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B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, APRIL/MAY 2011 Third Semester Electrical and Electronics Engineering EE 2201 — MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION (Regulation 2008) Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks Answer ALL questions PART A — (10 × 2 = 20 marks) 1. Define dynamic characteristics of an instrument. 2. Write down the different Standards of an instrument. 3. State the purpose of Shunts in the Voltmeter. 4. Classify different types of iron loss. 5. List the application of A.C. bridge. 6. Enumerate the principle of grounding. 7. List any two storage devices. 8. Differentiate the functions of printer and plotter. 9.Define transducer. 10. Give any two applications of Smart Sensors. PART B — (5 × 16 = 80 marks) 11. (a) Describe the static and dynamic characteristics of measuring instrument. (16) Or (b) (i) Explain the concept of static evaluation of measurement data. (8) (ii) Describe the different calibration procedures of measuring instrument. (8) 12. (a) (i) With a neat block diagram, explain the construction and operating principle of digital voltmeter. (8) (ii) Describe the functional operation of energy meter. (8) Or (b) (i) Describe the basic magnetic measurement using B-H curve (8) (ii) Explain the operating principle of instrument transformer. (8) 13. (a) (i) Describe the operation of A.C. potentiometer. (8) (ii) With a neat bridge network, derive the general equation for bridge balance with a neat a.c. bridge diagram. (8) Or (b) Explain the operation of Schering Bridge to determine the unknown capacitance. Derive the relevant equations and explain the computation procedure using phasor diagram. (16) 14. (a) Write brief notes on (i) Magnetic disk and tape (ii) Recorders and printers. (8+8) Or (b) With a help of simplified block diagram, explain the construction and operating principle of general purpose Cathode Ray Oscilloscope. (16)
4V. (ii) If a set of six observations are as follows: 1.What is the importance of dynamic characteristics of systems? 2. (ii) With neat figures explain how frequency of a signal is measured using a CRO. 9.(10+6) 13. NOVEMBER /DECEMBER 2008 PART A 1. What are the advantages of digital instruments over analog instruments? 4. how are stain gauge used for pressure measurement? 10. (ii) B. f=2. (8) (ii) Describe the various factors influencing the type of transducer for a particular application. Compare its its advantages over an analog CRO. 8. (10+6) 12.5V. Why must instruments be calibrated? 3. Explain briefly on magnetic tapes. (8) Or (b) Explain the principle of operation. average deviation and standard deviation. What is electromagnetic interference in instruments? 7.(10+6) Or (b) With a neat figure explain briefly on each the building blocks of a digital display instrument . Write briefly in pink plotter.5 kHz R3 = 1kΩ (10+6) Or (b) Discuss briefly on types of instrument errors and instrument faults. (a) (i) Write briefly on the various torque in analog indicating instruments.(10+6) Or (b) Write briefly on any TWO: (8+8) (i)Dot matrix display . curve analysis of magnetic circuit. (a) (i) Derive the bridge balance condition for the Maxwell bridge and Schering bridge. With neat figure explain the need of WAGNER’S EARTH (ground) connection in bridge circuit (10+6) 14.15. C1 = 6µF R2 = 30k Ω. Write briefly seven segment LED display decoder. (a) (i) Explain the measurement of resistance using strain gauge. (ii) A/D converter.Derive the condition for sustained oscillation in feedback oscillators? 6. (ii) Find the equivalent parallel resistance and capacitance that causes a wein bridge to null if the following components are given: R1= 8kΩ.H. How are resisters and diodes checked using digital multimeters? 5. Calculate the arithmetic mean.1V. What is meant by quantization error? PART B 11 (a) (i) Explain on the static and dynamic characteristics of a measurement system. (6+10) Or (b) Write briefly with neat figures on (i) Principle of operation of a current transformer.3V. (a) With neat figures explain the construction and working principle of a digital storage Oscilloscope.2V.5V.
4. Give its merits and demerits. (8) (ii) With neat figure explain LVDT for velocity measurement. 5.(ii) Advantage and principle of LCD Displays (iii) Digital data logger. disadvantages and applications of LVDT . (a) How are A/D converters classified? With neat diagram explain the construction and principle of successive approximation type ADC?. 1 ( Differentiate resolution from threshold How are the absolute and relative errors expressed mathematically What are the essential torques required for operating an instrument? What is phase meter? Mention the types of phase meter What is an isolation amplifier? Where is it used? State the condition for balance in a wheatstone bridge What are the types of printers according to printing methodology? What are the main parts of the cathode ray tube? Differentiate sensor from transducer. 9. 15.(a) with a neat sketch describe a bridge to determine the unknown inductance and a bridge to determine the unknown capacitance. 13. Give advantages. Define and explain the static characteristics of an instrument. (2+14) Or (b) (i) Write briefly on thermocouple and thermistors as temperature transducers. 3. (b) describe the direct and frequency modulation magnetic tape recording types.(a) describe the LED and LCD display devices. Draw the block diagram for 4 bit analog to digital converter. (ii) write an note on different types of errors. Write a short note on any two adjustments required in energy meters. 8. (b) (i) draw and explain the general block diagram of measurement system. 7. 2. 12. (8) NOVEMBER DECEMBER 2009 1. 15 (a) what are the selection criteria for the transducer? Explain the working principle of LVDT with neat sketch and characteristics.(a) describe the construction and working principle of single phase induction type energy meter. 14. 6. (b) explain with neat sketch the classification of Instrument transformers write a note on the errors affecting the characteristics of an instrument transformer. (b)explain the grounding techniques in detail to reduce the ground loop interference signal.
17. Define limiting errors and instrumental errors. What is meant by accuracy and precision of an instrument? 21. Define static error. List out the dynamic characteristics of any measurement system. What is the function of manipulation element in a measurement system? 6. Define a dynamic response of an instrument. What are the static characteristics important? 4. What is the significance of calibration? 20. 15. 22.(b) what are the performance parameters of analog to digital converter? Explain any two basic A/D conversion techniques in detail. What are the types of error measurement system? 3. Distinguish between zero drift and span drift. List the different types of possible errors in measurements. 19. Define the terms precision and sensitivity? 10. Distinguish between direct and indirect methods of measurements. 18. 14. UNIT 1 PART-A 1. Distinguish re-productibility and repeatability. Show the block diagram indicating functional measurement system. What is primary sensing element? 8. What is standard? What are the different types of standard? 5. What are the primary standards? Where are they used? 7. 12. 11. 2. 13. What is calibration? 9. What are the different calibration methodologies? 16. Mention any four static characteristics of measuring instruments. What is the difference between analog and digital instrument? elements of .
23. Give the methods of using any three standard inputs being used for analyzing the dynamic response of system with neat sketches. UNIT2 PART-A 1.) 16 Marks 1. How are resistors are checked using digital multimeters? 9. 5. 2. Draw the block diagram showing the basic functional elements of an instrument and explain the functions of each. How are the analog instruments classified on the basis of method used for comparing the unknown quantity? 4. 7. 3. Describe in detail the different types of dynamic errors in a measurement system. What is a secondary instrument? 25. By using a micro meter screw the following readings were taken of a certain physical length. 7. 6. Derive the expression for relative limiting errors. What is the working principle of wattmeter employed in measuring instruments? 3. What are absolute instruments? 24. What is auto ranging? . What are the advantages of digital instruments over analog instruments? 8. Give the advantages of moving iron meters. Explain why it is necessary to make the potential coil circuit purely resistive in wattmeters. How are secondary instruments classified? PART-B 2. 5. Define limiting errors. What is creeping and how it is prevented? 2. What are different methods of measurement of frequency in the power frequency range? 6. 4. Explain on the static and dynamic characteristics of a measurement system. Explain in detail calibration techniques and draw the calibration curve in general.
c measurements? 19.10. 3. 13. What is the principle of ramp type digital voltmeter? 20. 25. Explain the purpose of Schmitt trigger in digital frequency meter. What are volt-ampere hour and watt-hour? 12. 9. Derive the torque equation for an electro dynamometer type of wattmeter. How the range of d. PART-B 1. Which torque is absent in energy meter? Why? 21. 2. 15. 4. Explain with neat circuit diagram the working of successive approximation type DVM. . Give the construction and principle of operation of single phase induction type energy meter. Describe the construction and functioning of mechanical type frequency meter. 7. What is the reason for using MI on both A. Define nominal rate of instrument transformer. 11. Write briefly with neat figures on (i) Principle of operation of a current transformer (ii) B-H curve analysis of a magnetic circuit. Derive the equation for deflection if the instruments are spring controlled. Define resolution of DVM.C? 16. 22. Draw the circuit diagram of digital phase meter and explain its working. What is transfer instrument? 18. Explain the functioning of Ferro-dynamic type electrical resonance frequency meter. Ammeter and d. 6. Derive the torque equation of electrodynamometer type instrument. 10. 12.C and D. Describe the construction and working of PMMC instrument. 8.c. Explain the function of 3 phase energy meter and wattmeter. 5. Why the PMMC instrument is not used for a. Explain the following term as applied to digital displays 3 ½ digit and 4-½ digit display. 11. Explain the principle of digital phase meter. What are the various principles of analog type electrical instruments? 14. Give the importance of iron loss measurements. What are the essential parts of a ramp type digital voltmeter? 23. What is the precaution to be followed while using current transformer? 17.c voltmeter can be extended? Derive the expressions to calculate shunt resistance and multiplier resistance. Draw and explain the circuit diagram of digital frequency meter. Explain the working of moving iron instruments. What is the purpose of instrument transformers? 13. 24.
State the method of reducing ground loop interference. What are the sources of errors in Wheat stone bridge? 4. 15. Give the advantage and limitations of Maxwell bridge. What is Hay’s bridge? 9. State the advantages of using the bridge circuits for the measurement. What is the importance of deflecting torque in these analog instruments? UNIT3 PART-A 1. State the sources of EM waves. 3. Potentiometers. Describe about the multiple earth and earth loops. State the method of reducing inductive interference. Give the classification of external interference signals. 7. Compare Hay’s bridge with Maxwell bridge.c. potentiometers. PART-B 1. 16. 21. What is inductive interference? 15. working principle of a three-phase wattmeter.14. Write the application of d. which can cause interference. List the advantages of using standard capacitor in Maxwell bridge. Explain the working of a digital multimeter with a schematic block diagram. What is electrostatic shielding? 14. 12. Explain in detail about the laboratory type DC potentio meter. 10. Explain the construction.c. 8. Derive the bridge balance condition for the Maxwell bridge and Schering bridge 2. Which measurement can be carried out by Maxwell bridge? 6. 18. . 2. 19. What is Wien’s bridge? 11. 5. What is the sensitivity of Wheat stone bridge? 3. What is the standardization of potentiometer? 20. What is capacitance interference? 13. Give the application and limitations of Wheat stone bridge. Write the application of a. What is electromagnetic interference? 17.
6. Write two advantages of LED on electronic displays. What are data loggers? 14. 9. List the advantages of LCD. What is isolation probe? 8. 5. What is a recorder? How are the classified? 20. . Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of PDM recording. What are the basic components of data loggers? 16.4. What are the functions of data loggers? 15. Explain the working of Schering bridge. Give the principle of LCD type display device. Explain how the inductance is measured in terms of known capacitance using Maxwell’s bridge. What are the different materials used on LED? 13. Define the deflection sensitivity of CRT. 10. What are the advantages and disadvantages of FM method of magnetic tape recording? 2. 5. Draw a neat diagram on X-Y recorder. What are the various methods of recording data? 10. What is the sweeper in oscilloscope? 18. What are the advantages of magnetic tape recorder? 7. 21. 6. Which bridge is used to measure frequency and explain the measurement procedure? 9. 19. List the main parts of cathode ray tube. What are the different types of magnetic recording? 12. Describe the circuit of Kelvin double bridge used for measurement of low resistance. With neat diagram explain in detail about Hay bridge. Explain about the Anderson bridge. 22. 8. UNIT4 PART-A 1. Explain the different techniques of grounding. 4. List the controllers normally found on XY recorder. In what way line printers are advantages over dot matrix printer? 11. What are the different types of amplifiers used for CRO’s? 3. State the features of ink-jet printers. 17. 7.
Mention some basic requirements of a transducer. What are the advantages of LCD over LED? PART-B 1. 10. Describe the construction and working of LCD’s . 3. 8. 7. What is the basic operating principle of digital tape recording? 24. Discuss in detail about various types of recorders. 5. UNIT5 PATR-A 1. Compare its advantages over an analog CRO. Mention some advantages of electrical transducers. What are the classifications of transducers? 5. Explain in detail how the data stored in magnetic disk and tape. 6. 2. 3. What is secondary transducer? 7. What are its advantages of analog CRO. What is passive transducer? Mention some example. Explain the FM method of magnetic tape recording and explain its advantages and disadvantages. 9. What are the basic components of a tape recorder? 25. . With neat figure explain the construction and working principle of a digital storage oscilloscope. Describe the principle of working and circuit diagram of a digital oscilloscope. Describe the pulse duration modulation (PDM) as used in magnetic tape recording and explain its merits and demerits. Define transducer. Discuss in detail about dot matrix displays. 2. What is active transducer? Mention some example. mention the difference between light scattering and field effect types of LCD’s also explain the advantages of LCDs.23. 8. Explain the various methods of magnetic recording. 4. With neat figure explain the working principle of a digital CRO. What is primary transducer? 6. 4.
Define strain gauges. What are the advantages and disadvantages of potentiometers? 13. What are the advantages and disadvantages of resistance thermometers? 18. What are the types of DAC? 30. 24. Mention some advantages and disadvantages of LVDT. Describe the different modes of operation of piezo electric transducers. What is resistance thermometer? 17. 22. What is thermistor? State the advantage and disadvantages. 16. Mention some advantages and disadvantages of capacitive transducer. What are the essential functions of digital DAC? 28. 14. . What are the materials used for piezo electric transducer? 26. What is smart sensor? Mention some applications. Mention the applications of LVDT. What are the types of DAS? State the applications also. Define gauge factor. PART-B 1. 27. What is the basic principle of capacitive transducer? 23. What are the types of potentiometers? 12. What is piezo electric effect? 25. 19. What is analog and digital transducers? 10. Explain the generalized diagram of a digital data acquisition system? 3. What are the types of ADC? 29. What is inverse transducer? 11. 15. How the transducers are classified on the basis of principle of operation? 2. What is inductive transducer? 20. 21. Mention types of strain gauge.9.
Describe transducers. 12. Describe in details the successive approximation method of ADC. the different principles of working of capacitive 6. Resistive encoder and shaft encoder. Explain in detail about ADC and DAC converters. 7. 8. 5. 11.4. Explain the construction and principle of working of a LVDT. Explain about the thermistor and thermocouples. 10. Discuss in detail about optical encoder. Explain the principle of operation of piezo electric transducer. . Discuss R-2R ladder type DAC. 9. Explain the resistive transducer with respective potentiometer.
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