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UNIT .

Recruitment The is devoted to the discussion of the various aspects relating to the various aspect relating to the recruitment of candidates. Meaning and definition recruitment is the process of finding suitable candidates for the various posts in an organization. According to Edwin B. Flippo, recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to the apply for jobs in the organization. Vacancies may arise in an organization due to any of the following reasons: (i) Retirement of an employee on attaining a certain age (usually 58 years) (ii) Death of an employee (iii) Resignation of job by the employee due to certain reason (iv) Disablement of an employee ( may be due to an accident either within the work place or outside) and as a result he may not be able to remain in service (v) Dismissal of an employee from service for certain reasons. In all the above case, vacancies are bound to arise. Vacancies also arise when new posts are created in an organization particularly when expansion activities are undertaken. Source of recruitment Basically there are two sources of recruitment. They are: (i) internal sources and (ii) external source internal sources in the case of internal sources, the selection of the jobs will be done from among the existing employees of the organization. Preference may also be given to the family members, relatives or friends of the existing employees. If the employer believes in the proverb `known devil is better than an unknown angle he will rely on the internal sources. The following are the ways of filling up vacancies internally: (i) transfer

(ii) promotion and (iii) Recommendation by existing employees

Transfer This is probably the easiest approach to filling ip a vacancy. If a particular department has a couple of surplus staff and another department is short staffed, the surplus staff may be transferred to that other department. Such an approach avoids the need to dispense with surplus staff (called `retrenchment) in one place and make fresh recruitment in another place of the organization. The nature of work of the employee in the new job, however, cannot be totally different from the one he was doing earlier. If it is so, he will not be able to perform his job. For example, if a salesman is given factory work, he cannot cope with it. Transfer of an employee may be either from one section to another or from one department to another or from one branch to another. Promotion Usually, when a vacancy arise at a higher level in an organization, it is filled up by elevating a person who comes next in the organizational hierarchy. For example, if the post of sales manager is vacant, the senior most sales officer may be appointed for the post. In turn, an experienced sales man may be made the sales officer. If a concern needs a sales man, it may proceed to appoint someone from outside. The process of elevating a person to a higher level job is what is known as promotion. Promotion gives the individual concerned greater authority and emoluments as well. Recommendation by existing employees Vacancies may also be filled up internally based on the recommendations made by the existing employees of the concern. A family member, relative or friend of an employee may be consider for appointment. As such candidates are recommendation by the existing employees, it is safe to employ them. Merits of internal source of recruitment The following are the advantages of recruiting employees by the internal source: 1. It motivates the employee to work harder as they are aware that by proving their efficiency, they can move to better jobs or to higher positions in the

organization. This improves their moral and induces them to constantly update their knowledge. 2. as the management already knows the employee, there is no risk involved In appointing him to some other post in the organization. Moreover, the management has up to date records of the performance of the employee `and therefore, if only it finds him suitable for some other job in the organization it will give him such a post. 3. as the employee is already familiar with the organizational policies, rules and regulations ,this need not be explained to him. This saves lot of time. Moreover, the employee know the other staff members serving in different department and therefore, he can settle down in his new job fast. 4. internal source of recruitment also saves lot of time and money for the management. There is no need to advertise vacancies, receive and scrutinize applications and conduct tests and interviews. Disadvantages The following are the demerits of internal source of recruitment: 1. it restricts choice. The idea should be to appoint the fittest person for a job and not a known person. 2. it denies opportunities for capable outsiders. 3. as an existing employee is accustomed to the organizational routine, he lack the capacity to think originally. Only an outsider can give the organization the benefit of fresh outlook , initiative and original thinking.

External source of recruitment


It consists of the various outsider source from which an employer can find candidates eligible for the various posts in his organization. The various outside sources are: (i) advertisements (ii) employment exchanges (iii) private employment consultants (iv) campus interviews (v) rival firms (vi) unsolicited application etc. let us now discuss each of these.

Advertisements
The employer can advertise vacancies in his organization in popular newspaper. Such advertisements usually specify the following: (i) nature of the work

(ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi)

nature of the vacancy (whether temporary or permanent), qualification and experiences desired, salary and other perquisites offered, the mode of applying and the time within the candidate has to apply.

If the employer wishes so , he need not disclose his identity. He can just mention the above details and inform eligible candidates to apply to a specific post box number (allot by the particular newspaper office that brings out the advertisement ). The news paper office will receive all the application and then forward the same to the employer. The advantage of newspaper advertisements is that it has the a wider coverage. Newspaper reach every nook and corner and therefore the employer is sure to get a number of application from all eligible candidates. But the drawbacks of his approach is that sometimes the employer may get innumerable application of which many may be from unsuitable candidates. Therefore, a lot of time may be wasted on scrutinizing the application. Employment Exchanges Employment exchanges function under the control of the government. They register the names of job seekers and also maintain their bio data. They provide these details to any employer who approaches them. Those who register with an employment exchanges are usually unskilled persons. Professionals like Chartered Accountants, MBA s and engineers do not usually prefer registration with an employment exchanges. Employees who need only managerial professionals for their organization usually do not approach an employment exchange. Private Employment Consultants Employees having vacancies in their organization may also approach employment consultants who may help them by finding suitable candidates. They do this work for a consultancy fee.

Campus interviews Many employers visit colleges and universities every year and interview student who are in their final year of study. The faculty may also be involved in the process. Those student who are found to be deserving may be given placement by the employers in their concerns. Student studying such courses as B. Com., MCA, Social Work, MBA, etc., usually have the benefit of campus interviews. Rival Firms It is not uncommon to find an employer drawing efficient employees from rival firms by offering them higher remuneration. Efficient salesmen, chartered accountants and management professionals are often the targets. Unsolicited Applicants An organization may often receive application for job from many educated unemployed persons although it has not notified vacancies. Such applications are called unsolicited application. These application apply voluntarily. People who are already employed also apply voluntarily for jobs in other organizations with the hope of finding better jobs. Evaluation of External Source of Recruitment Merits The following are some of the advantages of external source of recruitment 1. It provides wider choice for the employer. He can examine many application and select the most deserving candidates for the given post. 2. Candidate recruited from the external source are sure to do their work without any fear or favor. This is because of the obvious reason that they are strangers to the organization. They are not already caught in the organizational politics. This allows them to do their work without having to play second fiddle to anyone. 3. External source is more reliable than the internal source of recruitment. Efficient and deserving candidates may not always be available within the organization. External source can always help to find deserving candidates for various posts in an organization. 4. External source of recruitment is socially desirable in the sense that in enables the educate4d unemployed to get employment. If every organization gives weight age only for its own employees or their relatives

or friends in the matter of recruitment, a vast majority of the educated unemployed will go without employment opportunities. Demerits The following are some of the disadvantages of external source of recruitment: 1. Recruitment from the external source is an elaborate process. The employer may have to advertise vacancies in newspaper or approach employment consultants. He has to receive application from eligible candidates, scrutinize the same and then conduct interviews and tests. The costs of recruitment from the external source is also very high . Advertisement charges have to be paid. If employment consultant are approached, they may have to paid consultancy fees. Holding interviews and tests also involves expenditure. Candidates called from distant places may have to be paid train or bus fare. The newly recruited candidate will not be familiar with the organizational environment. Ha may require what is called orientation training. Some of the newly recruited candidates may have difficulty in adapting themselves to the new environment. Sometimes the existing employees of the organization may not cooperation with the candidate who has come from a different environment.

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Factors Determining Recruitment Certain organizations may have difficulty in finding efficient persons for various jobs. On the other hands, there are organizations with which many candidates would like to be associated. The following are some of the important factors that influence recruitment of candidates. 1. Reputation of the concern - the reputation of the concern determines whether it will have a good response whenever it notifies vacancies. In fact, there are concerns that receive application frequently from many interested candidates who apply voluntarily although vacancies have not been advertised. Ashok Leyland, TVS, L&T, Reliance, Tata Group etc., are example of such renowned business establishments. 2. Salary and other monetary benefits offered - The response for job offers is very much influenced by the quantum of monetary benefits offered by the

employer. If the salary and other monetary benefits offered are attractive, the job can certainly attract a good number of application. 3. Terms and conditions of service - The hours of work, leave benefit, transfer condition, guidelines for promotion, etc., also influence the job preference of applicants. An organization would receive a good response for its job offer only if the applicants find the terms and condition of service beneficial. 4. Nature of the vacancy - The nature of the vacancy- whether it is permanent or temporary is another important factor. If the vacancy is a temporary one, it may not attract a good number of applications. 5. Government Reservation Norms - As per the reservation policy of the government, certain number of posts have to be reserved for certain sections of the society. Government organizations and those receiving grant from the government are required to fill up vacancies in accordance with the reservation policy.