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Class Assignment:

Course No- DM-5234 Course Title- Global Climate Change: Impacts & Risk Assessment

Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: Bangladesh perspective


Submitted to:
Dr. Md. Shahidul Islam, Professor, Dept. of Geography & Environment, University of Dhaka

11/15/2012

Submitted By:
Roll No: 223, Batch-2,

S. M. Sihabul Islam

MS in Disaster Management, University of Dhaka

Contents
1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................5 2. THE FOUR LAWS OF ECOLOGY ....................................................................6 3. WHAT IS CLIMATE CHANGE? ..........................................................................7 a. Evidence for Global Warming .........................................................................................8 b. The Greenhouse Effect ....................................................................................................9 4. FUTURE CLIMATE CHANGE PREDICTIONS 1 2 ....................................................10

Temperature ...........................................................................................................10 Agriculture ........................................................................................................10

3 Rainfall.........................................................................................................................10 4 5 6 7 .8 9 10 11 Drought......................................................................................................................10 Winds ................................................................................................................10

Glacier / snow melt.....................................................................................................10 Sea Level Rise ............................................................................................................10 Oceans and Seas .....................................................................................................10 Biodiversity ................................................................................................................11 Economic Cost .......................................................................................................11 Conflict .....................................................................................................................11

12. Health & Disease ...................................................................................................11 5. CLIMATE VULNERABILITY OF BANGLADESH....................................................11 I. Climate of bangladesh....................................................................................................11 b. Changing in Climate According To BMD:........................................................................12 i. Temperature:..............................................................................................................12 ii. Rainfall: .....................................................................................................................12 iii. Extreme events.........................................................................................................13 iv. Rainfall intensity........................................................................................................13 c. Is Bangladesh vulnerable to these changes?..................................................................13 6. CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION.....................................................................15 d. What is Mitigation 3 ............................................................................................15

e. Climate Change Mitigation Action in Bangladesh...........................................................16 7. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION.....................................................................17 f. What is Adaptation......................................................................................................17 g. Climate Change Adaptation Action in Bangladesh.........................................................18 v. The National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA)....................................................18 vi. Bangladesh Climate Change and Strategy Action Plan (BCCSAP) .............................19 vii. Case-specific population growth control: .................................................................20 viii. Improved disaster zoning: .......................................................................................20 ix. Readjusted national land-use plan:............................................................................20 x. Goal-oriented regional planning: ...............................................................................20 xi. Prevention of ecosystem change and ecosystem loss:..............................................20 xii. Strengthening public awareness: .............................................................................21 xiii. Case-specific skilled labor migration: ......................................................................21 xiv. Global fund for land reclamation projects:...............................................................21 xv. Changes of cropping pattern:...................................................................................21 xvi. Water supply, irrigation, and drainage systems:......................................................22 xvii. Use near-term climate predictions:.........................................................................22 xviii. Research, analysis and data provision about climate change ...............................22 xix. Strengthening of integrated coastal zone management (ICZM)...............................22 h. Examples of some projects to realize adaptation in Bangladesh include:.....................23 i. Community Based Adaptation in Bangladesh:................................................................23 j. Conflict-sensitive adaptation...........................................................................................24 k. Different Adaptation Strategies as discussed in Sixth five year action plan...................24 8. Bangladesh Position At Climate Negotiation..................................................25 l. Bangladesh Position On Mitigation And Nama.................................................................25 m. On Enhanced Action on Adaptation...............................................................................26 9. Finance for Climate change adaptation and Mitigation in Bangladesh:............28 n. BANGLADESH CLIMATE CHANGE TRUST FUND (CCTF) ..................................................28 4

o. Bangladesh Climate Resilience Fund (BCCRF) ...............................................................28 p. Multilateral Funds:.........................................................................................................29 q. Bilateral Funds: .............................................................................................................29 10. Concluding Remarks ................................................................................29 11. References:................................................................................................30

1. INTRODUCTION
It would be a serious catastrophe for Our country and for the whole region if much of the land in Bangladesh disappears under the sea. We become frightened to think that our grandchildren will have no place to live on this planet earth. We really want to be sure that they, and their children after them, will be able to enjoy the beauty of our country that we have enjoyed. However, what is now certain is that changes in climate have already devastated the lives of poor people all over the world whether through disasters, disease, drought, famine or flood and that these apocalyptic forces will intensify over the coming decades if nothing is done to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. The morality of global warming or climate change, or environmental degradation, is really quite simple. We now have sufficient information to know that environmental degradation is destructive; it steals from future generations, it penalizes the poor, it is exaggerated by greed, it puts diversity at risk. Environmental pollution hurts all of life; it is in the interest of every living thing for human beings to do something about it. It is broadly recognized that Bangladesh is very vulnerable to these changes because it is lowlying, located on the Bay of Bengal in the delta of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna and densely populated. Its national economy strongly depends on agriculture and natural resources that are sensitive to climate change and sea level rise. Bangladesh is among the least responsible countries for polluting stratosphere with GHG but it is the worst recipient of stress from the climatic perturbations The Bali Action Plan makes it clear that the developing countries(like Bangladesh ) responsibilities and actions have to be looked at within the framework of sustainable development. Bangladesh, in subsequent submission regarding how to operationalize the Bali Action Plan, has put it in terms of ensuring four types of security. These are food security, water security, energy security and livelihood security (including health). The Government of Bangladeshs Vision is to eradicate poverty and achieve economic and social well-being for all the people. This will be achieved through a pro-poor Climate Change Management Strategy, which prioritizes adaptation and disaster risk reduction, and also addresses low carbon development, mitigation, technology transfer and the mobilization and international provision of adequate finance.

Former US Vice-President Al Gore (2006), stated: If you believe in prayer, pray that people will find the strength to change (in response to climate change) and then quoted an African proverb: When you pray move your feet!

2. THE FOUR LAWS OF ECOLOGY


Over thirty-five years ago, American ecologist Commoner (1971) proposed Four Laws of Ecology in his book entitled The Closing Circle. According to Commoner, an effort has been made to develop this view [i.e., the laws] from available facts, through logical relations, into a set of comprehensive generalizations. These general observations about nature, proffered as laws, were proposed before global warming had become generally recognized as a major problem for society, for climate and the environment. Commoners laws have, however, proven useful when discussing adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with climate change and food security in a sustainability context: 1st Law Everything is Connected to Everything Else. The system is stabilized by its dynamic self-compensating properties; these same properties, if overstressed, can lead to a dramatic collapse . 2nd Law Everything Must Go Somewhere. One of the chief reasons for the present environmental crisis is that great amounts of materials have been extracted from the earth, converted into new forms, and discharged into the environment without taking into account that everything has to go somewhere. 3rd Law Nature Knows Best. The third law of ecology holds that any major man-made change in a natural system is likely to be detrimental to that system (p. 37). 4th Law There Is No Such Thing as a Free Lunch. In ecology, as in economics, the law is intended to warn that every gain is won at some loss (p. 42).

3. WHAT IS CLIMATE CHANGE?


Climate change is a natural process related to the edogenic, exogenic and astronomical process of the universe (class lecture). Climate is simply the weather that is dominant or normal in a particular region; the term climate includes temperature, rainfall and wind patterns. Geography, global air and sea currents, tree cover, global temperatures and other factors influence the climate of an area, which causes the local weather. The earths climate has always varied naturally, in the past cooler cycles due to variations in the earths orbit round the sun, sunspot activity or volcanic eruptions, have altered the climate. However, large changes have been very gradual over huge time periods; nevertheless they are still blamed for the extinction of the dinosaurs. What is new is that humans are now, due to pollution from industrial processes and wasteful lifestyles directly influencing the climate of the earth. Human influence is now believed to be changing the climate much faster than occurring in the past under natural processes. Scientific evidence that humans were changing the climate first emerged in the international public arena in 1979 at the First World Climate Conference (Depledge & Lamb 2005). But by 1988 when the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was formed the dangerous consequences of climate change became clearer (Houghton, 2007). The foremost evidence for recently most discussing worldwide climate change has been global warming. For the Northern Hemisphere temperatures during the second half of the 20th century were higher than during any other 50-year period in the last 500 years and probably in the last
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1,300 years. In addition eleven of the last twelve years (19952006) rank among the 12 warmest years in the instrumental record of global surface temperature began in 1850.

A. EVIDENCE FOR GLOBAL WARMING

It has been suspected for the last 40 years that human activity has been altering the earths climate. To confirm whether this was true or not the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was set up by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme(UNEP), producing its first assessment report in 1990 (Depledge & Lamb 2005). Hundreds of scientists from many countries across the world review thousands of published scientific articles that include research using advanced mathematical modeling to predict future changes, as well as research monitoring historical and current changes in climate, in order to produce the IPCC assessments. Furthermore the work of the IPCC is backed by the worldwide scientific community, as well as being endorsed by all major world governments (Houghton, 2005).
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As research has accumulated on climate change, scientists have become more and more certain that global warming is happening and clearer as to its effects. The Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC published in 2007 stated that: Most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic (human caused) greenhouse gas concentrations, while the observed widespread warming of the atmosphere and ocean, together with ice mass loss, support the conclusion that it is extremely unlikely that global climate change of the past 50 years can be explained without external Figure : IPCC Reports at a glance. forcing (outside human influence), and very likely that it is not due to known natural causes alone(Alley et al, 2007). The strength of the evidence presented by the IPCC is such that very few policy makers or academics now deny the realities of global warming.
B. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

The Greenhouse Effect is a natural process through which various gasses and water vapor in the atmosphere affects the earths climate. It is so named because it acts like a glass greenhouse for plants by preventing the incoming heat from the sun from leaving causing warming of the earth just as the inside of a greenhouse warms. The earths climate is driven by this continuous flow of energy from the sun, mainly in the form of visible light. About 30% is immediately scattered back into space, but most of the remaining 70% passes down through the atmosphere to warm the earths surface. Being much cooler than the sun, the earth give out energy by emitting heat in the form of infrared or thermal radiation. Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere block this infrared radiation from escaping directly from the surface to space (Williams 2002). By absorbing infra-red or heat radiation from the earths surface, greenhouse gases present in the atmosphere, such as water vapour and CO2, act as blankets over the earths surface, keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be.
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4. FUTURE CLIMATE CHANGE PREDICTIONS


1 TEMPERATURE Latest IPCC predictions from their Fourth Assessment Report reveal that for the next twenty years warming at a rate of 0.2 C per decade is expected. While by the year 2100 best estimates predict between a 1.8 C and 4 C rise in average global temperature, although it could possibly be as high as 6.4 C (Alley et al, 2007). 2 AGRICULTURE Agriculture is the most vulnerable sector as its productivity totally depends on climatic factors like temperature, rainfall, light intensity, radiation and sunshine duration, which are predicted to be erratic. 3 RAINFALL Water availability Increased in moist tropics and high latitudes. Decreased water availability and drought in mid-latitudes and semi-arid low latitudes 4 DROUGHT Climate change will alter patterns of water availability by intensifying the water cycle. Droughts and floods will become more severe in many areas. 5 WINDS According to the IPCC future tropical cyclones will become stronger, with faster wind speeds (Alley et al, 2007). Warmer ocean temperatures will increase the frequency and intensity of such storms (Williams, 2002). Storm routes are also predicted to move poleward, which will mean changes in wind, precipitation and temperature patterns (Alley et al, 2007) 6 GLACIER / SNOW MELT Snow cover and glaciers will continue to melt more rapidly, reducing in size. Widespread increases in thaw depth are projected over most permafrost (frozen ground) regions (Alley et al, 2007). 7 SEA LEVEL RISE Global warming has raised and will continue to raise sea level due to thermal expansion (warmer water takes up more space) of the oceans and the melting of ice stored in glaciers or ice sheets (floating sea ice being lighter than water sits on the sea surface and when it melts it increases the seas volume causing sea level rise). .8 OCEANS AND SEAS Climate change will also alter ocean circulation patterns, (the vertical mixing of waters and wave patterns).
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These changes can be expected to affect biological productivity (such as fish populations), the availability of nutrients, and the ecological structure and functions of marine ecosystems. Changing ocean temperatures could also cause geographical shifts in biodiversity, 9 BIODIVERSITY Biological diversity the source of enormous environmental, economic, and cultural value will be threatened by climate change. The composition and geographic distribution of ecosystems will change as individual species respond to new conditions created by climate change. 10 ECONOMIC COST The monetary cost of climate change is expected to be very high; this means it will reduce economic output measured in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). With 2 C to 3 C warming which is expected by 2100 there could be a loss of global GDP as high as 3%, but with 5-6 C of global warming into the next century global GDP could be reduced by 5-10%. C.C. conditions costing Bangladeshs national economy 1% of the GDP annually for over the last decade. 11 CONFLICT Fields (2005) with reference to the Biblical book of Revelation stated: When the apocalyptic horsemen of famine and pestilence appear, war cant be far behind. He was highlighting the link between war and the reduction of resources in an area through disasters such as drought caused famines or pest attack on crops that can occur due to a changing climate 12. HEALTH & DISEASE Climate change is expected to have wide-ranging consequences for human health. For the health of communities depends on sufficient food, safe drinking water, comfortable homes, good social conditions, and a suitable environmental and social setting for controlling infectious diseases. All of these factors can be affected by climate (Williams, 2002). UNFCCC identifies two separate options for addressing climate change: mitigation and adaptation.

5. CLIMATE VULNERABILITY OF BANGLADESH


I. CLIMATE OF BANGLADESH

Bangladesh is a subtropical monsoon climate characterized by wide seasonal variations in rainfall, moderately warm temperatures, and high humidity. Based on the analysis of pressure, rainfall and temperature, the climate of this country can be described under the following four seasons:
a.

Winter or Northeast Monsoon: This season comprises of December, January and February; mean temperature is 18-21C and average rainfall is about 1.5% of the total annual rainfall.

b. Summer or Pre-Monsoon: This season consists of March, April and May; average rain fall is 17% and mean temperature is 23-30C and average rainfall is 17% .
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c. Southwest Monsoon or Monsoon: This season consists of June, July, August and September; average rain fall of this season is about 72.5% of the total annual rainfall. d. Autumn or Post-Monsoon: This season consists of October and November; average rainfall receives in this season is about 9%.
B. CHANGING IN CLIMATE ACCORDING TO BMD 1 :
I. TEMPERATURE:

Temperature trends during last 60 years (1950-2010) based on observed data of BMD, minimum temperature and maximum temperature both have a tendency to increase.
Minimum Temperature(C)
2 2.0 2 1.8 2 1.6 2 1.4 2 1.2 2 1.0 2 0.8 2 0.6 2 0.4 2 0.2 1950 1952 1954 1956 1958 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010
1995 1997 1999 2001 2003

y = 0.01 07x + 20.6 77 R2 = 0.3 359

2 0.0

Figure 1 Temporal variation of annual maximum temperature of Bangladesh during 1950-2010

II. RAINFALL:

Average rainfall during last 60 years (1950-2010) has a positive trend with a slight decrease in monsoon season.
Rainfall Deviation (%) 2 0

y - . 6 6 -51 7 = 00 1 x . 5 7 R2 =00 8 . 02
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-0 1

-0 2

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2007

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-0 4

Figure : Inter-annual variation of monsoon rainfall in Bangladesh during 1951-2010

Climate Change: Bangladesh Perspective: Arjumand Habib, Director BMD, Dhaka, Bangladesh 12

2009

Increasing rate of wet days is high in the NE and SE regions of Bangladesh. Regarding temperature both maximum and minimum have a rising trends, minimum more over maximum, maximum more or less stable. So both the analysis shows the signature of Global Warming.
III. EXTREME EVENTS

Tropical cyclone intensity analysis shows that since 1876 onward particularly in the last 20 years frequency and the intensity of cyclone more than 200 km/hour has an increasing trend. Also other extreme events like heavy rainfall within short scale of time causing flash flood in premonsoon period are increasing and added extra pressure on monsoon flooding especially in urban area drainage congestion, prolonged water logging and landslides in the hilly region and also accelerate river erosion.

Figure: Intense Cyclones (wind speed more than 200 Km/h) over Bay of Bengal during 1876 - 2010 During 1876 1964 there was only one intense cyclone (wind speed more than 200 Km/h) over North Bay of Bengal but in next 45 years (1965 2010) it was 9. From 1950 to 1990 intense cyclones were only two but during next 20 years (1991-2010) it was 7.
IV. RAINFALL INTENSITY

Pre-monsoon season: Frequency of heavy rainfall are increasing in March (+0.0048/year) and April (+0.0061/year) but significant increasing trend (0.0258/year) is observed in May. Therefore, heavy rainfall during pre-monsoon season has considerable increasing trend (+0.0258/year) which means extreme weather is increasing. Monsoon Season: Frequency of heavy rainfall are increasing in June (+0.0006/year), July (+0.0161/year) and September (+0.0081/year) but decreasing in August (-0.0025/year). Therefore, heavy rainfall during monsoon season has also considerable increasing trend (+0.0053/year) which means extreme weather is increasing.

C. IS BANGLADESH VULNERABLE TO THESE CHANGES?

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Today there is no doubt about the scale of vulnerability of Bangladesh to climate change: Reports published by German Watch and Climate Vulnerability Monitor 2010: The v

State of the Climate Crisis have also found Bangladesh as one of the most vulnerable countries The IPCC has identified Bangladesh, a land of low-lying alluvial plain, as one of the most vulnerable least developed countries.

Figure: *UNDP, 2004: A Global Report: Reducing Disaster Risk: A Challenge for Development

According to the Mortality Risk Index of the UN, Bangladesh is one the top of the vulnerable countries due to earthquake, flood, cyclone and landslide. A recently published report of the Maple Craft of the UK, which has conducted a survey on 170 countries with using 42 indicators, revealed that Bangladesh is on the top of among 16 countries that are most vulnerable to climate change in next 30 years.

Physical Vulnerability Context of Bangladesh Extrem Sea Level Rise Drought Flood e Temper River ature Flood Coastal Salinity Inundation Intrusion +++
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Flash Flood

Cyclone Erosio Sectoral and n Vulnerability Storm Context Surges

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Crop Agriculture

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Fisheries Livestock Infrastructure Industries Biodiversity Health Human settlement Energy

6. CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION


D. WHAT IS MITIGATION

The groups advocating for mitigation efforts to tackle global climate change are primarily environmental groups. Therefore Saleemul Huq (2007), at the 2nd International Workshop on Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change stated: Mitigation is the best form of adaptation. Mitigation- avoids the unmanageable

Mitigation is defined as any anthropogenic interventions that can either reduce the sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (abatement) or enhance their sinks (sequestration). In the context of the UNFCCC, a mitigation assessment is a national-level analysis of the various technologies and practices that have the capacity to mitigate climate change.

As can be seen from the graph below the majority of greenhouse gasses are contributed through energy emissions, while the remainder is related to land use. Mitigation may also refer to efforts to capture greenhouse gases through certain kinds of land use, such as tree plantation. This will

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reduce global warming, as the greenhouse layer in the atmosphere will not be so thick and its warming, blanket-like effect will be lessened. Mitigation is the main response that must be made to prevent future impacts of climate change. It consists of measures such as switching from using coal, to petrol/oil, to natural gas, which are progressively better in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. Natural gas is the least polluting fossil fuel. Better still is the use of renewable sources of energy (Huq, 2006). .
E. CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION ACTION IN BANGLADESH

The more mitigation there is, the less will be the impacts to which we will have to adjust, and the less the risks for which we will have to try and prepare.2 To manage the impacts, Bangladesh has taken a two-pronged approach. It has been vigorously participating in the international negotiations process for realisation of the goals under the Bali Action Plan as well as preparing itself at home for necessary domestic action. Even though Bangladeshs contribution to the generation of GHGs is miniscule, the country wishes to play its part in reducing emissions now and in the future. GoB, encourages increased energy and cost efficiency in the development and utilization of conventional energy. Emphasis is also given to the development of renewable energy, particularly solar homes and biogas plants so that the emission is as small as possible without jeopardizing the access to energy. In partnership with civil society, a major nationwide program of social forestry has also been implemented and coastal greenbelts has been planted as a key adaptation-mitigation strategy. As Bangladesh industrializes and develops coal reserves, the country will seek the transfer of state-of-the-art technologies from developed countries to ensure that the country follows a lowcarbon growth path. Bangladesh is also committed to reducing GHG emissions from agriculture and urban waste management. The country is further committed to the development of forestry resources and in this regard is exploring all avenues including the mechanisms under REDD (Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation). Currently Bangladesh has two Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects concerned with solar energy and waste management. It looks forward to increasing the number of similar programs and experimenting with new instruments to generate carbon credits and facilitate carbon market financing in the future.

Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change in Bangladesh: The Global Initiative at Local Level : Aka Firowz Ahmad, Ph.D, Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change in Bangladesh: The Global Initiative at Local Level 16

Figure: Industrialized countries emit most anthropogenic CO2

Advocacy and lobbying others abroad is important but action is also necessary in Bangladesh. Bangladesh urges all major emitters to collectively establish and implement a global target to stabilize the atmosphere over the short, medium and long term. The principle of common but differentiated responsibilities must be upheld. Sarker (2007) has pointed out that although Bangladesh may not be the guiltiest in terms of climate change emissions; the country is now following blindly the Western ideology and technology for their development, just as India has. Orissa states power stations in India, emitted 164 million tons of carbon dioxide in 2005, equal to the total emitted in the whole of India in 1996 and it will emit 3% of global emissions after new planned plants are opened (Das, 2006). China is now the second and India the fourth largest producers of greenhouse gases from their power generation sectors, emitting 2.7 billion and 583 million tonnes of greenhouse gasses per year (Vidal, 2007). In particular advocacy by civil society should call for a rethink in regards to the country exploiting its coal reserves in the face of energy shortages, for 22 alternative greener alternatives should be pursued instead. The necessary forced relocation of 40,000 of people in the area of the proposed Phulbari mine should also count against such a plan (Gain, 2007). So there is an important role for NGOs in influencing the development process in Bangladesh to follow an environmentally sustainable path in this and many other ways. Bangladesh has about 30,000 industrial units: 24,000 small and cottage sized and 6,000 large and medium sized factories. These have a very poor environmental record (Gain, 2002a). These must be pressured by civil society directly and through government to improve their energy efficiency, dispose of waste properly and to reduce emissions. In addition it is needed to warn people of a great danger but tell them they can do nothing to stop it will make them feel helpless. This is not development. All must be encouraged that they can have an impact in terms of climate change mitigation.

7. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION


F. WHAT IS ADAPTATION
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The word adaptation has evolved from the term adapt which means making things/ conditions/situations better by changing (Ahmed, 2006). Adaptation is necessary to cope with the unavoidable dimensions of climate change and is essential in ameliorating near-term threats. Adequate physical, economic and institutional capacities can reduce the vulnerability of highrisk communities and groups. Comprehensive adaptation can help many communities to minimize economic losses induced by natural disasters. The post-Kyoto regime must generate new funds to facilitate development of technologies for a carbon neutral future in a scale that matches evolving requirements.
G. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTION IN BANGLADESH

Climate change under a business-as-usual scenario will threaten the significant gains made in poverty reduction over the past two decades and disproportionately impact the life and wellbeing of vulnerable groups that include women, children, elderly and ethnic minorities and constrain progress toward achieving the millennium development goals.(SFYP). Most of the climate change impacts in Bangladesh are likely to come from the souththat is, the Bay of Bengal and the adjoining North Indian Ocean. These waters are the sources of tropical cyclones and storm surges, coastal erosion, monsoon wind, evaporation for monsoon rainfall, floods, and droughts.
V. THE NATIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAM OF ACTION (NAPA)

Bangladesh was adopted it in 2005 in response to the seventh session of Conference of Parties (COP 7) of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). NAPA serves as simplified and direct channels of communication for information relating to the urgent and immediate adaptation needs to climate change. NAPA has been prepared by the Ministry of Environment and Forests as a response to the decision of the COP7 of the UNFCCC. The Outcomes of NAPA Preparation and approval of NAPA with identification of Priority Areas November 2005) Agreement on 15 Project Ideas as Immediate and Urgent needs Submission to UNFCCC

NAPA proposed to strengthen future coping mechanisms. It emphasized 1. Coastal zone management,
2.

Increased awareness concerning disaster preparedness and management,

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3.

Development of eco-specific adaptive knowledge through training and formal education at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels, Adaptation of agriculture and fisheries in hazard-prone zones, and Exploration of social and financial security measures for coping with future climate change issues.
VI. BANGLADESH CLIMATE CHANGE AND STRATEGY ACTION PLAN (BCCSAP)

4. 5.

In response to the UN Bali Action Plan, Bangladesh prepared a Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP) in 2008, followed by minor changes in 2009. The Action Plan will be embedded within national development plans and programs and will be based on six pillars: Food security, social protection and health to ensure that the poorest and most vulnerable in society including women and children, are protected from climate change and that all programmes focus on the needs of this group for food security, safe housing, employment and access to basic services including health. Comprehensive disaster management to further strengthen the countries already proven Disaster Management System to deal with increasingly frequent and severe natural calamities. Infrastructure to ensure that existing assets (e.g. coastal and river embankments) are well maintained and fit for purpose and that urgently needed infrastructure (e.g. cyclone shelter and urban drainage) is put in place to deal with likely impacts of climate change. Research and knowledge management to predict the likely scale and timing of climate change impacts on different sectors of the economy and socio-economic groups to underpin future investment strategies; and to ensure that Bangladesh is a network into the latest global thinking on science and best practices of climate change management. Mitigation and low carbon development to evolve low carbon development options and implement these as the countrys economy grows over the coming decades and the demand for energy increases. Capacity building and institutional strengthening to enhance the capacity of Government ministries and agencies, civil society and the private sector to meet the challenge of climate change and mainstream them as a part of development action. The Action Plan consists of 44 programs and 145 projects for implementation within the time period of 2009-2018. BCCSAP will be an integral part of national development policies, plans

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and programs. The Bangladesh government also made climate change an integral part of the new draft Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP).
VII. CASE-SPECIFIC POPULATION GROWTH CONTROL:

The present population growth rate of Bangladesh is 1.41% (2008). The major part of this growth occurs among low-income, illiterate and vulnerable persons who, to a great extent, live in marginal lands. They exert pressure not only on the food supply but also on livelihoods and space. Marginal and vulnerable areas like offshore islands, low-lying coastal areas, or river banks become populated as people migrate from mainland areas. Such vulnerable groups originate from forced migration due to socio-political intervention or natural calamities.
VIII. IMPROVED DISASTER ZONING:

The country is constantly threatened by various types of natural hazards such as floods, cyclones, tornadoes, landslides, and earthquakes. Desertification and arsenic contamination are evident in different parts of the country. A major part of the country is under the threat of repeated occurrence of multiple hazards. On the other hand, new hazards may be created due to changes in the climatic situation. These have an effect on agriculture, livelihoods and settlement. Since it is predicted that the frequency and intensity of natural calamities will increase in future due to climate change, special development planning approaches would be required in this case. Regionalization based on a weighted index of disasters will help the government to prioritize development projects and devise better coping mechanisms.
IX. READJUSTED NATIONAL LAND -USE PLAN:

It is inevitable that the country will lose a significant part of its landmass due to a rise in the sea level. Under such circumstances, competition for space to accommodate different land-uses will become severe. A national land-use plan both for urban and rural areas will become imperative for the countrys survival as a nation. This will also ensure effective and efficient use of the limited land and natural resources which will be available in future.
X. GOAL-ORIENTED REGIONAL PLANNING:

With contraction of the livable land and an increase in both population and the frequency of natural calamities, the country will be left with a new order of landmass. A whole new approach for regional planning will have to be devised in order to cope with the changed environmental situation. The principal parameters to be considered for regional planning should be: population density, agro-ecological characteristics, and disaster vulnerability. Better distribution of economic activities will become necessary based on the changing natural environment and population distribution.
XI. PREVENTION OF ECOSYSTEM CHANGE AND ECOSYSTEM LOSS:

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Administrative and legal weaknesses currently permit land grabbers to acquire land, river and ocean water territory and thereby change its use. Natural ecosystems of forests, riverbeds and coastal zones along the Bay of Bengal are being transformed into industrial, settlements and ocean shipping areas. This poses a threat to biodiversity and the natural ecology.
XII. STRENGTHENING PUBLIC AWARENESS:

General awareness about the issues linked with climate change can be increased through public education and training programs. But specific technical education related to agricultural adaptation, Compact Township and village development, prediction models, a resolution of border and internal conflicts and crises, health hazard management, innovative technology for efficient coping strategy, water and watershed management etc. must come through higher education curricula to these end new collaborative programs must be introduced at the university level
XIII. CASE-SPECIFIC SKILLED LABOR MIGRATION:

The loss of landmass will render many people jobless. International assistance will be required to explore new areas of skilled population development. Special funding and understanding at the international level must be generated for skilled labor migration outside the country. Remittances sent by migrant workers may compensate for income lost due to sea level rise, land-use change, and aggravated natural hazards.
XIV. GLOBAL FUND FOR LAND RECLAMATION PROJECTS:

the gradient of land toward the south is very gradual. Some land reclamation projects are going on in Bangladesh with unsatisfactory efficiency. Strengthening land reclamation projects could save lands from being lost under the new sea level, prevent mangrove forests from extinction, preserve agricultural lands and the cultural heritage of the coastal zone, and preserve groundwater tables and their use for human consumption.
XV. CHANGES OF CROPPING PATTERN:

Plant two or more crops instead of one or a spring and fall crop with a short fallow period to avoid excessive heat and drought in midsummer. For already warm growing areas, winter cropping could possibly become more productive than summer cropping. New crop varieties: (Flood, drought and saline tolerant varieties)

Bangladesh has already developed salinity tolerant, flood tolerant and shorter maturity varieties of rice. Extensive agricultural extension services are needed to make these varieties available to the farmers.
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XVI. WATER SUPPLY, IRRIGATION, AND DRAINAGE SYSTEMS:

Technologies and management methods exist to increase irrigation efficiency and reduce problems of soil degradation, but in many areas, the economic incentives to reduce wasteful practices do not exist. Increased precipitation and more intense precipitation will likely mean that some areas will need to increase their use of drainage systems to avoid flooding and water-logging of soils.
XVII. USE NEAR-TERM CLIMATE PREDICTIONS:

Accurate six-month to one-year forecasts could possibly reduce losses due to weather variability. For example, predictions of El Nio events have proven useful in regions where El Nio strongly affects weather.

XVIII. RESEARCH, ANALYSIS AND DATA PROVISION ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE

Bangladesh has a long experience in climate change research. It is represented in international fora, and organizations such as BIDS, BUET, BUP, BCAS, SPARRSO, BARC, EGIS and SWMC have been actively involved in various studies on climate change. However, information about climate change related issues is scattered, incomplete and sometimes difficult to access. Policy and development planning relies on this information. It is strongly recommended to stimulate and promote scientific work and that the Government develops a focused policy towards a coordinated research agenda and a modern climate change knowledge base, that is integrated and widely shared.
XIX. STRENGTHENING OF MANAGEMENT (ICZM). INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONE

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ICZM aims at optimal use of the combined potential of all coastal resources. The ICZM plan should consider existing and future threats to the coastal zone and adaptation possibilities (CZMS, 1990).
H. EXAMPLES OF SOME PROJECTS TO REALIZE ADAPTATION IN BANGLADESH INCLUDE:

Coastal resources : Coastal Embankment rehabilitation Project ,Coastal Greenbelt Project Integrated Coastal Zone Management . Fresh water resources : National Water Management Plan , Water Sector Improvement Project , Small-scale Water Resources Development Sector Project Agriculture : Command-Area Development Project, National Water Management Plan Ecosystem and biodiversity: Sustainable Environmental Management Program, Forth Fisheries Project , Sundarbans Biodiversity Conservation Project Human health :Third Water Supply and Sanitation Project

I. COMMUNITY BASED ADAPTATION IN BANGLADESH:

Climate change is only one of many challenges facing poor people. In order to effectively reduce vulnerability, climate change adaptation must form part of a holistic response which aims to build resilience of communities to withstand the range of shocks and stresses that they are exposed to. CBA requires an integrated approach which combines traditional knowledge with innovative strategies to address current vulnerability while building adaptive capacity to face new and dynamic challenges. The process of CBA involves four inter-related strategies: 1) 2) 3) Promotion of climate-resilient livelihoods strategies in combination with income diversification and capacity building for planning and improved risk management; Disaster risk reduction strategies to reduce the impact of hazards, particularly on vulnerable households and individuals; Capacity development for local civil society and governmental institutions so that they can provide better support to communities, households and individuals in their adaptation efforts; and

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4) Advocacy and social mobilization to address the underlying causes of vulnerability, such as poor governance, lack of control over resources, or limited access to basic services. Recognizing the importance of an enabling environment for effective CBA, our strategy is not limited to promoting change at the community level. CAREs approach also endeavours to influence policies at regional, national and international levels with community-based experience. This involves evidence-based advocacy as well as constructive engagement in key decision making processes. The analytical framework of the CVCA is based on CAREs CBA Framework. This Framework presents a range of enabling factors which must be in place at household/individual, community/local and national levels in order for effective community-based adaptation to take place. The CVCA process facilitates analysis of the existing situation with respect to these enabling factors. This helps to identify actions which can be taken to put the factors in place, creating an enabling environment for adaptation. These enabling factors are linked to the four strategies outlined above. The framework is presented below.
J. CONFLICT-SENSITIVE ADAPTATION

An analysis of the impacts of climate change on security needs to be incorporated into climate policies and response strategies, at both EU and international levels, so that future conflict risks are identified and addressed. In the case of Bangladesh, tensions stemming from current and future migration flows need to be identified and addressed through local, national and crossborder programmes. The possibility of linking adaptation programmes between Bangladesh and India (or the broader region) in order to foster relationships between communities and governments across borders should also be considered.
K. DIFFERENT ADAPTATION STRATEGIES AS DISCUSSED IN SIXTH FIVE YEAR ACTION PLAN

Over the decades, the Government, with the support of development partners, has invested in: 1. Flood management schemes to raise the agricultural productivity of many thousands of kilometers of low-lying rural areas and to protect them from extremely damaging severe floods. 2. Flood protection and drainage schemes to protect urban areas from rainwater and river flooding during the monsoon season. 3. Coastal embankment projects, involving over 6,000 km of embankments and polder schemes, designed to raise agricultural productivity in coastal areas by preventing tidal flooding and incursion of saline water. 4. Over 2,000 cyclone shelters to provide refuges for communities from storm surges caused by tropical cyclones and 200 shelters from river floods.
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5. Comprehensive disaster management projects, involving community-based programs and early warning systems for floods and cyclones. 6. Irrigation schemes to enable farmers to grow a dry season rice crop in areas subject to heavy monsoon flooding and in other parts of the country, including drought-prone areas. 7. Agricultural research programs to develop saline, drought and flood-adapted high yielding varieties of rice and other crops, based on the traditional varieties evolved over centuries by Bangladeshi farmers. 8. Coastal greenbelt projects, involving mangrove planting along nearly 9,000 km of the shoreline. 9.

8. Bangladesh Position At Climate Negotiation


L. BANGLADESH POSITION ON MITIGATION AND NAMA

THE FOLLOWING REMARKS BY; SHEIKH HASINA, PRIME MINISTER OF BANGLADESH, REGARDING THE LAUNCH OF THE 2012 CLIMATE VULNERABILITY MONITOR AT ASIA SOCIETY NEW YORK ON SEPTEMBER 26, 2012 WHICH INDICATE BANGLADESHS POSITION ON MITIGATION IN INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATION. Let me affirm that Bangladesh, as a responsible member of the international community, will never exceed the average per capita emission of the developing countries. This is our commitment to a low carbon development path. We expect such commitments and responsible behavior from those who have contributed most to climate change crisis over decades. It is time for them to act positively in the interest of present and future generations. According to the Convention, LDCs are exempt from mitigation. Yet, Bangladesh has always stated that it would take mitigation actions if support in the form of finance and technology is provided. Bangladesh also stated during negotiations that the National Communications (reporting by countries on climate issues regarding national emission, vulnerability, adaptation needs, policy and other interventions) becomes a natural vehicle where whether supported or not, all mitigation actions have to be reported according to standardized methodology. So, this is already measured and reported. Also, as a standardized methodology is used for measurements, it is in a sense verified. This position of Bangladesh seems to be well-appreciated. Financing for mitigation is an issue where Bangladesh has stated that scientific investigations have shown that up to 1.5% of GDP of developed countries may be needed for mitigation actions to be supported in the developing countries. Further Bangladesh position regarding nature of funding is that if the technology to be provided is costly, Bangladesh would accept it only if the additional resources to be needed are provided as grants
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M. ON ENHANCED ACTION ON ADAPTATION

Bangladesh, through the LDC group has made the point that there will have to be a legally binding Adaptation Framework and that the resources to be committed will have to be no less than 1.5% of the GDP of the developed countries because they have a historical responsibility. Also all adaptation funding has to be grants, not loans of any kind. Further, the general idea to which Bangladesh subscribes regarding resource sources is that this will be generally public funding but there may be scopes for private flow of resources. Bangladesh has also called for 70% of the adaptation funding to be earmarked for LDCs. Bangladesh has further called for an International Adaptation Research and Training Centre under the Convention. LDC group have endorsed both the resource and the Centre ideas. But these are yet to be parts of the agreed text although efforts are on-going for their acceptance. The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) of Bangladesh won the Earth Care Award 2012 (sponsored by the Times of India) for spearheading the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) (LDCF) project Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change through Coastal Afforestation in Bangladesh. This years Earth Care Awards category was "Communitybased adaptation and mitigation".

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Source: Care

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9. Finance for Climate change Mitigation in Bangladesh:

adaptation

and

While adaptation and mitigation are the main tasks, finance and technology are the means to achieve them. The two areas have therefore attracted much attention during the climate change negotiations from the beginning. Bangladesh wishes that it be under a new financial architecture in which LDCs, G-77, China and other groups will have voice in generating, allocating and disbursements of the funds; and all funds for adaptation has to be on a purely grant basis as the need for adaptation arise because of climate change due to the historical emission of GHGs by the industrialized countries. Mitigation depends mainly on energy production, distribution and consumption technology. Often the most efficient technologies are expensive. Bangladesh wishes to do her bit, however small, in the global effort to minimize GHGs emission by adopting such energy-efficient technology. However, unless the additional costs of adopting efficient technology is not paid for through the international financial mechanism, Bangladesh will not be able to adopt them. Like adaptation, this part of the additional cost of procuring efficient technology should be financed on a grant basis. The Government has established two National Climate Change Fund. These are...
N. BANGLADESH CLIMATE CHANGE TRUST FUND (CCTF)

The CCTF is the Governments own trust fund generated from the national budget. The fund of Tk. 300 crores was initially declared by the Interim government in 2008 that was later increased to Tk. 700 crores (USD100m) by the AL government. In early 2009, the Climate Change Trust Fund Policy was approved by the cabinet, and in May 2010, the Climate Change Trust Fund Act 2010 was passed to back-up the fund.
O. BANGLADESH CLIMATE RESILIENCE FUND (BCCRF)

Until recently the BCRF was called the Multi-Donor Trust Fund (MDTF). The origin of the MDTF was in the latter half of 2008 when the UK government pledged a grant amounting to 75 million GBP over the next five years to implement BCCSAP. GoB singed communiqu with the UK in 2008 putting forward 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness through which UK support would be disbursed. Since UKs aid policy does not allow direct transfer to GoBs account, the MDTF was pursued as an alternative mechanism. Since creation of new institutions takes time, according to DFID, the WB came into the picture as a fund manager. Since then, the WBs role in the MDTF created significant national and international campaign and dispute between GoB and donors. At the end of 2010, the utilisation of funds held in MDTF did not start while the final mechanism for the management and governance await approval from the Prime Minister of GoB. Until end of 2010, the EU, Sweden, Denmark and DFID joined in BCCRF. Exactly what would be the operational modality may be
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worked out by the government and the particular development partner. But the cardinal principle of the operation of the fund shall be that it will be used solely to finance activities under the Action plan (BCCSAP). Secondly, this contribution will not be a substitute for other normal funding for development by the development partners

P. MULTILATERAL FUNDS:

GoB received grants and loans from different multilateral sourcesincluding small grant for Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) from the Least-Developed Country Fund (LDCF) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), grant and loan for Strategic Programme for Climate Resilience (SPCR) from Pilot Programme for Climate Resilience (PPCR) of the Climate Investment Fund (CIF) of the World Bank, multi-donor grant for Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP) managed by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), loan from Asian Development Bank while yet to receive any grant from Adaptation Fund (AF). There are many more initiatives with International Financial Institutions (IFIs) including the WB and ADB.
Q. BILATERAL FUNDS:

DPs have different types of interventions in Bangladesh that are driven by their own national policies. US Aid in Bangladesh that spends USD 100milion/year is one of their largest development assistance programs in the world. Bilateral and multilateral DPs are organized under BDF and respective Local Consultative Groups (LCGs).

10. Concluding Remarks


Despite continued CC-related disasters these investments in climate proofing have resulted on major impacts on economic growth. poverty has fallen; major social gains such as gender equity in primary education, IMR decline, life expectancy increased. Food production continues to grow. Over the last 10-15 years, the number of fatalities from natural disasters has declined, as the countrys ability to manage risks, especially floods and cyclones, has improved and communitybased systems have been put in place. Over the decades, Bangladesh has also learnt how to plan and implement these programs more sustainably (e.g. to integrate capture and culture fisheries into the design and operation of flood management projects) by involving communities in planning, construction and management. We must undertake climate change investments with communities, learn from them, build on their knowledge of their local environments, and ensure that proposed investments meet their needs.

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This will help in the short run. But Ccontinued CC could literally wash away such achievements. This is only the beginning: more varieties and appropriate ecosystem-based agricultural system need to be developed and popularized. The Government recognizes that tackling climate change requires an integrated approach involving many different ministries and agencies, civil society and the business sector. There is also a need to strengthen the capacity of Government and other organizations to plan and implement development programs. Development organizations need to strengthen their capacity so that they can implement their regular programs more effectively and rise to the challenge of climate change.

11. References:
A. Ahmed, A.U. 2006. Bangladesh Climate Change Impacts and Vulnerability: A Synthesis. Dhaka: Climate Change Cell, Bangladesh Department of Environment.
B.

Arjumand Habib, Climate Change: Bangladesh Perspective. Dhaka, BMD

C. NAPA. 2005. National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) Final Report. Dhaka : Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh.
D.

Pender, J.S. 2008. What Is Climate Change? And How It Will Effect Bangladesh. Briefing Paper. (Final Draft). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Church of Bangladesh Social Development Programme.

E. Rahman, Atiq. 2011. Presentation on Climate Mitigation and Adaptation in Bangladesh. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies (BCAS) F. Planning exceptionalism? Political Economy of Climate Resilient Development in Bangladesh

G. Khurshid Alam, Md. Shamsuddoha, Thomas Tanner, Moshahida Sultana, Muhammad Jahedul Huq and Sumaiya S Kabir
H.

SIXTH FIVE YEAR PLAN; FY2011-FY2015, Ministry of Planning. Bangladesh Government.

I. Rahman, A.A. 2002. Mitigation Must, Adaptation Too: Poorest Cannot Pay Anymore! Clime Asia. October 2002. COP 8 Special Issue. 3-10.
J.

Rahman, A.A. 2007. Hot from the international press. Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change. The Daily Star. D30 | P a g e D haka: February 28th, 2007, 12.

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K. Matthijs van der Hoorn, 2010. Bangladesh

Climate Change and Conflict in Bangladesh,

Dhaka,

L. Ansorg T & Donnelly T, September 2008. Climate Change in Bangladesh: Coping and Conflict. ISIS Europe European Security Review no.40, M. Giddens A, September 2008. The politics of climate change N. Monckton C,2011. The Science and Global Politics of Climate Change A Special Report for Heads of State and Government, Committee For A Constructive Tomorrow, NY. USA
O. Homer,dixon, T F (1990) Environmental Change and Vi olence Confl ict. Canadian Env ironment and Sustainble Development Program. Institute for Research on PublicPolicy , Ontario, Canada. http://www.climatechangecell-bd.org

P.

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