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-l$ ---, -^l-$


{-^lZ l GMSP-y K ^-r -H- JMS -l$ --$r$. -MS -l-l- Al
M>l$. -l$-$ -^l-y--MS o-V--MS, -]l-- ]ls {l-MS --l$-- r$ ]l*]l-]l#-yl
^l-$, M>-MS---$ M>--]l$-]l#-l$--. D {l-MS oV--MS --l$-$ (G-l-]l -l {$-$-, >-Ol$-]l -MS- u-*-$, l MSZ-$-r-$ {--]l-^l i]l-]l- ]l]l--) ]l -l-l- -l$- --]l
yl$-l-l- -]l. JMS MSV> ^l-s {MS--Z f-VS ]l*$- ]l -l$-$
--$--. D ]l*$MS$ M> Ayl]l#$ *^lyl ]l M>$ W]lyl,
i]lOlll l]lyl ]l lylMSPyl ]ls. "Nature protects if she is protected" Al
]l$yl. M>st {MS S A ]l$]l M>yl$l$. {MS A]l$^ M> >^lMS*yll]l
ltZ r$tM ]l$]l M>MS$s D l$ {]ll]l$ ^ ]lMS$ lWY^l]l^l$a.
*MS-$, l$-]l$-$, $-$-$, AW--{-]l*--$, *--$ (-Myl^l-$-$ -W
ylr), ]l--$ MS*-yl-, -$-]l -r-]l ]ls {MS- Ol---$ AMS--l$-V> -_
F^l- A-MS ]lt- ({--, Bt ]lt-$-) MSY--. ]l*]l-]l#-yl ^l- ]l $l$-]l#- VS]l$-]l
]l*yl, * --]l-- lyl-MSP-yl, Ayl-]l#- *--]l ]l O-]l ]l--l MS]lyl
A-]l-t H-yl-r ]l MS$-]l#, Ar$--l$-$, B- M-l ]ls ---]lV> -_- A
MSY^l {]l-l GMS$P-l. ]l*]l]l#yl ^l-Z A {]l*-l-MS--Ol$ E{VS--l.
{---^l V> 1992 ]l$_ 2001 ]l$l M>Z --l -l$- ]l ]l$-_-]l -Z
*MS- ]l 16 >l, -MS-$-]l# ]l 45 >l, ]lyl-V>-$- ]l 10 >l, ]l--l- ]l 12 >l ]l$^l---*-$. D {]l*--- {]l-l-]l$ --_-]l IMS->-f--$- 1990&2000 l->-- -l$
-- l>V> {MS-s_. D M>Z A l>-$ --l$- ---MS$ ]l$-{VS {--MS-]l$
*_ MS ^l*-- *__. ]l$]l l-Z- 35 >-$, MS{l---l {--Z 25
-l$--MS$ VS$]l#-l$. Cyl-*-MS$ E]l 7517 MS.$. --Q-Z -# 5700 MS.$. yl-]l#-
l$-]l$-MS$- VS$-$ A]l-M>- E. B{l-{-l-, l$---yl$, #l$-^le-, J-, Ayl-]l*-l M--
]l#-$ GMS$P-]l-V> l$-]l$ -]l yl$-l$--. {MS- Ol--- ]l l iyl-Z 2 >l ]lt
s-$-l$-l- {^l MS$ A^l-. 1980&2010 ]l$l M>Z {MS- l -l$- ]l lZ
-# 1,43,039 ]l$ -]l$--^-$. M S- ]l$ >--l$--*-$. C-OVS-l 2015 s-MS
{^l 5- M-r ]l$ >-]l-- --$--]l$ --^- Er$l- A^l- l>-$.

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1970 ]l$_ -l-Z -_-]l {-]l ---l$-$


l$]l$
]ll
1979 AMt 29,

{l
J

1977 ]l]l 19,


1999 AMt 29, 30

B{l {l
J

*MS
1991 AMt 21,

ElM>

1993, t,

l$

1997 l$ 22,
1997 ]l*a 29,
2001 f]l]l, 26,

fN
^ll*
$g,VS$f>

*$
1991 kO ,

1993 BVS$t,

V>y

1998 BVS $t 18

]l$

]ll$
1978 ]ll$

]lt {]ll
l$]l$, V>$ ]l 10000 ]l$
]l$^$.
]l 20000 ]l$ ]l$l$l yz $
l$]l$, V>$ ]l 9000 ]l$ ]l$^$.
18 $$]l ]l$ >l$*$.
6.6 {]ll ]l_a]l *MS ]l 723 ]l$
]l$^$.
# 8000 ]l$ ]l$^$. ]lMS
l$*$ A]l]l$*.
39 ]l$ ]l$l$lyz$.
100 ]l$ ^l*$.
l MSs GMS$P]l ]l$ VSl i]l#*$
]lMS l$*$ A]l]l$*.
300 ]l$ ^l*$ yl$ ]l$
l]l$*.
500 ]l$ ]l$l$lyz$ 200 C$
l. yl$z 5 MS.$. l$ NV> l
210 ]l$ ^l*$. ^ {V>]l*$
{l]l$*.

D>]l >{t$ 3800 ]l$ ]l$l$l yz$ AMS llZ


B$$ ]lt*$.
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1994 ]ll$

2008
$$
2004 yl 26

A, A$^l
2000 MSs GMS$P]l ]l$ ]l$^$
{l, g, MS, l ]l$ {l]l$*$.
El {l, V,
VS$f>, f]l M>,
M ]ll$, 434 ]l$ ^l*$.
l$yl$, Ayl]l* # 10 l ]l$ ^l*$. S
M ]l#$, MS ]l$ {l]l$*$.

-l$-$ -_-]l l>-l O-]l l-]l MS f-V>--]l MSs GMS$P-]l ]lt


f$-VS$-l$. -l$--]l$ N-V> -^l--MS---, ]ll$-V> -VS-st Ml-]l--MS$ ]lt-
lWY^l-]l-^l$a. >a-l l>-Z --l$-$ ]ll$-V>-l -VS-rt-yl, A fW]l--yl$ l-lVS-]l
^l st-Ol$-]l ]l]l-- ]l $ -l$--]l$ ]l$--]llV> Gl$-Pr$--$. Al$-MS ]l$]l
lZ MS*y -l$ --, -- M MS{l {$-l 2005 yl- 23]l National Disaster
Management Act-2005]l$ *_. D ^l-rt {-M>- MS{l, > -Z -MS -l$
- MS{-$ National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), State Disaster Management
Authority (SDMA) H>-r$ ^l>- $. r$ National Institute of Disaster Management ]l$ MS*y
H>-r$ ^l>-$. C -l$ --MS$ M>-]l ]l*]l-]l ]l]l-$- A-]l--, ]l$- #-l-,
S-, A]l-V>--]l M>-{MS-]l*-$ -*-^l-yl ]ls- -^l--yl$-l$. >-$, MS{l---l {-Z
Eyl Disaster Management Centres > -l$ -- ^l-yl$-l$. Cs]l- A- s -S-Z
-l$-$-, -- JMS {-]l AV> ]l*-yl C G {-]l-l l-^l$-MS$. M>st D
-jMS$t-O N--V> A]l-V>--]l Es ]l$_ --$ ^-^l$a. Al-M>-MS l$$ _]l#yl$
]l$]l s ]l$--]llV> G-l$P]l-^l$a. Al$-MS l$--O -]l$-{VS ]l*-^- $ M-.
-l-Z -l$-MS$ Z]l-$ {l
-# 59 >l *-VS *-MS--MS$ VS$-$ A]l-M>- E.
]l-l--MS$ VS$-$ {l
& 12 >l
l$--]l$--MS$ VS$--$ {l
& 8 >-l
70 >l -*-$ MS$-]l# yl-l {l.
40 $-$-l M>t-$ ]l-l--MS$ VS$$ A]lM> E.
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--l$ As?
A-MS--l$-V> -_ K ]l*-f, ]l]l--Z A- B, { ]lt-, *-]l-MS B---]l-]l$
MSY^l $MS- $-r-l -l$. -l$ A-l l des (bad), aster (star) Al - MS--MS ]l
H-yl]l Desastre Al {_ l ]l$_ ]l_a. ]l- "l$-t ]lS-{l'(bad star). -l$ {-]lV>
{MS- Ol--l, ---l$ -]l-l ({-]l*---MS VS$-$ B {l ---), MS--s-O B---yl
Er$.
-Ol---l(Hazard) As?
B, { ]lt MSY^l MS E]l {]l*-l-MS--Ol$-]l -f ]l*]l-]l -M>--MS-- --l
O l - - l . Hazard Al l 'hasard' Al #>l]l {_ l az-zahr Al A--MS l ]l$_
]l_a. ]l- {]l*-l-MS- ---. Ol--- {]l-l -VS M -l$-V> ]l*$-l$. C
{-]lV> yl$ M>-$. A..
1. {MS- l-Ol$]l(Natural Disasters) 2. ]l*]l-]l- -l-Ol$]l(Manmade Disasters)

yl$z {]l*--$(Accidents)
Ar$---l$-$(Communicable Diseases)
AW {]l*--$(Fire Accidents)
-$-]l -r--$(Chemical Explosions)
-$(Wars)
E{VS--l(Terrorism)
-$--(Civil wars)
r -_e-(Crop Loses)

*MS-$(Earthquakes)
]l-l-$(Floods)
$-$-$(Tsunami)
l$-]l$-$(Cyclone)
AW---l El-l--$(Valcanoes)
MS$-]l#(Drought)
*--$ (Myl-^l--$-$-,

]l$^l$ l--$ -W --yl-r)(Landslides)

1. {MS- -Ol----$: o-V--MS, ---]l-- M>-- ]ls -f l-W--*- ]l MS-VS Ol---


{MS- Ol----$. E---MS$ *MS-$, l$-]l$-$, $--$-$, AW---l El-l--$, ]ll$, Myl-^l--$-$ -W--yl-r, MS$-]l#, -d-yl --yl-$ GMS$P-]l M>]l-yl ll-O-]l-.

2.]l*-]l-]l --l Ol----$: D Ol---$ ]l*]l-]l#-yl ^l-$, --S ]l H-yl--.


E----MS$ yl$z {]l*--$, A-W {]l*--$, ---]l-- M>$-, A-]l-t, -$-]l
-r--$, -$, $-- llO]l. Ol$ A ^l {l
M>]l$$ BV> MS M>$V> ]lYMS^$,
1.oVMS l Ol$(geological hazards): *MS$, $$$, AW l
Ell$, Myl^l$$ Wylr, MS$]l#, `ylyl$ GMS$P]l M>]lyl
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2. f- --]l-- l-Ol$]l: l$]l$$, ]l-l-$, sZ-y-$, -MS-$-]l#, lyl-V>-$-$, ]lyl-VSyl ]l


]ls- ]l$^l$ ^l-$-$ -W-ylr.
3. >-]l-- l-Ol$-]l-:(Environmental hazards) Ayl-]l#-$ ]l^l-yl, -]l-- M>-$-,
Gy-$-$ -W--]l-yl, d-yl--yl- {MS-]l$-.
4. -i-]l l -l$-$:(Biological hazards) A-r$l$-$, B- MS-$--l M>]l-yl, fl$-]l# ]l$_ l$- .
5.-{>-$-MS, -$-]l -r--$:(Chemical hazards) -$--$ l$-]l-yl-r, ^l]l-$
GMS$P-]l-V> J-MS--]l-yl, A$ l$-r-]l-$, -{>-$-MS --r--$ ll-O-]l-.
6. {]l*-l l-Ol$-]l-: yl$, AW {]l*--$, ]l--$ MS*-yl, Ayl-]l#-Z -]l$r-$, -$- --yl.
7. $-MS Ol---$:(Social hazards) rt--Z- ]l-MS--yl-Z ^ll ^l- $-MS$--]l-yl ]l
]l-l-$ >]l-yl, Ar$--l$-$ {-yl.

--l$ -]l-l-(Vulnerability)?
As K ]l*-f, ]l]l-, >-, oV--MS {lZ Eyl V>$--yl-l-W-]l
{]l*---MS ---l$-MS$ VS$-$ A]l-M>- Eyl ----. C B {lZ ]l-^l {f- BM- S
--, ]l$-$, l--MS, -S->--l, O-]l A]l-V>---]l MS--]l-yl, rt--MS--, f- $-VS$-l-O B---yl Er$. -- yl$ M>-$-V> ]lY-MS-^-$.

1. o-MS -l$ -]l-l: {]l*-l ]l {--l-]l$-$ A]l-M>- E]l o-MS >- -


]l]l- --]l*-f.

2. --]l*-h-MS&B-MS -l$ -]l-l: {f- i]l-]l--, B-MS -- MS*y -l$--]l$ MSY-$.


^-]l$ {f-$ ]l#-]l-MS$ VS$-$ Zl-r$t {-Z ]l -----MS {-Z, AW
{--]l*--$ l$^l$V> fVS {-Z ]l--$s-$. -]l- {]l*-l --- $-V> -MS
Z]l-]l#--$.
MS--s (-]l$--l -&-Capacity-)?
-l$ -_--]l--yl$ ]lMS$-$ ]l--$ MS--VS Eyl S--$. A Ol-V> Gl$-P]l-yl, -^l-VS--VS-yl, l-V> M$-M-]l-yl ]ls-. C {f- B--MS, ]l*-h-MS A]l-V>--]l
Ol#O B---yl Er$.

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E--]l$-]l (Mitigation-):
-l$ -_-]l l>-l {]l-l-]l$, ]l$ -l$-MS$ -Z-]l-$ --- l-WY-_ l-V>
]l*]l-$ -MS >VS--VS-yl. E----MS$ MS$-]l# yl-l {-Z s- ^l$-M-l ^l- ]l
--l$-Z >Z-$- s Gl-yl- G-l$-P-]l-yl. l$]l$ ]l ]lt]l l$MS$ $Sl
{Z #]l>, #]l> MSY^lyl.

-l$ -- As?
K -l$-MS$ ]ll$, -l$ -_-]l--yl$, ---l$ l>-l $-M---]l ^l-$,
M>-MS--- -]l*---l$ -l$ --. -Z -l-l, {l-]l, E--]l$-]l, #]l- ->-,
#]l--- ]ls- Es-.

ylg-t- {l-l-: -l$- ]l ]lt--$ {--l-]l$-$ {l.

ylg-t- {z-l-: -l$ -^l-y--MS ]ll$ lV> Eyl $-M---]l g{VS-l-$, ^l-$.

-]l- g (Community): K ---t {lZ (-{V>-]l$, rt-) --MSV> VS$# Eyl


JMS i]l-]l -]l MS-W ]l-^l {f- ]l-.

{-l-]l$ l-MS$-$-(First Responders): HOl- -l$-MS$ lr-l Z]l$--$, A-VS B -l$-MS$


{l-]l$V> _ $MS -$, {$-l -$, ^l$-M-MS-]l-l lW-]l E--]l$-]l
M>-{MS-]l*-$ ^l-st--$.

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l$MS$ M>$, ]l$,


]lt ^l$

l$ VS$_ l r*l Es. ]l$ D l$]l$ ^l]l* As MSt M>


O]l {MS, ll MSY Es s l$]l$ ^ ]lMS$ lWY^l]l^l$a. VSl M
]ll>$V> l$$ Gl$Pr$ CsMS O]l {MS, ]l${VS ]l]l MS]lyl ]l
AMS ]lt ^l^l*$. VS$f>, M>Z _]l *MS, JZ _]l
]ll$, l$yl$, B{l{lZ _]l $$, ]l$l{lZ _]l Z V>
l$r]l, 1943Z V>Z ]l_a]l MS$]l#, V{ O$ $r]l... l$ HOlll ]lt ]l*{l
{]ll. Gl$MS l$$ $. s ]l BMS, ]l*hMS, ]l]lO Eyl {$,
s Gl$MP]lyMS HOl$ {MS$ A]l]l* ]ls *$ l$$MS$

M>$(Causes):
]l*$ Al {MSZ AfOl$]l l {{MS$. C * MS$, $$$,
AW l Ell$, ]ll$, ]ls AlMS f {{MS$ ]l MS$VS$l$. M>]l$ st
$ M>MS >]lyl, ^lr$ _VS$^lyl B^llVSY ]l*$Ol, *$Z fVS $r$
]l ]l^la *MS$, ]l> ]l ]l^la ]ll$, Bl $ ]l ]l^la $ ^lylz
]l*$MS$ E$. HOlll >]l ]l$l$l l ]lMS$y {MS S*
]l$]l ]l$]l S^l$M]lyl ]l$]ll ll.
1. *MS$: ] >$ AMSV> MS$]lyl ]l Myl^l$$ Wylr, ]l$^l$ VSylz$ W
ylr, Qg M l]l V>$ MS*yl, AW $ yl, * Al>VSZ
$r$ fVSyl ]ls *MS$ ^lyMS {]l M>$.
2. l$]l$$: A yl]l {Z E~{VSl yl ]l$l ly ]l MSVS ]l*$]l$ l$]l$
As$. l$]l$ ]l$l V> l$]l$ MS{l(Eye) As$.
3. $$$: ]l{ Ayl$VS$ VSZ MSVS Afyl, *MS$, AW $ yl ]l
]l{l Ayl$VS$ VSZ MSVS $r$ yl]l W A lVS]llOl$]l A *Z $
> MS$l$. ]l$_ M MSZ$r ZMS >]lyl B$$, { ]lt
f$VS$l$. l $$ As$.
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4. ]ll$: AMS ]ll, M>$]l ]l]l ^lyl, f>$$, y$ lVSyl ]l


]ll$ . MS M> MS$]l MSs AMS ]ll MS$]lyll$.
]ll$$, ^l$]l#$, M>$]l$ yl AMSOl$]l $ B {ZMS >]lyl ]l {]ll]l$
st ]lt f$VS$l$. M $ l ]l$ ^l]l $r]l$ E. EMS$
2008 Z Z M ]lMS ]l_a]l ]ll ]l 434 ]l$ ^l*$. S ]l$
{l$*$.
5.AW $: * Al>VSZ E~{VSl VSyl ]l AW$ Ell]l
^ll$. ]l $ MSW *Z $rMS$ ]l. AMS E~{VSl MSW]l
]l AlMS i]l>$$ ]l$. B {lZ ]l>$ VS]l#.

6. MS$]l#: MS$]l ]ll MSs ^ lMS$P]l MS$]lyl ]l MS$]l# $. Ayl]l#$


*^lyl, *V lylMSPyl, ]l$M> {MS]l$S$, *VS f$ lVSY]lyl ]l
]l$. C ]lV> Ml M>MS ]l^la {MS$.

7. *l: Myl$, >$ ]ls, W ylr ]l * $ . MS M>


oVMSV> B {l $lOl$]l l]l$ MSW Eylr, Ayl]l# ]lMSyl ]l ]l$MS r$t
MZ W ylr, Myl$ $ gyl, AMS ]ll ]l A^l$$ MS*yl ]ls
sMS M>$. *MS$, AW ]l MS*y Myl ^l$$ W yl$.

8. Ar$l$$: ${Ol$]l ]l MS]lyl ]l B {lZ MSt*, Ol


]ls *S i]l#$ W AlMS l$MS$ M>]l$]l#. C JMS ]l$_ ]l$MSMS _
{]l { ]lt MSY.
9. yl$z {]l*$: ]l*]l]l S ]l C . AlVS, O]l yl$ MS]lyl,
*s yl$z$ E*W^lyl, $ ]l$]lyl MS M>$.
10.AW {]l*$: ]l$yl ]l E]l > ]l C . O]l lZ
l$]l$ *W^lMS]lyl, $$ yl ]l l ]l$, {l>Z
s Al$# ^l$yMS O]l ]l]l$$ MS GMS$P]l ]lt f$VS$l.
11.MSPr: C ]l*hMS MSPMS M>MSZ GMS$P] . l {l>$,
]l*l>$, ]l* $, ]ls f]l Eyl {l>Z HOl A]l$M {]l*l
fW]l#yl$ MSVS *]l ]l MSPr f$VS$l$.
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12. $MS l$$: MS>V>> ]l$_ l$]lyl Nl $ ]l .


]l#$ lV> ^lyl ]l F $M]lyl MStOl$ ]l$$ . 1934
yl 3]l ZZ $ M>Oy MS>V>Z fW]l V> l$r]l ]l l$]lyl]l
$Ol IOls ]l# ayl # 3000 ]l$ ]l$^lV>, 30,000 ]l$
AVSMS$*$.

13.A$ r]l: A$ r]l ]l l$]lyl $ ]l MSs ^l*#l$. AMS


{ ]lt $. M ]ll ]ll> ]lMS$ i]lgl$ ]l$]l$VSyl
{>MS]l$]l#l$. 1945 BVS$t 6]l fZ ]l* ]lVSO Al$M> l]l A$$
ylZ # 66,000 ]l$ ]l$^$. 70,000 ]l$ V>**$.

14.E{VSl: C ]l*]l]l#yl {lS ^l. A l$ MSs {]l*lMSOl$. B


]lMS$]l$yl yl, $yl$$, B$ yl$$ ]l AMS Z {, B ]lt
^lMS*$l$.

l$$&yl Hg$(Nodel Agencies for Early warnig on Disasters)


l$
Gg
*MS$
l]lVS(India Meteorological Department)
l$]l$
l ]l VS
$$
Cyl$ l]l r K*M C]l
]ll$
l f M $
y Oy, A]l^l
h*hMS B Cyl*
(]l$^l$ ^l$$ W ylr)
s Ay Mz l
l ]l VS
E{VSl,
VS ]l]l> ]l${l >Q
l$$&]l$(Consequences)
l$$ SV> AMS ]l $l { ^l*#. B {lZ ^l
f ]l]l$$, oMS ]l] $$, ]l*]l]l ]l]l$$, MSMSl, BMS , ]l*f ]ls $
A>O {]lZ ]lt s$l$. JMS l BMS ]l]lMS$ ylyl O A>O l$$
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MSY^l {]l SV> B l BM>]lMS A]llV> ]l*$l$. l$ ]l MSVS


]l]l$ .

1.f ]l]l$ $l l$ {]l: l$Z ^ VS fOl$] l M>st llrV>


ll f ]l]l$. l$]l$$, AW {]l* ]l Ayl]l#$ l s. lV>
Ayl]l#Z Eyl ]lS, fl$ l ]l$. ]ll$, A]lt ]l r$ ]l]l$]l#.
]l$MS O {MS]l$S*MS VS$]l#l$. ]l ]llOl$]l l lWYl$. r$
]l M>]lyl, $]l#$ ]l$^lyl ]l MS*y ]l]l$ VS$yl lVS$Yl$. MS$]l# ]l
lW]ll ]ll Al$r$Z MS r$ Gyl VS$yl lWYl$. ]l*]l]l l
l$O]l AW {]l*$, Ar$l$$, yl$z {]l*$, E{VSl, $]l r]l
]l {]l Z l ]l { ]lt$ .

2. MS{]l$ oMS ]l]l$ $l {]l: ${$, ]l$]l#$, ]lyl >$, ]lMS


l$*$ ]ls sO l$ {]l GMS$P]lV>l Er$. lW]ll M>MS MS MS$y
El l M>l$. AW {]l*$, $]l r$, E{VSl, $yl$$,
]ll$, $$$, * MS ]ls oMSV> Eyl B$O { ^l*.
El, , *V>MS$ E*VSy]l ]l]l$$ Al$r$Z MS BMS ]l$
lr$. G MStyl ^l$MS$]l B$$, ${$, l$, ]ls ]lMS
l$*$ l ]lyl ]l ]l*]l]l M>MS$ _ fV>]l ]lt f$VS$l$

3.]l*]l]l ]l]l$ $l {]l: l$Z AlMSV> {l]l$$ ]l*]l]l ]l]l$.


{$ MZ]lyl, MSVS$$V> $VSyl, B$$, B MZ]lyl, l$ ]l
ylr, ]ls l$]l*$ ll$. ]l Ol# MSY]l ]lMS$]l$ MZ]lyl ]l
El S_ ElMSl lVS$Yl$. l$ ]l yl]l MS MS A]l>$ MS*y MS
^ll$]l# ]l*l$yl, i]l M AlMS ]l*f ]lMS M>{MS]l*MS$ ylr ]l
_]lMS$ B {]l BMS ]l]lO yl A]l MS$r$ yl$l$. ]l$]l lZ 1970 ]l$_
2001 ]l$l M>Z _]l l$ ]l S ]l$ ]l$l$l yz$. ]l*]l]l
]l]l$ Q lWY _]lMS$ B {]l ll {^l $l Er$. 2015 sMS
{^lV> 5 Mr ]l$ >]l $]l$ ^ Er$l A^l l>$.
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l l{yl$$ ]l$^lyl E MZ]lyl AVSMS$$V> $VSyl ]l G


l$ E]l BVS]l$ V^lV> ]l*$l$. il G
]l*MS$ $.

4. sM>i $l {]l: G MStyl A]l ^l$MS$]l MSMSl M> l$$ t^l


MS lr$. W s MSt MS*yl$MS$]l . sM>i
O]l lV> E*W^l ]l*]l ]l]l$$ MSl Gl Bl$MS sM>i A Gl$MS$
MS >l$. oMS, ]l*]l]l ]l]l$ r$ MSMSl MS*y E]l#yl ]l$]l B_]l A]l,
^l]l^l$a.

5.AMS ]l$l $l {]l: l$ ]l ]lt Nyl$aMs ]l$ {*


MS*yl$MS$]l . Ar$ {$MS, Cr$ ]lMS$MS$ C lMS$ $_]l l$. ]l ]l*fZ
BMS A]l*]ll$ Hyl {]l ]l*MS$ $. BMS A]l*]ll ]l VSl$
VSyl, JMSMS$ ]l ^l$M]lyMS MS*y l]l$M>yl$.

6. ]l*hMS {]l: JMS ]l]lZ E]l i]l OllZ ]l$ MZl Ml M>MS B
]l]l Al_ $ {]l*l E. AVS Al$V> $W]l$, AVSMS$]l$
]l*f Bl^lMS]lyl ]l $ VS$, lMS$$, {]ll$$V> ]l* {]l*l]l.
MZ AlMS$ VS$]l ]lMS$$ $ ]lMS M>{MS]l*MS$ ylr ]l
]l$l$$, MSZ$, ll]l#. D lV> JMS ]l*fZ > {ll ]l$$
ll$.
D lV> l$ HOl {lSV>, SV>, JMS ]l]lO {]l {
^l*#l$. ]l V> A]l M]lVS$l$]l {MS]l$Z A MS$r$yl {]l*l]l.
l$$& ]l${l >Q ll(Nodel Agencies)
l$
l ]l${l >Q
f l$$(MS$]l# l) VS ]l]l> ]l${l >Q(Ministry of Home Affairs)
MS$]l#
]l]l$ ]l${l >Q(Ministry of Agriculture)
]l*]l {]l*$
]l* ]l${l >Q(Ministry of Civil Aviation)
O {]l*$
O ]l${l >Q(Ministry of Railways)
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$]l r$
i]l lOl$]l l$$
A$ l$$
$$

>]l, Ar >Q(Ministry of Environment & Forests)


BVS ]l${l >Q(Ministry of Health)
A$ ]l${l >Q(Department of Atomic Energy)
${t B G Ol(Ministry Of Earth Sciences)

l$$ _]l l>l ^lyl MSs s ]ll$V>l VSyll


^ ]lt WY^l]l^l$a. MS stOl$]l ]l]l]l$ H>r$ ^l$M. Al$r$Z E]l
Bl$MS MSMSl]l$ E*W^, l$ Z VSV> M ]l*YlM>]l$,
*{]l$ s_]lrl s ]l$]llV> Gl$P ]lt {]ll]l$ ^ ]lMS$
lWY^l]l^l$a.

]lt ^l$
1. l$$ ^l >]l#. M>st s Gl$P]lyMS M> {MS Ey. VSl ^l{l]l$
_ JMS A^lMS$ >. "g$ l$ ^lrt 2005' ]l$ Zl ^l*.
MS{l, >{t, h Z E]l A]l$l ]l$ Gs MS#yl$ A{]l$l ^l$y.
2. l$MS$ M>$, >]l VS$_ {fZ A]lV>]l MS^. ]l BMS
]l*hMS ]l]l$ H lV> r$* ]l^.
3. {]l*]l$ ]l$]llV> Gl$Pl ll$O {fZ A]lV>]l MS^. l$
Z VS]l]l$ ^l*.
4. l$MS$ M>]l$$ M>MS]l$ lWY^l ^l$ $M.(EMS$ Ayl]l#$
*^lyl, $$ V> ylr)
5. l$$ _]l l>l ^lst ^l]l$ ]l$l$V>l VS$_ lW]l {]l**
lV> Ey. VSl(Institutional) H>r$ ^l$M. #]l>, #]l>,
M lW]l l$]l$ {]l$ ]ll$V>l VS$^.
6.l$$ _]l#yl$ Gl$P]lyMS M>]l Ol# Mock Drills >
S^l$M.
7.l$]l$ ]ll$V>l VSst MSMSl]l$ E*W^. Global Positioning
System(GPS), Global Information System(GIS) ]ls Bl$MS MSMSl]l$ y. G
V t y >y MS> *V> ^. ]l l$]l$ Ml ]lMS$
lWY^l]l^l$a.
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8. lZ l$$ l^l$V> ^l {]l$ VS$_ lW]l ]ll$ g{VSl ^l$


$M. B {Z VSl ^l{l]l$ _ JMS A^lMS$ >.
9. l$Z V>$ylz MS {l]l$ _MSl]l^l ]l, gq]lO {fMS$ A]lV>]l
MS^. l$ ]l$$Z $M]l g{VSlO $$ ^.
10. ]lMS l$*$ MS^lr#yl$ {]l*]l$ lr$tMS$l Ol$]l ]l]l$, yl]l$,
l$ O]l]l$, ^. lW]l {]l* >]l$ ^lst.
11. l$ MS$ {lMS H>r$ ^l$M Gs ]l$$ZOl lV> ^l
]l*]l]l ]l]l$ JMS st ]l]l]l$ H>r$ ^l$M. MS A Ol#l MSW]l
S C.
12. {]l* ]l yl$l$]l Z GMS$P]l >l ]lMSyl$(Slums) s MS
{$, MS MS>$, {ll {l>Z ]l$s$. As MS ]lMS
l$*$(Infrastructure) MS^lyl ]l Ml]lMS$ s ^l]l^l$a.
13. {]l$Z, MS>V>>Z {l {]l*$ l$$VS$ ^lyl ]l AW {]l*$, $]l
r]l$ Ml]lMS$ Gl$P]l^l$a. EMS$ ]l$r]l$ B lO]l Fire
Extinguisher(M> yl*OMSy) Al$r$Z E^ly ]l AW {]l*]l$ Ml ]lMS$
^l]l^l$a.
14. E $ lMS ]ls lM> > {f]l$ ]l$l$MS ^l ^l$]l#MS$ MSMSrt$
$$, ^l$M]lyl ]l ]ll ]l ^l r ]lt]l$ Ml AMSrt]l^l$a. O]l
{Oylli ]l]l ]l Zlr$t {]l$ ]l#]lMS$ VS$ M>MS$y M>yl]l^l$a.
15. $ #]l>, #]l$l, l , E]l$]l MSY^lyl ]ls A *Z
MS$$, C]l* MS$. Cl {$ll VS]l$ ^. l$MS$
MS*y ]l*(Insurance) s ]l*hMS {ll M>{MS]l* {lst.
16. #l$$ _]l#yl$ A]lOl$]l { $MS A]l>O]l B, B ]ls s
]ll$ Jl {M> ]l$MS*$aM.
17. l$$ GMS$P]lV> ^l {Z Ml ]l$MS lW]l S C_a l$ O
A]lV>]l MS^.
18. B {llZ VSV> MS$]l# {Z B $ > ^l$yl ]l MS$]l#]l$
]l$]llV> Gl$P]l^l$a.
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l$]l$(Cyclone)

ll 7517 MS.$ { MSW E. M MSW E]l {MS$


l$]l$ ]l# GMS$P]l. V> Z a]l$ V>, J, B{l{l, l$yl$,
MS, MS>~rMS, V, ]l$>{t, VS$f> a]l$ Z l$]l$$ . l ll
*VSZ 8 >l l$]l$ ]l yl$l$. Hs {^l V> # 80 l$]l$$
]l$s. ]l$]llZ V>Rl, A* ]l{l l$]l$MS$ *$. A*
]l{lZ ]l^la l$]l$ ]l GMS$P]lV> ]ltl$. s ]l AMS ]ll MS$$$. B,
l]l, { ]lt$ . 1999Z JZ _]l * OMZ VSrMS$ 250 MS.$
lVS ^. ]l l ]l$ ]l$^$. J BMS ]l]l AlMS$l A.

l$]l$(Cyclone) As?
E~{VS, ylZ ly ]l ]lZ MSVS ]l*$]l$ "l$]l$' As$.
]l{lO A yl]l {l> AMS yl]l {l B]l^lyl $ylV>$$ Hyl lVSV>
. l$]l$ GMS$P]lV> lyl ]l{Zl $. ]l ]l{lZ MSs$
Hylr, AMS ]ll MS$$$. l$]l$ V>$MS$, ^lr$, l$ $ MS*]lyl,
]ll]l$, ]l]l >$ MS*]lyl, f$ l]lyl, r$ ]l]l$]lyl
f$VS$l$. M $ ]l{l ]l$rt 4 $r M> W ]ll$ . 1999
AMt 29]l J Z 260&300 MS.$ lVS ]l_a]l * OM ]l ]l{l ]l$rt 9
$r$ W ]ll$ ^.
1970 ]l$_ _]l l$]l$$&]lt$
]ll
{l
1970
a]l$ V>, V>l & Z l$
1971
D>]l
1972
B{l{l, Jyl
1977
^lOl, MS, B{l{l (10,000)
1979
B{l{l
1981
VS$f>
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]l$l$ Q
5,00,000
9,658
100
14,204
594
470

www.sakshieducation.com

500
512
5,000
928
250
8,913
1,38,000
204
65
46

VS$f>, ]l$>{t
l$yl$, B{l{l
B{l{l
B{l{l
Jyl
Jyl * OM(29 AMt)
>(]lY)
l$yl$()
B{l{l
B{l{l, l$yl$(l)
(120-&140MS.$ lVS)

1982
1984
1985
1990
1990
1999
2008
2008
2010
2011

l$]l$ G Hyl$l$?
l$]l$ HylsMS ]l{lO El lylV> Eylr, ]lZ Aal,
A yl A]l ^l M* {]l M>$. l$]l$ Hyl A]l ^llyMS
# 48 VSr ]l$$ yl$l$. ]l{l ElO lylMSP]l V> {MS]l$V> OMS
l$. B {lZ A yl]l Hyll$. ^l V> A Ol# ]l$_
]l$lVSZMS ^^l$aM >]lyl B {lZ VS$yl Hyl$l$. l l$]l$
MS{l(Eye) As$. ^l$r*t Eyl lrtOl$]l l$* MSrVyl(Eye Wall) As$.
MSsMS ^l$r$tMSP # 200 MS.$. ]lMS$ l$]l$ _ Er$. l "l$]l$ S{l'
As$. M* {]l ]l l$]l$ ^l$r*t Eyl V> lSVZ ]l Z,
El>VZ A]l Z Er$.
l$]l$Z V> lVS VSrMS$ 65 ]l$_ 118 MS.$ EylV>, {]lOl$]l
l$]l$Z 120 ]l$_ 164 Er$. M $ C 300 MS.$. MS*y r]l^l$a. EMS$
1999Z J * OM. V> l$]l$ 24 VSr ]l$_ 3 > ]lMS$ Er$.
{^lZ Cs]lMS$ $Ol$]l l$]l$ 1994Z D>]l, ]l MZ ]l_a]l OsN
g (Typhoon John). C # 31 k$(BVS$t&) E.

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l$]l$ lV>$(Storm Surges): {]lOl$]l V>$ ]l Ol# V> lrtyl s A


l$]l$ lV>$. C lVSV> $]l V> ]l ]l*]l$ A MS l l l$]l$
A$V> *l ^ll$. ]l{l Jyl$z Zl$V> E]lrl A El W
]ll$ ]l.

l$]l$]l$ l {Z l $$.
]l M ]l$ ]l{lZ ]l^la l$]l$$(]l$*, O^l, O) & sO N
El AssM ]l{l(A$ ]l#$, ltyl) &MS$
B{t*
&
Al$M> MS >{t$
& sZy
l* ]l$ ]l${l
& OM
Ol$ M ]l$ ]l{l, BVS$ l* ]l$]l{lZ & E~]l$yl l$]l$$
El l* ]l$ ]l${l & {]l E~]l$yl l$]l$$

l$]l$ ]l MSVS ]lt$


1.oMS ]lt: l$]l$ V>$ ]l ]lMS l$*$ ls. l$ $
MS*. ^lr$ W]lyl, _]l _]l ]l]l >$ MS*yl f$VS$l$. ]ll$
l^la $l, ]l$st ]l yl$, l$$, ^ll $MS$.
2. ]l*]l] ]l]l$O {]l: AMS ]ll ]l ]l^la ]llMS$ l QZ ]l*]l]l#$ ]l$
^ll$$. V>* ]l#$. ]l$*, yl** ]ls Ar$l$$ {$.
3. * VSf$, VS$$ MS$l]l$]l#. ]l#$, ^l$]l#Z $ E#s
yll$.
4. r$ ls. lMSP$ l MS^lyl. ]l{l $ ]l_a ^lyl
*$Z ]l$l W A rMS$ A]l$]l#V> Eyll$.
5. ]l*^ ]l]l$ ls. s, r]l MS*]lyl MS$ ]l]l$
l]l$]lyl, l$ O]l$ lW]lyl, ]ll]l$ MS*yl, >sOs ]l]l ^lyl ]l
]l*^ ]l*ylMS A]ll Hyl$l$.

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]lt ^l$
1. {Z ]lS l MS]lyl ]l l$]l$ $V> $. M>st l$]l$
^l {Z ^lr]l$ s. Ayl]l#]l$ S^. ]l{l Jyl$z]l Eyl ^lr$
Ayl$zVyl Eyl ]ll]l$ . EMS$ a]l$ V>Z ]l*{VS* Ayl]l#]l$
S l$]l$ ]ll]l$ ^l]l^l$a.

2. VSl ^l{l BV> l$]l$$ l^l$V> ^l {]l$ VS$_, ]l*]l$ l*$


^l*. l$]l$ MSlMS]l$ VS]l$^l stOl$]l E{VS ]l]l]l$ H>r$ ^l*. Bl$MS
]l*^ ]l]l]l$ E*W_ {Z {fMS$ ]ll$ ^laMS$ g ^l*.

3. l$]l$ ]l yl$l$]l {Z O]l lMS$P]l ]l*]l]l M>MS$ ^lst. B


{Z ]l]l, Cl >$ V>, s MSyl lr$tMS$l ^.

4. l$ VS$, s O]l$ ]ls s *VSZ H>r$ ^l$M. l$]l$$ lMS$P]l


^l {Z f$yl ^l*y.

5. l$]l$ ]l ]l^la ]ll {]ll]l$ ]ll ${l ll$ > lWY^. {l


{fMS$ l$]l$O A]lV>]l MS^.

6. Bl$MS MSMSl]l$ E*W_ $l$]l$, ]ll, l$]l$ VS$_ ]l*^


MS^. {$ l$]l$ ^laMS MS{ > MS {fMS$ ^ll*.
{$l l$]l$]l$ VSrtyMS ]l$]l l C>s E{V $ 10 >y > ]l*^>
^ll.
Cs{VSsy Mt gZ l$lgl$s {gMt (ICZMP)
1992Z * yl gZ *_]l ]l*YlM> BV> ]l$]llZ
{Z l$]l$ ]l#]l$ VS$^lyl, {f]l$ S^lyl, i]l Ol ^lyl,
M>$ ^lyl, >{tZ {l SMS$ ^l$ ^lrtyl, ]l*#]l$ l*$
^l$yl, ]ls > VS$f>, J, a]l$ V> >{tZ l {$l
Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) {gMS$t]l$ ^lst. MS l Ar,
>]l >Q, {^l MS$ MSV> l$$ A. B* >{t {$$
Ml]lMS$ ]l$MS*$.
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g$ l$]l$ ]l# ${l {gMS$t(National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project)


]l$]l lZ l ]l VS(IMD) l$]l$]l$ lS$]l yl Hg.
{l {f$ l^l$V> l$]l$ ]l yl$l$ylr l$]l$]l$ ]l$]llV>
Gl$P]lyMS {f B$]l$ S^lyMS l VS]l]l> >Q 2003 MMSZ
fW]l yl$ k l$Z g$ l$]l$ ]l# ${l {gMS$t H>r$]l$
{_. 2006 ]l$_ NMDA .
NCRMP llr J, B{l{l >{tZ {^$. MS {^l M
# 1496.71 l$$ ]l$MS*a. 11]l ^l]l {MS M>Z D {gMS$t]l$ N
^l* SV> r$tMS$$. D M>{MS]l$Z VSV> l$]l$ ^laM ]l]l]l$
Zl ^l$. ]l]l ]l*$, ^lyl, l$]l$ l$MS$ BMSV> $
A^lyl, l]l yl$, l$ MS>]l$ #]l$l^lyl, A]lV>] M>{MS]l*$
^lrtyl ]ls ]l$$ ^l$.

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*MS$(Earthquakes)

f l$Z *MS$ {]lOl$]l. AMSl$V> *$ MS^lyl ]l Gyl *MS


lV>$ Ml MSZ$r lVS {*^lyl ]l AMS B, { ]lt $. *MS
lV>$ {*^l lV> st *$ MS^lyl ]l$ MS*yl f$VS$l$. *MS$
VS$, >{ ly MS$y G#Oyl ^lyMS A]lM>]l. llZ {]ll 6.0
]l$_ 8.0 ]l$l {]ll E]l *MS$ # 96 ]lMS$ $$ A^l. {^l ll
l$Z 8 >l *MSl. AlMSV> M ltl {lZ 68 >l *MS$
$. 2001Z VS$f>Z $g $Z _]l *MS ]l # 14 l
]l$ {$ MZ*$. S ]l$ >l$*$. 2010Z O lZ _]l
*MS ]l # 2 S ]l$MS OV>l ]l$^$. Cs]l M>Z _]l *MSZ
Cl A l. ]l$ Cl ]lt MSY$]l *MS VS$_ l$$M]l A]l GOl E.

*MS As?
"* Al>VSZ M {l>Z MSVS BMSMSOl$]l MSlMS Afyl'. D Afyl ]l
AlMS MS yl$lO A MS]l lV> (Vibrate Waves) *Z ^l$r*t E]l >, *
VS$y {*^lyl ]l MSVS MS "*MS' As$. C MM> ]l*{ll$ Er$.
*MS _]l#yl$ fVS ]lt *$ MS^l {]llO Byl Er$.
Al>VSZ ^ Zl$V> MS]l lV>$ yl$l$ {l> "*MS '
"MS{l'(Focus) As$. D MS Gl$$V> O]l Eyl El l$]l$ "AMS{l' (epicentre)
As$. ]ll {]ll GMS$P]lV> Er$. AMS{l ElO Ml B{MS$_
Er$. *MS Zl$ VS M *MS ^l {l Ol> $VS$l$.
*MS {]ll (Intensity) ]l*]lV> Eyl {l>]l$ MS$#l* ElO X Q]l$
]l$MS]l Q$ (Isoseismal Lines) As$.
*MS lV>$ (Seismic waves): Al>VSZ AlMS MS yl$lO Hyl lV>]l$ *MS
lV>$ As$. D lV> {* lVS MSY^l ]lt $]l$ st *V> yl$ M>$ A
1. El lV>$ : s "L' lV> A MS*y As$. * El >
]l$M>V> {*. M>st s El > lV>$ As$. s lVS
MS]l$MS$ 4 ]l$_ 4.3 MS.$. Er$. s]l AlMS ]lt MS$VS$l$. C AMS lVS Ol
lMS$P]l l^l$ l MSY Es.
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2. Al>VS lV>$ : C * Al>VSZ {** >]l]l ]l{MS]lMS$


Z]l]l#. D Al>VS lV>]l$ W yl$ M>$V> VS$^$. A
1. P ({O]l$ {l$MS) lV>$ : P lV>$ ]ll El A $^l Ol# ZMS
V> FVS$l* {*. S lV> MSs P lV> lVS GMS$P]lV> Er$. C MS]l$MS$ 5
]l$_ 13 MS.$. lVS {** *$O Jyl MSY. lVSOl lMS$P]l. AMS
l^l$l MSW lV>]l$ Es. $]l, {l]l, ]l*l]l*Z {*.

2. S (MSyl $) lV>$ : C {*^l ]l*YZ $ MZ ]ll$MS$ l]l$MSMS$


FVS$l* {*. M>st s M lV>$ As$. s lVS MS]l$MS$ 3 ]l$_ 7 MS.$
Er$. C {*_]l l$l *$O lOl$]l ]lt MS$VS$l$. S- lV>$
{l]l, $]l ]l*l]l$Z ]l*{ll$ {*. M> lV> V> Eyl lMS$P]l lVS Ol
AMS l^l$l]l MS.

VSl ]ll ]ll>Z Z ]l_a]l {]l * MS$


l
{l
*MS ]l* ]l$l$$/V>$yl]l$
(Magnitude)

8.3
8.7
7.5
8.4,

26 MS.$. l*, 3 MS.$ lyl$


1542
19000
10,653

8.5
7.0
6.5
6.4

&
&
200/1500
1004 ($ 232,
l 722)/16000
768/5066
9748

Q^, VS$f>
V, l$*$
M>{V>, Cyl*
, l
A$^l {l,
O^l l$
1956
Ag, VS$f>
1967 yl 10 M$
1988 BVS $t 21 , l l$

1819 16
1897 12
1905 H{ 4
1934 f]l]l 15
1950

1991 AMt 20 El M>, El >Qy


6.6
1993 t 30 l* (MS), E 6.3
]l$>{t
1997 l$ 22
fN, ]l$l{l
6.0,
1999 ]l*a 29 ^ll*, El{l
6.9
2001 f]l]l26 $g, VS$f>
7.7
2005....
]lf, MS, f]l
7.4,
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38/350, 8546 C$ l]l$rt.


150
14,000/1,66,000
75000

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M>$ : * Al>VSZ {MSt ($]l >]l$$Ol$]l $) O Z l l ]l$l


]l$l Z^lyl, AMS E~{VSl M>V> f_]l JylMS, *$Z >$
]l{ ^l Ol$]l M l *Z MS yl$l]l#l$. *$ MS$.
"s sMtM l' ]l$. D l {M> *$O VSZ 60&90 MSZ$r l$
E]l lrtOl$]l ]l$ "$'(Lithosphere) As$. C AlMS _]l, l M> $l.
*$ MS O MSlyl D M>l "]l*s'(Mantel) As$. C l>$V>
MSl$$l* JMS JMSs MS$*, yll$s. C * Al>VSZ M> {]l MSlMS$,
$r ]l *MS$ . ]l yl$l$ AlMS MS lV> *ZMS
]l*$l$. D lV>$ AlMS lVS {*_ El ^l$. *MS$
^lyMS D MS M>$.
1. El M>$ (Surface causes)
2. AWl l M>$ (Volcanic causes)
3. * $r$MS$ ^l]l M>$ (Isostatic adjustment causes)
4. *M>MS M>$ (Tectonic causes)
5. l M>$ (Plutonic causes)

1. El M>$ : ]l>$ AMSV> MS$]lyl ]l Myl^l$$ gyl, ]l$^l$ Wylr


(avalanches) *VSZ A{ $yl$, Qgl M l]l V> MS#MS*yl ]l
*MS$ Hyl$. C MS]l M {MS $l. Al {]lOl$]l M>]l#.

2. AWl l M>$ : AW$ yMS ]ll$ l>l Hyl$. *


Al>VSZ {l]l MS OMS ]l_a]l#yl$ *$ Z M^r *]l{l>$
Hyl$. D *]l{l> $l Eyl $]l#MS$ *$ MSlMS$ MS$VS$l$. ]l
*MS$ . C MS*y Al {]lOl$]l M>]l#. GMS$P]l ]lt Eyll$.
3. * $r$MS$ ^l]l M>$ : *$ Z AMSPylMSPyl fVS $r ]l C .
MS M> ]ll$$ Cl MS {$ $MS$]l^la $, ]l{l $l S^lyl
$ l$r ]l$l ]lMS$ Eylr *$O $VS$l$. M>st AMSPyl fVS
$r$ ]l *MS$ ]l.
4. *M>MS M>$ : * Al>VSZ >Z ]l^la MSlMS ]l *MS$ ]l.
s "*M>MS *MS$' As$. *MSMS$ M>]l$ l$l* s Al >{kqyl$
MS lMS l (Elastic Bound Theory) {^yl$. M>*Z ]l_a]l
*MS BV> ^l$M 1906Z B$]l D l {^yl$. {M> $
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MSl]l$ Ml]lMS$ ]l*{ll$ ^lVS]l#. l>l $ {MS]l$V> ]lW VS$$ r$


$. >$ MSlMS ]l AlMS yl]l MS yl$lO *MS ]l$.
5. l M>$ : * ElMS 24 ]l$_ 640 MS.$. Zl$Z . MS
M> Al>VSZ fVS $MS ]l*$$. yl*MS _a QgZ ]l^la ]l*$$.
C ^ A$l$V> . *MS$ A ^l Zl$]l$ st W 3 M>$ :

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2. ]l*l$MS *MS$ : 60 ]l$_ 300 MS.$
3. V>l *MS$(Shallow): El ]l$_ 60 MS.$. ]lMS$ ^l.

*MS {]ll(Intensity): *MS MSlMS M> MSP^l l]l *MS


(Sysmograph). > ]ll*l$ ^l *MS {]ll _{ *MS R_{l (Sysmogram)
As$. *MS ]lt BV> {]ll]l$ M]lyMS MS P]l$ E*W$.
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2. l$P P
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sZ l$>P, MSt P {]lOl$]l.

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2. l$P P$ : *MS]l$ {MS**V> M^ll$MS$ l$P P$ E*W$. E
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l, a]l$ El{l, D {lZ Es.
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*MS]l$ ]ll$V>l VSrt]l^l$a.


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$MS $ H$^l$M.

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VSl ]ll ]ll>Z {^lZ _]l *MS ]l>$


{l

{]ll(Magnitude)

]l$l$ Q

1908

Cr

7.2

72,000

1915

Cr

7.0

32,610

1920

^O l

7.8

2,00,000

1923

7.9

1,42,800

1927

^O l

7.5

1935

MS

1939

rP

1948

l$Pl$l,

7.3

1,10,000

1970

_Zs, $

7.9

70,000

1976

O^l

7.5

2,42,769

1990

a]l$ C>

7.4

50,000

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6.3

9,748

30,000

7.8

32,700

7.6

2001

2,00,000

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7.7

13,000

2003

C>

6.6

31,000

2004

$]l${ Cyl *

9.1

2,86,000

2005

MS, El

7.6

86,000

2008

*^l$*, O^l

7.9

87, 587

2012

7.0

3,16,000

2011

9.0

15,703

1993

B: Olsy ts h*hMS {M>


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Earthquake Risk Mitigation Project:: *

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VS$O. ^lOlZ 2 $. $$ ]l_a.
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VS$O.
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27 ]l]l 1945: MS>_MS 100 MS.$. l*Z A* ]l{lZ 8.5 {]ll MS*yl]l
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2011 ]l*a 11

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ly E. MSs$ V> ]l _ 5 ]l$_ 20 MS]l Z ]lN l] #. Al $$ A M>l$.
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4. * VSf, VS$$ MS$l]l$]l#. ]ll$$, ]l#$ E#s yl.


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3. ]l$ll $l Byl]l ]l$lM>$$ GMS$P]l >l {Z ]l$s$.


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]l*^ ]l]l B]lMSl:


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{ SMS$ $MS$]l ^l$


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