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DATE: Wednesday June 8, 1994 TIME: 2:50 - 5:40 p.m. INSTRUCTOR: G.L. Stuber

Open Book Attempt all four questions All questions equal value

Assume that a received signal is given by

y (t)

1 X

where dk = 1, and X (f ) is the minimum bandwidth solution satisfying Nyquist's criterion for zero ISI, i.e.,
X (f )


di x(t

iT ) ;


jf j 1=2T 0 jf j > 1=2T

t=T = sin(t=T ) There are two problems associated with this pulse shape. One is the problem of realizing a pulse having a rectangular spectral characteristic X (f ) given above. The other problem is concerned with the fact that the tails in x(t) decay as 1=t. Consequently, a mistiming error in sampling results in an in nite series of ISI components. Such a series is not absolutely summable and, hence, the sum of the resulting interference does not converge. x(t)

Assume that x(t) = 0 for jtj > NT , where N is a positive integer. In spite of the restriction that the channel is band-limited, this assumption holds in all practical communication systems. a) Due to a slight timing error, the received signal is sampled at t = kT + t0, where t0 < T . Calculate the response for t = kT + t0. Separate the response into two components, the desired value and the ISI. b) Assume that the polarities of di are such that every term in the ISI is positive, i.e., worst case ISI. Under this assumption show that ISI = 2 sin( t0=T ) PN=1 n2 tn2=T 2 . n 0 Therefore ISI ! 1 as N ! 1.


The sampled impulse response of a coherent communication system is given by the following z-transform
F (z )

= :1 + z

:1 z

The input to the channel consists of fdk g = 1's. The received samples are given by

2 X

where f!k g is Gaussian noise with variance 2. a) Evaluate the probability of error if the demodulator ignores ISI. b) Design a 3-tap zero-forcing equalizer. c) What is the response fyk g for the input sequence fdk g = ( 1)k ; k = 0; 1; 2; 3? What is the response at the output of the equalizer? d) Evaluate the probability of error for the equalized channel.


fi dk

+ !k


Consider Figure 1 and the following data Symbol transmission rate: 24300 symbols/s, 2 bits/symbol Channel bandwidth: 30 kHz Propagation: Urban microcellular with a typical delay spread of 1 ns A mobile is moving from base station A (BSA) to base station B (BSB). Base station C (BSC) is a co-channel base-station with BSA. a) Explain how you would construct a computer simulator to model the signal power received from both (BSA) and (BSC) at the mobile, as the mobile moves from BSA to base station B (BSB). Clearly state your assumptions and explain the relationship between the propagation characteristics in your model.





Streets Buildings Figure 1: Base station and street layout for question 1.


You are asked to design a highway cell reuse pattern as shown in Figure 2. Each cell has length 2R. a) a base station with an omnidirectional antenna is placed at the center of each cell. Ignoring shadowing, determine the minimum reuse factor needed so that the worst case carrier-to-interference ratio (C=I ) is at least 17 dB. State whatever assumptions you make. b) Now suppose that directional antennas are used to divide each cell into two sectors with boundaries perpendicular to the highway. Repeat part a). c) Consider again the sectored cells in part b). If shadowing is present with a standard deviation of s dB what is the outage on a cell boundary?


Figure 2: Proposed highway cell reuse pattern.