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DIHE Short Term Scheduling

Mohammad Hashim Qureshi BBA-6 18/06/2011

Contents
Ten Operation Management Strategies ................................................................................................. 3 DELTA AIRLINE......................................................................................................................................... 4 Strategic Importance of Short-Term Scheduling .................................................................................... 4 Scheduling Issues .................................................................................................................................... 4 Scheduling Decision ................................................................................................................................ 4 Forward and Backward Scheduling ......................................................................................................... 5 Scheduling Criteria .................................................................................................................................. 6 Requirement for Scheduling Process-Focused Work Centers ................................................................ 6 Planning and Control Files ...................................................................................................................... 6 Loading Jobs ............................................................................................................................................ 6 Input-Output Control .............................................................................................................................. 7 Gantt chart .............................................................................................................................................. 7 Assignment Method................................................................................................................................ 7 For each assignment there are four steps to follow ............................................................................... 7 Sequencing Jobs ...................................................................................................................................... 8 Comparison of Sequencing Rules............................................................................................................ 8 Critical Ratio ............................................................................................................................................ 8 CR Techniques ......................................................................................................................................... 8 Finite Capacity Scheduling ...................................................................................................................... 8 Theory of Constraints.............................................................................................................................. 9 Scheduling Repetitive Facilities............................................................................................................... 9 Advantages include: ................................................................................................................................ 9

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Ten Operation Management Strategies

Design of goods and services

Managing quality

process strategy

Location strategies

Layout strategies

Human resources

Supply chain management

Inventory Management

Scheduling

maintenanace

Aggregate Scheduling planning Short-term scheduling

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DELTA AIRLINE
About 10% of Deltas flights are disrupted per year, half because of weather Cost is $440 million in lost revenue, overtime pay, food and lodging vouchers The $33 million Operations Control Center adjusts to changes and keeps flights flowing Saves Delta $35 million per year

Strategic Importance of Short-Term Scheduling


By scheduling effectively, companies use assets more effectively and create greater capacity per dollar invested, which, in turn, lowers cost. This added capacity and related flexibility provides faster delivery and therefore better customer service Good scheduling is a competitive advantage which contributes to Dependable delivery.

Scheduling Issues
Scheduling deals with the timing of operations The task is the allocation and prioritization of demand Significant issues are The type of scheduling, forward or backward The criteria for priorities

Scheduling Decision
Organization Arnold Palmer Hospital Managers Must Schedule the Following Operating room use Patient admissions Nursing, security, maintenance staffs Outpatient treatments Classrooms and audiovisual equipment Student and instructor schedules Graduate and undergraduate courses

University of Missouri

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5 Lockheed Martin factory Production of goods Purchases of materials Workers Chef, waiters, bartenders Delivery of fresh foods Entertainers Opening of dining areas Maintenance of aircraft Departure timetables Flight crews, catering, gate, ticketing personnel

Hard Rock Cafe

Delta Air Lines

Forward and Backward Scheduling


Forward scheduling is also done if no product is available on the material availability date calculated by backward scheduling. The system does an availability check to determine the first possible date when product will be available. This new material availability date forms the starting point for scheduling the remaining activities. The loading time, pick/pack time, transit time, and transportation lead time are added to the new material availability date to calculate the confirmed delivery date. Backward scheduling is the calculation of deadline dates: the arrival time at the customer site is calculated as the earliest possible goods receipt time at the customers unloading point on the requested delivery date. All four of the delivery and transportation scheduling lead times are subtracted from the customers requested delivery date to determine if this date can be met. The transit time, loading time, and pick/pack time are subtracted from the customers requested delivery date to calculate the required material availability date. The system calculates backward scheduling as follows: Requested delivery date minus transit time = Goods issue date Goods issue date minus loading time = Loading date Loading date minus transportation lead time = Transportation scheduling date Loading date minus pick/pack time = Material availability date By default, the system will calculate delivery dates the closest day, taking into consideration the working days of the shipping point and a rounding profile. In this case the system assumes a 24 hour work day and lead times can be entered in days up to 2 decimal points. This is referred to as daily scheduling.

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Scheduling Criteria
1. Minimize completion time: this criterion is evaluated by determining the average completion time per job. 2. Maximize utilization of facilities: this evaluated by determining the percent of the time the facility is utilized. 3. Minimize work-in-process (WIP) inventory: this evaluated by determining the average number of jobs in system and WIP inventory will be high. Therefore the fewer the number of jobs in the system, the lower the inventory. 4. Minimize customer waiting time: this is evaluated by determining the average numbers of late days.

Requirement for Scheduling Process-Focused Work Centers


Scheduling incoming orders without violating capacity constraints of individual work centers Check availability of tools and materials before releasing an orders to a department Establish due dates for each job and check progress against need dates and order lead times Check work-in-progress as job move through the shop Provide feedback on plant and production activities Provide work-efficiency statistics and monitor operator times for payroll and labor distribution analyses

Planning and Control Files


Planning Files 1. An item master file contains information about each component. 2. A routing file indicates each components flow through the shop. 3. A work-center master file contains information about the work center. Control File Track the actual progress made against the plan.

Loading Jobs
Assigning jobs to work centers Considering- Job priority (e.g.., due date)- Capacity Work center hours available Hours needed for job Approaches- Gantt chart (load & scheduling) capacity- Assignment method job to specific work center

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Input-Output Control
Identifies overloading and under loading conditions Prompts managerial action to resolve scheduling problems Can be maintained using Con WIP cards that control the scheduling of batches Options for Managing Facility Work Flow Correcting performance Increasing capacity Increasing or reducing input to the work center by :- Routing work to or from other work centers- Increasing or decreasing subcontracting- Producing less (or more)

Gantt chart
Load chart shows the loading and idle times of departments, machines, or facilities Displays relative workloads over time Schedule chart monitors jobs in process All Gantt charts need to be updated frequently to account for changes

Assignment Method
A special class of linear programming models that assign tasks or jobs to resources Objective is to minimize cost or time Only one job (or worker) is assigned to one machine (or project) Build a table of costs or time associated with particular assignments

For each assignment there are four steps to follow


1. Create zero opportunity costs by repeatedly subtracting the lowest costs from each row and column 2. Draw the minimum number of vertical and horizontal lines necessary to cover all the zeros in the table. If the number of lines equals either the number of rows or the number of columns, proceed to step 4. Otherwise proceed to step 3. 3. Subtract the smallest number not covered by a line from all other uncovered numbers. Add the same number to any number at the intersection of two lines. Return to step 2. 4. Optimal assignments are at zero locations in the table. Select one, draw lines through the row and column involved, and continue to the next assignment.

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Sequencing Jobs
Specifies the order in which jobs should be performed at work centers Priority rules are used to dispatch or sequence jobs o FCFS: First come, first served o SPT: Shortest processing time o EDD: Earliest due date o LPT: Longest processing time

Comparison of Sequencing Rules


No one sequencing rule excels on all criteria SPT does well on minimizing flow time and number of jobs in the system But SPT moves long jobs to the end which may result in dissatisfied customers FCFS does not do especially well (or poorly) on any criteria but is perceived as fair by customers EDD minimizes lateness

Critical Ratio
An index number found by dividing the time remaining until the due date by the work time remaining on the job Jobs with low critical ratios are scheduled ahead of jobs with higher critical ratios Performs well on average job lateness criteria

CR Techniques
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Helps determine the status of specific jobs Establishes relative priorities among jobs on a common basis Relates both stock and make-to-order jobs on a common basis Adjusts priorities automatically for changes in both demand and job progress Dynamically tracks job progress

Finite Capacity Scheduling


Overcomes disadvantages of rule-based systems by providing an interactive, computer-based graphical system. May include rules and expert systems or simulation to allow real-time response to system changes. Initial data often from an MRP system.FCS allows the balancing of delivery needs and efficiency.

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Theory of Constraints
Throughput is the number of units processed through the facility and sold. TOC deals with the limits an organization faces in achieving its goals. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Identify the constraints Develop a plan for overcoming the constraints Focus resources on accomplishing the plan Reduce the effects of constraints by off-loading work or increasing capacity Once successful, return to step 1 and identify new constraints

Scheduling Repetitive Facilities


Level material use can help repetitive facilities, better satisfy customer demand, lower inventory investment, reduce batch size, and better utilize equipment and facilities.

Advantages include:
Lower inventory levels Faster product throughput Improved component quality Reduced floor-space requirements Improved communications Smoother production process

Service systems differ from manufacturing

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