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EE380: Electronic Circuits Laboratory Expt.-5: Differential Amplifier

2012-13: semester-I

M.Sachidananda

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur

DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

Objectives: Design a differential amplifier using BJTs. Measure differential and common mode gains, Ad & Acm Measure distortion characteristics (THD) of the amplifier Replace the emitter resistor by a current source and study its effect on the Ad and Acm Comparison of measured results with the simulated and analytical results.

M.Sachidananda

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur

                                                  

DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER Specifications: AV 100, Vom 5V, Ro 100 , Ri 10 k, BW - dc to 5 MHz Can we meet the specs with an RC coupled CE amplifier ?

M.Sachidananda

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur

CE amplifier frequency response

Has a low frequency cut off - cannot give gain at dc.

M.Sachidananda

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur

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CE amplifier: Output distortion vin = 5mV, 1 KHz sine wave, m = 0.2 HD2 = -28.3 dB acceptable (< 5%) Has a small Vom= 0.5V; HD2 is large

vin

84.6dB

vout
56.3dB

21.8dB

M.Sachidananda

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur

CE amplifier: Output distortion vin = 25mV, m = 1 HD2 = -14.4 dB (19%)

68.8dB 54.4dB 34.4dB

M.Sachidananda

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur

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DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER Specifications: AV 100, Vom 5V, Ro 100 , Ri 10 k, BW - dc to 5 MHz We need a differential amplifier configuration and may need more than one stage to meet all the specs. A differential amplifier has much larger Vom much lower harmonic distortion. can amplify dc onwards - fH is limited by the fT of the device. input stage can be designed to give high Ri output stage can be added to get a low Ro large gain can be obtained by adding multiple stages dc biasing can be designed to give Vo = 0 for Vi = 0

M.Sachidananda

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur

DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER symmetry & linearity


I E1 = IE2 v v exp B1 E ; VT v v I = S exp B 2 E ; VT IS

+1

I C 1 = I E1 I E1 + I E 2 = I E

v v I E1 = exp B1 B 2 ; IE2 VT

I C1 =

IE

IC 2

v v 1 + exp B 2 B1 VT IE = v 1 + exp in VT

IE
v 1 + exp in VT

M.Sachidananda

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur

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DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER symmetry & linearity The region of linearity can be increased by adding emitter resistor, but at the expense of decreased gain, as shown

M.Sachidananda

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur

DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER harmonic distortion


vin = v1 v2 I E I C1 + I C 2 I C1 = I CQ + iC1 v iC1 = tanh in I CQ 2VT = 0.5 I E {exp(v1 / VT ) exp(v2 / VT )} I C1 =

IE
v 1 + exp in VT

tanh(x) has odd-symmetry about x = 0


let vin = pVT sin(t )

iC1 = a0 + an sin(nt ) + bm cos(mt )


n =1 m =1

Because of symmetry, distortion is limited to odd sine terms only.

iC1 = a1 sin(t ) + a3 sin(3t ) + a5 sin(5t ) + a7 sin(7t ) + ...


M.Sachidananda Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur
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DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER harmonic distortion

iC1 = a1 sin(t ) + a3 sin(3t ) + a5 sin(5t ) + a7 sin(7t ) + ...


Total harmonic distortion (THD) is defined as the square root of the ratio of harmonic power to the fundamental power.
2 2 2 a3 + a5 + a7 + ... 2 2 2 a3 + a5 + a7 + ...

THD =

a1

THD (%) =

a1

100

THD(dB) = 20 log10 (THD)


For most THD calculations it is sufficient to consider up to 7th harmonic.
M.Sachidananda Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur
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DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER harmonic distortion


v iC1 = tanh in I CQ 2VT

Consider the distortion in the waveform

tanh ( A sin(t ) )

we get A = 0.84 or vin = 42 mV for THD = 5% {A = vin/2VT}

linear region

Note: Take Fourier transform and determine harmonic components to calculate THD.
M.Sachidananda Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur
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DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER harmonic distortion

Comparison of CE amp and differential amp.

M.Sachidananda

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur

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DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER harmonic distortion Spectrum of Vo for vin = 47mV, THD = 5% (-26dB); f0 =10KHz

240dB 213 176 157 188

M.Sachidananda

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur

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DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER output swing


From the dc bias (VCE, ICQ) we get maximum swing limit as:

vom Min{V0 (dc ) + VBE VCEsat ;VCC V0 (dc )}


From the total harmonic distortion (THD 5%), the limit* is

vom 42mV AV = 0.042

I E RC 4VT

vom Min{V0 (dc ) + VBE VCEsat ;VCC V0 (dc );0.47 I E RC }


* - for single ended output; twice for differential output.
M.Sachidananda Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur
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DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER output swing


vin= 47mV; vom = 4.15V for THD = 5%
vom = 8.3V (diff. output)

(4.15V, 5%)

(47mV, 5%)

M.Sachidananda

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur

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DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER frequency response


AV = 40dB (mid. band) f = 3.75MHz (-3dB)

fT = 375MHz
Q1 & Q2 - 2N2222

M.Sachidananda

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur

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DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER Design


*Specs: AV 100, Vom 5V, Ro 100 , Ri 10 k, BW - dc to 10 MHz

AV =

vo g m RC I E RC = = vin 2 4VT

Rin = 2r =

4VT ; IE

R0 = RC

AV Rin = R0

110 at IC = 1mA; fT 300MHz

AV Rin 100 10k = = 104 R0 100


Not possible to achieve all specs in one stage.

* - this is a sample specification for the design example. Lab handout has different specs.
M.Sachidananda Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur
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Differential Amplifier Design Select Rin =10k and AV = 100


Rin = 4VT IE IE 110 4 25(mV) = 1.1 mA 10k

Select IE = 1 mA which gives IC = 0.5 mA


RE = VEE 0.6 11.4(V) = = 11.4k IE 1(mA)

Let VRC = (VCC +VBE - VCEsat)/2 = 6.2 V


RC = 6.2(V) = 12.4k 0.5(mA)

Select :RC = RE =12k

Gives IE = 0.95 mA, Rin=11.6k, AV =114, R0=12k, V0(dc)= 6.3V


We can add an emitter follower stage to lower R0 to 100
M.Sachidananda Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur
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Differential Amplifier Design For a CC stage (emitter follower):

R0 = RE || (rE 3 + RS / ) RS =

RC of diff. stage

Vo(dc) = (6.2- 0.7) = 5.5V; RE = (V0-VEE)/ICQ3 select ICQ3 = 2mA RE = 17.5V/2mV = 8.75k

this ICQ is for Q3 Can be ignored

rE 3 =

VT = 12.5 I CQ 3
eff = Q3 Q4

R0 = 8.75k||(12.5+12k/110) = 120

A Darlington pair* can be used to increase eff to reduce R0 further. It also reduces loading on Q2.
R0 is slightly higher than the required 100 . Alternatives are: re-design diff amp with an RC 10k so that RS / < (100 - rE) = 87.5 , or use a Darlington pair in the diff. amp to reduce the R0 . {This will lead to higher ICQ, hence is not preferred.}
M.Sachidananda Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur
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Differential Amplifier Design Output voltage swing*:

vom Min{V0 (dc) + VBE Vsat ;VCC V0 (dc );0.47 I E RC }


vom = Min{6.7V; 5.7V; 5.358V} = 5.358 V > 5V
Note: *With CC stage loading Q2, output swing will be reduced, and V0 (dc) will also change because of DC coupling.

Band width :
For fT = 300MHz & AV =100, maximum 3dB BW 3MHz. To get 10 MHz BW, AV 30. Use feed back to reduce gain and increase BW. Add a second differential stage to increase the gain to 100.

M.Sachidananda

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur

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Differential Amplifier Gain Differential mode voltage gain, Ad : vd = vi1-vi2 ; vcm = (vi1+vi2)/2; gm=IC /VT
Ad = vc1 vc 2 = g m Rc vd differential output single ended output

Ad = g m Rc /2

Common mode voltage gain, Acm :


vc1 = vc 2 = vCM Acm =

RC
2 RE + rE

vCM

RC
2 RE

CMRR =

Ad g m RE Acm

RC
2 RE

single ended output differential output

CMRR (dB) = 20 log10 ( g m RE )


Ad = 120 (41.6dB) Acm = 0.5 (-6 dB) CMRR(dB) = 47.6dB
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Acm = 0
M.Sachidananda

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur

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Differential Amplifier CMRR CMRR can be improved by replacing RE by a current source The equivalent circuit of BJT current source is an ideal CS IE , shunted by RS
eq. ckt. of CS

ro =

VA 100V = =100k I E 1mA

REq = {( R 4 || R5) + r }|| R3 1.09k


Acm =

RS = (1 + g m REq )ro 4.24M

RC
2 RS

0.0014 (-57dB) single ended CMRR = Ad 98.6dB Acm


Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur
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M.Sachidananda

Different current source realizations

RS = r0 100k

RS = r0{1 + g m ( RE || r )}

RS = r0 / 2

M.Sachidananda

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur

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Differential Amplifier Performance Frequency response : Ad = 38.1dB, f = 4MHz fT = 323MHz

gain Ad (dB)

Rin

M.Sachidananda

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur

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Differential Amplifier Performance Harmonic distortion with current source:


Spectrum, vin= 56 mV, THD = 5%

THD (%)

input

(56mV, 5%)

larger vin , & better even harmonic suppression

output

M.Sachidananda

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur

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The End

M.Sachidananda

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur

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