Rina Febrina Sarie 2010120018 Section D

1. Questions: a) identify the 5 major factors of teaching the three different age groups. b) briefly describe the dos and don'ts in teaching each group.

Five Major Factors of Teaching Intellectual Development

Children According to Piaget (1972) children (up to the age of about 11) are still in an intellectual stage which is called “concrete operation”. Rules in abstract term should be avoided. Don‟t explain grammar using terms like “present progressive”. Patterns need more repetition Children are focused on the here and now. Needs a variety of activities. Teacher needs to be animated, lively, and enthusiastic about the subject matter. A sense of humor will a go a long way in keeping children laughing and learning. Pepper your lesson with physical activity, such as play games, TPR. Sensory aids help children to internalize concepts Facial features, gestures and body language will help children to remember Children are so sensitive and their ego are still being shaped. It means

Age Group Teenager Some sophisticated intellectual processing is increasingly possible around the age of 12. Using logical thinking therefore if a learner is attending to self, to appearance, being accepted, sexual thoughts, the intellectual task may suffer

Adult More able to handle abstract rules and concepts.

Attention Span

Lengthening as a result of intellectual maturation, but once again with many diversion present in a teenagers‟ life, those potential attention span can easily be shortened

Have longer attention span for material that may not be intrinsically interesting to them

Sensory input

Varieties of sensory input are still important but again, increasing capacities for abstraction lessen the essential nature of appealing all five senses

It is not always be as varied with adults, but one of the secrets of lively adult classes is their appeal to multiple senses

Affective factors

Ego, self image, and self esteem are sensitive factor in this age. Teacher‟s

Often bring a modicum of general self-confidence-self esteem into a

Adult   Do remember even though adults cannot express complex thinking in the new language. Do make sense of humor will a go a long way in keeping children laughing and learning. and Adult. Teens    Do keep self-esteem high of teens by avoiding embarrassment of students Do explore teens‟ talents and strengths Don‟t give the complex material c. Teens. using “care taker”. meaningful language Children are less willing to have an overload of language that is neither authentic nor meaningful. . a teacher can take temporary digressions to dissect and examine isolated in linguistic properties as long as based on context b. So authentic material is so important Authentic. Show respect to them Don‟t treat adults like children by calling them “kids”. Do give your students as many opportunities as possible to make choices. Children     Don‟t explain grammar using terms like “present progressive”. they are intelligent grown-up with mature cognition. meaningfulness are of course still highly important. Teacher should be patient and supportive to build their self esteem Authentic.there are a lot of potential barriers to learn the language. Do‟s and Don‟ts in teaching each group . Story lines. and talking down to them. role is to keep their self esteem classroom Secondary school students are becoming adult like in their ability to make those occasional from “here and now”. Children. but in adult language teaching. real life conversation. a. familiar situation and character. Language needs to be firmly context embedded. what they will do in and out classroom don‟t discipline adults in the same way like children b.

wild boar. Sources : http://www. one look from them might render you speechless. Authentic material . are a sight indeed. have no need to fly and cast no magic spells. and clean blue seas.2. Rinca and Padar. In the wild. mangrove forests. KNP has a rich and amazing underwater sea biotica. wild buffalo. the real life dragons. And still.At least 2500 Komodos live in this area. Divers claim that Komodo waters are one of the best diving sites in the world.321 km2. they stalk a victim. monkeys. KNP was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986.travel/en/destination/106/komodo-national-park . It has fascinating underwater scenery. Their habitat has beautiful panoramic views of savannas. beautiful corals. The Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is an endangered species which can only be found in the Komodo National Park (KNP) in East Nusa Tenggara (NTT). One bite and that's what it usually takes. and numerous smaller islands together totaling 603 km2 of land. The park includes three major islands.indonesia. white beaches. usually a weak or injured one. Gigantic. In this area. 70 types of sponges. The total size of Komodo National Park is presently 1. What makes them intimidating is the fact that they are a patient predator. After following the victim for a while. there are four reading texts about tourism destination Komodo National Park : Into The Heart of The Dragons Real dragons spurt no fire. the lizard-like creatures are about two or three meters in length. and seaweeds as a home for thousands of fish species. green turtles and various types of sharks and stingrays. Because of the unique and rare nature of this animal. snakes. Despite of their sheer size and appearance. rain forests. These komodos. 10 types of dolphins. Large dragons are usually three meters long and weigh up to 90 kg. you can also find horses. Proposed extensions of 25 km2 of land (Banta Island) and 479 km2 of marine waters would bring the total surface area up to 2. the komodos will devour the dying prey. sometimes up to several days' time. and various types of birds. Komodo. 6 types of whales. You can find 385 species of beautiful corals. they are not active hunters.817 km2. deer. They can easily weigh about 165 kilograms.

The territory within the islands of the Four Kings is enormous. divers can explore vertical underwater walls. and history.travel/en/destination/248/raja-ampat . Once they took their flight to the bird head of the island of Papua everything changed as they embarked on a diving tour of a lifetime. It‟s common to hear people praise God as they take in the remarkable scenery. like nature. these fishermen are closer to the Moluccas. These are very popular and offering these sweets is considered polite and a good way to win an instant smile. According to a report developed by The Nature Conservancy and Conservation International. In many respects. Misool (which is home to ancient rock paintings). Raja Ampat or „Four Kings‟. In the Raja Ampat islands. some of these travelers had been at a deafening corner of a tourist trap in Bali. Underwater enthusiasts flock to this region because it offers the world‟s best marine sights.8 million acres of land and sea. home to 540 types of corals. The local fishermen here are accustomed to foreigners and are friendly. more than 1. indicating that they have arrived at one of the most fantastic diving sites. or social chatting and exchanging funny stories while chewing Pinang.Raja Ampat : Ultimate Underwater Expedition The roaring engines fixed to a large wooden boat are finally quiet. Nothing can be heard but the rifting little waves. “Disini bagus!”. covering 9. on this tour several divers were well equipped and looked advanced. this guide is just a simple fisherman. Two days earlier. Native birds hop on the tip of a small tree in one of the deserted islands in the distance. Sources : http://www. lapping against the vibrant paint on the sides of the vessel that gracefully slows down. On other days. is the name given to these islands and comes from a local myth. The fishermen usually eat this snack during Para-para Pinang. The four major islands found here are Waigeo. and Batanta. Salawati. around 75% of the world‟s species live here. especially when offered pinang (betel nuts) or some sweet candies.indonesia. These are the awesome experiences you will find in Raja Ampat. When divers first arrive here their excitement is palpable. The thrill of drift diving is another great challenge. This makes it the most diverse living library for world‟s coral reef and underwater biota. Others prefer to remain in silence taking in the overwhelming sight of so many islands with crystal clear water that softly brushes over the white sandy beaches. says the friendly local guide who had been appointed by the tour operator who runs an eco-lodge in Raja Ampat. Meanwhile. culture.000 types of coral fish and 700 types of mollusks.

Kamadhatu (the world of desire). The whole monument itself resembles a giant stupa. the temple sits majestically on a hilltop overlooking lush green fields and distant hills. Historians suggest that the name of Borobudur comes from the Sanskrit „Vihara Buddha Uhr‟ or the „Buddhist monastery on the hill‟. The temple is decorated with stone carvings in bas-relief representing images from the life of Buddha.travel/en/destination/233/borobudur . an ancient site widely considered to be one of the world‟s seven wonders. but seen from above it forms a mandala.460 narrative relief panels on the wall and the balustrades. The temple has remained strong even through ten centuries of neglect. the temple‟s design in Gupta architecture reflects India's influence on the region. This monument is both a shrine to the Lord Buddha and a place for Buddhist pilgrimage. As visitors begin their journey at the base of the temple. Built in the 9th century during the reign of the Syailendra dynasty. unsurpassed in artistic merit. The great stupa at the top of the temple sits 40 meters above the ground. buried under volcanic ash. they make their way to the top of the monument through the three levels of Budhist cosmology. The architecture and stonework of this temple has no equal. After a visit here you will understand why it is Indonesia‟s most visited tourist attraction and a famous icon of Indonesia‟s cultural heritage. The ten levels of the temple symbolize the three divisions of the religion‟s cosmic system.672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues.indonesia. Commentators claim that this is the largest and most complete ensemble of Buddhist reliefs in the world. In the 1970‟s the Indonesian Government and UNESCO worked together to restore Borobudur to its former majesty The restoration took eight years to complete and today Borobudur is one of Indonesia and the world‟s most valuable treasures. decorated with 2. It covers an enormous area. This main dome is surrounded by 72 Buddha statues seated inside perforated stupa. The monument is a marvel of design. As visitors walk to the top the monument guides the pilgrims past 1. It was rediscovered in 1815. measuring 123 x 123 meters. yet there are enough indigenous scenes and elements incorporated to make Borobudur uniquely Indonesian. Located on the island of Java. And it was built without using any kind of cement or mortar! The structure is like a set of massive interlocking Lego blocks held together without any glue. Sources : http://www. Rupadhatu (the world of forms) and Arupadhatu (the world of formlessness).Borobudur : A Wonder of Indonesia History The magnificent Borobudur temple is the world‟s biggest Buddhist monument. This awe inspiring monument is truly a marvel.

The most attractive view is the steep vertical sloppy coral reef that plunges down as deep as 25-50 meters. moving to the rhythm of the waves? In the Bunaken Marine Park. For those who enjoy scuba diving. With about 20 dive spots to choose from. and frolic joyfully while admiring the sea creatures. Siladen and Mantehage. dominated by edge ridges and block ridges of rocks. Within the Bunaken Marine Park. goat head (Cassis cornuta). amongst which are the locally known gusimi horse fish (Hippocampus). The journey from Manado takes around 40 minutes. nautilus (Nautilus pompillius) and tunikates/ascidian. ila gasi (Scolopsis bilineatus) and others.08 km² island in the Bay of Manado. Sources : http://www.000 rupiahs per person per visit. yellowtailed lolosi (Lutjanus kasmira). visitors can see various strange and colourful marine life along its sea bed. situated in the north of the island of Sulawesi. capital of North Sulawesi. To reach this park. That way you can explore the Park to its fullest. you can take a motorboat. Divers may also meet mollusk like the giant kima (Tridacna gigas). this is a great place to be. Make sure to visit Bunaken during its best season between May to August. and you can also get a glimpse of sea life here. The marine Park around Bunaken is part of the National Park that also includes the ocean around the island of Manado Tua – or Old Manado. you will encounter a real “mermaid”. Bunaken is an 8. divers will have the chance to swim below the sea. The translucent waters of the Bunaken seas enable people to clearly view numerous sea biota. Indonesia.travel/en/destination/33/bunaken . Bunaken forms part of the administrative city of Manado . Feast your eyes on 91 types of fish found in the Bunaken National Park.Bunaken : Breathtaking Underwater Life Ever fancy yourself being a mermaid? Being able to swim along with other creatures of the sea .indonesia. Entrance fee is 25. goropa (Ephinephelus spilotoceps and Pseudanthias hypselosoma). the white oci (Seriola rivoliana). There are 13 species of coral reefs in this park.

Each of text also can be applied for high school student in XI graders. in this method students will make the interesting outcomes like flayer for tourism destination after they read the text. The lesson plan is attached 5. In this occasion. Cooperative learning is sometimes thought to be synonymous with collaborative learning. or adults and in what level of proficiency. The other advantages from this text are students will know more about some of tourism places in Indonesia and it is one of way to introduce the tourism for teenagers right now. and discourse characterizes reading material as students read paragraph and short. Furthermore. Of course. In my opinion. These authentic texts above are applicable for teens which have intermediate level. There will be four groups and each of them will get reading text about tourism places. Each of text also can be applied for high school student in XI graders. Identify the text whether it is appropriate for children. this text will be interesting for them because it is all about tourism places for travelling. I choose the task based language because task that is given ultimately point learners beyond the forms of language alone to real-world context. These authentic texts above are applicable for teens which have intermediate level. this lesson plan also use cooperative learning method to engage students work togther with their groups. 4. each of group will get different text. in reading and writing goals for intermediate level can be increasing complexity in terms of length. They will make it as persuasive as they can. . grammar.3. According to Brown. students will make the flyer for tourism destination and they will design it coperatively. Intermediate students can use the skimming and scanning to read the text and to get the main points. a. An authentic text with the description of appropriateness for certain groups of age and proficiency levels. Then. teenagers. b. Students will contribute each other to design the flayer which has main points of the reading text. The teaching method that is used in this lesson plan is task based language and cooperative learning.

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