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Cloud Computing

1. Purpose Cloud computing is a concept, more than a technology which is to say it is a new way of approaching the use of existing technology rather than owning the software involved in that technology yourself. This is a lot more like the model of the Internet that we were always encouraged to believe in when the information superhighway first came out. Cloud computing is the ultimate file sharing ideal a way of using the speed and power of internet networking to give everyone access to the best possible software for their needs.

2. Introduction Cloud computing is the use of computing resources (hardware and software) that are delivered as a service over a network (typically the Internet). The name comes from the use of a cloud-shaped symbol as an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it contains in system diagrams. Cloud computing entrusts remote services with a user's data, software and computation. Using software as a service, users also rent application software and databases. The cloud providers manage the infrastructure and platforms on which the applications run. End users access cloud-based applications through a web browser or a light-weight desktop or mobile app while the business software and user's data are stored on servers at a remote location. Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale similar to a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network. At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of converged infrastructure and shared services.

3. Literature Review / Background The origin of the term cloud computing is obscure, but it appears to derive from the practice of using drawings of stylized clouds to denote networks in diagrams of computing and communications systems. The word cloud is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on the standardized use of a cloud-like shape to denote a network on telephony schematics and later to

depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. The cloud symbol was used to represent the Internet as early as 1994. In the 1990s, telecommunications companies who previously offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits, began offering virtual private network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. On March 1, 2011, IBM announced the Smarter Computing framework to support Smarter Planet. In 2012, Dr. Biju John and Dr. Souheil Khaddaj describe the cloud as a virtualized, semantic source of information: "Cloud computing is a universal collection of data which extends over the internet in the form of resources and forms individual units within the

virtualization environment. Held together by infrastructure providers, service providers and the consumer, then it is semantically accessed by various users."

4. Essential Characteristics of Cloud Computing Cloud services exhibit five essential characteristics that demonstrate their relation to, and differences from, traditional computing approaches:

On-demand self-service: A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities such as server time and network storage as needed automatically, without requiring human interaction with a service provider.

Broad network access: Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, laptops, and PDAs) as well as other traditional or cloud-based software services.

Resource pooling: The providers computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. There is a degree of location independence in that the customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources, but may be able to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or datacenter). Examples of resources include storage, processing, memory, network bandwidth, and virtual machines. Even private clouds tend to pool resources between different parts of the same organization.

Rapid elasticity: Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned in some cases automatically to quickly scale out; and rapidly released to quickly scale in. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be purchased in any quantity at any time.

Measured service: Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource usage by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidth, or active user accounts). Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the service.

5. NIST Model

Cloud service delivery is divided among three archetypal models and various derivative combinations. The three fundamental classifications are often referred to as the SPI Model, where SPI refers to Software, Platform or Infrastructure (as a Service), respectively defined thus:

Software as a Service (SaaS): The capability provided to the consumer is to use the providers applications running on a cloud infrastructure. The applications are accessible from various client devices through a thin client interface such as a web browser (e.g., web-based email). The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, storage, or even individual

application capabilities, with the possible exception of limited user-specific application configuration settings. Platform as a Service (PaaS): The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications created using programming languages and tools supported by the provider. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, or storage, but has control over the deployed applications and possibly application hosting environment configurations. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): The capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems, storage, deployed applications, and possibly limited control of select networking components (e.g., host firewalls).

Regardless of the service model utilized (SaaS, PaaS, or IaaS) there are four deployment models for cloud services, with derivative variations that address specific requirements:

Public Cloud: The cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services. Private Cloud: The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for a single organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party, and may exist on-premises or offpremises. Community Cloud: The cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, or compliance considerations). It may be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on-premises or off-premises. Hybrid Cloud: The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting for load-balancing between clouds).

6. Methodology Web-based cloud services. These services let you exploit certain web service functionality, rather than using fully developed applications. For example, it might include an API for Google Maps, or for a service such as one involving payroll or credit card processing. IaaS(Infrastructure as a Service): In this most basic cloud service model, cloud providers offer computers, as physical or more often as virtual machines, and other resources.

SaaS (Software as a Service). This is the idea of providing a given application to multiple tenants, typically using the browser. SaaS solutions are common in sales, HR, and ERP.

Platform as a Service. This is a variant of SaaS. You run your own applications but you do it on the cloud providers infrastructure. Utility cloud services. These are virtual storage and server options that organizations can access on demand, even allowing the creation of a virtual data center. Managed services. This is perhaps the oldest iteration of cloud solutions. In this scenario, a cloud provider utilizes an application rather than end-users. So, for example, this might include anti-spam services, or even application monitoring services.

Service commerce. These types of cloud solutions are a mix of SaaS and managed services. They provide a hub of services which the end-user interacts with. Common implmentations include expense tracking, travel ordering, or even virtual assistant services.

7. Analysis The applications of cloud computing are practically limitless. With the right middleware, a cloud computing system could execute all the programs a normal computer could run. Potentially, everything from generic word processing software to customized computer programs designed for a specific company could work on a cloud computing system.

8. Conclusion Clients would be able to access their applications and data from anywhere at any time. They could access the cloud computing system using any computer linked to the Internet. It could bring hardware costs down. Cloud computing systems would reduce the need for advanced hardware on the client side. You wouldn't need a large hard drive because you'd store all your information on a remote computer. Corporations that rely on computers have to make sure they have the right software in place to achieve goals. The companies don't have to buy a set of software or software licenses for every employee. Instead, the company could pay a metered fee to a cloud computing company.

Servers and digital storage devices take up space. Cloud computing gives these companies the option of storing data on someone else's hardware, removing the need for physical space on the front end.

Corporations might save money on IT support. Streamlined hardware would, in theory, have fewer problems than a network of heterogeneous machines and operating systems. If the cloud computing system's back end is a grid computing system, then the client could take advantage of the entire network's processing power. Often, scientists and researchers work with calculations so complex that it would take years for individual computers to complete them. On a grid computing system, the client could send the calculation to the cloud for processing

9. References http://en.wikipedia.org http://www.circleid.com http://h30507.www3.hp.com www.infoworld.com http://www.rackspace.com www.ibm.com http://www.unitiv.com