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Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar (2011), Industrialised Building System (IBS):

The Issue of Definition and Classification in IBS towards Open System in Malaysia (Edited by Asiah Abdul Rahim and Zulkefle Ismail), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Press

Industrialised Building System (IBS):

The Issue of Definition and Classification

Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar and Zuhairi Abd Hamid Construction Research Institute of Malaysia (CREAM), Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia (CIDB)

1.0

Introduction

One major hurdle for research in the area of construction industrialisation was to define the boundaries and establish clear basis of measurement. The terms used in construction industrialisation are ill defined, often interchangeably with other term and their precise definitions depend heavily on user’s experience and understanding, which vary from countries to countries. The lack of uniform definition and uncertainty in context and boundary contributed to the prejudices and misunderstanding. Many industrialised construction technologies coexist with conventional onsite work in hybrid construction. As such, the workable definition needs to be developed for the research fraternity and practitioners. Through many of the construction industrialisation terminologies are still in use, the term; Industrialised Building System (IBS) is widely used by the government, practitioners and researchers in Malaysia to represent industrialisation in construction. The term is defined by Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) as a construction technique in which components are manufactured in a controlled environment (on or off site), transported, positioned and assembled into a structure with minimal additional site works (CIDB, 2003). The term is however, cover very wide scope which include the application of onsite systems and one can not distinguished it properly with conventional practice. While other terms used to represent construction industrialisation are often relates to

Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar (2011), Industrialised Building System (IBS):

The Issue of Definition and Classification in IBS towards Open System in Malaysia (Edited by Asiah Abdul Rahim and Zulkefle Ismail), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Press

innovative solution, current definition by CIDB includes low- tech solutions and other of practices which already become common and not substituting conventional practices.

The terms and classifications provided by the CIDB were also misinterpreted as a system limited only for construction of buildings, while IBS can be interpreted as an approach or process used in making construction less labour-oriented and faster as well as fulfilling quality concern (Shaari and Ismail, 2003). T he broader view of IBS is about the changing of conventional mindset, championing human capital development, developing better cooperation and trust, promoting transparency and integrity (Shaari and Ismail, 2003). There is a consensus however that the move towards industrialisation of construction industry is a global phenomenon and not merely a local or isolated initiative. The definition and classification need to be evolved and incorporate with global views and understanding. The definition and classification of offsite, offsite construction, modern method of construction, offsite manufacturing, offsite production, pre- assembly and prefabrication, therefore are need to be examined. It gives a different perspective and enriches one understanding on IBS concept as whole.

T

  • 2.0 Definition issues

Industrialisation is not easy to define. It is necessary here to clarify exactly what is meant by industrialisation. Literatures give a variety of descriptions but little consensus is found. The International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB) linked industrialisation with the use of mechanical power and tools, the use of a computerised steering system and tools, production in a continuous process, continuous improvement of efficiency, standardisation of products, prefabrication, rationalisation, modularisation and mass production (CIB, 2010). The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2010) defined industrialisation as the process of industrialising or the fact of being industrialised, the

Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar (2011), Industrialised Building System (IBS):

The Issue of Definition and Classification in IBS towards Open System in Malaysia (Edited by Asiah Abdul Rahim and Zulkefle Ismail), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Press

convention of any organisation into an industry and it develops extensively with industries. Industrialisation in Built Environment means the industrial method employed referring especially to prefabrication, mechanisation and standardisation. From the perspective of construction, industrialisation is part of a wider modernisation process through the development of modern methods of production and technology systems, mainly factory production, where work is centrally organised and production operations are mechanised and focused on mass production (Lessing, 2006). Warszawski (1999) highlighted the fact that an industrialisation process is an investment in equipment, facilities and technology with the objective of maximising production output, minimising labour resources, and improving quality. Industrialisation has demonstrated a high capacity to reduce the costs, improve the quality and make complex products available to the vast majority of people.

Industrialised construction is a generic process of standardisation and rationalisation of the work processes in the industry to reach cost efficiency, higher productivity and quality (CIB, 2010). A more elaborate definition for industrialised construction is a change of thinking and practices to improve the production of construction to produce a high-quality, custom-built environment, through an integrated process, optimising standardisation, organisation, cost, value, mechanisation and automation (CIB, 2010). Another split in construction industrialisation strategies is between product industrialisation that focuses on the technological aspects of building and process industrialisation that is concerned about how parties are cooperating, contractually and informally (CIB, 2010). The industrialised system is defined as to build onsite with elements or components produced in series in plants. The components are thing like floors, walls, columns, beams, and roofs. They are then assembled and erected on the site and are properly joined to form the final units (Badir et al. 2002).

Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar (2011), Industrialised Building System (IBS):

The Issue of Definition and Classification in IBS towards Open System in Malaysia (Edited by Asiah Abdul Rahim and Zulkefle Ismail), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Press

One of the efforts made in construction industrialisation is Industrialised Building System (IBS). The term building system is defined by Warszawski (1999) as a set of interconnected elements that are joined together to enable the designated performance of building. A building system is also characterised as a set of interrelated elements that act together to enable designated performance of building. It may include various procedures (technological and managerial) for the production and assembling of these elements for this purpose (Sarja, 1998).

  • 3.0 Industrialised Building System (IBS): Existing

Definition

Though many of the prefabrication and industrialisation terminologies are still in use, IBS has become a term used to represent those terminologies due to the research context of the Malaysian construction industry. The term IBS is widely used by the government, practitioners and researchers in this country to represent industrialisation in construction. The term IBS is ill defined, often interchangeably with other terms like offsite and prefabrication, and their precise definitions depend heavily on the user’s experience and understanding. The lack of a uniform definition and the uncertainty in the context and boundaries of IBS have contributed to the prejudices and misunderstanding. Many industrialised construction technologies coexist with onsite work in hybrid construction and so demarcating what constitutes IBS practice is problematic. As such, a workable definition needs to be developed. To date, there are a few definitions by researchers who studied in this area previously that can be found through literatures. The term IBS was defined by Abdullah and Egbu (2009) as a method of construction developed due to human investment in innovation and on rethinking the best ways of construction work deliveries based on the level of industrialisation. The level of industrialisation in IBS can be classified as pre-building system, modern construction,

Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar (2011), Industrialised Building System (IBS):

The Issue of Definition and Classification in IBS towards Open System in Malaysia (Edited by Asiah Abdul Rahim and Zulkefle Ismail), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Press

advance automation and volumetric construction (Abdullah and Egbu, 2009). Furthermore, in Hassim et al. (2009), IBS is defined as an organisational-process continuity of production, implying a steady flow of demand, standardisation, integration of the different stages of the whole production process, a high degree of organisation of work, and mechanisation to replace human labour wherever possible.

Zulkefle (2007) defined IBS as a set of interrelated elements that act together to enable the designated performance of a building. In a wider sense, it may also include various procedures (technological and managerial) for the production and assembling of these elements for this purpose. Chung (2007) defined IBS as a mass production of building components, either in factory or at site, according to the specification with a standard shape and dimensions and the transporting of them to the construction site to be re-arranged to a certain standard to form a building. Rahman and Omar (2006) defined IBS as a construction system that utilises pre- fabricated components. The manufacturing of the components is systematically done using machines, formworks and other forms of mechanical equipment. The components are manufactured offsite and once completed will be delivered to construction sites for assembly and erection. Lessing et al. (2005) defined IBS as an integrated manufacturing and construction process with well-planned organisation for efficient management, preparation and control over resources used, activities and results supported by the use of highly developed components. The term is also defined as a new construction method that can increase the productivity and quality of work through the use of better construction machinery, equipment, materials, and extensive project planning (Haron et al. 2005).

The Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) has defined IBS as a construction technique in which components are manufactured in a controlled environment (on or off site),

Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar (2011), Industrialised Building System (IBS):

The Issue of Definition and Classification in IBS towards Open System in Malaysia (Edited by Asiah Abdul Rahim and Zulkefle Ismail), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Press

transported, positioned and assembled into a structure with minimal additional site works (CIDB, 2003). Furthermore, in Badir et al. (2002), IBS is defined as a concept of mass production of quality building by using new building systems and factory-produced building components. Trikha (1999) defined IBS as a system in which concrete components prefabricated at site or in factory are assembled to form a structure with minimum in situ construction. Earlier researchers like Parid (1997) defined IBS as a system which uses industrialised production techniques either in the production of components or assembly of the building or both. Esa and Nurudin (1998), in the first IBS colloquium in Malaysia, defined IBS as a continuum beginning from utilising craftsmen for every aspect of construction to a system that makes use of manufacturing production in order to minimise resource wastage and enhance value end users.

The earliest definition of IBS found in literature is a definition by Junid (1986) back in 1986. Junid (1986) defined IBS as a process by which the components of a building are conceived, planned and fabricated, transported and erected at site. The system includes a balanced combination between software and hardware components. The software element includes the system design, which is a complex process of studying the requirements of the end user, market analysis and the development of standardised components (Junid, 1986). All the above definitions emphasised prefabrication, off-site production, and mass production of building components as the main characteristic of IBS.

  • 4.0 Other Terms to Represent Industrialisation of

Construction

In the literature review, IBS is used interchangeably with other terms like offsite construction, prefabrication, offsite manufacturing, Modern Method of Construction (MMC) industrialised building and industrialised construction. Each terminology provides a rich historical account of the

Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar (2011), Industrialised Building System (IBS):

The Issue of Definition and Classification in IBS towards Open System in Malaysia (Edited by Asiah Abdul Rahim and Zulkefle Ismail), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Press

development of the concept. Nonetheless, regardless of the terms, the idea is the same, which is to move some effort away from the construction site to a more controlled environment of the manufacturing floor. Modern Method of Construction (MMC) is a term adopted in the United Kingdom as a collective description for both offsite-based construction technologies and innovative onsite technologies. The former represents prefabrication and manufacturing technology and the latter includes techniques such as thin-joint block work and tunnel- form construction (Goodier and Gibb, 2006). In definition, MMC includes both industrialised and non-industrialised innovation. Non-industrialised innovation is the use of an innovation method that has been seen in other industries including carpet reinforcement, metal shutters, core jump systems, double jumping cores, edge protection systems and service walls (BURA, 2005). The other term used to describe industrialised construction is prefabrication. Prefabrication is a manufacturing process that generally takes place at a specialised facility, in which various materials are joined to form a component part of the final installation (Tatum et al. 1986). Some prefabrication can be done onsite (onsite fabrication). CIB (2010) defined prefabrication as building, at factory, sub-assemblies or full modules which are quite similar to what is produced on a traditional construction site, often using the same processes and the same materials.

Offsite construction is a description of the spectrum, or part thereof, which is manufactured or assembled remotely from the building site prior to installation in their final position (Goodier and Gibb, 2006). In an offsite family, Offsite Construction (OSC), Offsite Manufacturing (OSM) and Offsite Production (OSP) are largely interchangeable terms which refer to that part of the construction process which is carried out away from the building site, such as in a factory or sometimes in specially created temporary production facilities close to the construction site (or field factories) (Goodier and Gibb, 2006). While the components are probably assembled onsite and offsite, preassembly literally means to “assemble before” and covers the manufacture and assembly (usually off-site) of

Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar (2011), Industrialised Building System (IBS):

The Issue of Definition and Classification in IBS towards Open System in Malaysia (Edited by Asiah Abdul Rahim and Zulkefle Ismail), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Press

buildings or parts of buildings earlier than they would traditionally be constructed onsite (Gibb and Isack, 2003). Those terminologies reveal a wide range of contextual issues which are associated with the definitions. Nonetheless, no previous research has explored the relationship between these terminologies.

  • 5.0 Classification and Categorisation Issues

Similar to the definitions, there exists in the literature a number of IBS categorisations. The categorisation provided by Kelly (1951, as cited in Pan, 2006) shows a comparatively comprehensive account of fabrication in an early context. It presents various degrees of prefabrication including pre- cutting, fabrication of panels, construction of volume closing sections and the manufacturing of a complete mobile dwelling unit. This concept is similar to more recent work by CIRIA (2004), Gibb (1999) and Gibb and Isack (2003) which shows the spectrum as depicted in Table 1.

Table 1: Levels of industrialised production and definition (Gibb, 1999)

Level 0

Basic Materials

With no pre-installation

Level 1

Component sub- assembly

assembly aspect Small sub-assemblies that are habitually assembled prior to installation

Level 2

Non-volumetric pre- assembly

Planar, skeletal or complex units made up from several individual components - and that are sometimes still assembled on-site in ‘traditional’ construction

Level 3

Volumetric pre-assembly

Pre-assembled units that enclose usable space – can be ‘walked into’ – installed within or onto other structures – usually fully finished internally

Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar (2011), Industrialised Building System (IBS):

The Issue of Definition and Classification in IBS towards Open System in Malaysia (Edited by Asiah Abdul Rahim and Zulkefle Ismail), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Press

Level 4

Modular building

Pre-manufactured buildings – volumetric units that enclose usable space but also form the structure of the building itself – usually fully finished

To further improve on the study of classification according to the level system, Gibb and Pendlebury (2005) suggested that it

is helpful to delineate the extent of offsite completion within each category in addition to the basic structure of the unit itself, and they provided a star system for this delineation: one star – no significant internal or external finishes applied in the factory; two stars – either internal or external finishes applied in the factory; and three stars – both internal and external finishes applied in the factory. One of the most important studies on industrialisation categorisation was the work by Roger-Bruno Richard (2005). He is arguing in his research that even if the large number of components is sub-assemblies, construction is still forever site-intensive handicraft. As a result, the degree of industrialisation should be an indicator to measure the level of industrialisation adoption in construction (Richard, 2005). The categorisation also represents the maturity of industrialisation adoption. Five degrees of industrialisation can be identified, mainly by extrapolating from what is going on in other industries such as manufacturing and automotive (CIB, 2010). The degree of industrialisation discussed in Richard’s research is shown in

Figure 2.

Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar (2011), Industrialised Building System (IBS):

The Issue of Definition and Classification in IBS towards Open System in Malaysia (Edited by Asiah Abdul Rahim and Zulkefle Ismail), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Press

Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar (2011), Industrialised Building System (IBS): The Issue of Definition and Classification in

Figure 2: Degree of industrialisation (Richard, 2005)

There are five degrees of industrialisation which are:

prefabrication, mechanisation, automation, robotic and reproduction. These are described as follows (Richard, 2005):

1. Prefabrication is a manufacturing process that generally takes place at a specialised facility, in which various materials are joined to form a component part of the final installation (Tatum et al. 1986). 2. Mechanisation comes in whenever machinery is employed to ease the workload of the labourer. 3. Automation is a situation when the tooling (machine) completely takes over the tasks performed by the labourer. 4. Robotics comprises the ability of the same tooling which has the multi-axis flexibility to perform diversified tasks by itself. This allows the mass-customisation concept. 5. Reproduction implies that the research and development of innovative processes are truly capable of simplifying the production process.

According to Richard, the first

four

degrees are still more

under the influence of the traditional methods of building. Prefabrication aims rather at the location of the production

Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar (2011), Industrialised Building System (IBS):

The Issue of Definition and Classification in IBS towards Open System in Malaysia (Edited by Asiah Abdul Rahim and Zulkefle Ismail), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Press

where the next three degrees (mechanisation, automation and robotics) aim at substituting labour with machineries (Richard, 2005). Reproduction, on the other hand, is a concept borrowed from the printing industry and it is an innovation capable of simplifying the multiplier of complex goods and delivering affordable, quality building to the vast majority of people (CIB, 2010). More recently, with specific reference to Richard’s work, CIB classified industrialised construction into contents and value creation based on the level of complexity and industrialisation (CIB, 2010).

Figure 3 shows the value creation of industrialised construction versus the type of systems used, as well as the level of standardisation. IBS can create the most value when the product undergoes individuality, integration and less standardisation in the form of modular construction and integrated elements. Increasing the individuality, content and spatiality of modules results in a reduction of the series sizes, while, on the other hand, increasing content and spatiality adds more monetary value due to rationalisation effects in the factory. Therefore, the value creation of industrialisation can only be established using robotised and automated manufacturing process which is different from current conventional practices (CIB, 2010).

Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar (2011), Industrialised Building System (IBS): The Issue of Definition and Classification in

Figure 3: Industrialisation value creation (CIB, 2010)

Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar (2011), Industrialised Building System (IBS):

The Issue of Definition and Classification in IBS towards Open System in Malaysia (Edited by Asiah Abdul Rahim and Zulkefle Ismail), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Press

More classic IBS classification can be traced in the work of Majzub (1997). IBS is classified based on systems and building materials. The classification is described in Table 2 as follows.

Table 2: IBS classification by Majzub (Majzub, 1997)

General

System

Production Material

System

Frame

Light Frame

Wood, large light gage

Systems

Medium Light Frame Heavy Frame

metals Metal, reinforced plastics, laminated wood

Panel

Light and Medium

Heavy steel, concrete Wood frame, metal frame

Systems

Weight Panel Heavy Panel (Factory Produced) Heavy Panel (Tilt Up-

(light gage) composite materials Concrete Concrete

Box

Produced On Site) Medium Weight Box

Wood frame, light gage

Systems

(Mobile)

metal composite

(Modules)

Medium Weight Box (Sectional) Heavy Box (Factory Produced) Heavy Box (Tunnel Produced On Site)

materials Wood frame, light gage metal composite materials Concrete Concrete

In the Malaysian context, the classification by the CIDB is widely used and well understood by scholars and practitioners. CIDB has classified the IBS systems into five categories as depicted in Table 3 (CIDB, 2003).

Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar (2011), Industrialised Building System (IBS):

The Issue of Definition and Classification in IBS towards Open System in Malaysia (Edited by Asiah Abdul Rahim and Zulkefle Ismail), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Press

Table 3: IBS classification (CIDB, 2003)

Classification

Descriptions

Precast

The most common group of IBS products is the precast

concrete

concrete elements; precast concrete columns, beams,

framed

slabs, walls, “3-D” components (e.g. balconies,

buildings

staircases, toilets, lift chambers, refuse chambers), lightweight precast concrete, as well as permanent concrete formworks

Formwork

Considered as one of the “low-level” or the “least

System

prefabricated” IBS, as the system generally involves site casting and is therefore subject to structural quality control, the products offer high-quality finishes, and fast construction with less site labour and material

Steel Framing System

requirement. Commonly used with precast concrete slabs, steel columns and beams, steel framing systems have always been the popular choice and used extensively in the fast-track construction of skyscrapers. Recent developments in this type of IBS include the increased usage of light steel trusses consisting of cost-effective profiled cold-formed channels and steel portal frame systems as alternatives to the heavier traditional hot- rolled sections

Prefabricated

The system consists of timber building frames and

Timber

timber roof trusses. While the latter are more popular,

Framing

timber building frame systems also have their own

System

niche market; offering interesting designs from simple dwelling units to buildings requiring high aesthetical values such as chalets for resorts.

Blockwork

The construction method of using conventional bricks

System

has been revolutionised by the development and usage of interlocking concrete masonry units (CMU) and lightweight concrete blocks. The tedious and time- consuming traditional brick-laying tasks are greatly simplified by the usage of these effective alternative solutions.

Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar (2011), Industrialised Building System (IBS):

The Issue of Definition and Classification in IBS towards Open System in Malaysia (Edited by Asiah Abdul Rahim and Zulkefle Ismail), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Press

  • 6.0 IBS: product, process or system?

The researcher observed that IBS could be either the product or process. The definition captured and discussed in this paper revealed that IBS is not necessarily restricting its scope to the final product which is a system but mainly involves the processes which lead to the production of the system and its construction application. Thus, the answer either IBS is a product, process or system is heavily depends on its context and unit analysis of the observer. In general, a review on IBS definitions classified IBS into two categories; IBS as a method, approach and process and IBS as a product, system and technology. Based on the literature search, the majority of scholars defined IBS as a method, approach and process. However, there are also authors who defined IBS as a product, system and technology particularly from an earlier scholar in this field including the definitions provided from notable researchers in Sarja (1998) and Warszawski (1999). Thus, the important for both definitions are not discounted. Therefore, IBS can be a product, process and system based on the research context and observer’s perspective.

  • 7.0 IBS as innovation in construction

The construction industry is commonly characterised as one of that is labour intensive with low level of innovation. Innovation in this sense is not only the invention as per say, but also the diffusion (acceptation and adoption) (CIB, 2010). One could argue that IBS and innovation are two similar concepts as mentioned in Pan (2006). (In the case of Pan (2006) the term used to describe industrialisation in construction is offsite). Pan argued that one can adopt industrialised construction as similar as one should treat an innovation. It is based on the understanding of the concept of innovation itself. It has been widely accepted that 'newness' is one of the basic elements of innovation (Cripps, 2002). Rogers (2003) defined innovation as an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption. He later added that

Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar (2011), Industrialised Building System (IBS):

The Issue of Definition and Classification in IBS towards Open System in Malaysia (Edited by Asiah Abdul Rahim and Zulkefle Ismail), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Press

another element of innovation is successful exploitation of new ideas. Egbu and Young (1998) defined innovation as the successful introduction, application and exploitation, within a role, group or organisation, of ideas. Pan (2006) argued in his thesis that IBS and innovation is a two concept, both can be interpret as products and processes, new to the unit of adoption and involve risks in its process of adoption. Similarly, both have no absolute guarantee to be successful or desirable (Pan, 2006). He argued later that not all IBS are innovative vice versa but both are in the same context when “newness” set to be introduced. As such, the adoption of IBS as mentioned in CIB (2010) should relate to the accumulation of knowledge and technologies in construction process from various areas in the course of time and can be related to the concept of innovation. To sum up, the understanding on innovation characteristics is important in order to introduce new technologies and processes of IBS.

  • 8.0 IBS: A working definition

Drawing on the existing body of knowledge analysis on definitions from previous scholars and consideration from above discussion, a working definition for IBS has been

developed. IBS is defined as, “An innovative process of building construction using concept of mass-production of industrialised systems, produced at the factory or onsite within controlled environments, it includes the logistic and assembly aspect of it, done in proper coordination with thorough planning and

integration”. It literally means that those parts of building that are repetitive but difficult, time consuming, labour intense to cost at site are design and detailed as standardised components at factory. The definition also emphasised on coordination between design, manufacturing and construction. It is important to note that in this research, IBS involves onsite casting using innovative and clean mould technologies (steel, aluminium and plastic).

Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar (2011), Industrialised Building System (IBS):

The Issue of Definition and Classification in IBS towards Open System in Malaysia (Edited by Asiah Abdul Rahim and Zulkefle Ismail), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Press

9.0 Conclusion

The term IBS is invented to move away from the typical paradigm of prefabricated systems. This paper proposed the definition, discussed IBS classification and its degree of industrialisation. Based on the above compilation the following conclusions have been derived:

IBS should be seen as innovation in construction. The innovation agenda has been promoted worldwide as in industrialised construction. It is imperative that IBS is seen as an evolution of construction using new and innovative techniques rather than a revolution.

The classification of IBS should be expanded to cater the scope of volumetric (modular) and hybrid construction. For hybrid construction, IBS is not to be seen as a threat to traditional methods. Both methods should be able to work in tandem and improve their processes collectively. The sharing of best practice between the two approaches is essential for the continued successful development of both construction methods.

IBS should move up the degree of industrialisation from prefabrication to reproduction through innovation. The mass-customisation concept which is vital to open building system agenda can only be achieved through

the

adoption

of

industrialisation.

automation

in

the

level

of

The more advanced IBS is in the level of industrialisation, the more roles IBS has to be involved in project life cycle. The reproduction level of industrialisation will involve the whole project life cycle from planning to maintenance. IBS can be seen as a solution to the whole project life cycle if only, it can achieve reproduction level of industrialisation

Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar (2011), Industrialised Building System (IBS):

The Issue of Definition and Classification in IBS towards Open System in Malaysia (Edited by Asiah Abdul Rahim and Zulkefle Ismail), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Press

The workable definition has been proposed in this paper to engage positive debate into it and to obtain constructive reaction from practitioners and researchers. It is also hoped that the definition will enhance our understanding of IBS.

  • 10.0 Acknowledgement

The author would like to acknowledge Natasha Dzulkalnine for the editorial work.

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Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar (2011), Industrialised Building System (IBS):

The Issue of Definition and Classification in IBS towards Open System in Malaysia (Edited by Asiah Abdul Rahim and Zulkefle Ismail), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Press

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Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar (2011), Industrialised Building System (IBS):

The Issue of Definition and Classification in IBS towards Open System in Malaysia (Edited by Asiah Abdul Rahim and Zulkefle Ismail), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Press

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