÓ ¯‚ÂȈ‡ˆ‡
Ñ˛Ì‡Ì‡ ÓÒÌÓ‚‡Ú¸ „ÛχÌËÚ‡ÌÛ˛ Ó„‡ÌËÁ‡ˆË˛ ä‡ÒÌÓ„Ó äÂÒÚ‡.
74 ëÓ̉ËÓ – åÓ̇ÒÚ˚¸ ë‡Ì ãÓÂ̈Ó
åÓ̇ÒÚ˚¸ ÒÚÓËÚ ÌÂÔÓ‰‡ÎÂÍÛ ÓÚ ˆÂÌÚ‡ ëÓ̉ËÓ, ̇ ıÓÎÏÂ, ÔÓÍ˚ÚÓÏ
‚ËÌÓ„‡‰ÌË͇ÏË, ̇ ÏÂÒÚ ‰‚ÌÂ„Ó Á‡Ï͇. ëÓ̉ËÓ – ‡‰ÏËÌËÒÚ‡ÚË‚Ì˚È
ˆÂÌÚ LJÎÚÂÎÎËÌ˚, ÔÓÚflÊÂÌÌÓÈ ‰ÓÎËÌ˚, ÓÍÛÊÂÌÌÓÈ ÒÓ ‚ÒÂı ÒÚÓÓÌ „Ó‡ÏË.
åfl„ÍËÈ ÍÎËÏ‡Ú ‰ÓÎËÌ˚ ÔÓÁ‚ÓÎflÂÚ ‚˚‡˘Ë‚‡Ú¸ ‚ËÌÓ„‡‰, ËÁ ÍÓÚÓÓ„Ó
ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰flÚ Í‡ÒÌ˚ ‚Ë̇, Ó‰ÌË ËÁ Ò‡Ï˚ı ÎÛ˜¯Ëı ‚ àÚ‡ÎËË.
75 èˈˆÓ ҉ËÎÂ
ùÚÓ „‡ÌËÚ̇fl „Ó‡ ‚˚ÒÓÚÓÈ ÓÍÓÎÓ 3300 Ï., ÒÚÓfl˘‡fl ̇ „‡Ìˈ ÏÂʉÛ
àÚ‡ÎËÂÈ Ë ò‚ÂȈ‡ËÂÈ. ùÚ‡ „Ó‡ – Ӊ̇ ËÁ Ò‡Ï˚ı ‚‡ÊÌ˚ı ‚Â¯ËÌ ÄθÔËÈÒÍÓÈ
„fl‰˚ Ò ÚÓ˜ÍË ÁÂÌËfl ËÒÚÓËË ‡Î¸ÔËÌËÁχ.
76 ä¸fl‚ÂÌ̇
ùÚÓ Ì·Óθ¯ÓÈ „ÓÓ‰ÓÍ, Ò Í‡ÒË‚˚ÏË ‰ÓχÏË Á̇ÚË, ÛÁÍËÏË ÛÎˈ‡ÏË Ë
ÔÎÓ˘‡‰flÏË, ÛÍ‡¯ÂÌÌ˚ÏË ÙÓÌڇ̇ÏË ËÁ ͇ÏÌfl, Á‰ÂÒ¸ ‚Ò ÒÓı‡ÌËÎÓÒ¸ Ò
‰‚ÌÂȯËı ‚ÂÏÂÌ; ‚ „ÓӉ͠ÂÒÚ¸ ÏÛÁÂÈ, „‰Â ̇ıÓ‰flÚÒfl ÔÓËÁ‚‰ÂÌËfl
ÒÍÛθÔÚÛ˚ Ë ÁÓÎÓÚ˚ ÛÍ‡¯ÂÌËfl Ò‰Ì‚ÂÍÓ‚ÓÈ ˝ÔÓıË. ä¸fl‚ÂÌ̇ ËÁ‚ÂÒÚ̇
Ò‚ÓËÏË Ï‡ÎÂ̸ÍËÏË Ë ÊË‚ÓÔËÒÌ˚ÏË Ú‡ÚÚÓËflÏË, ÍÓÚÓ˚ Á‰ÂÒ¸ ̇Á˚‚‡˛Ú
«Crotti», Ë „‰Â ÏÓÊÌÓ Óڂ‰‡Ú¸ ‡ÁÌÓÓ·‡ÁÌ˚ ·Î˛‰‡ ÏÂÒÚÌÓÈ ÍÛıÌË.
77 åÓ·Â̸Ó
àÌÚÂÂÒÂÌ ËÒÚÓ˘ÂÒÍËÈ ˆÂÌÚ ˝ÚÓ„Ó „ÓӉ͇, Ò Â„Ó ˆÂÍ‚flÏË Ë Á‰‡ÌËflÏË.
åÓ·ÂÌ¸Ó ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÂÌ Ú‡ÍÊ ҂ÓËÏË Ò˚‡ÏË Ë ÍÓ‚‡ÏË Û˜ÌÓÈ ‡·ÓÚ˚; Ë Ò˚ Ë
ÍÓ‚˚ ÔÓËÁ‚Ó‰flÚ ‚ ÒÓÓÚ‚ÂÚÒÚ‚ËË ÒÓ ÒÚ‡ËÌÌ˚ÏË ‚ÂÍÓ‚˚ÏË Ú‡‰ËˆËflÏË.
78 ÉÓ̇fl „ÛÔÔ‡ ÅÂÌË̇
ï‡‡ÍÚÂËÒÚË͇ ˝ÚÓÈ „ÓÌÓÈ „ÛÔÔ˚ – ÏÌÓ„Ó˜ËÒÎÂÌÌ˚ Î‰ÌËÍË; Á‰ÂÒ¸
ÔÓıÓ‰ËÚ „‡Ìˈ‡ ÏÂÊ‰Û àÚ‡ÎËÂÈ Ë ò‚ÂȈ‡ËÂÈ. ÉÓÌ˚È ÔËÍ ÅÂÌË̇ (4050
Ï.) – ҇χfl ‚˚ÒÓ͇fl ÚӘ͇ ãÓÏ·‡‰ËË.
79 ÅÓÏËÓ
ùÚÓ Ó‰ËÌ ËÁ Ò‡Ï˚ı ‚‡ÊÌ˚ı ÚÛËÒÚ˘ÂÒÍËı ˆÂÌÚÓ‚ „ÓÌÓÈ ˜‡ÒÚË ãÓÏ·‡‰ËË,
‡·ÓÚ‡˛˘ËÈ Í‡Í ÁËÏÓÈ, Ú‡Í Ë ÎÂÚÓÏ Ë ËÁ‚ÂÒÚÌ˚È Ò‚ÓËÏË ÚÂχÏË. á‰ÂÒ¸ ÂÒÚ¸
‰‚ÌËÈ ËÒÚÓ˘ÂÒÍËÈ ˆÂÌÚ. ç‡ ÓÚ΢Ì˚ı „ÓÌÓÎ˚ÊÌ˚ı ÒÔÛÒ͇ı ‚Ò„‰‡ ÏÌÓ„Ó
ÚÛËÒÚÓ‚, ÔÓ‚Ó‰flÚÒfl Á‰ÂÒ¸ Ë ÏÂʉÛ̇Ó‰Ì˚ ÒÓÒÚflÁ‡ÌËfl.
80 ã‰ÌËÍ îÓÌË
ùÚÓ Ò‡Ï˚È Ó·¯ËÌ˚È ‰ÓÎËÌÌ˚È Î‰ÌËÍ ‚ àÚ‡ÎËË, ÔÎÓ˘‡‰¸ Â„Ó ÓÍÓÎÓ 13
Í‚.ÍÏ. ç‡ıÓ‰ËÚÒfl ÓÌ Ì‡ ÚÂËÚÓËË ç‡ˆËÓ̇θÌÓ„Ó è‡͇ ëÚÂθ‚ËÓ,
fl‚Îfl˛˘Â„ÓÒfl Ò‡Ï˚Ï ·Óθ¯ËÏ ÔËÓ‰Ì˚Ï Á‡Ôӂ‰ÌËÍÓÏ àÚ‡ÎËË. è‡Í
Ò·‚ËÚÒfl Ò‚ÓÂÈ ÙÎÓÓÈ Ë Ù‡ÛÌÓÈ, Í‡ÒÓÚÓÈ ‡Î¸ÔËÈÒÍÓ„Ó ÔÂÈÁ‡Ê‡, ·Óθ¯ËÏ
ÍÓ΢ÂÒÚ‚ÓÏ Î‰ÌËÍÓ‚ Ë „ÓÌ˚ı ‚Â¯ËÌ, χÌfl˘Ëı Ò͇ÎÓ·ÁÓ‚.
ÙÓÚÓ Ì‡ Á‡‰ÌÂÈ Ó·ÎÓÊÍÂ
ÉÓ‡ ÑËÒ„‡ˆËfl
ÇÂ¯Ë̇ ˝ÚÓÈ „Ó˚ ËÏÂÂÚ ÙÓÏÛ „Ë„‡ÌÚÒÍÓ„Ó ÓÒÚÓ„Ó ÍÎËÌ͇. Ç˚ÒÓÚ‡ „Ó˚
‰ÓÒÚË„‡ÂÚ 3700 Ï.

Como - the central square

Waterfall at Cremia (Lake Como)

This book has been created with the contribution of the Region of Lombardy
Realizzato con il contributo della Regione Lombardia
(d.g.r. n. 10185 del 06.08.02)
by: / da:

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Helicopter pilots:
Paolo Nazzari, Alberto Guerini, Stefano Lazzarini, Tedi Foppoli
The remaining (non aerial) photographs are from the following archives:
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The pictures of the Last Supper (Ultima Cena) are by permission of the Ministry for Heritage and Cultural
Activities
The literary texts of the following authors:
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and from Appletons’ Journal are extracts from "Making of America, University of Michigan, Digital Library
Production Service".
Excerpt from Italian Backgrounds by Edith Wharton reprinted by permission of the Estate of Edith Wharton
and the Watkins/Loomis Agency.

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