Brakes Introduction  Brakes are the most important components of an automobile vehicle.

 The vehicle is started, accelerated and it runs on the roads But stopping of the vehicle is as essential as its starting.  The mechanism which is used to slow and stop the vehicle is known as braking system  Brakes are mechanical device used to stop the vehicle with in the shortest possible distance.  Brake action may be defined as the force which stops any motion.  When the brakes are applied on a moving vehicle the kinetic energy of the vehicles is transformed in to heat generated by the friction between the brake lining and drums.  The heat generated is dissipated into the skunk air  The force of Action between the- linings and the drum depends upon the coefficient of friction of the two material, form applied between the skiing surface, the roughness of the surface, and the material of which the surface: are made. Purpose of Brakes  To stop the vehicle quickly with in a shortest possible distance.  To slow down or stop the motion of a moving vehicle.  To park the vehicles  To control the speed of the vehicle. Requirements of a good braking system  The brakes should stop the vehicle in shortest possible distance and time.

 The brakes- should work equally good (or) on bad road. Pedal effort applied by the driver should be more.  Brakes should work equally good iii all weather .  It should have less wearing parts  should require little maintenance.  Brakes when applied should not disturb steering geometry.  When brakes are applied, the- vehicle should not pull to one side.  It should produce less noise and vibration while applying brake.  It should have less weight and reliable.  It should not be skidding while applying brake.  It should have better cooling system and less weight. Classifications of Brakes 1. According to the application  Foot brake (or) service brake (or) running brake  Hand brake (or) parking brake (or) emergency brake 2. According to the number of wheels  2 Wheel brakes  4 Wheel brakes 3. According to location  Transmission brake  Wheel brakes

4. According to the method of braking contact  ·Drum brakes External contracting (expanding) brakes. Internal expanding brakes.  Caliper (or) disc brakes. Single piston caliper Double piston caliper.  According to the mode of operation. Mechanical brakes. Hydraulic brakes Electric brakes Vacuum brakes Vacuum assisted hydraulic brakes Air brakes. Air assisted hydraulic brakes.

Brake Efficiency And Stopping Distance The maximum retarding force applied by the brakes at the wheels, F. depends us the coefficient of friction between the road and the lyre surface u, and the component the weight of the vehicle on the wheel, W. i.e.. F = u W If unity coefficient of friction is achieved, the total retarding force produced at wheels is equal to the vehicle weight itself, which is equal to the gravitational fo experienced by the freely falling body of mass

equal to that of vehicle. If this be the ca the vehicle experiences a deceleration equal to the acceleration due to gravity, 'g', and the brakes are said to be 100 percent efficient. Thus theoretical limit for brake efficiency is 100 percent. In actual practice, efficiency of 100 percent is rarely used for ordinary vehicle Requirements like safety of passengers in public vehicles and safety of the body in c; of heavy goods vehicles, reduce the brake efficiencies to be used. Highly efficient brat giving large deceleration might injure the passengers due to sudden stopping of the vehicle. Similarly in the case of goods vehicles, an extra efficient braking system would cause the load to slide forward when the brakes are applied, tending to break the drive cabin. Moreover with very highly efficient brakes rapid wear of lyres and brake finis takes place and there is always a risk of losing vehicle control when brakes are applied The brake efficiencies in general use vary from 50 % to 80 %, which enable the vein to stop with in reasonable distance. Table gives approximate stopping distances different vehicle velocities for various conditions of brakes. How ever, the minims allowable limit or brake efficiency for any vehicle is 50 % for foot brakes and 30 % for hand brakes. The distances give in the above table. Are approximate only and they vary with the type of the road surface and condition of lyre treads, etc.., However, during emergency braking, the reaction of the driver and response tip of the brakes also play an important part. The total stopping distance in case emergency braking may be divided into 3 parts  Distance transversed during the reaction time of the driver.

 Distance traversed during the time elapsed between the driver pressing the brake pedal and the brake being actually applied at the wheels.  Net stopping distance, depending upon the deceleration. Thus the actual stopping distances will be more than the values given in the table Rich is based upon deceleration only. These depend upon i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Vehicle speed. Condition of the road surface. Condition of tyre treads. Coefficient of infliction between the tyre tread and road surface. Coefficient of friction between the brake drum and the brake lining Braking force applied by the driver.

Drum Brake A Brake drum is connected to the wheel and also a back plate is mounted on the as casing. In case of front axle, the back plate is bolted to the steering knuckle. The back pie is made of pressed steel sheet and is ribbed to increase rigidity and to provide support f the expander, anchor and brake shoes. It also protects the drum and shoe assembly fro mud and dust. More over, it absorbs the completer torque reaction of the shoes due which reason it is sometimes also called 'torque plate'. In actual practice three type of drum braking, namely: leading trailing shoe brake, to leading shoe brake, due servo brake. In a leading trailing shoe brake type one end of the two brake shoes are hinged on

the stationary back plate and other end is-operated by the wheel cylinder piston. This arrangement gives to one shoes as leading shoe (A) and to other shoe as trailing shoe (B).

Fig. Schematic view of the Drum Brake During braking operation, the leading shoe tends to be forced into closes contact with the drum by the frictional drag of the rotating drum. This self applying action increases its braking force on the wheel. On the other hand, the trailing shoe tends to be pushed away from the drum. This action considerably reduces its braking force on the wheel. As suck the leading shoe exerts more force on the wheel than the trailing shoe, therefore more work is done by the leading shoe. This type of brake is equally effective, whether the forward or reverse directions. vehicle is braked during

Internal Expanding Drum Brake This type of brake consists of a brake drum inside which there are two brake shoes anchored at the lower ends to the back plate and connected which each other at top through a spring. The upper end of the shoes rest at an operating cam. The shoes are expanded outwards to hold the rotating brake drum through the rotating cam.

Fig. Schematic view of the Internal Expanding Drum Brake When the brake pedal is pressed down, the cam inside the brake drum, over which the free ends of brake shoes outwards against operating cam expands the brake shoes outwards against the inner circumferential surface of the brake drum causing to hold its rotation. When the brake pedal is released, it comes yup through the assistance of return spring and the brake shoe operating cam is operated in the opposite direction. This results in the contracting of brake shoes and release of brake.

External Contracting Brake The main components of brakes are brake drum, an external contracting brake band linkage, push rod, return spring, adjusting lever and operating lever It is usually the hank brake or parking brake of the automobile. Service brake operates on all the wheels (front and rear), where as hand brake operates on rear wheel only. This brake may be operates by mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic and electrical devices. If the service brake fails, it used as an emergency brake. As per the motor vehicle rules the hand brake should be compulsory. The drum is fitted with the transmission output shaft and rotates with it. The brake band having lining of frictional material encircles the brake drum. In order to hole the rotating brake drum, the brake band is contracted about the drum by means of a lever and linkage.

Fig. Schematic view of the External Contracting Brake A stud is connected to the one end of the brie band through fasteners. The stud a spring and a collar. A lever is connected to the

another end of the brake band and it is pivoted at its center to the stud. When the lever is pressed, the spring compresses which makes the brake band to move inwards, which helps in tightening the brake drum. 1 stops the motion of the vehicle. When the lever is released the spring expands t original position, making the brake band to release. Brake Shoe Brake shoes are made of steel usually in T section which is considered strong. They are made of cast iron or aluminum or steel. Aluminum shoes also been tried because their good thermal Conductivity, but their use has been very limited probably due to values of strength and stiffness of aluminum. Pressed steel brake shoes are selected modern vehicles. Two types of shoes a primary shoes (leading) on the left and a secondary shoe (trailing) on the right are provided Primary shoe (or) leading shoe The shoe drags along the drum and produces more *trust or friction in the bread drum known as leading shoe or leading shoe. Its direction is just opposite to the rotator of the drum. Secondary shoe (or) trailing shoe The shoes moves away from the drum while applying the brake called Trailing shoe or secondary shoe. Its direction is the same as the rotation of the drum. On the brake shoe, the specially treated asbestos brake lining is fixed with the hell of rivets now a day in some of the vehicles linings are

pasted and pressed on broke shoes with the synthetic resin adhesive. The brake linings are usually 28 to 63mm wide and from 4 to 10mm thick in case passenger motor vehicles.

Fig. Schematic view of the primary and Secondary Shoes Brake drum Brake drum are usually made of cast iron in some case brake drum are made of steel or aluminum having inner liner of cast iron. Fins are provided on the outer surface of the drum which helps in dissipation of heat. The brake drum rotates with the road wheel and provides a contacting surface for the brake shoes to come in to contact for braking action.

Brake Lining It is a friction material fitted on the surface of the brake shoe. At the time of braless kinetic energy is transformed in to heat energy. Brake liner absorbs the heat making it wear. The following types of linings are employed with the brake shoes.  Organic lining They are of two main varieties Solid - woven type . Moulded type or composition type

Solid-woven type The woven type organic lining is woven from strands of asbestos and threads other materials and impregnated with a rubber compounds these innings have an avert co-efficient of friction of 0.4 and their maximum temperature resistances is about 350 It can be reinforced and strengthened by adding brass or zinc wires and impregnated by bonding material Moulded type or composition type The molded type in made from thoroughly mixed compounds of asbestos, filler materials and powdered resins. The compound is molded in dies to form into shape and is placed under heat and pressure until a hard like board is formed. It is then art and bends in to individual segments for attachment to the brake shoes. These linings have good wear resistance their maximum temperature resistance is about 450 C. The average coefficient of friction is 0.4

 Metallic lining It is made of sintered metal and is composed of finely of copper or iron, graphite Ad some amount of inorganic fillers and friction modifiers. After thoroughly mixing the constituents a lubricating oil is added to avoid separation of different materials. It is then made into the required form by means of a special process. Metallic linings ore used for extreme braking conditions as encountered in police cars, fire brigade vehicles and sports cars under such extreme service, the fictional qualities of the metallic linings are more constant than that of organic linings. Disc Brake Disc brakes differ in construction and it can be operated in different manner Mom the drum type brake. These brakes have a metal disc in plate of a drum and a pair of pads in place of curved shoes. Types of disc brakes  Spot type  Clutch type Special types of spot type disc brakes  Fixed caliper (or) swinging  Floating caliper (or) sliding The disc brake consists of a pearlitic gray cast iron disc bolted to the wheel hub and a stationary housing called caliper. The caliper is

connected to some stationary part of the vehicle, like the axle casing or the stub axle and is cast in two parts, each part containing a piston.

Fig. Schematic view of Disc Fixed caliper In between each piston and the disc, there is a Diction pad held in position by Retaining pins, spring plates etc. passages are drilled in the caliper for the

Mechanical Braking System Introduction The brakes which are operated mechanically by means of levers, linkages, pedals, cams, bellcrank etc., are known as mechanical brakes. Suppose a vehicle is running and it is to be stopped for some reason. For this brakes should be applied to all four wheels that is achieved by the mechanical brake system. There are cams and brake shoes on four wheels. Cams are connected to the brake pedal by means of levers and flexible cables When the brake pedal is pressed, the forced is transmitted to the cams by means of flexible cables that operate. The cams, in turn,

operate the brake shoes. All the wheels are thus braked. In the system there are only leavers, cables and cams for the purpose of Chin It is called the mechanical braking system as no fluid is used in it.

Fig. Schematic view of operation of Brake shoes

Fig. Schematic view of operation of Brake shoes Construction and Operation The fixed brake plate attached to the axle housing. A fulcrum is shown in this fixed plate at the bottom. Two brake shoes are fixed to it that are lined on the out side with asbestos or fiber material. A revolving cam is fixed to the top of the brake plate. Whet the cam rotates the two brake shoes expand. A spring connects both the brake shoes and brings them closer. The cam is shown linked by means of a camshaft and lever. The lever is operates with a rod by means of a pedal. When the pedal is pressed, the cam rotates by a slight amount because of the links and it pushes the ends of the brake shoes outward. These brake shoes press against the inner portion of the brake drum. The friction between drum surface and the shoe linings, serves to stop or slow down the rotation of the brake drum. Thus the rotating wheels are fully stopped.

When the brake pedal is released, the spring brings both the shoes closer. To pressure on the inner portion of the brake drum is removed and the wheel is thus relieve of the grip of the brake shoes This is how a mechanical brake operates. There is one fulcrum for each brake shoe. The mechanical brake is connected to a the four wheels of the vehicle by means of proper links. When the pedal is operated, cams on all the four wheels are simultaneously rotated Now the brake shoes on the four wheels are also in operation and simultaneously grip Be brake drum in all four wheel When the brake pedal is released, the wheels are free to rotate. Servo Actions Self-energizing or servo action is a special feature in modem type of hydrau wheel brakes of drum type. This action greatly multiplies the force pressing the she against the brake drum. The self energizing brake shoe action is shown in fig. When the Vehicle is traveling forward, the drum is rotating in anticlockwise direction. When the brakes are applied, the primary shoe at the left tends to move in t direction of the drum rotation due to the friction of the rotating drum. Because t primary shoes is linked to the secondary shoe at the bottom, the secondary shoe is force against the anchor pin a the top. This action causes to force both the shoes ~ to tie contact with the drum and the braking pressure is more uniformly applied Braking Fluid The brake fluid is a mixture of glycerin and alcohol or castor oil, denaturate alcohol and some additives.

Fig. Schematic view of operation of Brake shoes Special Features of Brake Fluid  Viscosity  Boiling point  Lubrication properties  Corrosive action  Storage stability

Basic Dual Air Brake System Most air brake equipped vehicles on the road today are using a dual air brake system. The system has been developed to accommodate a mechanically secured parking brake that can be applied in the event of service brake failure. It also accommodates the need for a modulated braking system should either one of the two systems fail. It is actually two brake systems in one, with more reservoir capacity resulting in a much safer system. At first glance, the dual system might seem complicated, but if you understand the basic air brake system described so far, and if the dual system is separated into basic functions, it becomes quite simple. As its name suggests, the dual system is two systems or circuits in one. There are different ways of separating the two parts of the system. On a two–axle vehicle, one circuit operates the rear axle and the other circuit operates the front axle. If one circuit has a failure, the other circuit is isolated and will continue to operate.

Dual Air Brake System

In the illustration, air is pumped by the compressor (1) to the supply/wet reservoir (5) which is protected from over pressurization by a safety valve (4). Pressurized air moves from the supply/wet reservoir to the primary/dry reservoir (8) (green) and the secondary/dry reservoir (10) (red) through one–way check valves (7). At this point, the dual circuits start. Air from the primary/dry reservoir is directed to the foot valve (31). Air is also directed from the secondary/dry reservoir to the foot valve. The foot valve is similar to the one described earlier in the basic air brake system, but is divided into two sections. One section of this dual foot valve controls the primary circuit and the other controls the secondary circuit. When a brake application is made, air is drawn from the primary reservoir through the foot valve and is passed on to the rear brake chambers. At the same time, air is also drawn from the secondary reservoir, passes through the foot valve and is passed on to the front

brake chambers. If there is air loss in either circuit, the other will continue to operate independently. Unless air is lost in both circuits, the vehicle will continue to have braking ability. The primary and secondary circuits are equipped with low air pressure warning devices, which are triggered by the low air pressure indicator switch (9) and reservoir air pressure gauges (29) located on the dash of the vehicle. Dual–Circuit Foot Valve

Dual Air Brake System with Spring Parking Brakes

When spring brakes are added to a dual air brake system, the same type of dash control valve discussed previously is used. Blended air is used to supply the spring parking brake control valve (27). Blended air is air taken from the primary and secondary circuits through a two–way check valve (26). With this piping arrangement the vehicle can have a failure in either circuit without the spring brakes applying automatically. If air is lost in both circuits, the spring brakes will apply. Spring Parking Brakes with Modulator Valve

Spring parking brakes in this system serve two purposes: first, as a parking brake, and second as an emergency braking system. If a

failure occurs in the primary circuit (green), and a brake application is made, control air from the foot valve is directed to a spring brake modulator valve (23). As there is no supply air to maintain balance in the modulator valve, because of the primary circuit failure, the modulator valve then exhausts air pressure from the spring parking brake circuit. The amount of air released is equal to the amount of air applied by the foot valve. The release of air in the spring parking brake circuit causes the drive axle to brake using spring pressure (12). When the brakes are released, supply air from the secondary circuit (red) returns the spring parking brakes to an off position. Brake applications can be repeated until all the air from the secondary circuit is lost. However as the air pressure drops below 85 psi, the spring parking brakes won’t return to the full off position, in fact they will start to drag. At approximately 35 psi, the spring parking brake control valve (27) on the dash will exhaust the remaining air in the secondary circuit, and the spring parking brakes are fully applied. The only way the vehicle can be moved after all air is lost is to repair the damaged circuit and recharge the system, or cage the spring parking brake system.

Parking Brake Mechanisms

The parking brake system is a secondary braking system used to hold a parked car in position. They are applied independently of the service brakes. Since there is no inertia to overcome. less braking power is required to hold tile vehicle stationary and less force is required to apply. The application of required to hold tile vehicle. There are three styles of rear parking brake systems. Two types use the service brake and the other is an exclusive parking brake design. The service type parking brake uses past of the ordinary service brake mechanism and operates tile shoe or piston mechanically. The parking brake lever is located near the driver 's seat. Pulling the parking brake lever by hand or pressing the pedal with the foot, operates the brake via a cable connected to the parking brake lever of the brake assembly. only two of the four brake assemblies are

There are a Umber of different types of parking brake levers, as shown below. Application depends upon the denial of the driver 's seat and tile desired operating effort.

The parking brake is with ratchet locking mechanism maintain tile lever at the position to which it was set. until released. Son parking levers have an adjusting screw near tile brake lever so tile amount of brake lever travel can be easily adjusted. Travel is detained by the number of clicks of the retched mechanism found in the repair manual Parking Brake Linkage The parking brake cable transmits the lever movement through a typical series of components, as shown below, to the brake drum subassembly. The intermediate lever multiplies the operation force to the equalizer. The requalizer. The equalizer divides the lever operating force to brake assemblies at both wheels. The two major parts may vary in design however their function remains the same. lever a provided

Drum Parking Brake On all models using brakes on the rear, the cable pulls the parking brake lever. The lever is attached to the secondary shoe at to top and transfer the lever action to the primary shoe through the shoe strut. When released, the brake shoe spring return the shoe to their retracted position

Disc Parking Brakes There are two types of rear wheel parking brake systems for disc brakes. The first uses the brake caliper assembly to mechanically apply pressure to the disc. The second type is an exclusive drum brake

assembly that applies pressure to an inside drum, which is an integral part of the disc rotor. The parking brake is built into the caliper housing and is provided with an automatic adjusting mechanism to compensate for piston movement as the brake pads wear.

Parking Brake Operation When the parking brake is applied, the cable attached to the parking brake lever rotates the crank lever counterclockwise. The crank pin then pushes the strut to the left. The strut moves the adjusting bolt, sleeve nut, and piston toward the left. As the strut moves to the left, it also compresses the adjusting bolt return spring. The assembly moves until it presses the pads against the disc rotor.

When the parking brake lever is released, the compressed Return Spring pushes the Adjusting Bolt and Piston back to their previous positions. As a result, the parking brake is released. During this operation, the Clutch Spring prevents the rotation of the Sleeve Nut so that the force of the parking brake lever is transferred to the Piston via the Adjusting Bolt.

Principle of hydraulic brake system Purpose

This is a better system than the mechanically operated one. The system itself very simple and efficient. In this there are a large number of mechanical components Wear is reduced on the brake }linings. The liquid pressure supplies the hydraulic brakes The braking action on all the brakes is equal... Principle Then the force applied to the pedal is multiplied and transmitted to the brake shoe by a suitable transmission system based upon Pascal's principle. It states that "pressur applied to a liquid is transmitted equally in all directions without any losses". It natal consists of a five cylinders filled with a liquid. The cross section of each cylinder is cm^2. a certain force, say 10 kg. is applied at the central main cylinder. The same force c 10 kg is applied on the other four cylinders. These weights are supported by the li~tii~ all the cylinders. This shows that the pressure at the central main cylinder is the same that on the other four cylinders.

Fig. Schematic view of principle of hydraulic brake system Construction and Operation It mainly consists of a master cylinder and four wheel cylinders. Every wheel cylinder contains two pistons which move outwards. The hydraulic fluid is a mixture of glycerin ethyl alcohol, the hydraulic fluid flows from the master cylinder to the four wheel cylinders through steel pipe lines, union and flexible hoses. The springs are used to hold the brake shoes on all the four wheels. When the driver applies the brake pedal, the piston in the master cylinder forces the liquid out of the cylinder. This liquid presses the two pistons in the wheel cylinder outwards and these pistons push the brake shoes outwards. The brake shoe in turn presses against the brake drums. This stops the brake drums. The wheels are thus stopped.

Fig. Schematic view of hydraulic brake system When the driver releases brake pedal, the master cylinder is pushed backward by a spring fitted in the master cylinder. The springs of the brake shoes bring the shoes closer. At this time We two pistons in the wheel Ryder also come closer. The liquid in the wheel cylinder is pushed outward through the pipes due to the back pressure and forced back the fluid into master cylinder. This is how the hydraulic system worlds. The system is so designed that even when the brakes are in the released position, a small pressure. of about 50 Kpa is maintained in the pipe lines. Advantages  Simple in construction.  Braking action on all the brakes is equal.

 Increased braking effort.  Self lubrication.  Low wear rate  High mechanical advantage.  Minimum moving parts and less complicated linkage.  Friction losses are low.  Application of brake is very smooth, silent and flexible. Disadvantages  The braking system fails if there's any leakage in the brake lines.  If the brake fluid leaks out an the brake shoes, they will be ruined.

Master Cylinder It is the heart of the hydraulic brake system the central unit in the hydraulic braking system is master cylinder. it produces the required hydraulic pressure to operate the system. The pressure of the drivers foot on brakes pedal is transmitted to the master cylinder piston through different linkage arrangements. So, the master cylinder is considered as the heart of the hydraulic braking system. It serves the following objects in the system;  It produces the required hydraulic pressure to operate the braless.  It maintains a constant volume of fluid in the system  To bleed or force air out of the brake line and wheel cylinder, a puma is used. Types of master cylinder

 Single master cylinder for all the front and rear wheel cylinders.  Tandem master cylinder containing separate units for Font and rear whee cylinders. Single Master- Cylinder It consists of two main chambers, made of cast iron. They are reservoir an compression chamber. The reservoir contains the fluid to supply to the brake system. The Filler hole is covered with a plug which contains an air vent, to keep the brake fluid always at atmospheric pressure. The plug prevents the system from dust and watt particles.

Fig. Schematic view of Single Master Cylinder The compression chamber contains a piston, primary and secondary rubber cups, coil spring, outlet check valve and a rubber seat. The compression chambers is connected with reservoir through two holes larger port is called the intake port and the smaller port is called the by pass port.

The pistons works inside the compression chamber and is operated by the brake pedal through linkages. To prevent leakage there are rubber seals on both ends of the pistons in the compression chamber. A rubber boot covers the push rod end of the master cylinder to keep it free from foreign matter. If check valve fails, air flows in to the compression chamber which makes braking system to failure. When the brake pedal in pressed down the piston inside the cylinder pumps ort fluid in to the brake lined through the check valve as a result, a fluid pressure is built up in the wheel cylinders. The moving out wheel cylinder pistons expands the brake slices and the brakes are applied. When the brake pedal is released, the spring pressure in the master cylinder moves Me piston to the backward. The liquid from the four cylinders does not flow back at once. At the same time a partial vacuum is developed in the compression chamber and unless this is destroyed immediately, then chances of air leaking into the system. Even a very small amount of air will render the brakes useless, since the air being compressible. This problem is solved by having intake port as shown, as soon as same vacuum is formed, the atmospheric pressure in the fluid reservoir forces the fluid through intake port and holes in the piston which deflects the rubber cup and enters the compressions chamber, destroying the vacuum. But, by time this vacuum is destroyed, the fluid from the lines comes back in reservoir by lining the fluid check valve off its seat. Butthe compression chamber is already full. The extra fluid coming from the lines passes to the fluid reservoir through by- pass port.

When brake pedal is filly released, spring in the cylinder holds the check vain against the rubber seat with sufficient pressure to maintains 6 to 8 lbs pressure in brake lines and wheel cylinder. Tandem Master Cylinder When there is any defect in the pipeline or due to any leakage of fluid at the joint the hydraulic brake system fails. To overcome this difficulties split system- is used Some large cars and commercial vehicles mostly uses the split system. The split system mainly consists of two separate cylinders and reservoir, one for operating front brakes and the other for rear brakes. The reservoir contains two intake ports and two bypass port. There are tow compression springs, one between the two pistons and the other between a piston and master cylinder cover. Under ordinal conditions the brake fluid will transmit both to front as well as rear brakes when the brake pedal is pressed.

Fig. Schematic view of Tandem Master Cylinder

Fig. Schematic view of operation Tandem Master Cylinder If front brake lines are damaged piston (2) bottoms against the end of the cylinder. After this, pressure will start building up in space between piston (1) and piston(2) and rem brake will be applied. Similarly when the rear brake lines are damaged, no pressure will be built up in. space between piston(i) and piston(2). So piston (l) will move freely till it comes up against to further push at the brake pedal, will move both piston (l&2) together, there by applying the front brake. The swept volume in the master cylinder chamber is the factor to decide the braking effort. In passenger cars, generally, lager braking effort is required at the front axle. So the larger chamber of the master cylinder is connected to the Wont axle and the smaller chamber to the rear axle.

In Font drive vehicles, such as maruti 800, this type of split system with tandem master cylinder is commonly used. Advantages  If any failure occurs in the Font wheel brakes, the brakes in the rear wheels will be functional.  If there is any fault in the rear brakes, the brakes ~ the front wheels will be operated. Wheel Cylinder The following are the Fictions of wheel cylinder;  It actuates the shoes outward to contact the brake drum.  It converts the hydraulic pressure of very low value into a comparable mechanical force of higher value. Construction and working Wheel cylinder is the second important component of the hydraulic brake system. the wheel cylinder is connected with the cast iron housing already fitted in the individual wheels is shown in fig., Wheel cylinders in the brake system are meant to force the brake Hoes against the drum. The construction is very simple. Each wheel cylinder is provided with pistons, rubber seals (cups), seal spreaders, spring & dust covers (boots).

The brake line from the master cylinder is attached to the port and a bleeder screw with a cover is provided to bleed air from the system whenever required. Wheel cylinder are mounted on the back plate. The coil spring inside the cylinder, keeps the rubber cups in position with the pistons. The rubber cups prevents and leakage Mom the wheel cylinder. The dust cover protects the cylinder from foreign substances.

Fig. Schematic view of Wheel Cylinder

When brakes are applied the fluid under pressure from me master cylinder enters the inlet port and forced the pistons to move outward to push the shoes against the drum. (The built-up pressure sent to the space between the pistons moves the two pistons to its opposite direction) similarly when the brakes are released, the brake shoe

retractor springs forced the brake fluid out of the wheel cylinder by pushing the piston inward. Bleeding Hydraulic System In hydraulic brakes, care must be taken that not even small quantities of air enters into the braking stem. Coke air being compressible, it gets compressed when Me brisk pedal is Pressed. The result is that fluid pressure is not transmitted to the brakes which, a consequence. Are not actuated. The procedure of driving air out of the braking system is called bleeding. A specie bleeding valve is provided for this purpose on the shoe expander or disk caliper. For bleeding, the master cylinder is topped up completely wig the brake fluid and pipe is connected to the bleeding valve nipple as shown in the figure.

Fig. Schematic view of Bleeding Hydraulic System The other end of this pipe is dipped in the brake fluid contained in some jar. One person sits on the driver s seat and presses the brake pedal, after which the bleeder valve is opened by the second person with a spanner, when some air bubbles will come out of the pipe and

escape through the brake fluid into the atmosphere. The bleeder valve is now closed and the brake pedal released and pressed once more after which the bleeder valve is opened again when some more air bubbles will come out. This procedure is repeated till on pressing the brake pedal, on more air bubbled are noted when with the pedal in the pressed position the bleeder valve is closed The reservoir is then topped up with Me fresh fluid. This procedure is then repeated for all wheels. this process is also known as manual bleeding.

The position of the brake valve is such that the atmospheric air enters through it and then fills up the portion to the led of the diaphragm. There are a few holes to the right of the diaphragm that connect the air chamber to the Atmosphere. At this stage both sides of the diaphragm are filled up with the atmospheric air. The brake cam is linked to the push rod of the diaphragm. The brake shoes are not expanded in this position. In fig the position of the brake valve has been brought to the left. Here the compressed air is pressing the diaphragm from the left. Thus, there is only atmospheric pressure to the right of the diaphragm. The pressure of the compressed air is higher than the atmospheric pressure.

The diaphragm is therefore, pushed to the right. This is linked to the push rod that operates the brake cam. When the cam rotates, the brake shoes expand. The brake is thus applied.

Construction and working The function of the air compressor is to develop air to a higher pressure. This pressure should be sufficient to operate the brake system. Tlie compressor pumps out the air to the storage tank. This goes on till the tank is filled up with the required amount of air. When no figurer air is required, the unloaded valve is operated to relieve the load on the compressor.

This air passes through the unloaded to the reservoir. The reservoir keeps the air at maximum pressure required for operating the brake system. If the pressure in the reservoir can get damaged. Therefore, a safety valve is provided in the reservoir. It released the air pressure after it goes beyond a certain limit. There is also a drain pug which is removed when the reservoir is to be cleaned. Reservoirs maintain 900 kpa of pressure. Pressure drops 700 kpa the unloaded valve again cues in the compressor to raise system pressure. To reduce the pressure at below 400 kpa warrining or buzzer is sounded. The air from the reservoir passes through an air filter. The air filter removes the fine particles of dust present in the air. This pure air now goes to the brake valve. Brake pedel is fitted to the top portion of the brake valve. When the brake pedel is pressed, the brake valve is operated, the compressed air flows in to the brake chambers of each of the four wheels. that means brake valve having 4 outlets, first outlet is to be connected at front wheels, second outlet is to be connected at rear wheels, third outlet is to be operate stop light switch, fourth outlet is a return air passage. The diaphragms of the four brake chambers are thus operated. This is how the brakes are applied in the air brake system. All the front and rear wheels are connected to the air brake system. The hand brake is used mechanically for applying brakes only to the rear wheels. Figure gives the position of the brakes when they are applied. The brake chamber is pushed by the compressed air. The push rod operates the brake -cam in the wheel. This expands the brake shoes which in turn grip the brake drum.

Figure gives the position of the heralds when they are not applied. Hence the atmospheric air acting Mom the left has pushed the diaphragm to the extreme right end. Air Assisted Hydraulic Brakes Introduction In the present days of increasing road speeds, power brakes bring a welcome addition to the safety factor in modern automobiles .servo assisted power brakes provide instant stopping with minimum pressure on the brake pedal .this result in less pedal effort .the driver fatigue is also reduced. Compressed air is used for the driver faigue is alsc reduced compressed air is used for actuation. When the driver actuates the brake, the compressed air then supplies mast of the effort required for braking. Construction and working

In vacuum assisted brake, vacuum was talon for pushing the push rod of the maste cylinder. In air assisted hydraulic brake system instead of vacuum, air is used fo application of brakes. The brake pedal link and push rod of master cylinder is so designed and linked that in the event of failure of air pressure, brakes can be applied but once again more foot pressure will be required. It is also designed that to stop the vehicle in air serve brake approximately half foot pressure is required in comparison to the vehicle with hydraulic brakes. A layout of air assisted hydraulic brake system is shown in figure.

The brake system consists of compressed air system and hydraulic system. The compressed air system consists of air compressor, pressure regulator, air reservoir and servo booster. Air compressor in tata vehicle gets its drive from the engine cam shaft and the compressor takes clean air through the pipe from air cleaner of the engine. A* gets into the compressor inlet valve and after being compressed sent to the air reservoir via outlet valve and pressure regulator. The hydraulic system comprises master cylinder, Wheel cylinder, brake drum brake shoes, brake fluid lines and hoses. There is a check valve at the end of the master cylinder to control the flow of brake oil

The servo booster is mainly made up of 3 parts such as (i) air control valve (ii piston and cylinder and (iii) master cylinder. The brake booster used in Tata vehicles. In this figure the rod A linked to the brake pedal.

The other end of the rod A is linked with lever B. the upper portions of lever B is linked with piston rod D and lower part of lever B linked with pressure valve P. the piston rod D is connected to the master cylinder piston and the piston kept in oppositions by spring C. When the brake pedal is pressed, the rod A moves forward. This movement of the brake pedal rod makes the valve rod to move which in turn makes the air control valve opens which allows the high pressure air to get into the cylinder behind the piston. Due to this high pressure, piston moves forwared pushing the master cylinder rod. Due to this the

brake oil under pressure from the master cylinder goes to the wheel cylinders and brake are applied. When the brake pedal is released, inlet valve is closed alla out let valve is opened The entire pressure admitted into the servo cylinder is released to atmosphere and th^t spring moves the servo piston backward. The master cylinder piston return to its origins position due to the return spring pressure. The fluid pressure in the entire system drops to its original low value and the return spring pull the brake shoes away Tom the brake drums this causes the wheel cylinder piston also to come back to their orginal inward positions. Thus brake is released. Brake Show Adjustment Mechanism There are various methods to adjust the brake shop, The most common types ens important ones are the  Micram adjuster  Screw adjuster. Micram type adjustment of brake shoes This system is very effective and simple in construction as shown in figure. The mechanism consists two scroll members provided one for each brake shoe to adjust them. each scroll member is mounted between the brake shoe and the member M is fixed to the actuating plunger. The brake shoe bears on the pin of the scroll member and the scrol] member itself bears on a locking tooth or ridge of the member M. The scroll member is provided with toothed cam and can be turned by a screw driver when there is desire to the shoe adjustment. The position of the adjustment is locked by securing the tooth of the

cam in the ridge of the member M. this system is generally used in hydraulic brakes.

Taper Screw adjuster In this system the shoes are adjusted by a screw which is known as 'star adjusting screw'. The upper ends of the shoes are pivoted in the projections of the anchor pin ant the lower ends are connected by the 'star adjusting screw' as shown in the figure. The expander Unit is

provided just below the anchor pin and shoes are held with the unit by the return sprigs. Another helical spring is provided at the lower side to hold the shoed on the ends of the adjusting screw. Whenever the brakes are required to be adjusted then the adjusting screw is turner with the help of a lever or screw driver through the window provided in the back plate This results in the expansion of the shoes out wards and thus reducing the clearance between

The linings and the drum Screw type adjuster is used in mechanical as well as hydraulic

Anti-Lock Braking System Introduction

Stopping a car in a hurry on a slippery road can be very challenging. Anti-lock braking systems (ABS) take a lot of the challenge out of this sometimes nerve-wracking event. In fact, on slippery surfaces, even professional drivers can't stop as quickly without ABS as an average driver can with ABS

In this system, the last in a six-part series on brakes, we'll learn all about anti-lock braking systems -- why you need them, what's in them, how they work, some of the common types and some associated problems The ABS System The theory behind anti-lock brakes is simple. A skidding wheel (where the tire contact patch is sliding relative to the road) has less traction than a non-skidding wheel. If you have been stuck on ice, you know that if your wheels are spinning you have no traction. This is because the contact patch is sliding relative to the ice

By keeping the wheels from skidding while you slow down, antilock brakes benefit you in two ways: You'll stop faster, and you'll be able to steer while you stop. There are four main components to an ABS system:  Speed sensors  Pump  Valves  Controller Speed Sensors The anti-lock braking system needs some way of knowing when a wheel is about to lock up. The speed sensors, which are located at each wheel, or in some cases in the differential, provide this information. Valves

There is a valve in the brake line of each brake controlled by the ABS. On some systems, the valve has three positions: In position one, the valve is open; pressure from the master cylinder is passed right through to the brake. In position two, the valve blocks the line, isolating that brake from the master cylinder. This prevents the pressure from rising further should the driver push the brake pedal harder. In position three, the valve releases some of the pressure from the brake. Pump Since the valve is able to release pressure from the brakes, there has to be some way to put that pressure back. That is what the pump does; when a valve reduces the pressure in a line, the pump is there to get the pressure back up.

Controller

The controller is a computer in the car. It watches the speed sensors and controls the valves. ABS at Work There are many different variations and control algorithms for ABS systems. We will discuss how one of the simpler systems works. The controller monitors the speed sensors at all times. It is looking for decelerations in the wheel that are out of the ordinary. Right before a wheel locks up, it will experience a rapid deceleration. If left unchecked, the wheel would stop much more quickly than any car could. It might take a car five seconds to stop from 60 mph (96.6 kph) under ideal conditions, but a wheel that locks up could stop spinning in less than a second.

The ABS controller knows that such a rapid deceleration is impossible, so it reduces the pressure to that brake until it sees an acceleration, then it increases the pressure until it sees the deceleration again. It can do this very quickly, before the tire can actually significantly change speed. The result is that the tire slows down at the same rate as the car, with the brakes keeping the tires very near the point at which they will start to lock up. This gives the system maximum braking power.

When the ABS system is in operation you will feel a pulsing in the brake pedal; this comes from the rapid opening and closing of the valves. Some ABS systems can cycle up to 15 times per second. Anti-Lock Brake Types Anti-lock braking systems use different schemes depending on the type of brakes in use. We will refer to them by the number of channels -that is, how many valves that are individually controlled -- and the number of speed sensors. Four-channel, four-sensor ABS This is the best scheme. There is a speed sensor on all four wheels and a separate valve for all four wheels. With this setup, the controller monitors each wheel individually to make sure it is achieving maximum braking force. Three-channel, three-sensor ABS This scheme, commonly found on pickup trucks with four-wheel ABS, has a speed sensor and a valve for each of the front wheels, with one valve and one sensor for both rear wheels. The speed sensor for the rear wheels is located in the rear axle. This system provides individual control of the front wheels, so they can both achieve maximum braking force. The rear wheels, however, are monitored together; they both have to start to lock up before the ABS will activate on the rear. With this system, it is possible that one of the rear wheels will lock during a stop, reducing brake effectiveness.

One-channel, one-sensor ABS This system is commonly found on pickup trucks with rear-wheel ABS. It has one valve, which controls both rear wheels, and one speed sensor, located in the rear axle. This system operates the same as the rear end of a three-channel system. The rear wheels are monitored together and they both have to start to lock up before the ABS kicks in. In this system it is also possible that one of the rear wheels will lock, reducing brake effectiveness. This system is easy to identify. Usually there will be one brake line going through a T-fitting to both rear wheels. You can locate the speed sensor by looking for an electrical connection near the differential on the rear-axle housing. Retarded Engine Brakes A retarder is a device used to augment or replace some of the functions of primary friction-based braking systems of heavy vehicles. Friction-based braking systems are susceptible to 'fade' when used extensively, and this can become dangerous if the braking performance drops below that required to stop a vehicle for instance if a lorry or coach is descending a long incline. For this reason, such heavy vehicles are frequently fitted with a supplementary system that is not friction-based. Retarders are not restricted to road vehicles, but may also be used also in railway systems.

The British prototype Advanced Passenger Train used hydraulic retarders to allow the high-speed train to stop in the same distance as standard lower speed trains, as a purely friction-based system was not viable. Retarders serve to slow vehicles down, or maintain a steady speed on inclines. They are usually not capable of bringing vehicles to a standstill, as their effectiveness diminishes at low speeds. They are usually used to slow vehicles down, with the final braking being carried out by a friction brake. As the friction brake does not then need to be used so much, particularly at higher speeds, the service lifetime of friction brakes is enhanced. The Engine Brake Petrol-engined vehicles Most petrol-driven car drivers are familiar with the use of so-called engine braking to descend inclines: put the car in low gear and do not use the accelerator. The retardation effect is not caused by friction in the engine, but by the fact that with the throttle closed, air cannot enter the cylinder on the intake stroke of the pistons. Essentially, a partial vacuum is being created at each intake stroke, and the energy required to create this partial vacuum comes from the transmission, hence retarding the motion of the vehicle. Diesel-engined vehicles Diesel-engined vehicles do not have a throttle, as they regulate power output purely by the volume of fuel sprayed into the cylinders, so the engine braking generated by creating partial vacua at each intake stroke in petrol engines does not apply to diesel engined vehicles -- they

are quite 'free-running'. However Clessie M. Cummins, founder of Cummins Engine Company, realised that by opening the cylinder exhaust valves when the piston reached top dead centre, rather than at the end of the power stroke the accumulated compressed air in the cylinder could be vented before it could act as a 'spring' to drive the piston back down again. By doing this, the engine acts as an air compressor, with the energy used to compress the air coming from the transmission, hence retarding the vehicle. The amount of power extracted from the transmission can be up to 90% of the rated power of the engine for certain engines. This type of retarder is known to North American heavy vehicle drivers as a Jake brake, named after such a system produced by the Jacobs Manufacturing Company. A disadvantage of this system is that it is very noisy in operation, such that some stretches of road ban its use. The exhaust brake The exhaust brake is simpler in operation than an engine brake. Essentially, the exhaust pipe of the vehicle is restricted by a valve. This raises the pressure in the exhaust system, forcing the engine to work harder on the exhaust stroke of its cylinders, so again the engine is acting as an air compressor, with the power required to compress the air being taking from the transmission, and therefore retarding the vehicle. A disadvantage of this system is that the exhaust pipe has to be engineered to accommodate the high pressures generated by this method of retardation. The hydraulic retarder Hydraulic retarders use the viscous drag forces between dynamic and static vanes in a fluid-filled chamber to deliver their retardation.

There are several different types which can use standard transmission fluid (oil), separate oil, or water. A simple retarder would use vanes attached to a transmission driveshaft between the clutch and roadwheels. They can also be driven separately via gears off a driveshaft. The vanes would be enclosed in a static chamber with small clearences to the chamber's walls (which will also be vaned), as in an automatic transmission. When retardation is required, fluid (oil or water) is pumped into the chamber, and the viscous drag induced will slow down the vehicle. The working fluid will heat up, and will usually be circulated through a cooling system. The degree of retardation can be varied by adjusting the fill level of the chamber. Hydraulic retarders are extremely quiet in operation compared to engine brakes.

The Eddy retarder The electric retarder uses electromagnetic induction to provide a retardation force. An electric retardation unit can be placed on an axle, transmission, or driveline and consists of a rotor attached to the axle, transmission, or driveline and a stator securely attached to the vehicle chassis. There are no contact surfaces between the rotor and stator, and no working fluid. When retardation is required, the electrical windings in the stator are powered up from the vehicle battery, producing magnetic fields alternating in polarity for the rotor to move in. This induces eddy currents in the rotor, which slows down the rotor, and hence the axle, transmission or driveshaft to which it is attached. The rotor is engineered to provide its own air-cooling, so no load is placed on

the vehicles cooling system, and the operation of the system is extremely quiet.

Section Summary Questions 1. What is the basic principle of the dual air brake system? 2. What valve is used to protect the primary circuit from the secondary circuit? 3. In a dual air brake system, will the vehicle continue to have braking ability if one circuit fails? 4. Is there a difference between the foot valve used in a basic air brake system and the foot valve used in the dual air brake system? 5. Name two functions of the spring parking brakes in a dual air brake system. 6. Describe the functions of the spring brake modulator valve. 7. If the trailer breaks away from the tractor on a dual air brake system, what applies the brakes on the trailer? 8. What is blended air? 9. Can a trailer with a basic air brake system be towed by a tractor with a dual air brake system?

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