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Training is the process of imparting skill or job knowledge to a person. It takes an individual from where he is to where he should be.

Definitions of Training
The term training is used here to indicate the only process by which the aptitudes, skill and abilities of employees to performed specific jobs are increased Jucius Training is the organisation procedure in which people learn knowledge and/or skill for definite purpose Dale S. Beach.

Need for Training

The need for training may be explained as follows: 1. To enable the new recruits to understand work: A person who is taking up his job for the first time must become familiar with it. For example, if a fresh graduate is appointed as a clerk in a bank, he must first of all gain knowledge of the work assigned to him. For this, basic training is needed. Without any basic training the individual will not be able to do his work. An existing employee of the bank will probably teach him the basics. 2. To enable existing employees to update skill and knowledge: Training is not something needed for the newly recruited staff alone. Even the existing employees of a concern may require training. Such a training enables them top update their skill and knowledge. 3. To enable an employee who has been promoted to understand his responsibilities: Training is essential for an employee who has just been

promoted to a higher level job. With an elevation in his position in the organisation, his responsibilities are also going top multiply. Training, in the case of such an employee, will help to understand the intricacies of his new job. 4. To enable en employee to become versatile: Sometimes an employee may have to gain knowledge of several related jobs. It will not be enough if he is only good in the work he does presently. For example, a clerk in a bank must be able to serve in different sections, e.g., savings bank, fixed deposit, alone, foreign exchange, cash and so on. For this purpose he will be posted in different sections. A training programme like this helps an employee to become versatile. 5. To enable the employees to adapt to change in work methods: Training is also needed if the method in an organisation is going to be changed completely. In such a case, all the employees of the concern will be required to undergo training to understand the newer methods of work. For example, before computerisation was introduced in the various organisations including Railways, Banks, Insurance companies and so on, the employees were trained to handle computers.

Importance of Training
The importance of training may be stated as follows: 1. Imporvement in skill and knowledge Training, certainly results in imporvement in the skill and knowledge of the employee. This helps the employee to perform his job much better. This benefits the enterprise as well. 2. Higher production and productivity If an enterprise has a team of well trained employees, it will be able to expand its production. There will be a rise not only in production in terms of number of units but also in productivity. Productivity is the input-ouput ratio. 3. Job satisfaction Well-trained employees are able to perform their jobs with a higher degree of skill. This increase their level of self-confidence and

commitment to work. Such employees are bound to have a higher level of job satisfaction. 4. Better use of resources Trained employees will be able to make better use of materials and machines. This reduces the rate of wastage and spoilage of materials and also breakage of tools and machines. The maintenances cost too is bound to come down. 5. Reduction in accidents Trained employees are aware of the safety precautions to be taken while at work. They are always alert and cautious. This is bound to bring down the number of accidents in the work place. 6. Reduced supervision Well-trained employees do not much supervision. They can do their work without having to approach their superiors often for guidance. This enables the superior to manage more employees. In other words, he can have a wider span. This reduces the cost of supervision. 7. Reduction in complaints Only bad workers blame the tools. An employee who has acquired the necessary skill and job knowledge would certainly love his job. Such an employee does not complain about anyone and anything. 8. Adaptability Trained workers do not resist change. They have the capacity to adapt themselves to any king of situation. They are good in crisis management too. This indeed is beneficial for the organisation. 9. Scope for Management by Exception With trained workers working under them, it becomes easy for the managers to get things done by delegating authority. This enables the managers to concentrate more on important issues confronting the organisation. Thus, provision of training for employees gives the managers the scope to practice the technique of Management by Exception. 10. Stability If an organisation has a team of trained employees it can face further challenges easily. The employees of today are going to be managers tomorrow. The retirement of key managers may not affect the stability of an organisation if it has a team of trained, efficient and committed employees who are ever ready to take over management.

Training and Development

Development is related to the all-round progress of an employee. A development programme enables executives to acquire skills in their present jobs skills capabilities to perform future jobs better. Training is required to improve skills for performing job. Development, on the other hand, is related to the all-round progress of executives. While training is job oriented, development is career oriented. Training is essential for operative workers. On the other hand, a development programme is required for executives. The capabilities of trainer determine the success of training. The success of a development programme depends much on the capabilities of the executive to pick up things fast.

Essentials of a Good Training Programme

A good training programme should fulfil the following conditions: 1. It should have a specific goal The training programme should have a specific goal. For example, an organisation planning to computerise its operations may arrange to train all its personnel to handle computers if they do not possess such knowledge already. 2. The training method should be appropriate The method of training should be the most appropriate one under the given circumstances. For example, a newly recruited staff may be given training within the organisation. He may be placed under an experienced staff from whom he can learn the work. On the other hand, if an existing employee has to acquire knowledge of certain new techniques of production or marketing, he may be sent to a training centre. 3. It should be relevant The contents of the training programme should be relevant. For example, a newly appointed salesman requires training to acquire the skill necessary to sell. A general orientation for such a person may not be relevant. He needs training only in the specific area of selling. 4. There may be Provision of suitable incentives Suitable incentives may be given to those who have successfully undergone training. Such incentives may be either financial or non-financial. Non-financial incentives may be in the form of the grater responsibilities, decision-making authority, better designations and so on.

5. It should consider individual differences The employees of a concern are not identical in so far as their age, experience, designation, qualification etc., are concerned. Such individual differences should not be ignored before they are sent a training programme. In other words, it is important that the participants of a training programme form a homogenous group and not a heterogeneous group. 6. It should make the trainees accountable The training programme will be successful only if the trainees are made to account for their activities in the place of training. Otherwise, it may not be taken seriously. To make the trainees accountable, the superior may ask them to prepare and submit a report on what they learnt. They may also be asked to exhibit the skill they acquired as a result of training. 7. The emphasis should be on practical aspects An important reason for the failure of most training programmers is that they give undue importance to the theoretical aspects of any subject. In other words, the trainees are made to listen to the speeches of certain intellectuals for the whole day and throughout the training period. For the success of any training programme. It is therefore, necessary to give utmost importance to the practical side of the work. 8. There must be provision of certain facilities Last, but not the least, the organisation sending the staff for training or the institution providing training should make necessary arrangements for food any stay for the trainees during the training period. This is particularly important if the training programme is organised in a different place town or city.

Process of Training
The process of training involves the following stages: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Identifying the training needs of the staff Establishment of training goal Selecting the right methods of training and Making an evaluation of training effectiveness

Let us now analyse these different stages.

Identifying the training needs of the staff

The training needs of different categories of employees in an organisation are not the same. A new entrant must learn his job first. For this he requires training in a specific are of work. He must also become familiar with the companys policies, rules and regulations. For this, induction training may be necessary. On the other hand, another employee may need training to update his knowledge and skill. A person awaiting promotion too requires to understand the duties associated with his new job. The first in the process of training employees is, therefore to identify and understand their specific training needs.

Establishment of training goal

The management should have short-term and long-term training goals. By providing training to a new entrant, the management is able to prepare him to do his work effectively. Providing training to an employee to update his skill makes him even more efficient. This benefits the organisation as well. The short-term training goal of the management will be to improve the level of efficiency of the employees and thereby achieve higher production and sales. The long-term training goal can be to build a strong team of talented and committed staff that is vital for the further growth of the enterprise.

Selecting the right method of training

The third stage in the training process is to select the most suitable method of training. There are on-the-job and off-the-job training methods. Facilities for the training are not always available within the organisation itself. In such a case the employee may have to be sent to a training centre. A new recruit who has to learn the basics of certain work may be trained within the organisation itself. He may be placed under a senior employee from whom he can learn. On the other hand, an employee who has to learn certain new techniques of work may be sent to a training institute. The method to be selected must depend upon the needs of the employee and the enterprise.

Making an evaluation of training effectiveness

Training is meaningful only if its effectiveness is measured. The performance of the employee, who has undergone training, is the most important indicator of training effectiveness. All that the manager would do is to compare the employees performance before and after training. Obviously, if there is a significant imporvement in performance it should mean that the training has really been effective. Even if there is some imporvement in performance it may be assumed that the training has had a positive effective on the trainee. If the performance after training is the same as before, it means that training has not helped the individual concerned. It is also possible that the trainee would not have made proper use of knows the attitude of his employees will be able to make out whether the fault lies with the trainee or trainer.

Method of Training-On-the job training and Off-the job training

The various methods of training may be grouped under two categories: 1. On-the job training and 2. Off-the job training On-the job training refers to training given to an employee in the place where he is employed. Work and learn is the philosophy of such a training concept. The following are some of the important on-the-job training methods: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Induction training Apprenticeship training Refresher training Job rotation Placement as assistants Vestibule training Most of the on-the-job training methods are suitable for training clerical employees and factory workers.

Off-the-job training refers to training given to staff at a place away from the actual work place. The following are some of the important off-the-job training methods: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Lectures and Conferences Role playing Case study Management games Brain storming Sensitivity training The off-the-job training methods are suitable for training junior executives. Let us now study these various training methods.

Induction Training
Induction training is also know as orientation training. It is required for all new employees. A person who has just been inducted into an organisation must be informed of his duties. The nature of his work must be clearly explained to him. For example, a person who has been appointed as a clerk in the office must know the specific task he has to perform whether records management, mail handling, maintenance of accounts or cash management. A new employee must also be informed of the policies, rules and regulations of the organisation pertaining to signing attendance, availing leave, transfer, promotion and so on. The policies of different organisation pertaining to these differ. For example, in some organisations the employees sign attendance only once in the morning while coming for work. Still there are organisations that require employees to sign attendance also while leaving the workplace at the end of the days work. Likewise, the procedure for availing different types of leave casual leave, earned leave, medical leave, etc., should be explained to the new entrant. Only then he will be able to comply with it. The promotion and transfer policies of the organisation should also be explained to the employee. Only then he will be able to equip himself suitably.

The new employees must also be taken to the various departments and divisions of the enterprise and introduced to the people working there. Only then he will become familiar. Of course, the new employee may on his own, meet the other employees of the concern and introduce himself. But as a newcomer and stranger he may have certain reservations about meeting the senior employees of the enterprise. The need for induction training arises in view of the reasons given above. The head of the particular department where the new entrant has been appointed can provide induction training.

Apprenticeship Training
This is a conventional or a traditional method of training. In such a method, the trainee, called apprentice, is placed under a qualified senior worker. The apprentice learns the work by observing and assisting his senior. In the case of jobs requiring skill, apprenticeship training is the most suitable method to impart knowledge and skill. Machinists, electricians, welders, plumbers etc., usually learn their jobs by working as apprentices. During the period of training the apprentice gets a consolidated pay called stipend.

Refresher Training
The object of refresher training is to enable the workers to constantly update their job knowledge. The knowledge and skill of the workers in our business establishments tends to become outdated due to the advancement in science they will be branded as obsolete. They must become familiar with the newer methods of work. For example, photo films were manually processed once. But computer-aided processing and printing is what is in vogue now. Unless an employee constantly updates his knowledge and skill in tune in tune with the needs, he cannot survive. It is not necessary for a worker to undergo refresher training outside his workplace. If anew and sophisticated machine has been acquired by a business, the

seller of the machine will educate workers on the method of operation. He will send his technicians for the purpose of assisting and guiding the workers.

Job Rotation
This kind of training enables an employee to become well-versed in different kinds of work, each of which is not totally different. Clerks in banks are usually subjected to job rotation. In a bank the employee is made to serve in different sections saving banks, current account, fixed deposit, cash and so on. This enables him to become versatile as far as the bank job is concerned. Once an employee becomes familiar with different types of work, he can be posted in any section depending upon the need. For example, if the savings bank clerk does not turn up for work, it becomes easy for the bank manager to depute any staff to the saving bank counter.

Placement as Assistants
It is not uncommon to find certain designations in an organisation as Assistant Account Manager, Assistant Production Manager, Assistance Sales Manager etc. Such designations only imply that these executives are going to be posted as Account Manager, Production Manager and Sales Manager respectively in future when vacancies arise. As assistance, these executives not only carry out the tasks assigned to them but also observe their superiors while the latter discharge their duties. This helps them to acquire the skill necessary to perform their duties later when they themselves become heads of their respective departments. This method of training is more suitable for executives.

Vestibule Training
In the context of training, the term vestibule refers to a training school established within the factory premises. The working conditions and facilities in such a training school are so created that the place of training almost resembles the actual

workplace. Instructors specifically appointed for the purpose will train a large number of workers in such a school. The training activities do not in any way interfere with the regular process of production. The trainee workers will also be able to concentrate on learning better as they are away from the noise and work pressure they often experience in the actual workplace. Vestibule training is useful when it is necessary to train a large number of workers for the same kind of work. Such a method is necessary when it is not possible to train the workers at the workplace itself and where the line supervisor is not able to find time for training due to work burden. Vestibule training has certain drawbacks also. For example, the workers, while undergoing training do not contribute to production. The training atmosphere, which is something created artificially in the vestibule school, may not give the trainees the kind of experience they undergo in the actual workplace. If the performance of the workers is not up to the expected level the lines supervisors would have blame the instructors. The place of training should have all the facilities that are available in the actual workplace. Provision of such facilities would call for heavy investment.

Evaluation of the on-the-job training methods Merits

The advantages of on-the-job training methods are given below: 1. Training is provided to the employee in the work place itself. He will, therefore, be under the direct control of his superior. 2. The employee, in most cases, does his work while undergoing training. The enterprise work, therefore, does not get affected. 3. As the employee learns by actually doing the work, progress during the period of training will become clearly visible.

4. It also requires every organisation to equip itself with all the facilities needed for providing training to its employees. Once such facilities are established they become the permanent assets of the enterprise. 5. As every trainee learns the work from a senior employee of the same organisation, the training will be more relevant to the specific organisational needs.

On-the-job training methods, however, suffer from the following drawbacks: 1. The success of on-the-job training depends to a greater extent on the interest with which the senior employees of the organisation impart knowledge and skill. In most cases, the senior employees may not be prepared to sit with the trainees and teach them the work. They may briefly explain the work and expect the trainees to pick up things fast. This may not be of any help to the learner. 2. The employee, in the case of on-the-job training, has dual tasks. He has not only to learn the work but also complete his target. As training and work go together many trainees may find it difficult to cope with a hectic schedule. 3. The organisation should have all the infrastructural facilities needed for training its staff. This would call for heavy investment. Not every organisation would be in position to create all the necessary facilities. 4. Sometimes instructors may be appointed for the sake of training. This gives scope for conflicts between the line managers and the instructors particularly if the performance is not to the expected level. Having seen the on-the-job training methods and their merits and demerits, let us now discuss the important off-the-job training methods. It may be recollected that off-the-job training if given to employees at a place away from the actual workplace.

Lectures and Conferences

There are staff training colleges like the Administrative Staff College in Hyderabad that train executives. Organisations that have employed junior executives may depute them to such training colleges where they will undergo training. There are experts in different functional areas of management like marketing, finance, personnel etc., who impact training through lectures. The participants have to register for specific programmes by paying the course fee. The sponsoring organisations usually pay the fees for their candidates. Conferences provide an opportunity for the executive trainees of different enterprises to meet at a particular place for the sake of exchanging views on specific organisational issues. Participants may also papers that will be followed by discussion on the proposals made. A consensus may finally be reached among the participants on the issue discussed.

Role Playing
It is a training method in which the participant trainees are to enact the roles given to them. In a role-playing session, a specific organisational problem may be explained to the trainee group and each participant may be asked to act in the manner he would if he were the decision-maker. For example, a participant may be asked to do the role of a manager who has just received notice of strike from his employees. Another trainee may be asked to assume the role of a sales manager who has to deal with a salesman showing poor results. The other members of the group would act as observes when an individual plays his role. There may also be comments on the performance of each person. The success of role-playing as a technique of training depends very much on the seriousness with which the participants play their roles. However, it may be said here that the manner in which a person reacts in a real life situation is bound to be different from this reactions in a hypothetical situation. Role-playing alone cannot be an adequate method of training staff. It can only supplement other training methods.

Case Study
In case study method, the trainees are given an organisational problem in written form. The problem may be something that has been experienced in some workplace or may even be an imaginary one. The participants may be asked to analyse the causes of the problem, suggest alternative solutions and also indicate the best solution in the prevailing conditions. Case study method is suitable to train participants in such areas as marketing, human relations, etc. In a case study session, each participant would strive to analyse the problem to the best of his abilities and offer a solution that would be appreciated by everyone. He would also be keen on finding the loopholes in the solutions offered by others. Case study approach is useful to develop the analytical abilities of the trainees.

Management Games
Different groups of trainees participate in a management game. The trainer specifies a certain situation in which each group has to make decisions in the specific area assigned to it. For example, the trainer may ask the different groups to make certain important decisions regarding pricing, sales promotion, distribution network etc., under conditions of cut-throat competition. One group may decide on price, another on sales promotion and so on. The decision of the group, on the tasks assigned to it, will then be evaluated and feedback information is given to it. The situation in which decisions are made will be such that the decision of one group will influence that of another. All the participating groups would make an endeavour to achieve optimum results.

Brain Storming
It is technique used to solve a certain important organisational problem. For example, lack of product acceptance in the market is a serious problem that does not concern the marketing department alone. The executives of production, marketing,

finance and other departments, in such a situation, need to meet and discuss. In such a session, each individual is free to come out with his ideas. Such an approach makes it possible to look at the problem from different points of view. This may certainly help to find an optimum solution. In a brain storming session the participants may express their views freely without having to bother about what others would think of their ideas. The proposals put forth are recorded for the sake of evaluation and decision-making.

Sensitivity Training
Such a method of training has been developed with the object of promoting good human relations among the trainees. The sensitivity training group is called the T Group. The actual training involves interaction between members of a small group that has no formal agenda. In the course of such interactions members do become sensitive to the views expressed by their associates. Some of them may also get provoked. An observed, who does not attempt to resolve differences among the members, may watch the activities of the group. Sensitivity training helps an individual to understand group behaviour and to work with others as a team. It enables a person to develop a sense of tolerance and also gives him the courage and confidence to answer the remarks of his associates. The technique of sensitivity training, of course, is not free from limitations. Such an approach may not actually bring about an imporvement in a persons skill or job knowledge. Sometimes the trainer or observer may impose his views on the participants. Certain unnecessary or unwarranted remarks by a few participants may result in an individual losing his self-control. This may lead a few conflicts among the members. Some members, who may be emotionally weak, may get affected psychologically as well.

Evaluation of off-the-job training methods Merits

The following are the advantages of the off-the-job training methods: 1. These methods are more suitable for training junior executives. 2. The focus, in the case of off-the-job training, is mainly on personality development. 3. As training is provided outside the organisation, the trainee is able to devote his full time and attention for learning. 4. The organisation need not equip itself with the facilities for training as the trainees are to be sent only to the training centres. 5. The trainees need not be at the mercy of the senior employees of the organisation. The instructors in the training centres know the needs of the trainees and will do their best.

Off-the-job training methods have certain limitation too. These are given below: 1. These methods do not help the trainee much in enriching his job knowledge or skill. They focus mainly on developing such qualities of an individual as selfconfidence, tolerance, emotional control and so on. They are not specific to the job needs of employees. 2. Deputing the trainees to training centres may prove to be an expensive affair. 3. The training institutes cannot design the training programme to suit the specific organizational needs of the trainees. 4. Work gets affected during the period the employee undergoes training.