COPING MECHANISMS OF STUDENTS OF THE COLLEGE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT OF MANILA WITH OFW PARENTS

A RESEARCH PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF NURSING OF COLLEGE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT OF MANILA

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE OF NURSING

By Ma. Juvilisa B. Dioneda Janela Feb C. Ligutan

2012

Chapter I Introduction Background of the study

Working in a foreign country is doubly harder for people who have a son or daughter to leave behind in the Philippines. The decision to accept a job offer abroad may mean that you will miss some of the growing up years of your child. Though some overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) are luckier because their host country and visa may allow them to bring dependents along, majority of the OFWs have to face the reality of being away from their children.(OFW Guide, 2012). A week away from the people you love can be difficult to bear. It‘s so much worse if the time period is in months or even years, and in another country to boot. Staying in touch with all your kids and keeping tabs on the goings-on in their lives becomes a challenge, especially if you‘re a parent to young children and teenagers. (Villarin, 2010)

Children and adolescent cope differently when they are left behind depending on their stage of development and who is the migrating or left behind parent or guardian. (Tobin, 2008)

Coping is intimately related to the concept of cognitive appraisal and, hence, to the stress relevant person-environment transactions. Most approaches in coping research follow Folkman and Lazarus, who define coping as `the cognitive and behavioral efforts made to master, tolerate, or reduce external and internal demands and conflicts among them. (Krohne, 2002)

Coping is an important construct in understanding how adolescents react to the extensive stressors and adjustments they experience. (Garcia, 2010)

The events laid led the researchers to initially find out any difficulty experienced by both boys and girls students and mainly focus on how they cope with the difficult experience without their parents. The fifteen students‘ individual differences as far as their coping mechanisms are concerned are given focused in this study. Their individual differences comes not only from their demographic profile and diverse family backgrounds, but will also be coming from their means of coping with their difficulty experience.

In addition, this study is concerned with the coping mechanisms of the students with Overseas Filipino Workers (OFW) parents at College of the Holy Spirit of Manila. It will also seek to find out the coping strategies of the students in terms of their identified difficult experiences. Their identified individual experiences come not only from their demographic profile and diverse family backgrounds, but will also be coming from their means of coping mechanisms.

Identifying the difficult experiences of the student during challenging times provides us the opportunity to emphasize the coping mechanisms and strategies of student with OFW parent. This quantitative phenomenological study has a great opportunity in appreciating and understanding the psychological and emotional problems of student with OFW parent and their coping strategies during that phase.

Specific objectives: This study specifically aims to: 1. Statement of the problem This study aimed to know the coping mechanism of the students with Overseas Filipino Worker (OFW) parents at College of the Holy Spirit of Manila. b.This phenomenological study is of great benefit for the students to be aware of their coping mechanism and strategies employed by them during challenging times since they are the primary respondents of this study. Determine the demographic profile of the students enrolled at College of the Holy Spirit of Manila based on the following: a. age birth order . this will provide necessary intervention to help students in their adjustment. Purpose of the study General objective: This study generally aims to know the coping mechanism of the students whose parents are overseas Filipino workers.

Determine the three most employed coping mechanism in the identified difficult problem parents living together parents working abroad Determine the most difficult experience they encounter in College of the Holy Spirit Hypothesis HO: There is no significant relationship between OFW parents a n d t h e a c a d e m i c performance of the student. Manila 4. gender Years in the College of the Holy Spirit of Manila? Determine the general profile of the students according to family background based on the following: a.c. d. b. 3. . 2. H1: There is a significant relationship between OFW a n d t h e a c a d e m i c performance of the students.

Conceptual Framework Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory Alfred Adler’s Birth Order Theory COPING MECHANISM ENVIRONMENT Lazarus and Folkman’s TRANSACTIONAL MODEL OF STRESS AND COPING Figure 1 This study which mainly aims to identify the coping mechanisms employed by students is mainly grounded on three theories. The Social Cognitive Theory of Bandura tell us that a person‘s gender development is not just only influenced by biological. The above figure show theories on how the development of a person is influenced by different factors based on theoretical foundations. Adler‘s theory on the other . behavioral or environmental factors alone but through the interplay of the three. specifically in this study are those of the Social Cognitive and Birth Order Theories.

Sharing and discussing it with the researchers would also have the potential to lessen the tensions coming from the identified difficulty or experience. This study would also create opportunities for the primary respondents to openly communicate their frustrations and feelings in relation to a particular circumstance. the results will benefit a number of sectors namely: The primary respondents of this study will be able to identify and be given increased awareness on the difficulty they are experiencing as well as their coping mechanisms in the identified difficulty. The third theory on this study which is Lazarus and Folkman‘s theory on the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping explains to us that stress is a person-situation interaction that is influenced by the person‘s environment. Awareness of their response to the identified difficulty would help them improve their participation and involvement in school activities. a person develops coping mechanisms. Within the said environment that poses events that may be threatening. Significance of the study Since this research would determine the Coping Mechanisms of the students with Overseas Filipino Worker (OFW) parents at College of the Holy Spirit. harmful or taxing of resources. . Manila for School Year 2012-2013. Both these theories are important for us to identify the individual difference of a person from another.hand is also a personality theory that explains the relation of a person‘s birth order to his personality.

They shall also be able to respond more effectively to the learners‘ individual differences.For the researchers. For the administrators. It will also equip them with more useful information regarding the student‘s behaviors and identify the areas that are needed to be improved. it will help them prepare and create a more comfortable and conducive atmosphere of learning for the students that would encourage active participation and healthy competition. For the Guidance Counselors. They also used this study for future references . this study will aid them in the process of enhancing the components of their guidance curriculum which can be more suitable to the felt needs of the students. For the Future researchers it will also benefit from this study by gaining insights on coping mechanisms employed by the students during challenging times. This would enable them to help their child identify more appropriate coping mechanisms in times of difficulties. it will guide them as they respond to the needs of every learner. For the Parents of the students will also gain a better understanding of their children‘s difficulty and behaviors in school.

Scope and limitation This study is limited only on the ―Coping Mechanisms of Students with OFW parents at College of the Holy Spirit of Manila‖ school year 2012-2013. It will also determine the coping mechanism employed by the students in their identified critical experience. Coping Scales refers to the eight Coping Mechanisms used in this study which are as follows: Confrontive Coping (Scale 1) describes aggressive efforts to alter the situation and suggests some degree of hostility and risk-taking. Birth Order refers to the position of birth of the respondents in their family which will also be used to determine patterns of similarities or differences that could be factors for the coping mechanism employed. This study focuses attention only on the students whose parents are overseas Filipino workers. It will give emphasis on identifying most critical experience they had. measured by years from birth. Coping Mechanisms are ways by which the students manage a difficult situation or experience. This study includes the demographic profile of students enrolled at CHSM. Definition of terms The following terms are operationally defined to identify and clarify how they will be used in the study: Age is the period of human life. It was used to determine patterns of similarities or differences that could be factors for the coping mechanism employed. Distancing (Scale 2) describes cognitive efforts to detach oneself and to .

minimize the significance of the situation. Self-Controlling (Scale 3) describes efforts to regulate one's own feelings. Seeking Social Support (Scale 4) describes efforts to seek informational support, tangible support, and emotional support. Accepting Responsibility (Scale 5) acknowledges one's own role in the problem with a concomitant theme of trying to put things right. Escape-Avoidance (Scale 6) describes wishful thinking and behavioral efforts to escape or avoid the problem. Items on this scale contrast with those on the Distancing scale, which suggests detachment. Planful Problem Solving (Scale 7) describes deliberate problem-focused efforts to alter the situation, coupled with an analytic approach to solving the problem. Positive Reappraisal (Scale 8) describes efforts to create positive meaning by focusing on personal growth. It also has a religious dimension.

Family Background includes the name, marital status, occupation and the work place of the parents and the type of family. It will be used to identify patterns of similarities or differences that could be factors for the coping mechanisms employed. Gender is the division of people into two categories, ―men‖ and ―women,‖ that will also be used to identify similarities or differences that could be factors for the coping mechanisms employed.

Ways of Coping Questionnaire is an instrument that can identify the thoughts and actions used by an individual to cope with a specific stressful encounter.

Chapter II Review of Related Literature This chapter presents the literatures related to the study on the Coping Mechanism of Students with Overseas Filipino Worker (OFW) Parents at College of the Holy Spirit of Manila for School Year 2012-2013. Coping Mechanisms of Adolescents Studies that directly examined the breadth of coping strategies found that, in general, children and adolescents‘ coping repertoires increase with age. As children grow older, instrumental action is supplemented by planful problem-solving, which is among the most common strategies adolescents report using when they encounter challenges. Distraction tactics also become more diverse; compared to children, adolescents more often draw upon both behavioral and cognitive strategies. The use of both behavioral and cognitive strategies may also occur with the coping strategy of escape, although findings were less clear. Further, adolescents are better able to attend to and reflect on their own internal emotional states, and increasingly rely on more sophisticated strategies to deal with emotions. During adolescence, such emotionfocused strategies can also lead to more rumination, which may even become more common into early adulthood. At the same time, other useful coping strategies are on the rise, including positive self-talk and intentional self-regulation of emotion. Adolescent coping is increasingly

self-reliant as cognitive strategies become more powerful in guiding action and regulating emotions in the face of situational pressures. (Gembeck & Skinner, n.d.) Other indications of increasing differentiation were evident when we compared general findings across studies of older adolescents to those of children and younger adolescents—age differences in coping among older adolescents are more dependent on the type of adversity studied (e.g., coping in response to specific, self-identified stressors vs. general coping patterns). An expanding and differentiated repertoire of coping actions coupled with an increasing appreciation of the specific requirements of different stressful situations is associated with increases in coping flexibility from early childhood to adolescence. As noted by Compas et al. (2001). (Gembeck & Skinner, n.d.) Greater diversity and flexibility in the range of coping responses available to the individual is expected to develop during middle childhood and adolescence. In addition, with increasing metacognitive skills in early adolescence, a greater ability to match coping efforts to the perceived objective characteristics of stress is expected. (Gembeck & Skinner, n.d.) However, it is important to note that, although some studies did provide support for increased flexibility of coping among adolescents, especially older adolescents compared to younger groups, it is possible that less flexibility will occur with age as young people more routinely rely on the coping strategies that work well in particular situations (e.g., problemsolving for controllable stressors compared to distraction for uncontrollable ones; Sorgen &Manne, 2002) (Gembeck & Skinner, n.d.). Results also clearly showed that early strategies, such as behavioural distraction or contact seeking, do not disappear. In fact, one trend, which was hard to verify with the current

n. verbal aggression.g. suggested that it is adaptive to maintain access to these more ‗‗basic‘‘ coping strategies. such as increases in rumination and blaming others. young adolescents sometimes showed lower levels of help-seeking and effort expenditure even in domains where they would be helpful (e. thinking about something pleasurable) in taking one‘s mind off seriously troubling events. it may also open the door to emotional vulnerabilities. For example. However. school). & Spirito.. and venting. n. Moreover. there is a rise during early adolescence in some of the potentially more maladaptive stress reactions. And the increasing autonomy of adolescents. However. the same forward-looking capacities that allow adolescents to plan for the future also allow them to worry about the future.e.d.Danovsky. although overall levels were low.d. and so older children and adolescents (maybe even increasingly and intentionally) continue to draw upon them when they are needed (Gembeck & Skinner. the supposition that behavioural distraction (i.doing something fun) is more effective than cognitive distraction(i. young adolescents‘ increasing capacity to reflect on their own emotions brought with it increasingly sophisticated emotion regulation strategies. rumination. may account for the increased use of distraction even during adolescence when dealing with life-threatening uncontrollable events. may .). like parental cancer (Gembeck & Skinner.. It is even possible that developmental advances may introduce new vulnerabilities. some age comparisons suggest increasing struggles with stressors and coping.. although generally a positive development. Many of these age differences suggest a pattern of normative improvements. especially during the transition to adolescence (Donaldson. as would be expected. Prinstein.e. such as cognitive escape. Early behavioural forms of coping may actually be more effective when dealing with extreme forms of stress.set of studies. Compared to older adolescents. For example. such as positive self-talk. In a similar vein.). 2000).

These escalate all the way through later adolescence (about ages 20 to 22) when there may be significant social . 2000). 2011). Common Stressors Of the many stressors. Coping developmental gains and losses (Baltes. for example. but there were no significant gender differences.also permit them to escape more effectively from home. Older adolescents used a greater variety coping strategies and used methods that directly reduce the impact of the stressor and involved a cognitive component (e. recent attention to adolescents suggests there are developmental changes in coping during adolescence and that particular coping strategies vary with gender and the type of stressors adolescents‘ experience. Although most research on stress and coping has focused on adults.. adolescents encounter many new. planful problem solving. home contains a parent suffering from cancer. 1987) (Gembeck & Skinner. Compared to children. problems with other people are the most commonly reported and can be significant sources of distress for many adolescents.g. Adolescents in all age groups varied their strategies in relation to the type of stressor. (Williams & McGillicuddy. potentially threatening or challenging social experiences. The findings suggest that significant changes during a relatively short period during adolescence may affect adaptive processes and have implications for intervention efforts aimed at reducing the negative effects of stress during this period of development. Children and adolescents report that they experience stress in their lives and that they attempt to cope with that stress. reappraisal) more often than younger adolescents. when.

related research has demonstrated that experiences of dealing with just manageable challenge are important to the development of a wide variety of capacities and skills. such as leaving home. and failures are potential springboards for discovery and learning. finding satisfying educational or career paths. Outcomes of Stressful Experiences It is probably not surprising that significant life events and many of the common stressors of adolescence have been linked to mental health and behavioral problems. defined as an evaluation of an event‘s . These problems include depression and anxiety. Stress Reactions and Appraisals The impact of stressful events is dependent not only on the objective stressors themselves. but also on adolescents‘ subjective appraisals. Saltzman. Researchers point out that mistakes.transitions. Connor-Smith. as well as externalizing behaviors. Thomsen. Most researchers also agree that the outcomes of stressful life events and daily hassles will be positive or negative depending on how adolescents respond to them. 2001). 1994). & Wadsworth. and forming intimate partner relationships. Few studies have directly examined the positive outcomes of coping with stressful events for adolescents. offering adolescents the opportunity to build resources for coping with future negative events (Aldwin. However. such as aggression and antisocial acts (Compas. setbacks.

Skinner. 1994). or responses aimed at reducing emotional distress. & Sherwood. exertion. & Weisz. withdrawal and support seeking. threat or challenge (Lazarus & Folkman. depression. 2000).potential impact or threat to well-being (Lazarus. and conduct-related problems following parental divorce (Sandler. Dennig. Situations perceived as more challenging prompt different emotions and coping strategies. and problem-solving. Some stressors. Edge. are perceived as more open to influence through effort. persistence. such as for parental conflict or medical events. adolescents respond to them more instrumentally. Situations perceived as more threatening prompt certain emotions and coping strategies. & Bradley. whereas appraisal of threat implies an anticipation of harm in the future. As would be expected. . Zimmer-Gembeck. 1987. & MacKinnon. For example. An appraisal of challenge identifies a stressful event that can potentially result in some positive outcome. For example. such as academic difficulties. As a result. 2003. they are more likely to prompt withdrawal. 1991). a stressful event can be appraised as a loss. Appraisal of loss implies a harm that has already transpired. Another important appraisal is the controllability of a stressor (Rudolf. seeking social support. Skinner. such as more interest and problem solving (Irion & Blanchard-Fields. the appraisal of a stressful event as more threatening has been associated with self-reported symptoms of anxiety. the use of cognitive distraction. Skinner. adolescents‘ stress appraisals are important correlates of their mental health (Compas et al. When stressors are appraised as lower in controllability or as inescapable. 1984. under review). such as more fear and more use of escape. Kim-Bae. Altman. These appraisals are linked with emotional reactions to stressors and coping responses. using active strategies. 2001). Lees. 1995). Skinner & Wellborn. 1995.

Coping Responses

Coping describes the transactional processes through which people deal with actual problems in their everyday lives (Aldwin, 1994; Skinner & Zimmer-Gembeck, 2007, in press). Coping encompasses a range of emotional regulation strategies, thought processes, and behaviors. This means that coping is founded in an individual‘s physiological responses to stress, their appraisals of events, their attention, and their goals or the outcomes they desire. Coping also depends on social contexts and interpersonal relationships. Recent conceptualizations of coping have highlighted the importance of two processes: stress reactions, which are largely involuntary and might include behavioral and emotional impulses, and action regulation, which are purposeful and serve to modulate or boost reactivity to stressful events (Skinner & Zimmer-Gembeck, 2007, in press). Most interventions target intentional ways of coping, but the ability to cope well depends on coordinating all of these systems under conditions of threat, challenge, or loss (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Skinner & Zimmer-Gembeck, 2007).

Categories of coping responses

In order to describe how people cope in response to different stressors and to identify adaptive means of relieving stress and building resilience, researchers and practitioners need some way of organizing the multitude of coping responses. Yet, there is little consensus about how to do this.

In one organizational scheme, coping behaviors have been grouped into those that 1) are more engaged and approach oriented, 2) serve to avoid or minimize stress, 3) depend on seeking others for support, and 4) involve withdrawal or helplessness (Ayers, Sandler, West, & Roosa, 1996; Seiffge-Krenke, 1995; Zimmer-Gembeck & Locke, 2007). The first category, approachoriented coping, has included direct problem-solving and actions taken to increase understanding of the problem. The second category includes coping strategies that have a common function of avoiding or minimizing the stress, such as trying not to think about the event or distracting oneself. The third category of coping involves other people as resources, either for emotional support or for direct assistance. Finally, the fourth set of strategies includes escaping or becoming helpless and doing nothing.

The development of commonly used coping strategies during adolescence

It is clear that there are individual differences in how adolescents respond to stress, but there are also typical patterns of change. Coping experts have concluded that attempts and behaviors aimed at changing the stressful situation (i.e., instrumental coping) are very common, but decrease in use during adolescence, whereas coping that is focused on managing emotions and reducing tension increases (Frydenberg & Lewis, 2000). In a recent review, we focused on specific families of coping and summarized what is known about three families used most often by adolescents –support seeking, problem-solving, and distraction (Skinner & ZimmerGembeck, 2007).

Support seeking. Support seeking includes seeking information, emotional support, and instrumental help. Adolescents‘ patterns of support seeking differ from those of both children and adults. Compared to children, adolescents are more likely to go to peers for emotional support and help with daily hassles. At the same time there are declines in seeking support from adults. However, these changes are dependent on the type of stressor. When in situations that are appraised as uncontrollable or in which adults are known to have authority, adolescents typically seek support from adults more often as they get older. Hence, adolescents, especially those between 10 to 16 years old, still benefit from adult guidance and they typically become better able to identify the best source of support for particular problem domains. At the same time, adults often find it challenging to provide adolescents with developmentally-attuned support. Adolescents benefit most from support and guidance when it fits with their needs for autonomy and increasing skills at self-regulation (Zimmer-Gembeck & Locke, 2007).

Problem-solving. When assessed as cognitive rather than behavioral activity to guide mastery over a problem, attempts at problem-solving increase with age. These increases are found throughout adolescence, and between adolescence and young adulthood. This is particularly true for self-reliance in decision-making and use of cognitive decision-making strategies to deal with stress. These increases continue even into early adulthood. As would be expected from recent research on brain development (Spear, 2000), the use of particular cognitive strategies such as strategizing, decision-making, planning, and reflection does not seem to be widespread until late adolescence or even early adulthood. In fact, the pubertal transition marks a time of less extensive use of problem-solving than in late childhood. This time-limited decline in

Distraction. By limiting the respondents to children coming from two-parent families. 2007). Following a pattern similar to advances in cognitive ability. At the same time.problemsolving may correspond to a particular time of heightened stress reactivity that limits a young person‘s capacity to direct attention to problem-solving coping strategies. The Well-Being of Children: Does Migration Matter? Comparisons between the children of migrants and the children of nonmigrants (and further comparisons of the children of different types of migrants) provide some measure of migration outcomes on selected indicators of well-being. regardless of their age. for example using both problem-solving and distraction to full advantage. and the ability to shift between strategies. increases in distraction. This detail is important to keep in mind in the interpretation of the findings. Adolescents continue to rely on behavioral distraction. rumination. and avoidance are apparent. becomes more advanced throughout adolescence and into early adulthood (Skinner & Zimmer-Gembeck. Distraction is often used to supplement other coping strategies. Most people. aggression. Young children rely on coping strategies like playing with toys. the comparisons will not be affected by extraneous factors. there are increases in the use of cognitive distraction strategies beginning at about age 6 and continuing to about age 14. rely on distraction to cope with stress as much or more than support seeking and problem-solving. but the use of cognitive distraction (such as thinking about something positive) is increasingly used. reading or other behavioral distractions. We begin by turning to .

put their families in the middle.41 vs. more OFW children considered their families as not poor compared with non. 19 percent). Also. The children‘s perception of their family‘s class status was measured by the question: ―Filipino families have different statuses in life. fewer OFW children considered their families as poor (31. Compared with non-OFW children. The access of migrant families to communication facilities is also very notable _ OFW families are twice more likely to have a landline telephone connection than non-OFW families (63 percent vs. Families of migrants are more likely to own homes than non-migrant families.65). Children .2 percent among non. conversely. Where Migration Clearly Matters Socio-economic Status The family‘s socio-economic status (SES) shows a very clear divide between the children of migrants and the children of non-migrants. especially the children of migrants. 5. some are not poor.OFW children (28 percent vs. 12 percent among OFW children).dimensions which show marked differences in the conditions or perceptions of the children of migrants relative to the children of non-migrants. migrant families owned more appliances than non-migrant families (8. In this card. Some are poor. Ownership of cell phones is even more telling: some 94 percent of migrant families had cell phones as opposed to 60 percent among non-migrant families. such as home ownership and ownership of durable goods. This came out whether the measure was perceived social class or the more ―objective‖ indicators.OFW children vs. and some are in the middle. 29 percent). The children‘s perceptions about their families‘ SES are also supported by children‘s reports on home ownership and ownership of durable goods. Ownership of major appliances was distinctly higher among migrant families. where would you locate your family?‖ Most of the children.

59 percent). In general. Where Migration Seems to Matter. with OFW children reporting a higher mean score compared to non-OFW children (3. The mean scores of the children's assessment of their parents' relationship and their own relationship to various family members show interesting patterns. the children viewed their parents' marriage as positive _ less than three percent noted that their parents were often not in good terms.of migrants have also become part of the proli-feration of cell phones _ more than a third (35 percent) of OFW children had their own cell phones compared with only 12 percent among nonOFW.66 vs. the children of migrant mothers were the least likely to describe their parents' relationship in the same light. the children of migrant mothers had the lowest score compared to children from other migrant and non-migrant families. However. however. Among OFW children. The Battistella and Conaco . the study looked into the children's perception of their parents' relationship. This access to communications technology plays an important part in linking family members separated by borders. Majority of the OFW and non-OFW children (59 percent) described their parents' relationship as very good (magkasundong-magkasundo). But… Being Family/Family Relationships To have a better gauge about the parents' marriage. 3. The mean scores indicate that the children saw their parents' relationship as good to very good (mean of 3.57). Mean scores were computed using a four-point scale ranging from "1" (not very good) to "4" (very good). among the children of migrants. More OFW children described their parents' relationship as very good compared with non-OFW children (70 percent vs.56).

Communication Makes Family Most of the children . The strength of family relationship.. 1998). a Social Weather Survey of young people in 1996 found that young Filipinos were more likely to report a good relationship with their parents compared with young Americans (Sandoval et al. Sandoval et al. Where divorce is not an option or legal separation is a long process.about three in four . On the whole. the frequency of communication between children and parents is on the low side: majority of the children (58. mothers were also mentioned as the persons they wanted to be close to (see also Liwag et al.said that they could talk to their parents about anything.. Mothers figured as the family member the children were closest to.study (1998. 1996) also noted that children in mother-absent families were more likely to describe their parents' relationship as problematic. 1998). Similar findings were tapped by other studies among young people (Abrera. most of the children reported good to very good relationship with other family members. migration is one of the few options available to women wanting a way out of a difficult marriage. However. Indeed. 2002. despite the hype about celebrities and sports personalities. majority of the children (64. particularly the children's closeness to their parents. The persistence of this finding over time suggests that the cracks in the marriage in mother-absent families may have prompted the mothers' migration.. is reflected in the children's choice of their parents as role models.3 percent) reported that they talk with their parents only "sometimes.1 percent) chose their parents as the persons they would like to be. 1998). Although the age group (15-21 years old) is different. Other male family members were more likely to be mentioned as persons in the family the children felt distant to. In addition." .

the traditional way of communication between migrants and the left-behind families.For the children of migrants. migrant parents are consulted over decisions affecting the family. to communicate with migrant family members. With cheaper long-distance calls. the FGDs confirm the frequency of contacts and more opportunities for family members. At most. hearing the voice of their family members was very important). some 10 percent (the children of seafarers) reported that they had no regular communication with their migrant parents. participants. Letters. Through phone calls. OFW families also had higher ownership of landline telephones and cell phones. but it has also made it possible for fathers and mothers to continue their parenting role. Separated by migration. have definitely been replaced by the telephone and SMS (short messaging services) or texting. related that communication not only kept family members updated about what goes on in their daily life (for migrant parents. . the majority said that they had regular communication with their migrant parents. including discipline issues concerning the children. The investments OFW families make on education are not surprising since providing for the education of children (and other family members) is one of the reasons motivating people to work abroad. As may be recalled. including children. more children of migrants were enrolled in private schools than the children of non-migrants. the children of migrants had higher ownership of cell phones compared to the children of non-migrants. particularly the caregivers. The importance of keeping in touch between those left behind and those who migrated was particularly highlighted in the FGDs.10 Academic Indicators As noted earlier.

the children of migrants perform well in school.7 vs. At least during elementary. they have fared slightly better than the children of non-migrants in several indices of academic performance. around 31 percent of the children of migrants have received various awards in school. The children's responses to the importance they attached to high grades. at 20 percent and 13 percent. respectively. . the children of mother-absent families did not do as well in school as those who had fathers working abroad or both parents working abroad. learning good manners and seeing their friends in school were quite similar across all groups.3) last school year. In fact. the study looked into the child's general weighted average (GWA) during the past school year (2002-2003). Many more children of migrants are included in the honor roll and are more involved in extracurricular activities. Although the children of OFWs had higher general weighted average compared to non-migrant children (83. with 23 percent receiving academic awards. and experience of failing or repeating a grade level. gaining knowledge. The corresponding figures among children with both parents present are much lower. 82. The data on failing or repeating a grade level also attest to OFW children's good performance: fewer OFW children (three percent) repeated a grade level compared to children of non-migrants (11 percent). participation in extra-curricular activities. In terms of awards received in school in the past three years. As a measure of school performance. When the grades and awards of parent absent children were compared. awards received in the past three years.Nine out of 10 children reported that they were happy or very happy with school. inclusion in the honor roll or top 10. Getting high grades registered the highest importance. the dif-ference is not so marked.

However. spend one to two hours studying at home. About 65.3 percent among children of migrants. Around 60 percent of children. and number of absences. which provided complete data. registering even better school outcomes than the children of non-migrants.5 percent of non-migrant children reported spending nine hours or more in school compared to 56. Sickness was the most common reason why the children missed school. During the month preceding the interview. non-migrant children spend longer hours in school than the children of migrants. . chil-dren of non-migrants averaged 2.08 absences. Physical Health The study tried to get some objective indicators of physical wellbeing. however.93. Among the OFW children. the children of migrants are doing well in school. The children of migrants have slightly fewer absences compared to those of non-migrants for both the present and the previous school years.Turning to factors that could account for these school outcomes. the analysis of the height and weight data would be limited to the Negros sub-sample. the study examined the number of hours children spent studying. except for those in Negros Occidental. the number of hours spent in school. the children of migrant mothers tend to score lower than the other children. In general. regardless of parents' migration status. However. like the height and weight measurements of the children. thus. while children of migrants had a mean of 1. This finding also came out in the 1996 study and seems to suggest the importance of mothers' presence in the academic performance of the children. such infor-mation was patchy. Because of this.

45 kg). the children of migrants are generally taller and heavier than the children of non-migrants. coughing.36 cm) and the heaviest (mean weight of 44 kg) compared to children of other migrant groups. headache. the study found that. Among the females. since most of the children have yet to experience physical changes due to puberty. and (4) oftentimes. The role of caregivers of parent-absent children may also be a factor in affecting the children's physical wellbeing. the present study did not find any negative impact of mother's absence on the children's physical well-being. stomachache. those with landbased fathers working abroad were found to be the shortest and lightest."11 Children's responses were categorized into: (1) not experienced it at all. the children of non-migrants are more susceptible to illnesses than the children of . With the males. Caregivers seem to have ensured that the children's health does not suffer in the absence of their parents. the children of sea-based fathers are the tallest (mean height of 145. Similar findings also emerge in the children's susceptibility to common ailments. (2) rarely. It appears that the higher socio-economic status of parent absent families may have more bearing on the nutritional status of the children. Unlike the 1996 study. the female children were also found to be taller and heavier than their male counterparts. A. (3) sometimes.32 cm) compared to the children of other migrant groups. regardless of gender. Based on the children's self-report. fever/flu. and loss of appetite. Susceptibility to Common Ailments Susceptibility to common ailments was explored by the question: "How often do you experience any of the following: cold. the children with both parents absent are the tallest (mean height of 143. in general. They are also the heaviest (mean weight of 42. however. In the pre-teen age group (10-12 years).Based on the data. Comparing children across migrant categories.

The differences are slight. mother-absent children were observed to be the most susceptible to cold. This finding differs from the 1996 study which did not find appreciable differences in the health outcomes of the two groups. Healthy Practices Simple indicators of health-promoting practices and behaviors were explored in terms of the amount of sleep and personal hygiene. Fewer children with both parents abroad reported experiencing cold. For personal hygiene.3 percent). but they suggest that the mother's absence is associated with the children falling ill. When comparing the mean scores among the children of parent absent families. headache and stomachache. In contrast. basic health practices such as hand washing. B. cough. . tooth brushing and bathing were asked of the children. more children of non-migrant parents get more than eight hours of sleep daily compared to children of migrants (70.this is suggested by the slightly higher mean scores of the children of non-migrants vis-à-vis the children of migrants. children with both parents who are migrants appear to be the most resistant to common ailments. 65. Most of the children enjoy adequate sleep. stomachache and loss of appetite.migrants . Among parent-absent children. those with mothers absent get the least amount of sleep per day (60 percent). some variability was noted in the children's daily bath habits.4 percent vs. Children of migrants reportedly take a bath more often weekly than non-migrant children. with about 70 percent sleeping more than eight hours daily. headache. However. Of these measures.

Looking at the response categories. Among the children of migrants. Among the choices presented to them. children who had both parents abroad were the least likely (49 percent) to identify the family as that which made them happiest. The study also probed into specific aspects of daily life which the children were busiest with. 2001).money. Thus. and what made them happiest. doing well in school) in Filipino families can be a source of stress to the children (Arellano-Carandang. relationship with teachers and classmates. would you say that you are very happy. during this period. among the children of migrants. the children said they were most preoccupied with school (69 percent). rather the responses generally reflect much optimism. The emphasis on education (specifically. On the other hand. . the source of happiness for the majority of children (67 percent) was the family. and very unhappy?" On the whole. they also posed the most problem (or stressor) to them.school was mentioned by most respondents (32 percent). school matters not only kept the children busy. what posed the most problem to them. Although respondents also acknowledged problems with other issues . family. it is interesting to note that none of the children considered themselves as very unhappy. Moreover. Although the differences are slight. relationship with friends . the mean scores suggest that the children described themselves as somewhat happy to very happy. children are most pressured by school requirements while the source of their happiness is the family. the children of migrant mothers and those with both parents abroad tend to have lower mean scores than the children of migrant fathers. somewhat happy.General Well-being An overall measure of well-being was tapped by the children's responses to the following question: "Overall. somewhat unhappy. 1995.

different from the other children.assignments and school-related work. unloved. including non-OFW children. A modified Social Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Loneliness Scale (LS) were computed to provide summary measures. unfeeling.5 percent) claimed that they had close friends. When the other measures are considered. What is consistent with the earlier study is the pattern of children of migrant mothers scoring higher in anxiety and loneliness scales. Their usual activities with their friends were playing. siblings and parents. relationships with teachers. B. The modified SAS ranged in value from 0 to 12 while LS values went from 2 to 24 _ the higher the score. The children of migrant mothers reported feeling lonely. helping each other withschool-work and talking. The study probed whether children had encountered problems in several life areas . Virtually everyone reported having had . respectively. It must be qualified. the higher the levels of anxiety and loneliness. however. and worried compared to all other groups of children. afraid. Emotional Health Several questions measuring anxiety and loneliness were included in the survey. and "crushes" and whether they had access to some support if they did.A. classmates. the same pattern holds. Access to Social Support Almost all of the chidlren (98. The present study suggests that the children of migrants are less anxious and less lonely compared with the children of non-migrants these findings depart from what was observed in the 1996 study. Other indicators of emotional health can be gauged from the mean scores on children's responses to specific feeling states. angry. that the differences are slight.

do not approach anyone. children are dependent on family members. which may have a bearing on indicators of outcomes. children readily seek out other family members . if the problem has to do with parents or crushes. classmates and siblings. The Socialization of Children . a lower percentage of the children in migrant families consulted with mothers. gender roles in the family. Where Migration Does Not Seem to Matter In the earlier sections. academic performance and so forth. If the problem concerns teachers. i. the 2003 Children and Families Study also probed into the socialization of children. family relationships.. siblings and fathers (some departures are observed in the case of OFW children).e. Due to the changed configuration and composition of migrant households. mothers. and to some extent. especially mothers. At this stage. they take an active part in doing something about difficulties that they encounter. the "inputs" side of the equation. for support. respectively. When the problem relates to school matters. 22 percent and 25 percent. Other than approaching mothers and other family members.problems with school-related work. In addition to outcomes.typically. the least of their problems had to do with crushes (28.9 percent said that this was not a problem). children also turned to teachers (particularly when the problems concern classmates) and friends (specifically for concerns related to crushes). at least nine out of 10 children approach someone. What is important to highlight is the fact that children have access to some support and that for the most part. we have considered outcomes in terms of measures such as the economic status of the children's families.

Interestingly. helping siblings with school assignments.17 chores while OFW children were assigned 3. fostering independence is less emphasized. The rankings of the values may differ somewhat for children in OFW families and those in non-OFW families .were Roman Catholic. Data in indicate that whether parents are present or other caregivers are stepping in as parents. Chore by chore. The FGDs with caregivers confirm the importance of assigning some chores to children as part of responsibility training. buying items. the most common chores assigned to children are cleaning the house (90 percent) and setting the table/washing dishes (83 percent). The top ranking values nurture sensitivity to other people: good manners/kindness. the study found that more non-OFW children are given assignments: non-OFW children have. Foremost child psychologist Arellano-Carandang (2001) noted that a Filipino child has to learn a lot of pakiramdaman (feeling out) in navigating through the extended family system.In the Philippines. Fewer children were assigned cooking/marketing and washing/ironing clothes. Almost all the children had a religious affiliation. The majority -. including spiritual formation. on the average. generosity and obedience. According to. the rankings may shift a little among children of different migrants . The rest identified themselves as belonging to other religions or churches: 4. from one generation to the next is one of the major responsibilities vested in the family.82 percent -. Close to half of the children said that they render help in the following: taking care of their siblings. many studies have documented the contributions of children in household chores.5 percent . 4.63 chores. Values and Spiritual Formation The transmission of values. and watering plants/taking care of animals. the values taught to children are very similar.likewise.but what is quite striking is the convergence in the kinds of values passed on to children.

4 percent were born-again.1 percent vs. ―Why are you going abroad?‖.3 percent). more children of migrants reported that they prayed often than the children of non-migrants (57. and 6.6 percent belonged to other churches. the picture is less solid. with most respondents reporting that they "sometimes" and "often" prayed together. 2 percent were Protestant. in which technology has encouraged parental presence.6 percent was Islam. Asked to rate the importance of God in their lives on a 10-point scale. But many OFW parents are now finding out that their working abroad has seriously damaged their relationship with the very people whose interests they have gone abroad to serve. Only 30 percent said that they often went to the church or mosque. about nine in 10 children across all groups answered "10." In terms of religious practices. 48. . 30 percent). and again. The modal response to frequency of visits to the church or mosque is "sometimes" (49. but also very important in the children's life. 0. participation and engagement in the lives of children. Parents who express interest in the activities of their children and make a point to be available at set times more likely enjoy healthier relationships with their children. OFW parents will almost always say that it is for their children. Nilo Tanalega has attributed this to what he calls ―enhancements in global parenting‖.were Iglesia ni Cristo. Some stable families have weathered the separation of parents and children. with the figure being higher among the children of migrants than among non-migrants (42 percent vs. The Problem of Estrangement among OFW Children When asked. Belief in God was not only nearly universal (98. 4.5 percent). Fr.6 percent). Close to 90 percent of respondents said that they prayed as a family. More children reported saying prayers often (49 percent).

face-to-face conversations allow parents to ask ―How are your friends? What are your dreams? What is hurting you?‖ Long distance communication between parents and their children has produced superficial relationships.” How heartbreaking it is for a parent who has made so many sacrifices to come home to estrangement. . Before we say we are going abroad to work for the sake for our children. It is unsurprising that many of these children develop into materialistic. instead of a healthy parental respect. and love. often rebellious. By contrast. giving them more than what is proper. but now I do not know what to say to her.But Fr. more than they need. let us prayerfully consider the consequences and think twice.” said another OFW child. But I don’t feel she has the right anymore to do this because she does not know me at all. Tanelaga qualifies that communication mediated by technology cannot replace face to face interaction. the child-centered goals of the OFW effort tend to foster narcissism in the children. Moreover. other-centeredness. “I miss my Mom. “We used to talk a lot.” OFW parents tend to overcompensate for their absence by indulging their children materially. individuals with a well-entrenched sense of entitlement. As one OFW child has said: “My Mom tries to parent me when she is home. Topics of long distance communication may go no deeper than grades and the day‘s happenings at school.

When in-depth. sampling technique. it involves collecting. and data gathering procedure. Those patterns aid the mind in comprehending a quantitative study and its implications. research instrument. and quantitative approaches at many phases in the research process. As a methodology. settings. It often uses visual aids such as graphs and charts to aid the reader in understanding the data distribution. narrative descriptions of small numbers of cases are involved. from the initial philosophical assumptions to the drawing of conclusions (Cresswel & Clark. . tabulates. Descriptive research involves gathering data that describe events and then organizes. 2006). analyzing. the research uses description as a tool to organize data into patterns that emerge during analysis. the researchers investigated the Coping Mechanisms of the Students of College of the Holy Spirit of Manila with OFW parents. In this study. depicts. Research design The researchers in this study used the descriptive research. Because the human mind cannot extract the full import of a large mass of raw data. and describes the data collection. descriptive statistics are very important in reducing the data to manageable form.Chapter III Research Methods This chapter presents the research methods used in this study such as the research design.

Settings The study was conducted at College of the Holy Spirit Manila.The researchers aimed at understanding the condition of our respondents on how they cope with their identified difficult situation or experience. The library is a good place to conduct an interview were the place was quiet. Sampling technique The respondents of this study were chosen through a purposive sampling design. Some types of research design necessitate researchers taking a decision about the individual participants who would be most likely to contribute appropriate data. or capacity and willingness to participate in the research. the researchers made use 1 kind of data gathering instrument that gave quantitative data. . Research instruments To obtain necessary information from the respondents. based upon a variety of criteria which may include specialist knowledge of the research issue. both in terms of relevance and depth (Oliver. saint Arnold Jansen Building 2nd floor in the library. 2006). secured in any disturbances and a well good ventilation. Purposive sampling is a decision concerning the individuals to be included in the sample are taken by the researcher.

During the actual data gathering process. the researchers introduced first themselves and discussed the purpose of the study the respondents were assumed that their answers were to be confidential. The likert‘s scale of 4.out the demographic profile sheet to have initial information.The instrument used composed of: first is contained the interview guide questions which composed a) demographic profile b) family background c) the survey questionnaire they had on CHSM. assistance and the schedule for the data gathering process. Data gathering The researchers personally gave a letter of request to the dean asking for permission to conduct the interview and administering questionnaire to selected students. 4 correspond to ―Always‖ which means that the coping statement was used. . 2 correspond to ―seldom‖ and 1 corresponds to ―never‖. and 1 used. When approval is given. 3 correspond to ―sometimes‖. 2. the researchers were endorsed to the guidance of college department for briefing. Before the actual data gathering process. 3. the respondents will give a survey questionnaire and asked to fill. The researchers explain each items found on the questionnaire in answering the ways of coping mechanism and indicate by checking the extent a coping mechanism was used in the situation.

Analysis and Interpretation 1.Chapter IV Presentation. Determine the demographic profile of the students enrolled at College of the Holy Spirit of Manila based on the following: Table 1 Age of the Fifteen respondents Respondents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Age 19 19 20 19 18 18 18 16 20 16 22 19 23 19 16 .

Table 2 Birth Order of the Fifteen respondents Respondents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Birth order 1st born 1st born 1st born 1st born 1st born 1st born 1st born 4th born 1st born 3rd born 1st born 1st born 1st born 1st born 3rd born Table 2 shows that twelve of the Respondent s are first born. two of the Respondent s are 3rd born and 1 of the Respondent s is 4th born child.Table 1 shows that the Respondent‘s age range in this study form is from 16 to 23years old. .

.Table 3 Gender of the Fifteen respondents Respondents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Gender Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Table 3 shows all of the Respondent are female.

Three of the Respondent s are stayed for 1 year in college of the holy spirit of manila and two of the Respondent s stayed for 5 years in college of the holy spirit of manila . Five of the Respondent s are stayed for three years in the College of the holy spirit of manila.Table 4 Years in the College of the Holy Spirit Manila of the Fifteen respondents Respondents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Years in the college of the holy spirit manila 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 5 4 1 1 3 4 1 5 Table 4 shows that five of the respondents are stayed for four years in the College of the holy spirit of Manila.

2. The range is between 5-18 years. Determine the general profile of the students according to family background Table 5 Years of parents in abroad of the Fifteen respondents Respondents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Years of parents in abroad 10 years 5 years 5 years 10 years 8 years 5 years 7 years 18 years 15 years 9 years 8 years 10 years 10 years 5 years 8 years Table 5 shows that all of the respondents has a parent working abroad for more than 5 years. .

Table 6 Parents living together of the Fifteen respondents Respondents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Parents living together Yes Yes Yes Yes yes No No No No yes yes yes yes yes yes Table 6 shows that eleven students is living with their parents. while the other four are not living with their parents. .

while twelve out of fifteen respondents has a single parent working abroad as an OFW. .Table 7 OFW parent/s of the Fifteen respondents Respondents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 OFW parent/s Both Both Father Father Mother Mother Mother Father Father Father father father Mother Both Father Table 7 shows that three out of fifteen respondents that both of their parents are OFW.

3. Determine the most difficult experience they encounter in the College of the Holy Spirit of Manila Table 8 Respondent’s difficult experience of student with OFW parents Respondents 1 Difficult Experience I had difficulties during 1st year and 2nd year college because I didn‘t fit well 2 My difficult experience is in the academic factor because of pressure on studies 3 4 Group activities regards to informing Academic Factor because some subjects are difficult to understand 5 School rules because I have difficulty of my class schedule 6 Academic factor because im not in favor of my course 7 Academic factor because it‘s hard for me to concentrate in my studies 8 Academic area because difficulty in concentrating with her studies .

Three of the respondents has a difficulty in group activities. . I was hesitant to come within reach of my classmates The above table shows the Respondent difficult experience of student with OFW parents. The rest are concerned about the difficulties they face in academic area. and one of the Respondent s has a difficulty regarding school rules/ policies and it is about how the school deals in a class schedule.9 School rules it is hard to act because of school policies 10 Academic Difficulty because it is Not that difficult but need to prioritize 11 Academic factor because it is hard to cope with one of my subject 12 Academic factor because it is hard to understand 13 Academic factor because some of the lesson is hard to understand 14 Group ActivitiesBecause sometimes we don‘t have the same ideas in doing the activities. 15 Group Activities because At first.

It’s Mean and Interpretation Scale Positive reappraisal Accepting responsibility Planful problem solving 3. All the respondents used the 8th coping scale known as the Positive Reappraisal with a mean of 6.72 Interpretation Sometimes Sometimes Rank 1st 2nd The above table shows the top 3 mostly employed coping mechanisms of the fifteen students from College of the Holy Spirit Manila. These behaviors describe their efforts to create positive meanings by focusing on their personal growth.7.82 Seldom 3rd Mean 6. they change and grow as a person in good way. Determine the most employed coping mechanism in the identified difficult problem Table 9 The Over-All Top Three Most Employed Coping Mechanism. rediscovered what is important in life. .7 4. they found now faith. This shows that when experiencing difficult events they became quite inspired to do something creative. change something about themselves and they pray.4.

is the 5th coping scale known as the Accepting Responsibility as their foremost employed coping mechanism with a mean of 4. make a plan of action and follow it. apologizes or did something to make up.On the other hand.72. and made a promise that things will be different next time. Meanwhile. coupled with an analytic approach to solving the problem. They manifest the common behaviors as follow: quite a bit criticized or lectured themselves. . These actions describe their deliberate problem-focused efforts to alter the situation. they doubled their efforts to make things work and they come up with a different solutions to the problem or difficulty. the 7th coping scale known as Planful Problem Solving is the respondents‘ third most employed coping scale with a mean of 3. they looked at their past experiences and did the same thing. the respondents‘ second most employed coping mechanism. realized that they brought the problem. This shows that they quite concentrate on what they have to do next. they change something so it would turn out all right. This means that the respondents acknowledges their own role in the problem with a parallel theme of trying to put things right.82.

It was followed by Accepting Responsibility coping scale with a mean of 4. ranked first. She is the first child of her parents.‖I had difficulties during 1st yr and 2nd yr‖.‖ Coping mechanism Employed Table 1.2 4. She has already stayed for three (4) years in the College of the Holy Spirit of Manila and is now in her 4th year.2 . . The Positive Reappraisal coping scale. with a mean of 7. Third on his rank is the Distancing with a mean of 4.25. her reason was.Respondent 1 Respondent 1 is a female and is 19 years of age. Top 3 Coping Mechanisms Employed by Respondent 1 Coping Scale Positive Reappraisal Accepting Responsibility Distancing 4. She said that.25 Interpretation Often sometimes Rank 1st 2nd Table 1 shows the top three coping mechanism employed by Respondent 1. Difficult Experienced Respondent 1 identified his difficulty to be one from the Academic Area. ―I didn‘t fit well. Her parents are both OFW for almost 10 years.16 sometimes 3rd Mean 7.16.

Her parents are both OFW for almost 10 years. According to her. She has already stayed for three (3) years in the College of the Holy Spirit of Manila and is now in her 3rd year. ―every year kasi tumataas yung stress siyempre yung major subject mahirap tapos yung mga minor imbis na minor. Difficulty Experienced Respondent 1 identified an academic difficulty.33 Interpretation Always Sometimes Rank 1st 2nd . nagpapamajor tapos kunyari sa major subject yung ang daming lesson na kailangan basahin yung hindi na kinaya ng utak ko na iabsorb lahat. Top three (3) Coping Mechanisms Employed by Respondent 2 Coping Scale Positive Reappraisal Planful Problem Solving Accepting Responsibility 7.Respondent 2 Respondent 2 is a female and is 19 years of age.29 7. She said that she got pressured on her studies.‖ Coping Mechanism Employed Table 2.00 Sometimes 3rd Mean 8. She is the first child of her parents.

Respondent 3 Respondent 3 is female and is 20 years of age. The Positive Reappraisal Coping Scale. She has already stayed for four years in the college of the Holy Spirit manila. the Accepting Responsibility Coping Scale with a mean of 7. According to her.00. ranked first. and now in her 4th year of college. Nobody informed us‖.33. She is first born child of her parents. Coping mechanism employed Table 3. For the third rank. It was followed by Planful Problem Solving Coping Scale with a mean of 7.71 6. ―she wait for the final result of the election or the outcome of the process but unfortunately. Difficulty experienced Respondent 3 her difficulty came from group activities. we were informed by some of the students who were already appointed that there are already appointments made for the new officers. She said that it regards to informing.Table 1 shows the top three (3) coping mechanisms employed by Respondent 1.29. Top three (3) Coping Mechanisms Employed by Respondent 3 Coping Scale Positive Reappraisal Seeking social Support Mean 6. with a mean of 8.17 Interpretation Sometimes Sometimes Rank 1st 2nd .

Top three (3) Coping Mechanisms Employed by Respondent 4 Coping Scale Self controlling Accepting Responsibility Escape.99 Sometimes 3rd Mean 5.25 Interpretation Sometimes Sometimes Rank 1st 2nd . She said.5 Sometimes 3rd Respondent 4 Respondent 4 is a female and is 19 years of age.31 5.‖ She further stressed: ―yung mga past lesson kasi usually yung nahihirapan talaga ako sa math ayun talaga yung pinaka nahihirapan ako kasi kahit anong gawin ko hindi maintindihan siguro kasi ayaw ko sa subject na yun.Accepting responsibility 6.‖ Coping Mechanism Employed Table 4. Difficulty Experienced Respondent 4 identified an academic difficulty.Aviodance 4. ―some subjects are difficult to understand. Her father is an OFW for almost 10 years. She has already spent four (4) years in the College of the Holy Spirit of Manila and is now in her 4th year.

The selfcontrolling coping scale.31. She is the first child of her parents. Respondent 5 Respondent 5 is a female and is 18 years of age. It was followed by accepting Responsibility coping scale with a mean of 5.28. Difficult Experienced Her difficulty came from school rules from which according to him ―there are times that I don‘t have classes every Monday.‖ Coping Mechanism Employed Table 5.Table shows the top three coping mechanisms employed by Respondent 4. Top 3 Coping Mechanism Employed by Respondent 5 Coping scale Positive appraisal Seeking social support Planful Problem solving Mean 8.Avoidance Coping scale with a mean of 4. ranked first.99.Wednesday because of my class schedule. with a mean of 5. She has already spent her 3 years in the College of the Holy Spirit of Manila and is now on her 3rd year. third on her rank is the escape.14 8 7 Interpretation Always Always Sometimes Rank 1st 2nd 3rd .

Difficultly Experienced Respondent 5 identified an academic difficulty as well. The positive appraisal coping scale with a mean of 8.00 Interpretation Always Rank 1st . The third is Planful Problem solving with a mean of 7.28 7.15 Sometimes Sometimes 2nd 3rd Mean 9.‖ Coping Mechanism Employed Table 6. She lives with her grandmother. She said.Table 5 shows the top three coping mechanism employed by Respondent 2. top three(3) Coping Mechanisms Employed by Respondent 6 Coping Scale Accepting Responsibility Positive Reappraisal Self controlling 7.14 ranked first. She is the first child of her parents. Followed by seeking social support coping scale with a mean of 8 ranked second. Respondent 6 Respondent 6 is a female and is 18 years of age. She has already spent her 3 years in the College of the Holy Spirit of Manila and is now on her 3rd year college. ―when I was 1st year of college kasi ayaw ko talaga and course na nursing kaya hindi ako nagfocus kaya ngayon nagsisisi ako at nahihirapan ako sa academic.

2 6 Interpretation Sometimes Sometimes sometimes Rank 1st 2nd 3rd .Table 6 shows the top three coping mechanism employed by Respondent 6. The third is self controlling solving with a mean of 7. The accepting responsibility coping scale with a mean of 9. lalo na kapag maraming mga projects at assignments na pinapagawa.71 6. Followed by positive reappraisal coping scale with a mean of 7. She has already spent her 3 years in the College of the Holy Spirit of Manila and is now on her 3rd year college.00 ranked first. She lives with her grandmother. Respondent 7 Respondent 7 is a female and is 18 years of age.15. Difficult Experienced Her difficulty came from the academic area from which according to him. She is the first child of her parents.28 ranked second.‖ Coping Mechanism Employed Table 7 Top 3 Coping Mechanism Employed by Respondent 7 Coping scale Positive reappraisal Distancing Accepting Mean 6. ―sometimes it‘s hard for me to concentrate in my studies.

Pero ang ginagawa ko para makapagconcentrate ako ay iniisip ko na lang everything happens for a reason. She said that she had difficulty in concentrating with her studies because her parents are separated.Responsibility Table 2 shows the top three coping mechanism employed by Respondent 2. ―I cannot concentrate with my studies. Her father is an OFW for almost 18 years. Pinagbubutihan ko na lang para makatulong ako kay mama. The third is Accepting Responsibility with a mean of 6.‖ Her reason was. Followed by Distancing coping scale with a mean of 6. According to her. working here in the Philippines and her father is an OFW. The positive appraisal coping scale with a mean of 6. Family Background Respondent 8 lives with her mother and her brother. nalulungkot ako at medyo nawawala sa focus. Respondent 8 Respondent 8 is a female and is 16 years of age. Manila and is now a first year college student. ―Kapag naiisip kong hiwalay na sila mama at papa.2 ranked second.‖ Coping Mechanism Employed . She is the youngest child of her parents. She has already stayed for five (5) years in the College of the Holy Spirit. Her mother is a caterer.71 ranked first. Difficult Experienced Respondent 8 identified his difficulty to be one from the Academic Area.

67 Interpretation Always Sometimes Rank 1st 2nd Table 8 shows the top three coping mechanisms employed by Respondent 8.75 Sometimes 3rd Mean 7. Her father is an OFW for almost 15 years. Top Three Coping Mechanism Employed by Respondent 8 Coping Scale Positive Reappraisal Seeking Social Support Accepting Responsibility 5.72 6. It was followed by Seeking Social Support coping scale with a mean of 6.72.75. Her parents are both Optometrists. Respondent 9 Respondent 9 is a female and is 20 years of age. Difficult Experienced .67. the third on his rank is the Accepting Responsibility with a mean of 5.Table 8. Manila and is now a 4th year college student. ranked first. with a mean of 7. Positive Reappraisal coping scale. Family Background Respondent 9 lives with her mother only. She has already spent 4 years in the College of the Holy Spirit.

with a mean of 8. She is the youngest child of her parents. The Planful Problem Solvuing coping scale.58.58 5.33 Interpretation Always Rank 1st Table 9 shows top three coping mechanisms employed by participant 9. Top Three Coping Mechanism Employed by Respondent 9 Coping Scale Planful Problem Solving Positive Reappraisal Self Controlling 5. Manila and is now a 1st year college student. . For the third rank she identified Self Controlling coping scale with a mean of 5.57.‖ Coping Mechanism Employed Table 9. Respondent 10 Respondent 10 is a female and is 16 years of age.‖ She further added that.33. ranked first. ―Maybe gusto lang ng school na matutong suumunod ang mga students sa school rules kaya naman sumusunod na lang ako kaysa magkaroon pa ako ng problema. Yun bang ang hirap gumalaw kung madaming bawal.57 Sometimes Sometimes 2nd 3rd Mean 8. It was followed by Positive Reappraisal coping scale with a mean of 5. She has already spent 4 years in the College of the Holy Spirit. ―Minsan kasi di ko gusto yung rules dito sa school.Her difficulty came from the School Rules from which according to her.

00 Interpretation Always Always Rank 1st 2nd Table 10 shows top three coping mechanisms employed by Respondent 10. Difficult Experienced Respondent 10 identified an Academic Difficulty. ―Not that difficult but need to prioritize. The Positive Reappraisal coping scale. Top Three Coping Mechanism Employed by Respondent 10 Coping Scale Positive Reappraisal Accepting Responsibility Planful Problem Solving 7.Family Background Respondent 10 lives with her mother only. with a mean of 8. Her mother is a housewife while her father is an OFW.‖ Coping Mechanism Employed Table 10.00. She said.00. ranked first.00 Sometimes 3rd Mean 8.43. . for the third rank she identified Planful Problem Solving with a mean of 7. It was followed by Accepting Responsibility coping scale with a mean of 8.43 8.

8 ½ years ago. She gets confused most of the time.‖ She further added that. Manila and is now a 1st year college student. One of her parents is an OFW. Top Three Coping Mechanism Employed by Respondent 11 Coping Scale Accepting Responsibility Distancing 5.67 Sometimes 2nd Mean 6. ―I had hard time to cope with one of my subject as the last time I studied that subject was in 2004. ―The teacher cannot explain the subject well.00 Interpretation Sometimes Rank 1st .Respondent 11 Respondent 11 is a female and is 22 years of age. According to her. brothers and sisters. Her mother worked as a nurse and her father is a BSE graduate but he works as an auxiliary nurse. She only spent 3 months from now in the College of the Holy Spirit.‖ Coping Mechanism Employed Table 11. Difficult Experienced Respondent 11 has found a difficulty in the Academic Area and Teacher Factor. Family Background Respondent 11 lives with her parents. She is the eldest child of her parents.

with a mean of 6.90.‖ Coping Mechanism Employed Table 12. Top Three Coping Mechanism Employed by Respondent 12 . Respondent 12 Respondent 12 is a female and is 19 years of age. For the third rank. Manila and is now a 3rd year college student. She said. Her mother is an accountant and her father is an OFW and works as a cadd operator. Family Background Respondent 12 lives with her mother. The Accepting Responsibilty coping scale.Planful Problem Solving 4. She is the first child her parents. ranked first.67.90 Sometimes 3rd Table 11 shows top three coping mechanisms employed by Respondnet 11. she identified Planful Problem Solving with a mean of 4. ―I had difficulty in academic area because some of them are hard to understand. She has already spent 3 years in the College of the Holy Spirit.00. Difficult Experienced Respondent 12 identified an Academic difficulty as well. brothers and sisters. It was followed by Distancing coping scale with a mean of 5.

Difficult Experienced Respondent 13 identified her difficulty in Academic Area from which according to her.25 Always Sometimes 2nd 3rd Table 12 shows top three coping mechanisms employed by Respondent 12. It was followed by Positive Reappraisal with a mean of 8.15 7. The Planful Problem Solving coping scale.15. For the third rank. with a mean of 8. ranked first. grandmother and cousin. Her father is a retired police officer while her mother is an OFW.83 Interpretation Always Rank 1st 8.Coping Scale Planful Problem Solving Positive Reappraisal Accepting Responsibility Mean 8.‖ She further added. Family Background Respondent 13 lives with her father. ―I didn‘t became a dean‘s lister for 2 semester.25. Respondent 13 Respondent 13 is a female and is 23 years of age. she identified Accepting Responsibilty with a mean of 7.83. sisters. ―I try to find happiness in every .

17 Interpretation Always Sometimes Rank 1st 2nd Table 13 shows top three coping mechanisms employed by Respondent 13. I have a better perception of a better life after circumstances. Top Three Coping Mechanism Employed by Respondent 13 Coping Scale Positive Reappraisal Planful Problem Solving Distancing 4.way I can. I focused more on studies. The Positive Reappraisal coping scale. Manila and is now a 4th year college student. with a mean of 8. It was followed by Planful Problem Solving coping scale with a mean of 7.17.‖ Coping Mechanism Employed Table 13. ranked first.86 7. I always pray to God.83 Sometimes 3rd Mean 8.86. and some of the lesson I didn‘t understand. For the third rank she identified Distancing coping scale with a mean of 4. Family Background . She is the first child of her parents. Respondent 14 Respondent 14 is a female and is 19 years of age. She has already spent 4 years in the College of the Holy Spirit.83.

with a mean of 8.Respondent 14 lives with her grandmother. It was followed by Planful Problem Solving coping scale with a mean of 6. ―Because sometimes we don‘t have the same ideas in doing the activities.67 Interpretation Always Sometimes Rank 1st 2nd Table 14 shows top three coping mechanisms employed by Respondent 14.43 6. I just make myself free on stress.‖ Coping Mechanism Employed Table 14. ―I just do whatever I think is right.67. The Positive Reappraisal coping scale. Top Three Coping Mechanism Employed by Respondent 14 Coping Scale Positive Reappraisal Planful Problem Solving Accepting Responsibility 5. She said.75 Sometimes 3rd Mean 8.43. Both of her parents are OFW. Difficult Experienced Respondent 14 find her difficulty in Group Activities.75. thinking that I‘m doing this for my family. ranked first. For the third rank she identified Accepting Responsibility coping scale with a mean of 5. Her mother works as a private nurse while her father is a handyman. .‖ She further added.

I thought that I may not be able to mingle with them. brothers and sisters. I find out that they were nice girls and we became more closer now.14 Sometimes 3rd Mean 9. Difficult Experienced Respondent 15 identified her difficulty in the Group Activities from which according to her. my sense of inferiority complex is killing me but then. I considered them as my best buddies in the campus.00 5.Respondent 15 Respondent 15 is a female and is 16 years of age. Her mother is a public high school teacher while her father works as a seaman. She is a first year college in the College of the Holy Spirit. One of her parents is an OFW.17 Interpretation Always Sometimes Rank 1st 2nd .‖ Coping Mechanism Employed Table 15. Family Background Respondent 15 lives with her mother. I was hesitant to come within reach my classmates. Top Three Coping Mechanism Employed by Respondent 15 Coping Scale Positive Reappraisal Seeking Social Support Self Controlling 5. ―At first. as the school days passed by. Manila.

17. For the third rank. Table 16 Demographic profile of the Fifteen students Respondents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Age 19 19 20 19 18 18 18 16 20 16 Gender Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Birth order 1st born 1st born 1st born 1st born 1st born 1st born 1st born 4th born 1st born 3rd born Years in CHSM 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 5 4 1 . ranked first. with a mean of 9. she identified Self Controlling with a mean of 5. It was followed by Seeking Social Support with mean of 5. The Positive Reappraisal coping scale.Table 15 shows top three coping mechanisms employed by Respondent 15.14.00.

Table 17 Family background of the Fifteen Student Respondents Years of parents in abroad 1 2 10 years 5 years Parents living together Yes Yes Both Both OFW parent/s . All of the Respondent are female.11 12 13 14 15 22 19 23 19 16 Female Female Female Female Female 1st born 1st born 1st born 1st born 3rd born 1 3 4 1 5 The Respondent‘s age range in this study form is from 16 to 23years old. Twelve of the Respondent s are first born. two of the Respondent s are 3rd born and 1 of the Respondent s is 4th born child. Three of the Respondent s are stayed for 1 year in college of the holy spirit of manila and two of the Respondent s stayed for 5 years in college of the holy spirit of manila. Five of the Respondent s are stayed for four years in the College of the holy spirit of Manila. Five of the Respondent s are stayed for three years in the College of the holy spirit of manila.

All of the respondents has a parent working abroad for more than 5 years.3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 5 years 10 years 8 years 5 years 7 years 18 years 15 years 9 years 8 years 10 years 10 years 5 years 8 years Yes Yes yes No No No No yes yes yes yes yes yes Father Father Mother Mother Mother Father Father Father father father Mother Both Father The above table 9 shows the family background of the fifteen students. Eleven students is living with their parents. while the other four are not living with their parents . Three out of fifteen respondents that both of .

Table 18 Respondent’s difficult experience of student with OFW parents Respondents 1 Difficult Experience I had difficulties during 1st year and 2nd year college because I didn‘t fit well 2 My difficult experience is in the academic factor because of pressure on studies 3 4 Group activities regards to informing Academic Factor because some subjects are difficult to understand 5 School rules because I have difficulty of my class schedule 6 Academic factor because im not in favor of my course 7 Academic factor because it‘s hard for me to concentrate in my studies 8 Academic area because difficulty in concentrating with her studies . while twelve out of fifteen respondents has a single parent working abroad as an OFW.their parents are OFW.

and one of the Respondent s has a difficulty regarding school rules/ policies and it is about how the school deals in a class schedule. 15 Group Activities because At first.9 School rules it is hard to act because of school policies 10 Academic Difficulty because it is Not that difficult but need to prioritize 11 Academic factor because it is hard to cope with one of my subject 12 Academic factor because it is hard to understand 13 Academic factor because some of the lesson is hard to understand 14 Group ActivitiesBecause sometimes we don‘t have the same ideas in doing the activities. Three of the respondents has a difficulty in group activities. The rest are concerned about the difficulties they face in academic area. I was hesitant to come within reach of my classmates The above table shows the Respondent difficult experience of student with OFW parents. .

change something about themselves and they pray.Table 19 The Over-All Top Three Most Employed Coping Mechanism. they change and grow as a person in good way. On the other hand. All the respondents used the 8th coping scale known as the Positive Reappraisal with a mean of 6.7 4. This means that the respondents acknowledges their own role in the . It’s Mean and Interpretation Scale Positive reappraisal Accepting responsibility Planful problem solving 3. the respondents‘ second most employed coping mechanism. is the 5th coping scale known as the Accepting Responsibility as their foremost employed coping mechanism with a mean of 4. rediscovered what is important in life.72 Interpretation Sometimes Sometimes Rank 1st 2nd The above table shows the top 3 mostly employed coping mechanisms of the fifteen students from college of the holy spirit Manila.72. This shows that when experiencing difficult events they became quite inspired to do something creative. they found now faith.7. These behaviors describe their efforts to create positive meanings by focusing on their personal growth.82 Seldom 3rd Mean 6.

82. they looked at their past experiences and did the same thing. they change something so it would turn out all right. realized that they brought the problem. coupled with an analytic approach to solving the problem. These actions describe their deliberate problem-focused efforts to alter the situation. They manifest the common behaviors as follow: quite a bit criticized or lectured themselves. make a plan of action and follow it. Meanwhile. the 7th coping scale known as Planful Problem Solving is the respondents‘ third most employed coping scale with a mean of 3. . and made a promise that things will be different next time. they doubled their efforts to make things work and they come up with a different solutions to the problem or difficulty. This shows that they quite concentrate on what they have to do next. apologizes or did something to make up.problem with a parallel theme of trying to put things right.

This study implies that the participants have their own set of coping mechanisms and it varies only among the scales of Positive Reappraisal. and the recommendations of the researcher based on the study conducted. family background and their identified difficulty that propels them to use the coping mechanisms. their demographic profile. Twelve of the Respondents are first born child. The Respondents of this study belong to the age range of 16-23 years old that belong to the Middle Adolescence stage to Young Adulthood stage. 3. All Respondents are female. 4.CHAPTER V SUMMARY. CONCLUSION. two of the participants are 3rd born and 1 of the participants is 4th born child. Summary The study conducted was about the most employed coping mechanisms of the fifteen students of the College of the Holy Spirit Manila with OFW Parents. the conclusions. . Major Findings The major findings of the study are as follows: 1. 2. AND RECOMMENDATION This chapter presents the summary of the whole study. Accepting Responsibility. and Planful Problem Solving. Eleven students is living with their parents.

6. The over-all mostly employed coping mechanism. The results of the study based on the respondents‘ family structure cannot conclude that there are differences in coping mechanisms employed by students from extended and nuclear families. However.5. the researchers arrived at the following conclusions: 1. 3. 2. Twelve of the Respondents has a single parent working abroad as an OFW. 4. . Individuals belonging to middle adolescents group may be capable of employing the cognitive components of coping. the accepting responsibility type of coping mechanism is present on all birth orders but only differs in terms of ranking. The second in the rank is the known as the Accepting Responsibility. Meanwhile. the 7th 5th coping scale coping scale known as Planful Problem Solving is the respondents‘ third most employed coping scale. Three of the Respondents has a parents working as an OFW. the 8th coping scale known as the Positive Reappraisal ranked first. but differs only in the most preferred way of coping using cognitive and positive way of coping mechanisms. An individual‘s coping mechanism is a reflection of his/her characteristics based on birth order as seen in their most preferred coping mechanism which differs from each birth order to another. Conclusion After the analysis and interpretation of the data gathered. Girls may cope similarly.

Manila with OFW Parents. 3. teachers and administrators) can openly communicate their frustrations and feelings in relation to a particular circumstance.Recommendations The researcher proposes the following recommendations: 1. 4. 2. socio-economic status and psycho-spiritual components of the respondents are included. A more comprehensive study about students with OFW parents. Peer discussion would have the potential to alleviate tension arising from stressful events in schools. More opportunities for frequent and purposeful dialogue should be provided whereby school stakeholders (parents. . A similar study that would focus on the Difficulties Experienced by students of College of the Holy Spirit. 6. A more comprehensive study similar to this but should include the intelligence quotient. 5. A similar study that will support the findings of the researcher .

Laurentina and Melchor A.Adolescent Coping: Theoretical and Research Retrieved November 6. Philippines: Store Paler-Calmorin. Manila. Calmorin. Retrieved 2011 from October 14. London: Grange Books Plc Kapunan. (2007). http://books. R. 2011 from Perspectives.R. (2006). Manila. Anselmo D.com/ Research and Store National Book books?id=bJPJu3ECtaUC&printsec=frontcover&hl=fil&source=gbs_atb#v= onepage&q&f=true Lazarus. B.(2004). Manila.(1997). Educational Psychology. Introducing Psychology: Developmental Psychology . E. Educational Psychology. Philippines: Rex Book Store ELECTRONIC RESOURCES BOOKS Frydenberg. Richard. Philippines:Rex Book Lupdag.REFERENCES BOOKS Giles. (2004). Methods of Thesis Writing. (2005).google. http://books.com/books?id=mATTP46QIp 4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=a+new+synthesis:+stress+and+emotions&hl =fil&ei=b2cTs7KB8WQiQe926iuCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resn um=1&ved=0CCcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=a%20new%20synthesis%3A %20stress%20and%20emotions&f=false ... Ed.google. A New Synthesis: Stress and Emotions.

In Encyclopædia Britannica. (2011). 277_effects-children- ORGANIZATIONS ENCYCLOPEDIA Coeducation. 2011 from http://www. The Effects on Children of Living in a Two-Parent Retrieved October 14..com/EBchecked/topic/124099/coeducation from RESEARCH REPORTS Buettner.ehow. Coping.( SSTA Research Centre 23.de/~schuez/folien/Krohne_Stress.INDIVIDUALS Seehorn.. (2011). 2011 from http://userpage. H. (2004). (2002). Retrieved November 6.htm Krohne. 2011 from Saskatchewan Report #95-13).sasks choolboards. and Appraisal in an HIV-seropositive Sample: A Test of the Goodness-of-Fit Hypothesis.cgi /Mitchell%20Dana. Richard. 2011 http://www. Retrieved October 23.uk/info_7979 living-twoparent-home. D.edu/send-pdf. Rural 2011 from http:// etd.co. Coping Mechanisms Used by Rural Principals in in Response to Stressful Events. Ashley.britannica. Stress and Coping Theories.ca/old/ResearchAndDevelopment/ResearchReports/Leaders hip/95-13. Retrieved August http://www. Stress.pdf? ohiou1103225821 .W. Retrieved November 6.fu-berlin.pdf Mitchell. (1994).ohiolink.html Home.

& Shulman. from http://www.science direct. A. 2011 com/science/article/pii/S0193397399000258 JOURNALS Bussey.. Psychological Review. (2000). 676-713.com/content/35/1/1.) Birth Order And Ordinal Position:Two Adlerian Retrieved November 6.. Retrieved October Surviving 14. 2011 From http://carterandevans.refs . 106. Retrieved from http://jbd..html Pickhardt Ph..pdf Retrieved November 6. Kristin. 2009 The adolescent only child :Only children grow adolescence their own way.edu/mfp/ Bandura1999PR. Published on July 19.com/ images/pdf/article11. Coping Strategies in Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. & Bandura.D.sagepub.(4). H. Williams.d. by . http://des. 2011 http://www. 20. 2011 from Gembeck.& (n. Carl E. through (Your 2011 Child's) from 200907 November 6.com/blog/surviving-your-childs-adolescence/ /the-adolescent-only-child . E. & Skinner.pdf ABSTRACTS McGillicuddy-De Lisi A. (n.psychologytoday. M. portal/ Views. Abstract retrieved November 6. in Adolescence.) The development of coping across childhood and adolescence: An integrative review and critique of research.. Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation.emory. (1999).d.Mosak. B. &. Adolescents. K.

Mendiola. We hope the outcome of this study shall contribute relevant insights for the . Manila September 21.APPENDICES APPENDIX A LETTER TO THE COLLEGE DEAN COLLEGE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT OF MANILA 163 E. This inspires interests of the undersign researchers to conduct this research paper on Coping Mechanism of Students of College of the Holy Spirit of Manila with OFW Parents. Jose Isagani Lacson College Dean College of the Holy Spirit Manila Dear Dr. Greetings of Peace! We cannot deny the presence of children of OFW in our institution as well as their problem and concerns they are undergoing. 2011 Dr. Lacson.

fourth year students of Bachelor of Science in Nursing are requesting from your good office to allow us to administer a questionnaire to the fifteen students whose parents are OFW. If you have any questions regarding the study. LIGUTAN Researcher Noted by: _____________________ MS. Ma. __________________ MA. or email address jhen13_lisa@yahoo. Ligutan.administrators. teachers and students.com and Hoping for your favourable response! Thank you and God bless! Very Truly Yours.com. NERIA CABALLERO Approved by: ________________________ . In line with this. The data that will be gathered from this questionnaire will help us complete necessary information that will be significant to our study. JUVILISA B. Dioneda and Janela Feb C. DIONEDA Researcher ___________________________ JANELA FEB C. We. you can reach us at our mobile number 09169152849/09054278322 fEb_that_moves08@yahoo. Juvilisa B.

Jose Isagani Lacson College Dean APPENDIX B AN INTERVIEW GUIDE ON THE COPING MECHANISMS OF STUDENTS OF COLLEGE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT MANILA WITH OFW PARENTS FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2012-2013 I. FAMILY BACKGROUND Mothers' Name: _______________________ Occupation: _______________ Fathers' Name: _______________________ . DEMORAPHIC PROFILE Name: (optional) _________________________ Age: _____ Gender: _______ Birth Order: _________ Number of Years in the College of the Holy Spirit Manila: ____ II.Adviser Dr.

/ When I’m not satisfied with my teacher’s performance.Occupation: _______________ Living with: ____ Both Parents ____ Both Parents./ When I don’t understand the lesson. Auntie. sister/s only ____ Both Parents. brother/s. WHAT WAS THE MOST RECENT DIFFICULT EXPERIENCE (Academic Factor / Teacher Factor / Group Activities / School Rules / Policies)* YOU HAD ON THE COEDUCATION SYSTEM OF THE COLLEGE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT./ When I have a hard time interacting with the opposite sex) . Uncle. grandparents. cousin/s ____ Mother Only ____ Father Only ____ Others (please specify): __________________________ Are your parents ___ together./ When I’m not comfortable with a teacher of the opposite sex) c.) b. MANILA? *Possible Scenarios of Difficulties a./ When my group mates criticized/rejected my work. Group Activities (When I had hard time participating in group activities. Teacher Factor (When my teacher criticized/rejected my work. sister/s. ___ separated? Is your mother/father an OFW? __Yes ___ No III. Academic Factor (When I got low grades. brother/s.

as to what extent you used it in the situation you have just described. by using the rating scale below. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ IV. . WHAT IS YOUR MOST EMPLOYED COPING MECHANISM? Direction: Please read each item and indicate. MANILA. 4.Sometimes(4-7) 2.Never(0) Scale 1 FREQUENCY 4 3 2 1 a. but at least I was doing something. School Rules/Policies (When the school used punishment to deal with my school violations/discipline problems / When I am embarrassed in front of the opposite sex after having been disciplined due to my misbehavior ) Please describe your identified difficult experience.Seldom(1-3) 1. BASED FROM THE INDENTIFIED DIFFICULT EXPERIENCE ON THE COEDUCATION SYSTEM OF THE COLLEGE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.Always(8-10) 3.d. I did something which I didn't think would work.

b. I refused to think about it too much.Never(0) Scale 3 FREQUENCY 4 3 2 1 a. I refused to get too serious about it.Sometimes(4-7) 2. I expressed anger to the person(s) who caused the problem.Always(8-10) 3. e. I let my feelings out somehow. I tried to forget the whole thing. I tried to keep my feelings to myself. d. e. I did not face it but left things open somewhat. . 4.b. f. b. Scale 2 FREQUENCY 4 3 2 1 a. I tried to look on the bright side of things. I tried to get the person responsible to change his or her mind. I stood my ground and fought for what I wanted. I went along with fate. d. I went on as if nothing had happened. I took a big chance or did something very risky. c.Seldom(1-3) 1. f. sometimes I just have bad luck. c.

b. d. . f. I tried to keep my feelings from interfering with other things too much. I apologized or did something to make up. I thought about what I would say or do.c. d. I talked to someone who could do something concrete about the problem. e. I thought about how a person I admire would handle the situation and used that as a model h. I talked to someone about how I was feeling. I criticized or lectured myself. e. Scale 4 FREQUENCY 4 3 2 1 a. I accepted sympathy and understanding from someone. c. I kept others from knowing how bad things were. I got professional help. I talked to someone to find out more about the situation. I tried not to act to act carelessly. I asked a relative or friend I respected for advice. b. f. g. Scale 5 FREQUENCY 4 3 2 1 a.

I hoped a miracle would happen. b. I made a plan of action and followed it. I tried to make myself feel better by eating. I wished that the situation would go away or somehow be over with. I refused to believe that it had happened. d. using drugs or medication. 4. I took it out on other people. etc.c. I just concentrated on what I had to do next. h.Never(0) Scale 6 FREQUENCY 4 3 2 1 a.Always(8-10) 3. I made a promise to myself that things would be different next time. c.Seldom(1-3) 1. I realized I brought the problem on myself. g. f. d. . I had fantasies or wishes about how things might turn out. drinking.Sometimes(4-7) 2. I avoided being with people in general. e. b. Scale 7 FREQUENCY 4 3 2 1 a. I slept more than usual. smoking.

(SSTA Research Centre Report #95-13)Retrieved from http://www. e. d. I doubled my efforts to make things work.htm . d. I rediscovered what is important in life. I became a better person after. c. f. I came up with different solutions to the problem.Coping Mechanisms Used by Rural Principals in Saskatchewan in Response to Stressful Events. I found new faith. e. I looked at my past experiences and did the same thing.saskschoolboards. I changed something about myself.ca/old/ResearchAndDevelopment/Research Reports/Leadership/95-13. I changed something so things would turn out all right.c. Scale 8 FREQUENC Y 4 3 2 1 a. b. Richard. f. g. I prayed Source: Buettner. I was inspired to do something creative. (1994). I changed or grew as a person in a good way.

SHOWING THE AGE.APPENDIX C Table 1. BIRTH ORDER AND YEARS IN CHSM BY THE RESPONDENTS Respondents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Age 19 19 20 19 18 18 18 16 20 16 22 19 23 19 16 Gender Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Birth order 1st born 1st born 1st born 1st born 1st born 1st born 1st born 4th born 1st born 3rd born 1st born 1st born 1st born 1st born 3rd born Years in CHSM 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 5 4 1 1 3 4 1 5 . GENDER.

SHOWING FAMILY BACKGROUND OF THE FIFTEEN STUDENT Respondents Years of parents in abroad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 10 years 5 years 5 years 10 years 8 years 5 years 7 years 18 years 15 years 9 years 8 years 10 years 10 years 5 years 8 years Parents living together Yes Yes Yes Yes yes No No No No yes yes yes yes yes yes Both Both Father Father Mother Mother Mother Father Father Father father father Mother Both Father OFW parent/s .APPENDIX D TABLE 2.

SHOWING RESPONDENT’S DIFFICULT EXPERIENCE OF STUDENTS WITH OFW PARENTS Respondents 1 Difficult Experience I had difficulties during 1st year and 2nd year college because I didn‘t fit well 2 My difficult experience is in the academic factor because of pressure on studies 3 4 Group activities regards to informing Academic Factor because some subjects are difficult to understand 5 School rules because I have difficulty of my class schedule 6 Academic factor because im not in favor of my course 7 Academic factor because it‘s hard for me to concentrate in my studies 8 Academic area because difficulty in concentrating with her studies 9 School rules it is hard to act because of school policies 10 Academic Difficulty because it is Not that .APPENDIX E TABLE 3.

33 .33 3.a. SCALE 1: CONFRONTIVE COPING MECHANISM RESPONDENT a b c d e f MEAN 1 2 3 3 2 2 2 4 3 4 2 3 2 4 2. SHOWING THE MEAN PER COPING MECHANISM SCALE RESPONDENT TABLE 3. I was hesitant to come within reach of my classmates APPENDIX F TABLE 3.difficult but need to prioritize 11 Academic factor because it is hard to cope with one of my subject 12 Academic factor because it is hard to understand 13 Academic factor because some of the lesson is hard to understand 14 Group ActivitiesBecause sometimes we don‘t have the same ideas in doing the activities. 15 Group Activities because At first.

33 2.13 2 2 1 2 2 3 1 1 3 3 2 1 3 1.33 2.67 .b.00 1.33 2.67 2 2 2 3 3 2 1 2 1 3 3 3 2 2.16 2.50 2.47 3 3 3 1 3 2 1 2 2 4 3 3 1 2.67 2. SCALE 2: DISTANCING COPING MECHANISM RESPONDENT a b c d e f MEAN 1 2 3 4 3 4 2 3 2 4 3 2 3 3 4 4 3 2 2 3 3 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2.50 2.67 2.49 TABLE 3.07 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 1 1 3 3 3 3 2.16 3.67 3.50 2.50 2.47 2.93 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 2 2 3 3.33 2.67 2.3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 2 3 2 4 4 2 3 1 3 2 3 3 2 2.00 2.

86 2.16 3. SCALE 3: SELF-CONTROLLING COPING MECHANISM RESPONDENT a b c d e f g MEAN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 2 2 2 1 4 3 2 4 2 4 1 4 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 1 4 3 2 4 3 2 1 2 4 2 4 4 3 3 3 4 2 4 4 3 3 4 3 2.73 2 4 3 4 3 3 2 4 1 1 4 2.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 4 2 2 2 2.71 3.67 2.93 4 2 3 2 3 1 4 4 3 3 2 2.83 3.27 3 4 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 2.86 1.80 4 2 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 3.29 3.60 4 4 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 3 2 2.00 2.14 2.29 .83 2.16 2.16 4.16 3.83 3.47 3.43 3.00 2.83 2.c.93 TABLE 3.

71 2.d.71 2.67 3 3 2 3 3 4 3 3 2.17 2. SCALE 4 SEEKING SOCIAL SUPPORT COPING MECHANISM RESPONDENT a b c d e f MEAN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3 3 3 2 4 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 3 1 2 2 3 4 3 2 3 3 3 2 4 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 2 4 4 4 3 3 2.00 3.00 3 3 3 2 3 1 3 3 2.00 .50 3.67 2.00 2.33 3.40 4 3 4 3 3 3 2 3 3.8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 2.67 3.71 2.57 2.80 3.60 3 3 3 2 3 1 2 2 2.00 3.33 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 2.93 3 3 2 2 2 4 3 3 2.72 TABLE 3.33 3.00 2.83 3.57 2.

50 3.50 4.00 2.00 3.00 3.50 3.e.27 2.53 1 4 2 2 3 2 2.13 4 3 4 3 3 4 3.50 3.67 3.10 11 12 13 14 15 3 2 4 3 3 4 3.00 3.47 2 2 3 2 3 3 2.17 2.75 3.25 .47 2 3 3 3 3 4 3.25 2. SCALE 5: ACCEPTING RESPONSIBILTY COPING MECHANISM RESPONDENT a b c d MEAN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 2 2 3 2 2 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 4 3 2 1 3 2 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 2.00 2.93 TABLE 3.17 2.73 1 2 3 2 3 1 2.00 3.00 3.

13 2.13 2.60 4 3 4 4 3.38 2.00 2.50 2.50 2. SCALE 6: ESCAPE-AVOIDANCE COPING MECHANISM RESPONDENT a b C d e f g h MEAN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 4 3 2 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 2 4 4 3 2 2 3 1 2 2 2 4 2 3 2 2 1 4 1 2 1 3 3 1 3 1 4 3 1 2 3 2 3 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 1 2 2 3 1 1 3 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 3 1 3 3 2 3 1 4 4 4 1 4 2 4 3 2 3 2 4 2 4 3 4 2 4 3 4 3 2.75 3.63 1.47 3 3 2 2 2.80 3 4 3 4 3.00 3.00 2.88 1.60 3.07 TABLE 3.f.75 2.50 3.00 .12 13 14 15 4 1 3 2 2.75 2.00 3.38 3.

40 TABLE 3.67 3 4 3.80 2 2 1.80 2 4 2.67 2.17 2.00 3.67 2.67 1 2 1.25 2.67 3.20 1 1 1.83 3.g.14 15 4 4 3.50 2.13 2.50 2.83 3.83 3.50 3.33 2 3 2.67 .00 2.50 3. SCALE 7: PLANFUL-PROBLEM SOLVING COPING MECHANISM RESPONDENT a b c d e f MEAN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 2 4 4 4 4 4 3 2 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 4 3 2 2 4 3 2 4 3 3 3 4 4 2 4 4 4 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 4 1 2 2 3 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 2 4 2 3 3 4 4 2 4 4 3 4 2.67 4.33 3 2 2.75 2.

h.47 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 1 4 4 3 4 4 4 3.20 2.43 3.67 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 3.33 3.86 4.71 2.13 TABLE 3.60 3 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 3.47 3.40 3.43 4.53 3 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 4 2 3 4 4 4 3.00 4.57 3.00 3.55 . SCALE 8: POSITIVE RE-APPRAISAL COPING MECHANISM RESPONDENT a b c d e f g MEAN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 4 4 4 2 4 4 3 3 4 3 2 4 4 3 4 3.43 3.00 3.00 3.3.57 4.00 2.07 3.47 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 3.71 4.57 3.67 3.53 3 4 4 2 4 3 4 4 3 4 2 3 4 4 4 3.27 3.00 3.

STUDENT 1 SCALE 1 MEAN 2.50 INTERPRETATION Seldom RANK 7th . TABLE SHOWING THE OVER-ALL MEAN.40 3.72 2.93 3.13 3.a.93 2.07 2. SHOWING THE TOP THREE (3) COPING MECHANISMS SCALE OF EACH OF THE FIFTEEN STUDENTS TABLE 5.55 INTERPRETATION Seldom Seldom Seldom Seldom Seldom Seldom Seldom Sometimes RANK 6th 4th 5th 4th 3rd 7th 2nd 1st APPENDIX H TABLE 5. INTERPRETATION AND RANKING OF THE EIGHT COPING MECHANISM SCALE SCALE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 MEAN 2.APPENDIX G TABLE 4.49 2.

16 3.20 Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Always 4th 6th 2nd 3rd 5th 5th 1st TABLE 5.50 3.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4.17 5.86 4.80 4.33 INTERPRETATION Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes RANK 4th 8th 5th 7th 3rd 6th 2nd . STUDENT 2 SCALE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 MEAN 6.17 4.b.00 5.01 7.25 3.67 7.40 4.50 7.

c.50 1.30 INTERPRETATION Seldom Sometimes RANK 7th 5th .16 6.49 6.8 8.d.71 INTERPRETATION Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Seldom Sometimes Sometimes RANK 7th 6th 5th 3rd 2nd 8th 4th 1st TABLE 5.03 5.13 4.17 6.88 5. STUDENT 3 SCALE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 MEAN 3.90 4.29 Always 1st TABLE 5. STUDENT 4 SCALE 1 2 MEAN 3.

50 1.14 INTERPRETATION Seldom Sometimes Seldom Always Sometimes Seldom Sometimes Always RANK 6th 4th 7th 2nd 5th 8th 3rd 1st .00 3.e.00 8.86 8.31 3. STUDENT 5 SCALE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 MEAN 3.00 5.20 5.25 7.99 3.57 1.25 4.3 4 5 6 7 8 5.67 4.72 Sometimes Seldom Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes 1st 8th 2nd 3rd 6th 4th TABLE 5.

00 5.f. STUDENT 7 SCALE 1 2 3 MEAN 4.28 INTERPRETATION Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Always Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes RANK 8th 4th 3rd 5th 1st 6th 7th 2nd TABLE 5.76 4.20 5.86 INTERPRETATION Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes RANK 6th 2nd 4th .15 6.63 6. STUDENT 6 SCALE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 MEAN 4.g.83 9.49 6.50 7.83 7.TABLE 5.

4 5 6 7 8 5.44 6.00 7.49 5.00 4.71 Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes 5th 3rd 7th 6th 1st TABLE 5.00 6.67 4.75 3.25 5. STUDENT 8 SCALE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 MEAN 3.h.72 INTERPRETATION Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Seldom Sometimes Sometimes RANK 7th 6th 4th 2nd 3rd 8th 5th 1st .67 5.63 6.25 4.

01 8.33 5.33 5.00 4.33 5.33 INTERPRETATION Seldom Sometimes Sometimes Seldom RANK 8th 4th 5th 7th .33 4.j.i.57 5. STUDENT 9 SCALE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 MEAN 2.50 3.58 INTERPRETATION Seldom Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Seldom Always Sometimes RANK 7th 4th 3rd 4th 5th 6th 1st 2nd TABLE 5.00 5. STUDENT 10 SCALE 1 2 3 4 MEAN 2.42 3.TABLE 5.

5 6 7 8 8.00 3.00 8. STUDENT 11 SCALE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 MEAN 2.14 7.90 3.80 5.00 4.43 Always Sometimes Sometimes Always 2nd 6th 3rd 1st TABLE 5.86 INTERPRETATION Seldom Sometimes Seldom Sometimes Sometimes Seldom Sometimes Sometimes RANK 8th 2nd 6th 4th 1st 7th 3rd 5th .67 6.24 4.28 4.k.67 3.

43 3.83 INTERPRETATION Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes RANK 4th 3rd 6th 7th .83 4.83 8.00 7.26 8.TABLE 5.m.l. STUDENT 12 SCALE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 MEAN 5.83 8.67 4.66 4.25 6.14 6.15 INTERPRETATION Sometimes Always Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Always Always RANK 7th 2nd 8th 6th 4th 5th 1st 3rd TABLE 5. STUDENT 13 SCALE 1 2 3 4 MEAN 4.

00 5.50 2.14 5.17 8.86 Sometimes Seldom Sometimes Always 5th 8th 2nd 1st TABLE 5.26 6.34 4.5 6 7 8 4.17 3.67 8.75 3.43 INTERPRETATION Seldom Sometimes Seldom Sometimes Sometimes Seldom Sometimes Always RANK 6th 5th 8th 4th 3rd 7th 2nd 1st . STUDENT 14 SCALE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 MEAN 3.63 7.n.

TABLE 5.14 5.o.50 9.51 4.00 INTERPRETATION Seldom Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Always RANK 8th 6th 3rd 2nd 4th 7th 5th 1st .26 4.32 5.17 5. STUDENT 15 SCALE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 MEAN 2.00 4.

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